Te Ao Hou
THE MAORI MAGAZINE
The Department of Maori and Island Affairs
His ‘'…wisdom and greatness of heart brought many races of men to understanding and peace.”*
TE RANGI HIROA
The life of Sir Peter Buck
A remarkable career
Lavishly gifted by nature, Peter Buck was soon to overcome his humble origins, becoming one of the first Maori doctors. He pioneered medicine and sanitation among the Maori people, and became a Minister in the last Liberal Government. Enlisting as medical officer with the Maori Contingent, he was awarded the D.S.O., and demobilised with the rank of Lieutenant-Conlonel.
Peter Buck joined the Bishop Museum at the age of 50, later becoming its most famous director, a world-famous ethnologist and statesman for the Polynesian people. Displaying phenomenal energy both as administrator and research worker, he was the author of many scientific monographs. His two more popular books. Vikings of the Sunrise and The Coming of the Maori have become classics.
The biography tells for the first time the full life story of one of New Zealand's most distinguished sons. Peter Buck inherited the charm, charisma, dignity and humour of the Maori, and the dedication, resourcefulness and scientific approach of the European. The full flowering of his genius was not to come, however, till when after a distinguished career in New Zealand, he joined the Bishop Museum, Honolulu. This lovingly written biography by one of his oldest friends provides a wealth of background information and anecdote to his life. Though Peter Buck's achievements are revealed on every page, the man himself shines out in the course of a wonderfully rich life story. Appendices by the late Eric Ramsden cover his family background and give an account of his ethnological researches in Mangareva.
Professor J. B. Condliffe, himself an economist of international standing, met Peter Buck in the trenches in Flanders. This acquaintance ripened into close friendship in Honolulu and later when they were colleagues at Yale.
On his retirement from the University of California in 1958, Professor Condliffe joined the Stanford Research Institute, becoming its senior economist. He has continued to work on projects for governments and industrial corporations.
314 pages of text; 24 pages of photographs
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a Whitcombes publication
published quarterly by the Department of Maori and Island Affairs, and sponsored by the Maori Purposes Fund Board.
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back issues (N.Z. Rates): Issue Nos. 31–32, 34–37, and 39–70 are avaliable at 30c each. A very few copies of issue Nos. 19–22, 27–30, 33 and 38 are still available at 60c each. Other issues are now out of stock. (Overseas rates for back issues are available on request.)
contributions in maori: Ko tatahi o nga whakaaro nui o Te Ao Hou he pupuri kai mau te reo Maori. Otira Ko te nuinga o nga korero kei te tukua mai kei te reo pakeha anake. Mahemea hoki ka nui mai nga korero i tuhia ki te reo Maori ka whakanuia ake te wahanga o ta tatou pukapuka mo nga korero Maori.
Statements in signed articles in Te Ao Hou are the responsibility only of the writers concerned.
editor: Joy Stevenson.
associate editor (Maori text): E. B. Ranapia.
Te Ao Hou
THE MAORI MAGAZINE
|The Tragedy of Whetumatarau, Mildred Clark||18|
|New Shoes and Old, Fiona Kidman||21|
|Summer, Waipiro Bay, Marie Perry||5|
|‘Ko Wai Au?’, G. A. Gurney||27|
|Shining cuckoo, Patricia Grace||41|
|Tamaki Makau Rau, Kathleen Grattan||51|
|He Tira ki te Tangihanga mō Nehe, Te Pakaka Tawhai||6|
|He Aha Oti i te Ingoa Māori, Hepa Taepa||7|
|“Book of the Year' Award, Rowley Habib||20|
|Te Taenga Mai o Te Minita Māori, Ani Bosch||25|
|The Making of Champions, Donald Watson||28|
|The Maori Contribution to New Zealand Literature||36|
|Inia Te Wiata, Sir Thomas Macdonald||39|
|Robert Kingi back in New Zealand||42|
|New Post Office at Maketu, Monica Holloway||43|
|M.W.W.L. Meets at New plymouth||46|
|Ngati Poneke Appeal Begins||49|
|Historic Tapa Returned to Niue||51|
|Haeri Ki O Koutou Tipuna||2|
|People and Places||47|
|Younger Readers' Section||52|
front cover: Dame Te Atarirangikaahu with one of her tipuna (see page 32).
back cover: See page 51.
HAERE KI O
Mason Durie (Meihana Te Rama Apakura)
On July 1, 1889, in a house then recently built at Aorangi, Feilding, the late Mr Durie was born. Eighty-one years later in the same house where he had spent most of his life, he passed peacefully away. His mother, Hurihia Te Rangiotu was a daughter of the Rangitane chief Hoani Meihana Te Rangiotu while his father was Te Rama Apakura (Robert Durie), a member of the Ngati Kauwhata tribe. On both sides he was closely connected to Ngati Raukawa.
Mason Durie was educated at Taonui primary school (near Aorangi) and later at Te Aute College. After two years he matriculated from Te Aute at a remarkably young age, and entered Government service, joining the Health Department in Wellington. While there he worked in close association with Sir Mau Pomare before transferring to the Department of Native Affairs—a move which led him to a lifelong interest in Maori land. As a Licensed interpreter and a Clerk of the Court he travelled widely and was directly involved with a number of Judges in the Maori Land Court. He became one of the most experienced men of the time in Land Court Procedure, Maori titles, etc.
In December 1909 he was married to Kahurautete Matawha, a chieftainess of the Rangatahi, Maniapoto and Ngati Toa tribes. They were married in the St Johns Anglican Church, Feilding, by the Rev. A. A. Williams, an early Maori missionary. The marriage was a strong and fruitful one and they shared many interests and concerns. Mrs Durie died in January, 1965.
Towards the end of the 1918 war, Mr Durie left the Government Service and farmed his wife's land at Kakariki for a short period, before returning to Aorangi. Here for the next 51 years he farmed his own land becoming a successful and respected farmer in the Feilding area. He was well known in the Pakeha community and was a member of the Feilding A. & P. Assoc., the Feilding Jockey Club, the Rangitikei Club and the Masonic Lodge. For over 40 years he was a Justice of the Peace and in 1954 was awarded the O.B.E. for his services to his people and the community as a whole.
Mason became Chairman of the Raukawa District Maori War Effort Organisation which continued to function as the Raukawa Tribal Committee with rehabilitation of returned servicemen as a major task. Later, tribal committees were set up at a marae level and Mr Durie became Chairman of the Kauwhata Tribal Committee as well as Chairman of the parent Raukawa Tribal Executive Committee. He held both of these positions until the time of his death.
In the 1950s, the Raukawa Executive launched a major appeal to build a memorial to Maori servicemen who had given their lives in active battle. They chose a Memorial Centre in the form of a hall, dining room, lecture room and flat. Years of hard work, fund raising and travelling followed, until the hall was opened in 1964 at an impressive ceremony. This attractive building, ostensibly a memorial to the Maori Battalion, remains also a tribute to the efforts and foresight of Mr Durie and the others involved with him.
Towards the end of the 1950s a meeting was held at Aorangi to form another committee between Executive and Government levels. As a result the Ikaroa District Council was convened and not unexpectedly Mr Durie was nominated as its first Chairman.
Despite his association with many Execu-
tive and National Committees, Mr Durie never lost contact with people at grass roots level. He was a staunch supporter of the Anglican church and occupied many posts at varying times. As an Anglican and Chairman of the Raukawa Maori Executive, he played a large part in the restoration of the Rangiatea church at Otaki. He was also largely responsible for the erection of St Lukes Chapel at Aorangi. In 1946 he was elected to the Otaki and Porirua Trust Board, a position he held until the time of his death. In 1953 he was appointed to the Board of Maori Affairs and became greatly involved with many Maori Land Development schemes throughout the country.
Throughout his life Mr Durie was an enthusiast for Maori education and was quick to support the Maori Education Foundation, becoming Chairman of a provincial fund-raising committee in 1962.
Mr Durie's widespread influence and the respect he commanded was in evidence at his funeral held at his beloved Aorangi marae. Te Arikinui, Dame Te Atairangikaahu, and a group from the Waikato were present as were Mr K. Wetere, M.P., and Mr J. McEwen, Mr M. R. Jones, Dr P. Te H. Jones, Mr P. K. Leonard, and 3,000 others. Representatives from his old schools Taonui and Te Aute College attended, and there were contingents from Hato Paora College, Queen Elizabeth College, and the Feilding Agricultural College.
The service was conducted by the Bishop of Aotearoa, the Bishop of Wellington, Archdeacon Panapa, Archdeacon R. B. Somerville, Canon H. Taepa, Rev. J. Rushworth, Rev. G. Kereama and Fr. Adkins, representing the Anglican, Roman Catholic and Ratana Faiths.
Although Mr Durie's life was one of total devotion and service to his fellow man. Maori and Pakeha, he remained until his death an active farmer and a devout Christian. He was very much a family man and leaves four children, many grandchildren and much of the Maori race to mourn his passing. A daughter, Ruta, predeceased him in 1929.
Haere, e Koro, haere ki to kainga tuarua o te tangata.
Tuiringa TāweraKo Tūhoe te iwi,
Ko Maungapōhatu te maunga,
Ko Tama-Kaimoana te tangata,
Ko Tuiringa Tāwera te uri whakaheke mai.
I mate i te 2 Hune 1971. Ko ōna tau 75. He tangata i tū whānui i roto i tōna iwi tupu, i a Tūhoe. I Te Aute Kāreti e kura ana. Tōna tūranga he kaiwhakamāori i ngā Kooti whenua, arā, i ngā huihuinga nunui i roto o Ruātoki. Te wharekura tuatrua o Ruātoki, ko Tāwera, nā tōna pāpā i tuku te whenua kei runga e tū ana.
He reo kōrero, he pou herenga kōrero. he pou ūnga mai nō ngā reo o ngā iwi, te tangata tuatahi o Tūhoe ki te tito i tēnei mea, te waiata-ā-ringa. Taukuri ra—ka ngaro ngā rangatira ki te Po.
Kohine Tewhakarua Ponika
Ihaia Porutu Puketapu, O.B.E.
Well known to all in the Hutt Valley as the local Maori leader. Ihaia (Paddy) Puketapu was buried on the marae outside Aroha Ki Te Tangata. the house he loved, after his death at 84. Years before in Taranaki he had a vision of a meeting house for all at Wellington, the ‘head of the fish’. and he led his people to Wai-
whetu. There, with determination and assistance from the late Sir Walter Nash, he resisted efforts to disperse the people, and eventually saw a group of 24 state houses built round the marae area, and the beautiful meeting house established.
Among the hundreds who came to pay tribute were the Minister of Maori Affairs, and the Mayor of Lower Hutt. Speaking at the tangi, Te Oenuku Rene said, ‘One of the last ropes of Maori history has been severed. He was the last of his generation. He had tremendous faith in his people and their cause, and was referred to as a paramount chief because of the provision he had made for his people.’ Mr Puketapu was survived by his wife and nine children.
Lady Miria Pomare, O.B.E.
Many hundreds paid tribute to Lady Pomare in services at St. Paul's Cathedral. Ngati Poneke Hall, Rangiatea Church at Otaki. and at Manukorihi Pa, where her ashes were laid beside those of her husband Sir Maui Pomare, a much-loved doctor and the only Maori ever to be Minister of Health, and her two sons Te Rakahera and Te Naera. Aged 94, Lady Pomare outlived her husband by 41 years. Their three children also predeceased her.
One of the founders of the Ngati Poneke Maori Association, she remained its patroness until her death. During her long life she worked hard for many welfare organisations, and held office in more than 20. Speaking at St. Paul's, with his text Psalm 90 v. 1, ‘The Lord hath been our refuge from generation to generation’, the Bishop of Aotearoa, the Rt Rev. Manu Bennett said, ‘She is the last of a generation—one that blazed the trail to the new world. She stood behind a very great statesman of his time. She was a woman of great personal dignity, and never seemed to get older. She had the quality of a gracious lady, an aura; when she came into a room, you knew she was there.’ He said she was a perfect example of the saying
‘Every man is born between two generations. From one he receives. To the other he gives. He is the connecting link in the continuity of the species.’
Henry Te Hira
The first Maori member of the Rodney College Board of Governo's, Mr Henry Te Tira died in Whangarei, aged 52. The problems of Maori youth, farming and sport were his main interests.
After his service in the RNZAF during World War II, Mr Te Hira lived in Auckland where he founded the Akarana Football Club. After moving north, he continued his sporting interests, and became widely known for his farming achievements, including the winning in 1967 of the Ahuwhenua Trophy, for the best Maori farmer of the year. He is survived by his wife and seven children.
The whole of Taranaki was saddened at the passing of Rauwha Tamaiparea, widow of the late Awio Tamaiparea. Much loved and respected, she was an authority on Parihaka, and was also closely associated with the house Te Paepae. In recent years she gave full support to the restoration of Parihaka and passed on the chants she knew to the younger people associated with its rebuilding.
Tahiawaru Tarapipipi Tamehana
Descendant of the first Maori Kingmaker, Tahiawaru Tamehana, who succeeded his brother in the role of Kingmaker only four years ago, died at Waharoa aged 65. His funeral service was held at Rukumoana. Morrinsville, his original home, and he was laid to rest near the old Maori Parliament building. A nephew. Ranginui Tamehana, has been appointed the new Kingmaker.
Many friends and relatives attended a memorial service at Silverstream and another at Ohau after the sudden death at 55 of Huitao Ngaparu, at Upper Hutt. Mr Ngaparu was born at Mokai and educated at Te Aute College. He had links with Ngati Raukawa, Te Arawa and Tuwharetoa tribes. He leaves his wife, a son Alan, and daughter Tina, formerly a Wellington television announcer.
Musical tributes were paid by Prince Tui Teka and the Shadracks at the funeral service held at Waipatu marae, Hastings, for Abe Phillips, a well known entertainer, following his death in a car accident near Waipukurau. After a combined Anglican-Roman Catholic service at the marae, requiem mass was celebrated at the Church of St. Peter Chanel.
A life of dedicated service came to an end with the death of Kingi Winiata of Waihirere, Wairoa, and the many represenatives from the business and farming communities at his funeral service showed the high esteem in which he was held in the district. To his Maori people he was a wise and authoritative guide and he was respected by the Pakeha for his abundant knowledge of farming.
Of humble birth and with very little education, he worked extremely hard, and with his late wife, born Merekakara King, built their tiny holding into a prosperous farm. With their one son they brought up 12 foster-children. He worked with his great friend Sir Turi Carroll for the regaining and supervision of Maori land blocks, and wisely regulated sales of stock. These two men also worked hard for both the Takitimu and Taihoa maraes.
Rev. T. Pohatu
The Bishop of Waiapu, the Rt. Rev. Paul Reeves led a memorial communion service at the Kiekie marae during the funeral service for the late Vicar of Hikurangi, the Rev. T. Pohatu. Many fellow clergy attended, and after the tributes to their spiritual leader. Canon Rangiihu spoke. The Hikurangi choir also sang.
Maria Kina Totara
Mrs Totara died in Dargaville Hospital after a short illness at the end of a long life of almost 108 years. Very active in her garden, and taking a great interest in her family and in church affairs, Mrs Totara will be greatly missed.
Under the Norfolk pines they sat, relaxed,
Two women chatting, now their chores were done,
One spoke of menfolk, and their fishing skill
The catch that day had been a bumper one.
The other thought the gardens were too dry,
Looked out to sea and wished the rain would come.
But cloudless blue filled all the bowl of heaven,
And wavelets lapped the wide beach at their feet,
As though the calm warm days would always stay.
Drowsy, they let the summer's warmth
Steal through them till their chatter ceased,
And soft contentment eased their busy minds
From house and children and all daily needs.
Only cicada's song and seagull's cry
Vibrated in the air as they slept on.
He Tira ki te Tangihanga mō Nehe
Nō mua tata atu i te tina, ka patu mai te waea a Āpirana1 kua hinga a Nehe no te iwa karaka i taua ata. Pēnei ai tēnei mea. Rongo ana te tangata kua hinga a mea, ko te mahi he waea haere. Na, ka hui mātau i tō mātau mate, ka anga hoki ki te whakarite mo te tira haere ki te tangi. Ko tō Koro2 rāua ko tō Nēpia3 ngā waka wātea, ā, ka whakaritea ko wai hei runga i tētahi, i tētahi.
I te mea he moata ākuni te hanatu a Koro mā, ka whakataua me tatari mai rātau ki ngā raorao ki Takamore. No te wāhi kotahi atu mātau, arā, no te māngai o te Ika-a-Māui, nā reira kia kotahi rōpū te whakaeke. Ka pēneitia, ka ngēwari hoki te whakahaere o te marae, ā, ahakoa pēhea te kaitā4 o te rōpū, ko te marae i kore.
I te ata, ka hoki atu mātau. Ko te mahi i te huarahi he kōrero i ngā kōrero mō Nehe, he ako, he waiata i ngā waiata i titoa e ia, i ngā mea i kaingākautia e ia. Hei kura tēnei i a mātau hei tukutuku i ngā tangi, i ngā wawata o te hinengaro ngunguru.
Ka eke ki runga o Takamore, tē kitea atu a Koro mā. I te mea kāre anō kia kaha te tītaha o te rā, ka tatari mātau, ā, ka tatari. Kua tō tonu te rā ki runga i a Rangi-Tawāea. Ka āwangawanga koi pōngia ki te ara. Ko te awatea te wā whakaeke—he mahi kē anō tō te pō. Nā reira ka whakaae mātau me whakaeke i taua wā tonu, ko mātau anake. Ka ū atu ki te pā, ka whakamāramatia mai e tētahi o ngā kaikaranga me pupuri ake tā mātau whakaeke kia wātea mai te marae. Kāre e taea tēnei mea—me āta tatari—me te āhua mate roto noa iho o te tangi.
Kātahi au ka āta titiro atu, ka āta whakarongo. E auē ana te whānau me te takatū. E kā ana ā rātau ahi. Ka rongo au i te tangi e huhuti ake ana i roto i a au me te whakahīhī. Ko te iwi kāenga i te taha mauī kē o te wharenui o Kapohanga kia tata ai ki ā rātau kōhua. Ko te manuhiri i tahaki i te taha katau. Nā reira pea i rerekē ai tā rātau haere ki te hongi, inā tīmata kē atu i ngā tāngata i waho nei e tūtū ana. Otirā kāre he raruraru ki a Ngāti Porou, ko te hongi te mea nui.
Nā, ka haramai te karanga a Whāia-i-te-Rangi, te karanga i karangatia e ngā whakatipuranga mai rānō. Ka whakaō atu tēnei e whakaeke atu rā. Haere atu ngā poroporoaki, ngā mihi. Rongo ake au nōku tētahi o ngā reo rā, ā, pokia noatia e te auē. Tangi atu, tangi mai. Tata atu, tiro atu ki te roro o Kapohanga, kātahi anō ka whakaaea kua hinga te kaihautū o ngā waka. E moe mai ana i te moe a te hunga kua whetūrangitia, e mau mai ana i ngā taonga tuku iho a ōna tipuna. Ā, ka āhua ngāwari te ngākau, ka hoki mai ngā whakaaro, kua tirotiro haere anō, kua whakarongorongo.
Kātahi ka whakatika mai te pūkōrero i te raparapa o te taha mauī e noho ana. Nā kua tīmata te whakawhitiwhiti kōrero. Mā te tohunga anake ki te reo Māori e hopu te wairua me te tikanga kei te rere i ngā kupu. Pēnā anō hoki ngā waiata.
Kāre i tino tutuki tā mātau, ka tatū mai te waka nunui o te tira kaitā tūārangi. Nā, kua pōnānā mātau kia wawe te wātea te marae. Ēngari ka haere tonu te iwi kāenga kia kitea ai he rangatira mātau ki ō rātau aroaro. Ka oti pai ēnei āhuatanga kātahi anō ka haere ki te wai ki te horoi. Ko te wai kei te roro o te wharekai, arā o Ngā-Tama-Toa. Ēngari i whakatūria he wai anō
1. Āpirana: Ko Āpirana Mahuika tēnei
2. Koro: Ko Te Kapunga Dewes a Koro
3. Nēpia: Ko Nēpia Mahuika
4. kaitā = nunui.
i te wāhi tūtū o ngā waka. Ko tēnei mō ngā tāngata kei te pōnānā ki te haere, mutu ana tā rātau tangi.
Ka aro kē atu mātau te kanohi ngaro, ki ō mātau mātua, ki ō mātau whanaunga ināianei, koia nei hoki te āhua o tāua o te Māori. Nā, ka kore e kite i ngā tira e whakaeke ana, e rongo rānei i ngā pōkeka, i ngā tangi whakahuahua i ngā whaikōrero me ngā waiata.
Me haere hoki ki te kai. Mutu rawa ake kua pōuri, kua kore te tangata e whakaeke. A Nehe, arā, a Hānara (Arnold) Tangiāwhā Te Ōhākī Reedy i mate i Tūranga i te 8 o Āperira 1971. He Ariki, he Tohunga nō Ngāti Porou.
Ko te kaituhi o ēnei kōrero ko Te Pākaka Tāwhai o Te Whānau-a-Umu-Ariki, kei Pōneke nei e noho ana, ā, e mahi ana.
Ko te wāhanga tuatahi tēnei o ngā kōrero i tukua atu ki te Kura Wānanga o Wikitōria kei Pōneke nei i Hepetema 1971.
He Aha Oti i te Ingoa Māori
What's in a Maori Name?
Nā Hepa Taepa
I roto i tētahi tautohetohe āta riri tika nei, ka puta i tētahi tana pātai koi tonu, “E kī, e kī! He aha koia i te ingoa Māori?” Pai tonu te pātai nei, ahakoa i puta ake i te pukuriri, i te ngākau kino. Tēnā koa, he aha tā ngā kupu pērā me Aotea, Tarore, Haerehuka, ngā ingoa huhua noa iho a te Māori? Ki ētahi o tātou, tētahi wāhanga nui tonu, ki a rātou nei, kāore rawa he whāinga kiko, he tikanga rānei. I te aha? I te kore aro ake ki te reo nei a te Wāhingaro ki a ngāitāua. Ki ētahi anō, he maninohea noa iho te kimi i te whakahuatanga tika i ngā kupu a te Māori. Nā konei, ina rongo i ngā pēnei e nana ana, mamae ana rā ngā taringa i te takakino a te hunga nei i te taonga a ō tātou tūpuna, ki a tātou, arā, i te reo Māori. Ētahi takakinotanga ko te hoatu reta kāore i reira, i aua kupu, ā ko te whakarere ake, he aha hoki te mutunga, he kupu rerekē noa ake, he kupu e kore rawa e kitea i roto i te reo Māori, ahakoa pēhea te kimi a te tangata. Ko Paraparāumu
In a heated argument someone posed the searching question, “Is that so! Then what's in a Maori name?” The question was a good one, though asked in anger and enmity. Now, what is the significance of words like Aotea, Tarore, Haerehuka and numerous others? To quite a number of us, there is no real value or significance. Why? Because of a lack of apreciation of the language. God's gift to us. Others regard seeking correct pronunciation as unnecessary and bothersome. That is why it is painful to hear such people mutilating the language that our forebears left us. Some such acts have been the omission or insertion of letters, so that a totally foreign word is made, one that can never be found in Maori no matter how hard one looks for it. Para-
Parapara-a-umu) tētahi o ngā ingoa nei, Paramutia ana, waka tōtō tamariki nei.
E hoki ana ngā mahara ki tētahi tangata nō Āirana, i beare manurere mai ki Niu Tīreni, he waewae tapu hoki ia. Ko tana whakamau mai he kauwhau ki tētahi hui nui tonu. Ka tau ia, whakatika tonu mai ki te teihana matua o Ākarana. I reira ka kite atu te pōta i a tauiwi e kimi ana i te tereina hei hari i a ia ki te takiwā o tana hui. Te uinga atu a te pōta ko hea tana tira, ko te whakahoki mai ki Nākerewākere. Ka raruraru te pōta ko te kīnga atu ki te Āirihi nei, kāore i tika tana haere pēnei mai, te āhua nei me haere kē ia ki tētahi whenua kē. Ū pū tonu a tauiwi ki tāna, arā, ki Nākererwākere, takiwā o Niu Tīreni, ā, kei a ia te kauwhau i taua pō tonu, i mea hāora. Ka puta te mahara ki te pōta, ko tana ngaronga atu, kāore i roa, ko te pōta ka puta anō me tētahi mapi o Niu Tīreni, ka whakaaturia atu, arā, tika tonu tāna, ko Ngāruawāhia rā hoki tāna e whakamau atu nei. He tika rā, ēngari he waewae tapu tēnei ki ēnei moutere, nā reira hei aha ake tana whakahua, ēngari tātou o te wā kāinga, te hunga māngere ki te whakahua tika i ngā kupu Māori. Rongo ai hoki au i ētahi o ngāitāua ina whakahua i ngā kupu a tauiwi, ē, kia tika tonu, ā, ko ā te Māori hei aha ake.
He pātai ka uia, “He aha tā te whakahua tika ki te pātai kei ō tātou aroaro, arā, ‘He aha oti i te ingoa Māori?’ ‘Ki tōku whakaaro he nui tonu te hāngaitanga o tētahi ki tētahi, ma te tika hoki o te whakahua e puta ai te wāriu o ngā kupu, arā, o te reo tonu anō. Nā Tā Ānaha Pēka i tuhi, “Ehara te reo i te kupu kau. Kikī tonu a ia kupu i ngā āhuatanga e pā ana ki te hinengaro, ā, ka puta ko ngā whakaaro. E kore e taea te rotarota i ā te hinengaro, mātua maringi mai aua āhuatanga. i te huakanga i te tatau o te reo. E kore e hou ki te manawa, e mōhio rānei ki te hinengaro o te iwi mātua mōhio rawa ki tana reo.” Koinei rā ōna whakaaro.
Nā, hoki mai ki te pūtake tūturu, ā, titiro ki ngā ingoa tāngata, takiwā, manu, kararehe, whānau rānei a Tāne Mahuta, ko te wherahanga mai tēnā o tētahi ao whakamīharo, o ngā mea-ā-wairua, o te
paraumu (Parapara-a-umu) is such a name, abbreviated to “Pram”—a child's perambulator.
The mind recalls an Irishman who flew to New Zealand for the first time. He was set on reaching a certain important conference which he was to address. When he landed he made immediately for the main Auckland station. There a porter noticed the stranger seeking out the train for his destination. When the porter enquired his destination, the reply was, “To Nagarywogary.” The porter was doubtful and informed the Irishman that it locked as if he had come to the wrong country. But the stranger was adamant; Nagarywogary was a place in New Zealand, and he was scheduled to give an address there that night at a certain time. Then a thought occurred to the porter. He disappeared for a short time then returned with a map of New Zealand which he showed to the traveller; just as he had thought, Ngaruawahia was the place he was making for. True, he was a first-timer to these isles, so we can overlook his pronunciation, but what of us locals who find it too much trouble to pronounce Maori words correctly? I hear many of us being very particular in the pronunciation of foreign words. but caring less with Maori.
It will be asked what pronunciation has to do with the question before us, “What's in a Maori name?” I think it is relevant, for correct pronunciation leads to better appreciation of the value of words and ultimately, of the language. Sir Ernest Baker wrote: “Language is not mere words. Each word is charged with associations that touch feelings and evoke thoughts. You cannot share feelings and thoughts unless you can unlock their associations by having the key of language. You cannot enter the heart and know the mind of a nation unless you knows its speech.” These are his thoughts.
Now, to return to the original matter, look at the names of people, places, birds, animals or plants and a fascinating world unfolds, a world of profound spiritual experience, of history, of folklore, customs, legends and proverbs, all contributing to the birth of a modern word, “Maoritanga”-the word that can answer the question.
hītori, ngā mahi a ngā tūpuna, ā rātou tikanga, pakiwaitara, pepeha, whakatauākī, aha noa ake i whānau mai ai tēnei kupu a te ao hou, “Māoritanga”, arā, te Māoritanga o te hunga o nehe i waiho ake ai ki a tātou o tēnei whakatupuranga. Koinei katoa ngā tītahatanga o tēnei kupu, “Māoritanga”, te kupu mana nei hei whakahoki i te pātai tuatahi rārā, “He aha oti i te ingoa Māori?”
Tēnā, whakaarotia te ingoa nei, a Aotea. He aha tōna nei āhuatanga hei hopunga atu ma te tangata? He maha ōna nei whakamāramatanga, kotahi hoki he kapua mā. I ētahi takiwā anō he kupu whakapotonga te roanga atu, arā, Aotearoa, te kapua mā tino roa hoki, koirā rā tētahi o ngā ingoa o tēnei moutere i huaina ai e ō tātou tūpuna, Te Ika-a-Māui-tikitiki-ā Taranga, e ai ki tēnei karangatanga ōku, ki a Te Atiawa ki te Upoko o te Ika. Ko Aotea anō te ingoa i meinga mō tētahi moutere ki te takiwā o te Tai Tokerau, he moutere rongonui, ā, ko tōna ingoa a te Pākehā ko te Great Barrier Island. Ki te tonga, ki a au nei e noho atu nei i te Upoko o te Ika, hoatu ana tēnei ingoa ki tētahi o ngā Wāpu i te Whanganui-ā-Tara, he tika tonu kia tapaina te Wāpu nei ki tēnei ingoa, no te mea he ingoa nā Tangaroa. Tētahi hoki o ngā waka rongonui o te Hekenga mai i te 1350 te tau, ko Aotea, tōna nei tangata ko Turi. He waka tino nui tēnei notemea nōna i mau ai hei taonga māku mō tēnei whakatupuranga tētahi whakataukī, i mōhiotia ai e tēnei reanga te tino hōhonutanga o te wairua Māori ki ngā mea whakateatua. Waiho ake ka rere ai ki reira ngā kōrero ki taua whakataukī.
Tērā tētahi waiata he mea tito nā tētahi matua tāne mō tana tamāhine. I reira ka waiatatia ngā mahi a tana tupuna, a Te Hau, i haere mai nei i te Hekenga mai. I haere mai a Hau ki te whai mai i tana wahine, ā, whāia rawatia mai ki te Tai Hauāuru ki Pātea, ā, nāna, nā Hau o te waka o Aotea, ka whānau mai ngā ingoa-ā-takiwā i tēnei takutai ki te uru, a Whanganui, a Whangaehu i te tūehutanga o te wai; a Rangitīkei, i te tīkeitanga o ngā waewae o Hau ki te whai i tana hoa wahine. A Manawatū, i te tūnga o tana manawa ki
“What's in a Maori name?”
Consider then the word Aotea. What is there so interesting about it? It has many meanings, one of which is white cloud. It is sometimes an abbreviation for Aotearoa, the white cloud and long, that was one of the names given to this island named by our ancestors, the Fish of Maui-tikitiki-a-Taranga according to this part of the the Atiawa tribe resident at the Head of the Fish. Aotea was also the name given to a northern island of import, named by the Pakeha Great Barrier Island. In the south, to us who reside at the Head of the Fish, the name was given to an important quay in Wellington harbour, which is appropriate, for it is a maritime word. One of the important canoes of the 1350 migration was Aotea, under the command of Turi. Important indeed, for its crew was responsible for preserving for us of this generation a treasure, namely a proverb that reveals the depths of the spirituality of the Maori soul. Reference to this proverb will be made later.
There was once a song composed for a young girl by her father. Therein was sung the exploits of their kinsman Hau, who came here in the Migration. He was in pursuit of his wife, finally reaching Patea on the West Coast; and by him, Te Hau, were originated the place names of that coast in the west: Whanganui; Whangaehu, when that river was in turbulent spray; Rangitikei, because Hau lengthened his pace in chase after his wife. Manawatu,
te whakamiharo i te ātaahua o te whenua huri noa. A Hōkio, i te rorohiotanga o ana taringa i te mahi a te hau kōwhiowhionga; a Ōhau, i tana tapanga tonutanga iho i tana ingoa mo te awa reka i tana inumanga ake. A Ōtaki anō hoki, i te nanaonga iho a Hau ki tana tokotoko hei taki ara haere mōna, ā, puta atu ana ki Waikanae. I Waikanae ka titiro iho ia ki roto i te awa, arā e titiro ake ana ki a ia ko ngā whetū tini mano pēnei me te kanae ika e pūkanakana ake ana ki a ia. Tae rawa a Hau ki Rimutaka maunga, tana tirohanga iho ki tērā whaitua ko te moana rā e rarapa mai ana, anā ko Wairarapa ka whānau mai.
I kī ake au, me kāore te waka nei a aotea, e kore tātou o tēnei rautau hou e whiwhi ki tā tātou whakataukī tohunga, ā, e kore hoki te waimarietanga o ō tātou tūpuna ki tētahi ingoa mo te tūāhu e tū mai rā i Ōtaki, arā, a Rangiatea.
Nā Aotea te whakataukī nei, “E kore au e ngaro, te kākano (purapura) i ruia mai i Rangiatea.” Ko te Rangiatea nei ko taua ingoa anō ki te takiwā o Rarotonga, arā, ko Ra'iatea. Ko Ra'iatea he moutere kei runga tata atu i Rarotonga, ā, ki ngā kōreroa a ō tātou tūpuna, i rere mai ngā waka o te Hekenga mai i reira, i whānau mai ai te whakataukī rārā, i runga ake nei, mo te hōrapatanga o te Māori i te Moananui-a-Kiwi, puta noa. Koirā rā tā tētahi wāhanga tāna whakamārama, mo te toitūnga tangata, e kore rawa e ngaro.
He tika ki tētahi titiro. Engari tērā tētahi kē atu whakamārama, arā, kei te whakateatua, ko Rangiatea hoki, ko te tūāhu o te Runga Rawa, o Io, me ōnā karangatanga huhua. He mea tiki atu i Tikitiki-o-rangi, o ngā rangi-tū-haha, te ingoa nei a Rangiatea, mo te moutere o Ra'iatea me te tūāhu tonu hoki i whakaarahia i runga anō i taua moutere.
Nā Aotea te whakataukī, engari nā Raukawa te whakatinanatanga o ngā āhuatanga o taua whakataukī, i tana hanganga i te tūāhu e tū rā i Ōtaki. Anei ngā kōrero mō taua ingoa, mō Rangiatea.
Tērā a Tānenui-ā-rangi me ana whakaaro kimi i te ora mo te tangata e noho nei i runga i te mata o te whenua. Ka roa e whakaaroaro ana i te take nei, ka puta te
where his heart stood still in wonder at the beauty of the land all round. Hokio, where the wind whistled piercingly in his ears; Ohau, to which river he gave his name after drinking its sweet water. Otaki, when he used his staff to clear a path, thence to Waikanae. At Waikanae he looked into the myriad stars reflected in the river, like the eyes of the mullets shining up at his. He went as far as the Rimutaka range and saw the lake flashing on the other side, hence Wairarapa.
I have mentioned that were it not for aotea canoe, we of this century would have been denied our classic saying, nor would our ancestors have been fortunate in having a name for the shrine that stands at Otaki, Rangiatea.
The proverb was Aotea's. “I will never be lost, the seed broadcast from Rangiatea.” This Rangiatea is the same Ra'iatea in the region of Rarotonga. Ra'iatea is an island just north of Rarotonga and according to tradition, this was the Migration's starting-point, thus the proverb quoted above came into being, referring to the general dispersal of the Maori through the Pacific. This is how one school of thought explains the survival of man.
In one respect it is right. But there is yet another explanation which is spiritual, Rangiatea being the abode of the Absolute, of Io of the many names. The name Rangiatea was obtained from Tikitiki-o-rangi, the topmost of the heavens, for the island Ra'iatea and the shrine on that island.
The proverb is Aotea's but the Raukawa people made it a reality and gave it great significance by building the shrine that stands at Otaki. Here is a part of the mythological background of the name Rangiatea.
māramatanga ki a Tānenui-ā-rangi. Ko te māramatanga nei, kia haere ia ki te marae o Tikitiki-o-rangi, ā kei reira ko ngā kete e toru, ko ngā kawenga o roto ko ngā mātauranga e whiwhi ai te tangata i runga i te whenua, ā, mō ake tonu atu.
Ko te kakenga tēnā o Tānenui-ā-rangi ki te rangi tuatahi, tuarua, tuatoru, ā, tae atu ana ki te rangi tekau mā tahi. I reira ka puta te manu nei ki te whakataki i a ia, ā, nāna i taki haere, ā, tae atu ki Rauroha, te marae o Tikitiki-o-rangi. Te taunga atu, ka puta te rongo me tapoko rawa a Tānenui-ā-rangi ki roto ki te poho o te tūāhu e tū hāngai mai ana, ā i reira ka riro mai ngā kete a toru, uruuru matua ka tahi, uruuru rangi ka rua, uruuru tau ka toru. Ka riro mai ana kawenga, ka hoki mai tana kotahi, ko tana kaitaki ko te manu rā i noho atu ki Tikitiki-o-rangi, ā, ko taua manu ko te kōtuku; koirā i kotahi ai tana rere, ko tana takinga ki Tikitiki-o-rangi. Nā tēnei rere ka whānau mai te whakataukī mo te waewae tapu, pērā me Irihāpeti, te Kuini, “Haere mai e te manuhiri tūārangi, nau mai e te Kōtuku rerenga tahi.” He hōnore nui tēnei ina pōwhiri pēneitia te tangata. Mā tēnei whakamārama, arā, mā ēnei kōreroe kitea ai te hōhonutanga o te hinengaro o te Māori o nehe ki ngā mea-ā-wairua, kitea ai te hingaitanga o ngā whakaaro ki ō te Karaiti, “E kore te tangata e ora i te taro kau, engari mā ngā kupu e puta mai i te māngai o te Atua.” Otīa, mātua ringihia tonu mai i te poho o Rangiatea, te tūāhu o Io matua-kore, aua mea e ora-ā-wairua ai te tangata, e kore ia e puta.
Nā ēnei kōrerohoki ka mārama te huhua o ngā rangi, e toru rawa ki ngā kōreroa ngā Hūrai, ki a tāua, te Māori, tekau mā rua; ka mārama te huhua hoki o ngā ingoa o Io, me ngā ingoa o Ihowa, ka kitea ai te tātatanga o ngā ingoa nei o Io, o Ihowa, “He aha oti i te ingoa Māori?” Ā, tēnā e huri ki ngā tamariki a Tāne Mahuta, ana, kei a rātou ētahi kōrero ātahua, hei whakahoki i te pātai i pātaingia.
Kua tae mai a raumati me te mātārere nei te koekoeā, tēnei tohu, “Kia kori, he wā ngakinga kai tēnei”, “Kia korim he wē ngakinga kai tēnei”, i pāterengia hoki, “Ko taua manu he koekoeā, te manu tēnē o te Mātahi o Orongonui raumati.” Ka rere
There was one Tanenui-a-rangi with his thought of seeking sustenance for man on the face of the earth. After constant meditation, enlightenment came to Tanenui-a-rangi. His understanding was that he should go to the Tikitiki-o-rangi courtyard where there were three baskets holding all the knowledge that would benefit man on earth forever.
Tanenui-a-rangi ascended to the first, second, third and finally the eleventh of the heavens. There this bird appeared, to conduct him to Rauroha, the plaza of Tikitiki-o-rangi. On his arrival he learned that he must enter the shrine that stood before him and there obtain the three baskets, Uruuru matua. Uruuru rangi and Uruuru tau. Having received the objects of his quest he returned alone, his escort to Tikitiki-o-rangi remaining there, and that bird was the White Heron; and that flight to Tikitiki-o-rangi was the only flight it ever made. This flight gave rise to the saying used for any personage such as Queen Elizabeth, visiting for the first time, “Welcome, illustrious visitor from beyond the horizon, twice welcome thou White Heron of rare flight.” This is an honour when extended to any person. This explanatory background reveals the depth of Maori spirituality, reveals also the parallel to christain thought, “Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God.” Nevertheless, unless sustenance comes continuously from Rangiatea, the shrine of Io the parentless, for man's spiritual well-being, he will not survive.
From this background we have the concept of the plurality of heavens common also to Hebrew thought, and the further concept of the plurality of Io attributes in common with Jehovah. “what is there is a Maori name?” Then turn to the children of Tane Mahuta, where there is a wealth of beautiful legends and myths, for a reply to the question.
The harbinger of spring, the shining cuckoo, has arrived with its message, “Bestir yourself, the time to cultivate has arrived.” As the ancient recital notes, “That bird was the shining cuckoo, the bird of the first month of spring.” So the mind recalls
ngā mahara ki te whakataukī rā, “Tama tū, tama ora; tama moe, tama mate kai.” Koinei hoki te hāngaitanga o te tangi a te manu nei, a te koekoeā, ā, ko tā te puawānanga o rō ngahere tōna tohu, “Kia mataara”.
Ētahi kōreronunui kei a ia, ina hoki ki mua noa atu tātari mai ai, arā, ki te moenga a Rehua whetū i tana karearoto i a Puanga, he whetū anō hoki, ā, ki a Papatuanuku anō rāua ko Ranginui me ā rāua tamariki tohetohe ki te riri.
Arā rā te whakataukī: “Mā te punga e ū ai te waka, waihoki te tāne te whānau, mā te wahine.” Koinei tāua te tangata ka tōtika, i te morimoringa a tō tātau tupuna wahine, a Papatuanuku. Pērā anō a Puawāannga te rauhīnga tana whaea a Puanga, mai i te tīmatanga e haere tanu nei. Nā reira e hoki ki a Rangi rāua ko Papa i a rāua anō e takoto pipiri ana.
I kreira ka kakari ā rāua tamariki, ko ētehi ki te wehe, ko ētehi ki te waiho noa iho i ō rātou mātua. Riro ana i a Tāne Mahuta ka wehe ngā tokorua nei. Koinei ka whānau mai te pepeha. “Nā Tāne i toko ka mawehe a Rangi rāua ko Papa, nāna i tauwehea ai, ka heuea te Pō, ka heuea te Ao.”
Takoto kau ana te kuia nei a Papatuanuku i; te mahi a Tāne. Ka roa, ka roa a Tāne e mātaki iho ana i tana whaea, ka oho te whakaaro ki te kimi wahine māna, kitea ake e ia, a wai ake, a wai ake, moea katoatia i tana whāwhai kia puta he uri mōna—puta kē ana he rākau, he tōtara, he maire, mataī, rimu, kahikatea, he aha ake.
Koinei ana uri i waihotia ake e Tāne hei kahu mō tana whaea, ka rere ki te pokepoke one, kia rite ki tōna te āhua, hāngia atu te Hau Ora, tū ana mai ko Hinehauone, “He atua, he tangata, hou!” Ka moea e ia tāna i hanga ai, ka puta ko Hineātauira, moea tonutia anō tēnei tamāhine e ia.
Nāwai ā, ka puta te hiahia o Tāne ki te toro i tana tuakana i a Rehua. te whētu, ko tana pikinga ki te rangi. Ka ngaro atu ia, ka rongo a Hineātauira, he mea moe ia e tana matua tonu. Ka whakamā te kōtiro nei ko te omanga ma te huanui jo te Tupurunga o te Pō, ki te huna. I reira ka huaina ia ko Hinetītama. Kāwhaki tonu ia,
the proverb. “he who works survives; he who is idle perishes.” This is the parallel to the; shining cuckoo's message and that of the clematis of the forest, “awake!”
There are tales about the puawananga that go right back to the marriage of the star Antares and his beloved rigel, even back to Earth Mother and Sky Father and their argumentative, rebellious children.
There is a proverb, “As the anchor is to the canoe, so is the woman to her husband and family.” This has been true for man as sustained by Earth Mother. So also the clematis, by its mother rigel, from time past until now. Let us then return to Rangi and Papa when they were still together.
Their children strove, some to separate them, others to let their parents be. Tane Mahuta won and he separated the two; so came the saying, “Tane thrust upwards and separated Rangi and Papa, so there was night, and there was day.”
Thus, Papatuanuku lay alone because of Tane. Tane watched his mother below for some long time, then came the thought that he should seek out a wife, and he sought out many, taking them all to wife in his desire for offspring; and when they were born they were trees—totara, maire, matai, rimu, kahikatea and others.
These were his children whom he left to robe his mother, while he turned to shaping from sand a human form like himself, breathing into it the breath of life, and lo, there stood Daughter of Earth-aroma, “divine and man”! He knew her whom he had made, and so was born Hineatauira, the Model Daughter, whom also he married.
In time tane desired to visit his elder brother. Antares the star, so he scaled the heavens. Whilst he was away. Hineatauira learnt of her shameful parentage. For shame, this young girl ran down the pathway called “The Great Expanse of Darkness” to hide. Whilst there, she was renamed Daughter of Defiance.
On to the very low regions of Te Reinga she fled, where she was named a third time Daughter of the Dark Expanse. When Tane returned he pursued her to the underworld of Te Reinga, only to find the Doors of Darkness closed by Hinenui.
tau rawa atu ki te riu o te Rēinga. i reira ka huaina tuatorutia ia ko Hinenuitepō Hoki rawa mai a Tāne, whai noa atu ki te Rēinga, tūtakina kētia e Hinenui “Te Tatau o te Pō.”
Ko te tanging atu o Hinenui ki a Tāne, “E hoki ki te ao hei whakatupu i ā, tāua tamariki, ā, waiho au ki konei kukume mai ai i a rātou.” Ko te hokinga o Tāne ka pōngia i te are whānui, noho ana i a Hineāteao ka kite ake ia i te Aitanga-a-Ira je whiti iho ana, ka pātai ia ki a Hineateao, “Ka whakaaetia rānei taku hopu i aua tini whetū hei whakapaipai mō taku matua, mō Rangi?” Whakaae tonutia mai. Ka whakaaro a Tāne me waiho kia whakatā ia, ka haere ai ki te hopu. Ka moe ia, oho rawa ake, tū, ana ko tana taina ko te Wehinui-ā-mamao, me ngā whetū rā kua mau. Ko te Weroininihi rāua ko te Weroikokoto me te takurua, ko te weroiteaomarie mo te raumati, ko Puanga mo te mahuru, te wā mahi kai.
Ka mau a Puanga, ka rongo a Rehua, ka rongo i te ātaahua o taua wahine, haere ana, ka mau ki tana wahine. moem iho, ka-puta ki waho ko ā rāua mātāmua, ko Puawānanga, ko Puahou, ko Taumate, he putiputi ātaahua katoa. Te puhi a Puanga rāua ko Rehua ko Puawānanga ki tētehi reo, ko Poānanga ki tētahi reo kē, ko Pikiarero ki tētehi reo anō.
Ko tētehi atu kōrero mō Puanga kei a Te Atiawa ki Waiwhetū, ki Pito-one. Kei runga tonu ake i a mātou i Waiwhetū he maunga, ko Pukeatua. I te Pūpū ata. i te rua tekau mā tahi o hune, te rā tuatahi o tā te Māori maramataka, ko te Puanga whetū tērā kua puta me tana pae-kapua, kei runga tonu o Pukeatra e tū ana. Tēnei tena tohu: mehemea kei raro tana Pae-kapua i a puanga he tohu whai kai, mehenmea kei runga he tau mate kai, nā Konei ko te pepeha a Te Atiawa: “Titiro whaka Pukeatua, ki a Puanga me tana Pae-kapua.” Kāore i ārikarika ngā kōrero mō tēnei ingoa te Puawānanga.
Tērā tētehi whānau rākau. hei tāina ki a Puawānanga, ko te Ake tō rātou ingoa whānau.
Te wa tika, e ai ki ngā kōrero, hei puanga mō rātou, mō ērā atu hoki pērā
Hinenui cried sorrowfully to Tane, “Return to the world of light to foster our children, whilst I remain here to draw them to me.” Tane, returning thence, was benighted on the wide pathway to be accommodated by Daughter of the Light; there he saw above him the Children of Lightning shining forth from above and asked of Heneateao, “Would I be permitted to take those myriad stars to adorn my father Rangi?” Permission was given. Tane decided to rest first and then retrieve them. So he slept and awoke only to find standing there his younger brother Wehinuiamamao with the captured stars. These were Challenge the Stealthy and Challenge the Interceptor to preside over the winter. Challenge the Calm and Peaceful to preside over the summer, and Rigel to preside over the spring, the time for growing food.
When Rigel was captured, Rehua saw what a beautiful woman she was, so he went and took her as his wife, and there were born their eldest children, Puawananga, Puahou and Taumate, all beautiful flowers. The favourite of Rigel and antares was puawananga. according to one dialect, to another Poananga. and to another Pikiarero.
The Atiawa at Waiwhetu and Pito-one have more to sat about Rigel. Above us at waiwhetu stands a mountain called Pukeatua (Sacred Hill). In the early morning of June 21st, the first day of the Maori calender, Rigel appears with its perch, an accompanying cloud. standing above Pukeatua. This is her sign: should her perch be below Rigel, the signs are good for cropping, but should the perch be above her, the; season will be lean, so the Atiawa people have their saying: “Look towards the sacred Hill, to Rigel and her perch.” There is quite a story in connection with this name Puawananga.
There is a family of trees, junior to the Puawananga, whose family name is the Aka. According to mythology and legends, the correct time for them to bloom, and also
me te Pohutukawa, Rātā, Kōtukutuku, Mānuka, te tini a Tāne Mahuta, kei a Ruamoko te tikanga. Ka huri te koroua nei ki ōna taha koinā te hurihanga-a-tau ki te raumati, ngahuru, takurua, mahuru rānei, kei tōna taha e huri atu ai ia te ritenga, ā, i a ia ka huri ka rongona tonutia tōna harurutanga, me tōna rūnga i tana whaea i a Papatuanuku. Ka hāngai ai te haka a Ngāti Porou: “Ara rā e..e..e! Ko Ruamoko e ngunguru nei! Au, au, aue Ha!”
Tetehi mea mīharo ki te Pākehā ko te maha whakataukī a ngāitāua hei whakarite i ngā āhua wā katoa. Irta hoki mo te pōwhiri i te toa taua: “Nau mai te pōporo tū ki te hamuti”; mo te whakatūpato kei whakahāwea ki te iti tāngata; “He iti mokoroa, natia i nanati te kahikatea”; mo te tangala māngere ki te mahi kai: “I hea koe i te ngaborotanga o ngā rau o te kōtukutukit?” Mō tēhea ake wā. tehēa ake wā, kei te hūnuku a Tāne Mahuta ngā kōrero, ngā pepeha, whakarile, taukī hoki.
Hoki ake ki te whānau Aka nei, e rua hei whatoronga atu, arā, ko te Akatea, ko te Akamatua, te Aka e korc e whakangāueuetia. He whakataukī tā Te Arawa, i take mai i ngā mahi a tō rātou tupuna a Rangitihi, nāna nei ngā Pū Manawa e MVaru o Te Arawa.
I tētehi pakanga ka taotū a Rangltihi. Na te hoariri ki te upoko, ko Rangitihi tērā ka hinga, ka what! a Te Arawa. I a ia e takoto ra ka kite ia i te akatea e toro iho ana, mau tonu ake ia, tapahitia e ia, takaia ana tana upoko, ko tōna kōkiritanga anō. Te kitenga o tana iwi, ko tō rātou whakaekenga anō ki te āwhina. mamae ana te hoariri, raru ana. Koinei ka whānau mai tēnei kī nā: “Rangitihi, upoko i takaia ki le akatea.”
Mo to akamatua, te kona a Tangolango ki tana tāne ki a Tāwhaki. arō anō ngā kōrero.
Ko Tangotango he wahine ātaahua nō te rangi. ka rongo ki te toa o Tāwhaki o tōna hekenga iho i tc pō takoto ana i a ia. Ka mahara a Tāwhaki he wahine nō konei and. t te tākiritanga o ie ala o ia rā ngaro ana laua wahine. E hia ngā pō ka hapū a Tangotango. kātahi anō a Tāwhaki
for others such as the Pohutukawa, Rata, Kotukutuku, Manuka—Tane's multitudes—is dependent on Ruaumoko. god of earthquakes. When this old man turns to his various sides the seasons of the year follow —summer, autumn, winter or spring, dependent on which side he turns to, and when he turns his rumblings and quakes may be heard and felt in Papatuanuku. Which makes the Ngati Porou haka appropriate: “Behold, ‘tis the earthquake god that groans. Au, au, aue. Ha!!”
One thing that impresses the Pakeha is the many proverbs we have appropriate for all situations. For instance, when welcoming returned men from battle, “Welcome to the Poporo who survived hell fire”; to caution with a word not to underrate a man of small stature, “Though small the mokoroa grub, yet it lays low the lofty and mighty kahikatea tree”; or to reprove the lazy one, “Where were you when the native fuchsia shed its leaves.” No matter what the occasion, Tane Mahuta's family have the apt words, legends, parables or proverbs.
Returning to the Aka family, there are two of interest, the White Rata and the Firm Vine that can never be shaken. The Arawa people have a proverb that originated from the exploits of their ancestor Rangitihi, whose sons became the eight pulsating hearts-the eponyms of the Arawa confederation of tribes. In one battle Rangitihi was wounded. The enemy chanced a blow to the head, Rangitihi was laid low and the Arawa war party broke and fled. Whilst lying wounded he saw above him a vine reaching down, and severing this, he bound up his cleft head, then charged into the fray again. When his people saw this, they too rallied again to help, causing havoc and inflicting defeat on the enemy. Thus was derived the rallying call, “Rangitihi who bound his head with the White Rata vine.” For the Firm Vine, Tangotango's parting advice to her husband Tawhaki, there are other stories.
Tangotango, a beautiful celestial maiden, having learned of Tawhaki's prowess as a warrior, descended and visited him at nights and became his wife. Tawhaki understood her to be an earthling. But at the dawn of
ka mōhio ehara kē tana hoa nō tēnei ao. I te whānautanga mai o tā rāua kōtiro ka puta pōhēhē i a Tāwhaki, “Te piro hoki!” I tērā, ka pōuri a Tangotango, ka tautohetohe rāua, te mutunga, mau iho a Tangotango ki tāna tamaiti, ko tana omanga. Aurere noa atu a Tāwhaki kua tae kē a Tāngotango ki te rangi. Ka karanga ake a Tāwhaki, “He aha tō koha ki a au?” Ka whakahokia mai e Tangotango, “Kei mau koe ki te aka taepa, engari kia mau ki te akamatua”.
Ka roa e noho mokemoke ana a Tāwhaki, ko tana kīnga atu ki tana taina, ki a Karihi, ka haere rāua ki te whakataki i tana whānau. Ka haere rāua, rokohina atu ko tō rāua kuia ko Matakerepō kei te take o ngā aka e rua, e iri iho ana i te rangi. Ka tohutohungia atu rāua, “Ina, e piki; kei taka ki waenga, kei titiro ki raro, kei pūawhe”. Ka whakatōnga rāua i te mahara ake ki te kuha a Tangotango, “A, kei mau ō kōrua ringa ki te aka taepa, engari kia mau ki te akamatua.” He aha rā, mau kē ana a Karihi ki te aka taepa, tāhi ka piupiua e ngā hau. Waimarie i a Tāwhaki ka mau a Karihi, ka tangi rāua i reira mo te oraititanga o te taina. Ka hoki te taina, whakamau tonu atu ki te akamatua te tuakana, ka piki tae atu ana ki te rangi tuarea, ki tana whānau, noho tonu atu.
Kei roto i ēnei kōrerote hōhonutanga o ngā whakaaro-ā-wairua o ō tātou tūpuna. Tēnā, whakarongo ki te tīmatanga o te maioha ki te mātāmua ina whānau mai.
“Nau mai e tama, kia mihi atu au—
I haramai rā koe i te kunenga mai o
I roto i te āhuru mōwai, ka tāka te
pae o Huakipōuri—
Ko te wharehangahanga tēnā a Tānenuiārangi—
I tātaia ai te puhi ariki—
Te hiringa matua, te hiringa tipua, te
hiringa tawhito rangi e…”
Kei konei e mau ake ana te hāngaitanga o ngā kōrero mō ngā mahi a ngā tūpuna, te tohungatanga o ō rātou whakaaro, wawata, tūmanako. Tēnā, whakarongo anō ki tētehi
day each morning his wife disappeared. After some time Tangotango was with child and only then did Tawhaki learn that his wife was not an earthling. When their daughter was born, he tactlessly remarked. “The smell!” Tangotango was hurt, they quarrelled, and Tangotango took her child and fled. Tawhaki made lamentable protests, but Tangotango was already at her celestial home. So Tawhaki cried, “What is your last word to me?” Tangotango's reply was, “Lay not hold of the swinging vine, but rather take hold of the Firm Vine.”
At last, after a long and lonely life, Tawhaki confided in his younger brother Karihi that he desired to visit his family. They set out and found their elder, Matakerepo, at the foot of the two vines suspended from heaven. They were advised, “Come, make your ascent here, but don't fall in between and don't look down, or you will be thrown about in the wind.” They remained silent, remembering Tangotango's parting words, “Lay not hold of the swinging vine, but rather take hold of the Firm Vine.” Somehow, accidentally, Karihi took hold of the swinging vine and was buffeted to and fro dangerously. By sheer good fortune Tawhaki caught Karihi and they mourned greatly this terrifying experience of the younger one. Therefore he returned home, whilst the older brother continued steadfastly grasping the Firm Vine, ascending the many celestial regions to the home of his family, where he remained permanently.
In this account may be seen the profound thoughts of our forebears for things spiritual. For example, listen to the greeting to a first-born child.
“Welcome, child, that I may salute you,
For from the sheltered haven of man's
embryo you came
Having crossed the threshold of Huakipouri fashioned by Tanenuiarangi
When he created woman from the body
of Mother Earth
And received powers from the Gods
and the ancient celestial home.”
Herein the great worth of the legends, traditions of the ancients, their deep spiritual
roanga atu o te karakia nei:
“Haramai e tama, puritia i te akamatua,
kia whitirere ake koe, ko te kauae
Ko te kauae raro.”
Kia whitirere ake ai ki ngā mātauranga teitei, nunui whakaharahara o te Wāhingaro kia tutuki ai ngā mea tika hei ora mo te nuinga.
Ki a tātou he aka anō te aka, he rātā anō te rātā, he pohutukawa anō a ia, ehara ki te Pākehā. Ki a ia no te whānau kotahi rātau, ā, kei tēnei whānau tētahi āhuatanga, he haeretahitanga o te kaha rākau me te ātaahuatanga rākau, e hapa nei i ngā rākau Pākehā. Koinei i tapaina ai e te Pākehā ki te ingoa Kariki tōna whakamāoritanga “Uho Mataī”, koinei anō hoki i koha ai tā rātou whakahau kia kauā te tua i ngā rākau Māori. He whakataukī anō tā te whānau nei hei whakatūpato: “Kei whatiwhati noa koe i ngā rau o te rātā.” Nā tētehi kaituhi tana tuhinga: “Ina kite ake au i te pohutukawa, i tēnei rākau rangatira, e ura mai ana i roto i tōna korōria whakamīharo, e piri haere ana rānei i ngā tahataha, i runga i ōna whāriki kākāriki, e tū ana rānei i tētehi wahapū pēnei me te matahī i te waharoa, ka rere whakaaroha aku mahara ki tētehi Maori i ū mai ki Niu Tireni i neherā. I te tatanga ki uta, ka kite atu ia i te pohutukawa e puāwai haere ana i ngā tahataha, ko te makanga i tana amokura ki te moana me te aue, “Kāore he take o ēnei hanga ki tēnei whenua mīharo, e tupu haere nei ōna whakapaipai ātaahua noa ake, i runga rākau!”
Ko Tauninihi rā hoki te tupuna i maka rā i tana amokura ki a Taiwhakaea, i te ūnga atu ki Whangaparāoa. Te taunga atu ki te one, horo tonu ia ki ngā kura e mumura mai rā i uta, warewaretia ake a Taiwhakaea. Te pānga atu o te ringa, ngāhorohoro ana, he pohutukawa putiputi kē rā hoki.
Tū pakapaka ana a Tauninihi me te pōuri i tana whiunga i tana kura. He roa tonu ia e kimi ana i a Taiwhakaea, ka rongo ia kua kitea e Mahina, i kitea atu ki te ākau ki Mahiti. Te tononga atu kia whakahokia
thinking, their hopes and dreams lie. Listen further to another part of the incantation,
“Come child, take hold of the Firm Vine
That you may ascend to realms spiritual
to acquire that learning that will equip you
To cope with the many problems
To reach up to the highest learning from the Unseen to complete all that is right for the betterment of the many.
To us the aka is aka, just as the pohutukawa is pohutukawa, and the rata is rata, but this is not so to the Pakeha. To him they belong to the one family, and this family has the combination of strength and beauty lacking in imported trees. This is the reason why the Pakeha gave the Greek name which means “Ironhearted”, and why they earnestly campaign for the discontinuance of felling native trees. There is a proverb warning against vandalism, “Do not indiscriminately break off rata branches.” Prevent vandalism.
An author wrote, “When I see the majestic Pohutukawa a blaze of red about our shores or clinging to some cliff-face against a background of sober green, or standing at a river-mouth like a sentinel at an entrance, I find myself entirely in sympathy with a certain Maori chieftain who sailed to New Zealand a long time ago and who, on nearing the shore, saw the Pohutukawa in full bloom at the edge, threw his red head-dress into the sea declaring, ‘Such things are of no use in this wonderful land where adornments far more beautiful grow upon the trees’.” The chief, of course was Tauninihi who threw his red head-dress, Taiwhakaea, into the sea when he approached the shore at Whangaparaoa. When he, set foot on the beach he ran hurriedly to the red blazing along the beach, forgetting Taiwhakaea. When his hand touched them they dropped to the ground, for they were of course the pohutukawa blooms.
Tauninihi stood in amazement, sad at his thoughtless casting away of his own red head-dress. He sought a long time for
mai taua kura, ko te kupu mai: “Ē, e kore e hoki atu, ko te pae kura kite kē hoki tēnei a Mahina.”
I te tau 1950 ka whakanuia e ngā iwi tīmata atu i Te Kaha, muri iho ki Tūranga, te pūtahi o ngā iwi o te Tairāwhiti, hoki ake ki Mātaatua mutu rawa mai ki Waikato, te ono rautau o te tutukinga o ngā waka i maunu mai i Hawaiki ki ēnei takutai.
Nā wai i mātakitaki tērā ūnga tuatahi mai? Nāna rā hoki! Nā wai i mātakitaki te hākaritanga i aua tauranga? Nāna anō rā! Nā te tamaiti nei a Tāne Mahuta, nā te pohutukawa!
Nā tētehi tohunga titiro rākau tēnei whakataunga: “O ngā puāwai katoa o Niu Tīreni, kāore he putiputi kē atu i tātata ki tō te pohutukawa te ātaahua.”
He kupu nunui ēnei i roto i te āhuatanga i pātaingia rā, “He aha oti i te ingoa Māori?” Ina hoki i a te pohutukawa e puāwai ana i Aoteoroa nei, ko te Whetū Mārama o Peterehema i tērā pito o te ao, e pānui ana kua whānau a Ihu Karaiti. Koinei tā te Pākehā ingoa tuarua i whānau mai ai, arā, Te Rākau o te Kirihimete, notemea, kei te Kirihimete ka kitea te pohutukawa i roto i tōna korōria ātaahua.
1350 tau i muri iho i te pohutukawa e pua ana ka pōwhiritia e ia ō tātou tūpuna ki tō rātou kāinga hou. I te tau 1814, ka kauwhautia te kauwhau tuatahi e Hāmuera Mātenga i rongo ai ō tātou tūpuna i te Rongopai i te rā o te Kirihimete. I te wā anō e puāwai ana te pohutukawa, i te tau 1928, ka whakawahia he Māori hei Pīhopa tuatahi mō Aotearoa.
Koinei pai tonu, hāngai tonu hei mutunga kōrero, ko ngā kōreromo te pohutukawa, hei whakahoki i te pātai i uia rā, mehemea he whāinga-kiko anō i te kupu, i te ingoa, i ngā kōrero Māori.
He pitopito noa iho ēnei kōrero, Te Ao Hou pukapuka, arā kē e heipū mai rā i ō tātou marae huri noa, ngā kōreromo te pātai nei, “He aha oti i te ingoa Māori?”
Taiwhakaea, only to hear that Mahina had found it at Mahiti beach. When he asked that his red head-dress be returned, the reply was, “Oh, it will never be returned, this is the head-dress found by Mahina upon the beach.”
In the year 1950 tribes celebrated the sexcentennial of the canoes' arrival to these shores in the migration from Hawaiki.
Who witnessed that first arrival? He did of course! Who witnessed the celebrations marking those landings? He did again! Tane Mahuta's offspring, the Pohutukawa.
A certain botanist made these conclusions, “Of all the beautiful blooms of New Zealand, there are none more beautiful than the Pohutukawa.”
These are very important words in the light of the question that was asked at the very outset, “What is there in a Maori name?” For here in Aotearoa the Pohutukawa blooms whilst in the opposite part of the world the brilliant Star of Bethlehem ushers in the birthday of Jesus Christ. Thus the Pakeha gave the Pohutukawa a second name, The Christmas Tree, for it is at this time of Christmas that the Pohutukawa is seen blooming in all its beauty and glory.
1350 years later the Pohutukawa welcomed our ancestors to their new home. In 1814, Samuel Marsden preached the first sermon when our ancestors heard The Good News, on Christmas Day. At the time when the Pohutukawa was again in bloom, in 1928, a Maori was consecrated the first Bishop of Aotearoa.
So it is appropriate and fitting that this paper should conclude with a word about the Pohutukawa, to reply to the question that was posed, whether there is after all anything of worth in a Maori word, or name, or legend or tradition.
These are just some tit-bits to you, ‘Te Ao Hou’ magazine; much more may be found on our maraes to meet the query made, “What's in a Maori name?”
The Tragedy of Whetumatarau
It was a lovely day and we were on holiday. Early in the afternoon, we ambled into Sam's place.
“Well, hollo!” said Sam, looking as though he was just leaving. “How would you like to come with me? I'm just going up the hill at the back of the house to get those wood flowers I promised you.”
“At the back of the house?” I mentally questioned. There was only a steep bluff at the back of Sam's house—he must get to the top another way.
So we went: Sam, Ted, Brian, Ross, myself and the dog.
Out the back door, up through the terraced vegetable garden, through the back fence, and almost immediately, we began to climb—straight up!
I was horrified! I would never make it!
But up we went. Kiri, our huntaway pup, did the trip a dozen times as I struggled upward. True, we followed a ridge. True, there were trees to pull ourselves up by; but it took us about an hour to reach the top of the 1,000 ft bluff, and there, in spite of Ted's help and the frequent stops on the way, I fell into a ditch, utterly exhausted—vowing nothing would ever drag me up to Whetumatarau again.
But… what was a ditch doing on this outback hilltop? As I regained my breath, my eyes followed the ditch round the crest, and further over I noticed another ditch—shallower, but still a ditch. Sam had been pointing out landmarks to Ted and the boys, but when I called him over and asked him about the ditches, he settled himself down, and I knew we were in for one of Sam's interesting local stories.
Up until about 150 years ago, this hilltop called Whetumatarau, was the site of a strongly fortified pa. It belonged to a Ngatiporou sub-tribe and it had never been taken. This invulnerable pa was known far and wide, and because of this, there had been a time of relative peace. The sentries had an easy task. Why, they could see the coastline in both directions for miles. The flat land between the bluff and the sea was almost treeless, and on this the people lived and worked and played. The prestige of Manu, their chief, was high among his own people, and because of the past reputation of his warriors and the position of the pa, his ‘mana’ was great among all the Maoris of the Coast.
But peace had changed this Ngatiporou tribe.
It showed in the complacent attitude of the people. It showed in the young men who should have been training hard to take the place of the aging warriors. Instead, they played half-heartedly at their training games, and thought only of swimming and fishing and eating.
But one day, this peace was shattered!
Three warriors from the other side of the mountains came with the news.
A fleet of war canoes belonging to the great Ngapuhi tribe from up north was on its way, and their chief, Pomare, under the law of ‘utu’ had vowed to wipe out the whole tribe.
The word ‘utu’ echoed round the council. The word was picked up by the waiting women outside, and within minutes, the dread of ‘utu’ could be seen on every face.
Manu questioned the messengers further.
Of what was his tribe guilty? The men told them the grim story of kidnapping, murder and cannabalism, and the evidence pointed to the Ngatiporou. Immediately, Manu ordered everyone to prepare for battle and a siege. But the older women, overhearing had already sent the mothers for their children, the boys for water and the girls for food. The messengers had said the fleet was due to round the distant Matakaoa Point in about three hours, and there was much to do.
Manu's heart sank as he looked at the general condition of the pa—the unrepaired outer defences, and the overgrown ditches. He inspected the weapons they had, and although they were all well made, they were pitifully few. He set the young men to clear out the ditches and repair the walls. The older men worked desperately at the futile task of making more weapons—weapons that normally took days to make.
Meanwhile, the women and older children struggled to bring the old folk, the sick and the babies into the pa—Whetumatarau had never seemed so steep or so high before. There was not time to collect roots and berries and kumara from the gardens at the other end of the bay. No time to bring in an extra catch of fish. Time only for the boys of the tribe to collect several kits of mussels and pipis; time only to collect the food stored in the village storage pit.
All too soon, the look-out shouted a warning—the Ngapuhi fleet was rounding the Matakaoa Point.
Manu looked around quickly. He was not nearly ready to face this enemy, but his calmness gave his people courage and they worked quickly and without panic in the hour that remained. There was water to last for several weeks; there was firewood in plenty. If there was less food than required, no one commented.
The Ngapuhi arrived just as the sun was setting and they attacked early the next day. They opened fire with strange, terrifying weapons and almost immediately several of the Ngatiporou warriors fell dead. But the pa's position still gave the defenders an advantage, and time and time again, the attackers were pushed back down the bluff. After several days, the Ngapuhi paused in their attacks. In spite of the use of the Pakeha's muskets, their losses had been heavy. If only they could lure the Ngatiporou down from the pa…. And so the fighting stopped, and the Ngapuhi waited—waited for starvation to do its work.
Manu was worried. They had been out of food for some days and the scouts he had sent out to forage for food had either come back wounded with none, or had not come back at all. Days passed. A large number of old folk had already died, as had the sick of the tribe. Some of the children had died, and he heard whispers that they had not died of starvation, but had been killed and eaten. He refused to believe that his easy-going people, who had always loved and prized their children, could stoop to such depravity. But he preferred not to investigate.
The final blow came when it was discovered that very little water remained in the pa. Most of the grourds, unused for so long, had slowly leaked away the precious water, and that day, one of the remaining gourds had burst. For four days, the water was carefully rationed, and with the rationing, hope died in the eyes of the starving people. On the fifth day, they stood round the last empty gourd—gaunt, haggard, wasted-looking and beaten.
Manu turned hopelessly away and slowly walked towards the walls of the pa. He looked down at the Ngapuhi camp, and stared as he saw in the shadows thrown by the setting sun, the canoes being packed and the warriors pushing off and paddling out to sea. Manu called two of his chief men to him, and together they watched the unbelievable—the Ngapuhi had given up—they were going home!
He waited until they had nearly reached Matakaoa Point before telling the tribe, and he ordered the people to stay in the pa while he sent small parties of young men out to fetch food and water. But in their desperation, the people refused to listen. Men, women and children alike clambered out of the pa and down the hillside. Some went down the bay to the kumara gardens, but most were down at the river when the
Ngapuhi, returning under cover of darkness, descended on them. Few had thought to take weapons with them, and the massacre was so terrible that the river ran red with blood. Apart from a few young women, no one was spared, and those left in the pa were soon overwhelmed. Even those who had gone down the bay to the gardens did not escape to tell the tale.
As Sam finished his story, we looked at the ditches with renewed interest. We looked out across the bay to Matakaoa Point and to the river that had flowed with blood.
“And you know.” said Sam, “the shame of it is that the Ngatiporou hadn't been guilty of the murders—the Ngapuhi had made a mistake.”
‘Contemporary Maori Writing’ Takes Major
Placing in the ‘Book of the Year’ Award
It was my privilege recently, at the request of Margaret Orbell, who compiled and edited the book, and who was unable to attend the function, to receive the prize for second placing which ‘Contemporary Maori Writing,’ published by Reeds, took at the ‘James Wattie Book of the Year Award’ for 1971.
The award was announced at a luncheon held in an hotel in Christchurch on 30 September to mark the end of ‘Book Week’. It was a sumptuous affair attended by over two hundred writers, editors, publishers and friends from all parts of the country.
The other place-getters were first, ‘William and Mary Rolleston’ by Rosamund Rolleston, also published by Reeds, and third, ‘Gardening With New Zealand Plants, Shrubs and Trees’ by Mrs Muriel E. Fisher, Mrs E. Satchell and Janet M. Watkins, published by Collins. The judges were Messrs A. C. Brassington of Christ-church, senior judge, R. Goodman of Auckland and J. Kelleher of Wellington.
Selection was based on literary merit, over-all quality, editing, illustrations, topicality, price in relation to value for money and ability to last. Books eligible for the award must be written by a New Zealand author or an author permanently resident in New Zealand and be published by a member of the New Zealand Book Publishers Association.
In his comments, Mr Brassington said, “‘Contemporary Maori Writing’ could well become a standard work of writing in the special field it covered. It was well produced, its editorial work could not be faulted and the prose and poetry displayed creative work of the highest order.”
New Shoes and Old
Day after day we'd waited for the rural delivery van, each of us pretending to the other that we weren't. But you know how it is when you're a real family and living close like we do at home, you notice what's going on. The van came about half past eleven, and Dad and I would knock off on the farm around quarter to twelve, to be ‘in plenty of time for lunch’ Dad would say, and we'd walk up to the house slowly, saying things like, ‘Well, I'll bet Abe's late today—old son of a gun's never on time.’ We'd shake our heads in agreement, and know darn well he was always on time with the mail, unless there'd been a flood or a slip and then we would have known anyway.
We'd wash our hands real slow at the tap outside so as to seem as if we were taking our time, and saunter inside. In the first few months after my sister Queenie had left home for the big city, there'd been a few letters, so it didn't matter when we said, very casual, ‘Any mail today Ma?’, because just sometimes there might have been.
The last one we'd had had told us that a few of her pals were fed up with Auckland and that they'd heard Wellington wasn't a bad place. They were going down to have a look around and she thought she might as well go along too, she could always come back if she didn't like it, and in the meantime she was seeing more of the country wasn't she? Ma wrote straight back and said stay where you are, you've got relations in Auckland, but the letter came back after a while with ‘Gone: No Address’ on it. I suppose she must have meant to write to us but just didn't get round to it. Anyway, after a while we didn't ask Ma anymore.
One look at her face and we knew right enough, though the lunch would be set up for us, and she wouldn't have shed any tears. Maybe she did after lunch when we'd gone back to work, or maybe she did at night when she and Dad were in the big double bed together. Maybe she did, but I didn't ask Dad, and he didn't tell me.
Only on Friday, when she caught the bus to town for shopping in Kaikohe, she'd say sternly, ‘Don't you fellas forgot to pick up the mail’. We never forgot.
Saturdays, the little kids would be home, and they didn't have to pretend like we grown-ups did. They'd rush down to meet Abe, but after a while, as they were never lucky enough to run back to Ma waving an envelope and yelling, ‘Its from Queenie Ma,’ I think they went off meeting the van a bit, because going back to her without anything wasn't so good.
Sundays we would go to church; every second Sunday, that is, because the minister could only come that often, and we'd kneel on the raupo mats in the hall, with the altar set up in front of it, cloth as white as purity itself and the cross bright gold. Ma would kneel there for a long time with her eyes squeezed tight together so that the creases looked as if they were round her eyes for good.
It got to be that things were pretty quiet at home after a while. I'd had a few thoughts of my own, but I didn't say anything. Perhaps the old man could read my mind, or perhaps he'd been thinking along those lines himself for a while. Anyway, it just popped out one day when we were washing at the tap before lunch.
‘Reckon you could go to Wellington and look for Queenie, Heta?’
‘There might be a letter today,’ I said, putting off an answer.
He looked grim. ‘I don't reckon.’
‘You might do it better'n me,’ I said. ‘They'd have more respect for you.’
He looked at his big hands. ‘Nothing wrong with you Heta, boy,’ he said. ‘You're respectable enough, and you can talk to ‘em better'n I can.’
When we went inside he said to Ma, ‘Heta's going to Wellington, day after tomorrow.’
The next day, he and I took the old truck into Kaikohe, and we got my train tickets and a new suit of clothes. With the clothes went a squeaky, shiny pair of black shoes.
We had to leave at seven the following morning so I could catch the train in good time. The cows had to be milked first before Dad drove me to the station, so we were up round four in the morning. Just before I left, Ma handed me a parcel.
‘What's this?’ asked Dad, feeling the paper. He looked at her as if she was clean out of her mind. ‘There's shoes in here, we got him new shoes yesterday.’ And he pointed at my glossy feet.
‘They're his old ones. He can use them to ease his feet. Could be he'll have a lot of walking to do.’ And with that she turned away from me, hugged me tight and whispered in my ear, ‘Find my Queenie baby, Heta, find my little girl.’
So I looked for her for a week. That's how long Dad had said I was to stay. What he could afford. He pretended he meant in terms of money, which was partly true, but also he was afraid that the cities, having claimed one child, might claim another, and he couldn't afford that either.
I went to the police, and I can't complain about the way they treated me. They even found out for me that her first job in Wellington had been on the telephone exchange, but she'd left there a long time ago. They wished they could do something for me, the police, and told me to keep in touch for as long as I was in the city. I went to a welfare lady and she was very good and seemed just about as worried as I was. We got in her nice car and drove around miles of streets, stopping to knock on doors of old apartment buildings and I showed Queenie's photo to the people who answered the doors. They all shook their heads.
The rest of the time, I just walked, looking, looking, into faces — Maori faces, Pakeha faces, men, women, children—not sure any more of exactly what I expected to find, just hoping that one of them might look like my sister, my little sister Queenie.
Little sister? Well, she was the first-born, our Queenie, and once, long ago, she had looked after me guiding me past rushing streams, keeping me away from the drains, not letting me loose in the bull paddock, when I was a really little fella; all those sort of things, and boxing my ears when I gave her check, telling me to shut up on the school bus when I interrupted her and her girlfriends, and telling them to shut up if they said it to me, adding, ‘Hey you dumb sheilas, leave my brother alone, or I'll thump you.’
Now I'd come to look after her. Walking round and looking. Changing my shoes often, putting the good ones on, for when I was talking to people. I went into the Maori meeting-hall down the bottom of Lambton Quay one night, and they were practising action songs. They were flash city Maoris come from work to their clubrooms, dressed in slick suits. They had lots of trophies for their good singing and I felt shy. Then one of the women got up, not so smart as the rest, and I heard the throb, the waiata I knew, true and clear, and I nearly cried. After she had stopped singing I showed her the photo, but she shook her head like all the rest. I went outside and she followed me, to find me sitting in the bus shelter across the road, really crying. She was pretty good to me, said her name was Wai, and would I give her the photo and she'd ask around. I said no, because I needed it to help me in my search, but I'd send her one when I got back home if I hadn't found Queenie, so we exchanged addresses on the back of an envelope I had in my pocket. She said, ‘Come home, have kai at my place.’ I wanted to go, but it was the last night and I was frightened to stop looking.
In the morning I went to the police again, and they drove me round the wharves. ‘What are you taking me here for?’ I asked. They explained and it hit me like someone was smashing me up and I couldn't stop them. ‘Is that what they think? Do they really think Queenie would be like that?’
I thought inside me. And I guessed that was their answer to the whole problem and I'd have been wrong to blame them for thinking it. I was glad I was going home that night.
I went to the station early, wanting to be on my way and I was sad, and there wasn't really anywhere left to go.
I checked my ticket, and as I left the counter, I saw her. Just like that. She was asleep.
I'd walked right past her the first time, but she wasn't very noticeable, so maybe it wasn't so strange. Lying there on the seat, she had her feet drawn up under her knees, shoes off, and a hand clutching the bushy hair that she'd always wanted to have straightened. Queenie had always slept like that, with her hand in her hair, even when she was little and I used to cover her with more of the blanket when we slept together.
When I shook her gently, she opened her eyes, looking from under heavy lids. ‘Heta,’ she said. ‘Hey, what in hell you doing here mate?’
I knelt beside her. ‘Come to get you,’ I said. ‘Dad sent me.’
She shook her head, dazed. ‘No, no, he can't do that.’
I looked at the station clock. It showed seven o'clock. The train left in half an hour. ‘Where are your things?’ I said urgently. ‘Come on, quick, tell me.’
‘Things?’ She looked blank and patted the kit beside her: ‘Them's my things.’
‘All your things?’
That shook me, but pleased me too. We could get straight on the train, for I'd had her ticket bought and with me, all week. A moment before I'd nearly got the money back at the counter, but they were busy, and I hadn't had the heart either, because it was so final. I could do it back home, I'd thought. Suddenly it was an omen.
‘Hurry.’ I said, yanking her to her feet.
No.’ She pulled against my hand, and there was a quick, wild look I'd never seen on her face before. ‘No, I don't want to go back.’
‘Ma worries about you. All the time. Every day.’
‘I'll write to her.’ said Queenie.
‘Queenie, Queenie, sister.’ I didn't have anything to say.
‘You going on that train? You could have a good time here.’
‘Come round to the cafe,’ she said, with a touch of the old bossy Queenie.
I followed her obediently, and hopeful, playing for time. The cafe was warm and steamy. You had to go along behind a rail by the counter and on the other side there was a string of girls serving, mostly Maori girls with tattooed hands. I noticed Queenie's hands were tattooed too— L-O-V-E, love, on the fingers of one hand, H-A-T-E, hate on the others.
‘I worked here for a bit,’ she said. ‘They all know me.’ She smiled dreamily through the steam. ‘You want something to eat?’
I looked at the food and shook my head; the potatoes mashed to grey and black; my Ma would have died to see the way they hadn't taken out the eyes. The dark pots of sludge coloured meat.
There are springs of water under the earth. Under the darkness.
The girls smiled at us. ‘Hi, Queenie,’ they called.
‘They sure know you,’ I said. ‘Why didn't you stay?’
‘Stay? I dunno. Too much else to do.’
‘Do? What d'you do?’
‘Eh? Oh nothing.’
We bought coffee and sat down.
‘You coming with me?’ I said, and stared about me, not wanting to look into her thoughts. The Pakeha across in the next seat, picking his nose, thought I was looking at him, and decided to use a hankerchief instead.
‘Its been cold here,’ Queenie remarked.
‘I know,’ I answered. ‘I've been here a week.’
‘Have you? What for?’
‘Looking for you.’
‘Is it warm at home?’
I put my hands on hers. ‘Is it warm little sister? Warm as sunlight, warm as Ma and Dad in bed. Warm as the tunnels between their legs where we used to crawl on cold
winter mornings, warm as kisses from the little fellas at night, warm as the hangi on picnic days. Is it warm, Queenie? You should feel the cows’ flanks, they're still warm. Rosie misses you and so does Tilly —they never given half the milk they used to since you went away.
Her face flickered with pleasure. Our hands tightened together and I hurried on. ‘Warm as dinnertime, and loving, and Ma and Dad and you an’ me at home like we always used to be, only you're not there. Only cold is in Ma's face when there's no letter from her Queenie, and no Queenie coming back to see her anymore.’
I held onto her hands and drew her up from the seat.
A loud speaker voice came chanting over our heads—‘The Auckland Limited Express will depart from Platform Eight at 7.30. Hurry along please.’
Out of the cafeteria, cold blue light gushed down on us, the subway canyons streamed away on our left.
‘I'm taking you home, Queenie,’ my heart singing. ‘I'm taking you home.’
‘… Passengers are reminded…’ the voice rattled from the loud speaker—Queenie's lips moved with it, like in prayers, she'd heard it many times before—
‘…Refreshments will be served at Palmerston North…’
‘Carriage N, Carriage O—we're nearly there Queenie, the last one it is—’
‘…Please do not attempt to board moving trains..’
‘We'll be on it Queenie, don't worry—’
‘… If you wish to smoke, you must use a smoking carriage. Special carriages are provided for smokers and nonsmokers..’
‘Queenie, good day mate, how would you be?’
Voices, voices all around us. A dozen faces, brown and white, under long streaming hair, faded jeans, bare feet, a guitar.
—Mocking me now from above—
‘… We wish all passengers a pleasant journey..’
‘This is it Queenie,’ I said feverishly. ‘This is our carriage.’
Again she looked at me with dreaming eyes, from the midst of her friends. Round their heads some wore bands, worn the way our people wear their tipare when they are in costume. They looked like the wild guys I'd seen on the pictures on Saturday nights, back home.
‘My brother, Heta,’ she explained to them, not sure whether to be embarrassed or proud. I was so different. So different from her too, though I'd not noticed it properly till that moment. Until then, she'd just been Queenie. Now she was—different. She might have been pregnant but then again she might not. You couldn't tell for sure, her puku had fallen away in her jeans, but maybe it wasn't a baby. They wouldn't have minded at home. Well, not so much that she couldn't have come back. One of the boys in the crowd threw his arm around her, casual and friendly.
‘… The limited will depart in two minutes. All seats please.’
‘Get on, Heta,’ she said, and kissed me, quick and funny, on the cheek. ‘My love to Ma and Dad and the kids. Tell ‘em I'm all right. Tell ‘em I'll write.’
‘Aren't you coming home. Queenie?’ I said, knowing the answer.
‘Home?’ The vague embracing smile over her companions. ‘This is home now, brother. My friends. We take care of each other.’
I was on the step of the train. ‘On you get lad,’ said the guard. I stumbled backwards, the door shut in my face. On the platform Queenie's friends had started to sing, gently, like a conversation between themselves, with the guitar laughing along with them.
Neon signals across the way were flashing on my horizon, I couldn't see her face for lights and tears. The train started to move. For one blinding instant Queenie's face and mine focussed on each other, and she leapt at the train door. Locked, maybe, it didn't budge and she fell back as the train gathered speed, loosening her grasp. I craned my neck around, but already she had picked herself up and was catching the strolling band wandering along the platform. I guessed her face would be dreamy again.
‘Goodbye little sister—Haere ra e te tua-
hine—Haere ra e Kuini, Haere ra,’ my heart beat with the wheels of the train.
At home on Sunday, Ma would say her prayers—ake, ake, ake, for ever and ever, amine—and I wondered, this time, would she ever open her eyes again.
I bent down to change my aching feet out of the new shoes into the old ones. It was the least I could do for myself. I'd be travelling all night, and all the next day too.
Back there, she and they together might ride easy into a neon night, but my journey would not be so good.
Te taenga mai o Te Minita Māori
I a au e kura māhita ana i Kaiwharawhara i ngā rā mai i te ono o Hepetema ki te 15 o Oketopa i te tau 1971, he maha ngā mea i taea e mātou. I mua atu i taku kōrerotanga mo tā mātou rā nui, he pitopito kōreronei mo te kura.
A Kaiwharawhara kei kō atu i Pōneke. nā e rima pea miniti kua tae atu. Ēngari na te
The Minister Came
When I was teaching at Kaiwharawhara (Student Teacher) during the period 6th of September to the 15th October 1971. we achieved many things. Before I go on to the climax of this time, a short word about this school.
Kaiwharawhara is just out of Wellington, about five minutes away. but because it is
Two Kaiwharawhara mothers Mrs Charlotte Rountree and Mrs Freda Cassidy watch as the Hon. Duncan Maclntyre begins his lunch
National Publicity Studios
mea kei runga puke, e kore e kitea atu e te tangata te kura. tēnei takiwā o Pōneke, he tino rite rawa ki te kāinga. I tēnei nei rā, ē, he Māori te nuinga o ngā tamariki, ngā tamariki, ngā Māori o tēnei motu, o ērā hoki i Hāmoa rā, nā, he nohinohi te kura—e toru anō rūma, tokotoru ngā kura māhita.
I taku taenga atu ki reira, ka whakapā mai te māhita o ngā tamariki nei, a Fay Brewer, ē, e pēhea ana kia ākona te reo Māori ki a rātou. Ka whakaae atu au. Kā nui anō tēnā, me tana hiahia hoki kia tū he rā, ē, he rā nui mā mātou.
Ka tutuki tēnei. Te nui rā hoki ē, i roto i aku torotoro, ka waea atu au ki tō tātou
on a hillside many people do not know of its existence. This area of Wellington is very much like my own home, in this I mean that the vast majority of the children are Maori, New Zealand Maori and Samoan. The school is small with three classrooms and three teachers.
When I arrived there, my associate teacher. Fay Brewer, asked me to consider teaching the class the Maori language. Not only that, but whether we could somehow or other have a day where everyone could get together. I agreed to both suggestions.
We achieved this. In my consideration of whom to invite to our Kaiwharawhara Open Day, I decided to telephone our Maori Minister, Mr Maclntyre, and personally approach him before he received the letter of invitation from one of the pupils. He was away on one of his many trips and it wasn't until the 11th of October that I heard he would come. And so he came. Our very important visitors came. The minister queued up and waited for his food. He talked to parents and children alike. He spoke to the chiefs and to the indians, the rank and file. He ate and licked his fingers just like you and me.
Minita, ki a Maclntyre, kia tomo mai. I āna haere kē ia, ēngari i te 11 o Oketopa ka tae mai tana kōrero, āe, ka tae mai ia. Nā rā. Ka tae mai tā mātou wae tapu, ā mātou manuhiri tūārangi. Ka tū te Minita, nā, ka tatari i tāna nei kai, ka kōreroki ngā matua, ngā tamariki, ki te nui, ki te iti. Ka kai ia, ka miti i ana ringaringa, pēnei anō i a tātou nei, e hoa mā.
Kīhai ia i pōwhiritia atu. Riro kē tēnei mā ngā taitamariki o te kura nei, nō rātou hoki te rā, te marae, te mana motuhake. Nā agā tamariki nei, nā ō ratou mātua. Ka puta taku mihi ki ngā Cassidy, ngā Rountree, ngā Va'aulu, Laupama mā. Nā koutou katoa o Kaiwharawhara i tutuki ai tā tātou rā. Nā tō tātou Minita Māori i rangatira ai tātou.
Hei whakamutu ake i tēnei mihi āku, ko te waiata pōwhiri a ngā tamariki i taua rā rā. i te 12 o Oketopa 1971.
Tēna koutou, e hoa mā
Kua tae mai nei
I tenei rā.
Nō reira rā, e hoa mā,
Kia ora rā, koutou katoa.
Kua rongo ake ahau,
Kua rongo ake ahau,
Kua rongo ake ahau
E haere mai ana koutou.
Nō reira rā, e hoa mā,
Kia ora rā, koutou katoa.
We didn't give him a ceremonial welcome when he approached the school. This was left for the children of the school, as it was their school, their marae and their Maoritanga that was on show-theirs and their parents'.
My congratulations to Mr and Mrs Cassidy. Mr and Mrs Rountree, Mr and Mrs Va'aulu, Mr Laupama and others for making the Kaiwharawhara School Open Day such a success. Also, it was the presence of the Minister of Maori and Island Affairs that added the final touch.
Ani H. N. Bosch.
‘Ko Wai Au?’
I returned to my people
and the language of my parents
was foreign to my ear.
The marae strangely deserted,
the old customs dying.
Now my heart cries
for I am the link that broke the chain.
The patere will not recall my name,
or that of my children.
I left my race as my husband left his,
and we are of the new;
but standing in the village,
that I left,
or in the city, to which
I don't belong.
Still I will ask
‘Who am I?’
G. A. Gurney.
The Making of Champions
‘ALL-MAORI SIDE NAMED’ was the headline on the sports page in an Auckland newspaper in July. The side was the Provincial Girls' ‘A’ Foil Team to contest the Schools' Nationals in Christchurch in August. Three members, including the captain, were from Queen Victoria School, the remaining one from Massey High School. The Auckland ‘B’ Team also had two members from Queen Victoria, again including the captain. Let us look at what lies behind this success story from Queen Victoria, which has pioneered organised Maori fencing in the schools.
In the eight years since its formation in 1963 with eight girls, the Wikitoria Swords Club, as the fencing club at the school is known, has grown from strength to strength, and believes it holds several unsurpassed achievements in girls' fencing. The club has now grown to 16 members, and is only prevented from further expansion by the limited size of the small school hall (members refer to this as ‘Te Whare Hoari’) and by the policy of limiting membership to the number which can be adequately coached. The waiting list each year from this independent boarding school of 120 girls always has more names than will fill the vacancies arising from girls leaving school.
Here are some of the cold, dry facts. In seven years in Auckland school tournaments, the school has had six fencers in final pools twice, five fencers twice, four fencers twice, and three fencers on a number of occasions. The Open Championship has been won three times, the Qualifying Tournament twice, the Provincial Championship twice. First placings have been taken three times in the Junior Championship, and the Novices' Championship for first-year fencers has been won five times. Our highest place in this tournament has never been lower than second! Queen Victoria is the only girls' school to have been in the final of the Auckland Teams' Tournament each year since entry, and we have won it for the last three years. Fourteen of the last 15 Auckland Schools' Tournaments have been won. We have had two magnicent runs of seven and eight tournaments without defeat.
At national level, the successes have been mounting and consistent. Between 1964 and 1966 one or two of our fencers were in the eight-girl provincial squad forming two teams; in each of the four years 1967–70, three girls; this year, five, including the captains of the ‘A’ and ‘B’ teams. Several of these girls have been second-year fencers. In 1967 and 1968 the national title was won by girls who remained boarding at the school while attending an upper-sixth course at Auckland Girls' Grammar School. In 1967, 1968, 1969 and 1971, two of our fencers reached the national final each year. In all, as many as 16 girls out of the 51 who have passed through the club have gained provincial representation, several more than once.
At last, in 1971, we achieved what had eluded us so far; we took the national title straight from the school. A rare feature of this further peak scaled is that the winner had been fencing for only 18 months. Champion Evelyn Te Uira says, ‘I began fencing in my second year at Queen Victoria. I took it up because it seemed totally different from any other sport I had participated in. I came to like and appreciate fencing because it required much concentration before starting a movement. It is interesting learning the names of the various movements, too. Most of all, it helps to keep a person fit, flexible, and on the go all the time. I have enjoyed myself very much, and only wish I had started fencing sooner. I am very proud to be the first girl
from the school to win the national title, and I hope there will be many others to follow.’
Another notable feature is that for the last three years the club has run New Zealand's only fencing magazine, ‘Te Hoari—The Sword’. This is produced by the fencers themselves and with three issues a year, has a circulation within New Zealand and abroad of 170 copies.
A particularly significant development, now in its fourth year, is the engagement of a sixth-former as an additional coach for the newcomers. This has not only enabled the number to be increased, but has helped the club members to appreciate their own capabilities. This year's coach is Harata Hutana, from Tokomaru Bay. She is also captain of the Club, which is run on particularly democratic lines. Harata is not
The Fencing Club at Queen Victoria School. Back row, from left: Pare Rata of Omaio, provincial finalist, Auckland ‘B’ rep. and captain; Karen Pikimaui of Wanganui, open finalist; Deborah Cotter of Gisborne, qualifying tournament finalist; Evelyn Kawiti from Kawakawa, honorary member; Martha Tauhara of Napier; Candy Cookson of Rotorua, provincial finalist and Auckland ‘B’ rep.; and Judy Brown, Tuakau, qualifying tournament finalist and former provincial rep. Middle row: Jefferine Poka, Singapore, open and provincial champion, captain of Auckland ‘A’ rep. team, national finalist (third place); Evelyn Te Uira of Kawhia, provincial finalist, Auckland ‘A’ team rep., national champion; Donald Watson of Titirangi, instructor; Sarah Tauraha of Napier, qualifying tournament winner, provincial finalist, Auckland ‘A’ rep., national finalist; and Hinemoa Hakaraia of Russell, open fianlist and former princial rep. Front row: Ngawahine Apanui of Te Araroa; Ruth Nahi from Parakao, novices champion and junior finalist; and Polly Cooper of Tuakau, junior and novices finalist. Inset is Harata Hutana of Tokomaru Bay, club captain and coach, and provincial finalist. Absent was Yvonne Petera of Ngataki, junior champion and novices finalist. The seven trophies on the form are those won at outside tournaments and those below the club's own trophies.
photographs by Glendene photography
only doing a man's job particularly well—she had three pupils in each final of the Junior and Novices' Tournaments this year including each winner—but in spite of her having sacrificed so much of her time for others, she still managed to be one of the six finalists from Queen Victoria in the Provincial Championships. Here is what she has to say: ‘Being captain entails a lot of organising, but, as eight girls hold ten positions of responsibility, the activities run very smoothly. The girls all help each other, and this makes the job worthwhile and a pleasure. When I was asked if I would coach the newcomers I hesitated at first, thinking about sixth-form work and wondering if I could take on this extra responsibility properly. However, being confronted with such an eager group I felt I could not let them down. The pleasant personalities of my pupils, as well as their keen attention to techniques, which has resulted in their defeating more experienced fencers in tournaments has made the effort very rewarding, and an achievement of which I am very proud.’
Provincial champion Jefferine Poka, has something to say too: ‘Becoming provincial champion was an unexpected thrill for me! I am very proud of this, and must thank my instructors, Miss Robin Swann and Mr Watson. Being captain of the Auckland ‘A’ Team was another surprise, and I am
The five provincial representatives are, from left: Pare Rata, Sarah Tauhara, Jefferine Poka, Evelyn Te Uira and Candy Cookson
As coach, I can say that the girls have worked Harata and me very hard indeed! They have been so successful this year—winning every tournament entered—because they have worked so hard in the weekly sessions—there is no short cut. Limiting the numbers allows the instructors to get to know each pupil very well in this very individual sport, and to tailor the coaching to suit each girl's personality and capabilities. My observation of Maori youngsters leads me to the conclusion that they perform much better when together in a group; in isolation they tend to hang back and to miss opportunities at which their abilities would enable them to do well. From the community's point of view, this measure of success in competition with other young people will make it so much easier for non-Maoris to accept that, given equal opportunities, the Maori people can do as well as anyone else. Some older people, who have rarely seen young Maoris in above-average achievement, find this idea a little difficult at first. This is perhaps the most significant feature of the success of the Fencing Club at Queen Victoria, and adds to the school's record in other fields, which is testified to by the wide response to its recent appeal for funds. No reira e te iwi honoatia nga karapu hoari nei!
The Wellington Competitions Society was honoured to welcome Dame Te Atairangi-kaahu as their guest on opening night. For several years now, the competitions have begun with ‘Maori night’, and the local people were delighted that the evening should have as its highlight a welcome to the Arikinui.
Following competition between nine cultural teams and four choirs, Dame Te Atairangikaahu was officially welcomed by Wellington's Mayor, Sir Francis Kitts, and Mr Pat Shields, President of the Competitions Society, and then presented trophies to the winning teams. Overall winner and runner-up were Ngati Poneke and Te Kahui Rangatahi, who went on to represent the Wellington area at the first National Polynesian Festival in Rotorua.
When his fortunes seemed at their lowest ebb, Tawhiao, the second Maori King said, ‘Alexandra will ever be my symbol of strength of character: Cambridge a symbol of my wash bowl of sorrow; and Ngarua-wahia my footstool.’ Ngaruawahia was the place where his childhood and early adult years were spent, but it had been included in the land confiscated following the Waikato wars. and the prophecy that in the days of his grandson it would again become the footstool of the Maori King seemed most unlikely to be fulfilled.
However, in the time of Te Rata. the land on which King Tawhiao's spring was located, then overgrown with scrub and gorse and used by the local residents as an unauthorised rubbish dump, was bought. In August 1921. King Te Rata signed a declaration of trust indicating that the land was for the use of his tribe and of all who would acknowledge his chieftainship, and that it could be used without
charge by the homeless subject to their recognition of his position as chief.
A year earlier, when the development of the site was discussed at a tribal meeting, it was a granddaughter of King Tawhiao, Te Puea Herangi, who took up the challenge, left her home at Mercer and settled at Ngaruawahia. By August 1920, with a group of volunteers, she had begun the task of clearing blackberry, fern and gorse. Most of those who accompanied Te Puea in her move were her orphaned relatives who had lost their parents in the 1918 influenza epidemic. With the help of her husband. Tumokai Rawiri Katipa, Te Puea directed the work and acted as landscape designer, building architect and works supervisor.
Times were hard and fund-raising stopped, so many of the young people had to find work. At the end of 1921 the main hall at the Mercer marae was dismantled and re-erected at Ngaruawahia as Kimikimi. and used as an assembly and dining hall. Additions were made during the next year and at the same time Te Puea organised a concert party for fund-raising. Named Te Pou o Mangatawhiri it became known as the TPM Concert Party. Kimikimi was again enlarged and upgraded in 1923, the TPM Party raising money during a North Auckland tour.
The next marae project was the meeting house ‘Pare-Waikato’ which was opened in March 1927 after two years of fund-raising in the Waikato. The new project was the building of a carved house, to be called Mahinarangi. Invitations to Te Puea and her TPM Party came from many parts including the East Coast, where the hospitality was lavish. This East Coast visit led to Sir Apirana Ngata taking a great interest in the Mahinarangi project, and he supervised the tukutuku work, found a builder to complete the plans, and arranged for expert carvers from Te Arawa to do the interior carving. The building was opened in March 1929 by the Rt Hon. J. G. Coates, former Prime Minister and Minister of Maori Affairs.
Turongo House was opened in 1938. exactly nine years later, and on the same day Te Puea was invested with the C.B.E. She continued to work hard for improvements to the marae until her death in October 1952.
The 50th Anniversary celebrations began in August 1971 with a reception for all the kuia moko who could travel to the marae. It was truly moving to see these old ladies
being welcomed onto the marae, and they all enjoyed being guests of honour in Mahinarangi.
It was hoped to present 50 girls to Dame Te Atairangikaahu at the Debutante Ball, but an overwhelming response meant that over 100 made their curtsey. A thanksgiving service was followed by the cutting of a Jubilee Cake. Perhaps the most exciting events were the canoe parade on the river, when the three canoes, Te Winika, Tumanako and Rangatahi, manned by 120 chanting oarsmen swept down the river and twice turned in midstream, raising their whitetipped red paddles in salute while their voices echoed across the water, and the mass haka performed by all the paddlers in front of Mahinarangi. Members of the TPM Party performed their old songs, and younger groups also entertained. In a quiet moment, Mr Hugh Ross of Wanganui returned King Tawhiao's sword, which he had held since 1956. It had been stolen by a boy of 14 from Tawhiao's room while his body was being carried to Taupiri.
Members of Parliament and local dignitaries spoke of Te Puea, her vision and her hard work. In paying his tribute to Te Puea, the Hon. Duncan MacIntyre. then Minister of Maori Affairs, said, ‘I pay my
One of the highlights of the hui was to see the three canoes. Te Winika, Rangitahi and Manuanui surge down the Waikato river, the voices of the paddlers carrying across the water. As each canoe came opposite Mahinarangi, crew members raised their white-tipped red paddles in salute before moving up-river
After referring to the story of Turongo and Mahinarangi, he said, ‘Since the decision to have this marae, there have been 50 years of work and progress, and you are still involved in work and progress Today our papers are full of protest statements and of people telling the Maori people what is wrong with them. I have always believed that to progress there must always be an emphasis on the progress already being made, so that the public are told what is happening and are encouraged to continue their help and work for the future. For what worries me is that in their very protesting, those who are asking for Maori values to be maintained, for Maori attitudes to be respected, are themselves sometimes destroying those very attitudes
The Maori Contribution
To New Zealand Literature
Members of the New Zealand Women Writers' Federation meeting on two successive nights at Wakefield House in Wellington seemed at first interested, then surprised, astonished and delighted at the revelation of the quality of Maori literature, both in its ancient and traditional oral forms, and in the more modern work of today's poets and story-tellers.
In the distinguished presence of Her Excellency Lady Porritt, Mr Bill Parker, University Extension lecturer in Maori Studies, and a group of Maori readers presented selections first from ancient writings and then from contemporary authors. Beginning with a classic chant ‘Piki mai, kake mai’, as a tribute to writers who ‘bring light’. Mr Parker described oral or folk literature as the only literature much of the world has ever known, and said, ‘Overseas scholars who have studied Maori oral literature are astounded by the variety of literary forms and devices, by the depth of speculative thought, the vividness of imagery, the wealth of cultural allusions, and the rhythm of tragic and beautiful phrases. Two world-renowned scholars. H. and N. Chadwick, in their world survey of oral literature, assure us that we in the Pacific
‘Maori poetry is distinguished from prose by:—
the fact that it is fixed-form—once the composition has been set in its frame and polished by the author, it is repeated word for word in song form, subject occasionally to slight modifications (a word is changed or a line is dropped), due to errors of memory or dialectical differences.
by its manner of delivery, which is essentially musical.
by certain distinctive stylistic features such as the stylisation of metaphor, symbolism, allusion and ellipsis.
‘Maori poems abound in these, be they dirge, lament, lullaby, ditty, love song or derisive song. They all breathe the spirit of place, evoke the very clap of thunder, flash of lightning, lash of wind and rain, caress of zephyr, moon and sun, pungent sense of environment and climate, intimacy in the colour and drama of landscape. Although there are some fine translations of Maori song poetry, ritual chants, watch alarms, etc, they do not always capture the rhythms of speech, the undulations of melody, the music of words that soothe the ear, move the mind, rouse the spirit and stir the imagination.’
Then examples of karakia, canoe-launching chants, poi chants, watch alarms and
Rowley Habib. Don Selwyn, Pam Ormsby, Bill Thomas, Bill Parker and Tim Te Heu Heu join in read extracts from the work of Maori authors.
In many examples, the group showed how every part of Maori life had its chant, evocation, good-luck rhyme or brief lament. One reference was to the late Sir Apirana Ngata, who, when paying his respects to his illustrious countryman. Sir Maui Pomare, in the House of Representatives in 1930 said:—‘I cannot conclude my contribution to the tributes that are being paid to his memory this afternoon without quoting these few lines from a poem composed by members of his own tribue…Then was the plume of my canoe broken
The anchorage of the fleets from north and south
And of Te Rauparaha:
The rock at Rarotaka has overturned.’
The traditional examples ended with comments about and then performance of extracts from three hakas, and examples of Sir Peter Buck's writing, beautiful in its imagery and musical in its flow. Then came excerpts from the poetry and prose of contemporary writers Hone Tuwhare, Rowley Habib, Sid Mead, Harry Dansey. Arapera Blank. Witi Ihimaera and Colleen Sheffield. It was quite evident that the music, rhythm and metaphor are still there with these modern authors.
32 Nikau Street— (P.O. Box 2098) —Auckland
Announces the publication of the first reprint (facsimile) edition of the most important work ever written on MAORI ART
The ART WORKMANSHIP OF THE MAORI RACE IN NEW ZEALAND
A series of illustrations from specially taken photographs, with descriptive notes and essays on the
CANOES, HABITATIONS, WEAPONS, ORNAMENTS AND DRESS OF THE MAORIS
Lists of words in the Maori Language used in relation to the subjects
by Augustus Hamilton
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A Great New Zealander —
INIA TE WIATA
Since his untimely death, many fine tributes have been paid to Inia te Wiata, a New Zealander possessed of great natural gifts, who, by sheer merit, became a leading figure in the world of music. It was my good fortune to see a good deal of Inia during my time in London and the more I saw of him, the more I came to appreciate his many fine qualities. His singing was magnificent but his had been no easy road to the top. When discussing his earlier days in London, from 1948 onwards, he would speak of his considerable efforts to earn enough money
Gradually, engagements in the world of entertainment came his way and then in ‘Most Happy Fella’ at the Garrick Theatre he had a part that really accelerated his progress. There was something appropriate about the name of that show, for if there was ever a ‘happy fella’ it was Inia; his customary cheery greeting and his deep infectious laugh very definitely conveyed the impression of happiness. What a voice he had! I recall in 1958, a small function at the old New Zealand House in the Strand, where some staff member, returning to New Zealand, was being farewelled by twenty or thirty colleagues and, at the right moment, Inia led the singing of ‘Now is the Hour’. It was my first real experience of the quality of Inia's voice and, as I stood next to him while the glorious notes poured forth, I had the feeling that the whole man was vibrating, so great was the power within him. It was very moving and deeply impressive.
When the present New Zealand House
was opened by Her Majesty the Queen in 1963, Inia took part in the ceremony, singing ‘God Defend New Zealand’ in his usual superlative fashion. From then on I saw more of him for we often used to sit together at lunch in the cafeteria. He was a splendid companion, a good conversationalist, and the talk was usually concerned with New Zealand. He had a great knowledge of Maori lore and customs, also a deep love of the bush-clad hills, the rivers and the beaches of New Zealand. His sense of humour was always near the surface and many of his stories relating to Maori history were pleasantly amusing, as well as informative and stimulating. He used to speak of his eventual return to New Zealand, of his hope to settle somewhere north of Auckland, with the sea, the river and the bush all close to him, allowing him to enjoy the relaxation he had so richly earned. Happy plans that, sadly, were not to be fulfilled.
Another of Inia's talents was displayed when, in the basement of New Zealand House, he started work on the heroic project of carving five very large totara logs, each some ten feet in length by four or five feet in diameter. The careful drawing from which he worked gave an idea of the magnitude of the task and an indication of his desire to blend traditional Maori carving with something a shade more modern. As the chips fell and the design grew, his skill was clearly demonstrated. Several years of work were involved, for he could carve only between professional engagements, but he made use of every opportunity to hasten the completion of the ‘Pouihi’. Here, again unfortunately, the plan was tragically interrupted.
With my time in London drawing to a close, I had several farewell functions to attend. One was a luncheon given by the Worshipful Company of Butchers, one of the very old Livery Companies of London, with records dating back to the year 1100 A.D. The Butchers Company has a magnificant building, with a most impressive Dining Hall, and the sight of the tables set out with splendid crystal and silver for a formal occasion is one to be remembered. The
Master and Members of the Company had been very kind to me during my years in London, so, naturally, I wished to give them some token by way of thanks for all the hospitality I had received. The problem was what to give, for the Company had so much of everything, all of the best quality. As I reached New Zealand House one morning. I looked in to see Inia working in the basement. He was not, however, working as usual on one of his logs, but had a piece of totara some three feet long by ten inches square, at which he was whittling. He said something about ‘a small job’ when I made an inquiry but didn't enlighten me beyond that. A few days later I knew more about it.
Inia had heard of my problem as regards a suitable presentation to the Butchers Company, had conceived the idea and executed the design in less than ten days, making a beautiful feather-box, a ‘wakahuia’, out of the piece of totara that I had seen him handling. It was an outstanding piece of work, with paua-shell eyes in the heads at either end, with a heavy, close-fitting lid, and with the whole exterior carved in symbolic designs, some Raukawa and some East Coast. Suitably stained it was a very handsome and unique piece of work, a credit to the artist who gave it form. A small silver plate was added, indicating that it was presented to the Butchers Company by me on my departure from London, as a token of appreciation and goodwill. In handing it over at the luncheon, I explained just what it was, how the chiefs used to keep prized possessions in such boxes and just how it came about that Inia had made it. The Members of the Butchers Company were so impressed that they later added another silver plate, on which was engraved, ‘Carved by Inia te Wiata, New Zealand Opera Singer’. They also invited Inia and his wife along to their next Ladies' Night, when they were able to tell him how greatly they admired his work.
It was with a gloomy sense of foreboding that I heard of Inia's final illness. He was so vital a person that it was hard to imagine him being stricken, but no one is immortal and, at last, the call came. I feel the world is a little better for having had Inia in it during his all-too-short span; he has gone but his memory and influence will live on. A man of great gifts, who radiated happiness, he brought credit, not only to himself, but to New Zealand and its people, Maori and Pakeha alike. It was a privilege to have been accepted by him as a friend.
Sir Thomas Macdonald, now living at Waikanae was New Zealand's High Commissioner in London from 1961 to 1968.
Shining CuckooIt comes the
On tired wing,
Calls out across
Whio, it sings,
Come come come come
Haere haere haere haere
I sing for the planting
Of the kumara.
Dig and hoe, Whio,
Haere haere haere haere
Friends and relatives all over New Zealand have been glad to welcome Robert Kingi, who is home for a year after 10 years in Australia.
Robert was born at Wainui, near Kaeo in Northland, and drifted to Auckland as a young teenager. Challenged by open-air Christian services, he made a commitment to God at the age of 17, and became active in the United Maori Mission. After a visit to Australia with a group of young Maoris at the end of the 1950s he was so troubled by the condition and needs of the Australian Aborigines that he returned there in 1961, following brief training in Auckland.
Working under the auspices of the Aboriginal Inland Mission in Aborigine reservations in eastern Australia, he travelled up to 40,000 miles annually in his first few years. Six years ago he married Darlene, an American girl nursing at one of the outback stations he visited regularly. They now have three children. Robert, Marleen, and Alexander.
For the last three years Mr and Mrs Kingi have worked on Palm Island, a prison community for Aborigines 40 miles north of Townsville and inside Australia's Great Barrier Reef. Its only inhabitants are the Australian administrators, the 1,500 Aborigine inmates, and ministers representing the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches and the Australian Inland Mission. Many of the prisoners are there because of incidents involving alcohol. They found that Aborigines, normally a retiring people, seemed to get into trouble when old tribal passions or their feelings against European administration were stirred by the influence of alcohol. Other inmates included those who just could not cope with the white man's world, or half-castes accepted by neither race. Mr and Mrs Kingi found themselves involved in educating these people to accept and adjust to the modern world. This was difficult, as the Aborigines could not leave the island, and on it there was not enough contact with Europeans for effective training in living in civilised surroundings on the mainland. They were often called on to help with dangerous situations, and Robert found, as he had in his earlier years of travelling, that he was accepted and trusted because he was Maori. His brown skin and his Maori concepts of life matched those of the Aborigines but he found that he had to encourage them to be proud of their racial heritage. This too was difficult, as for so many generations Aborigines and their way of life have been scorned and regarded as of no value.
Robert and Darlene intend settling in Sydney when they return to their work in Australia.
New Post Office at Maketu
Wednesday, 14 July. 1971, was a ‘red letter day’ for the small seaside township of Maketu, in the Bay of Plenty, when a new Post Office building was officially opened. Resplendent on the front wall is a plaster cast of the New Zealand Government Coat-of-Arms enamelled in brilliant colours and mounted on a highly polished plaque of stainless steel. Alongside it, another stainless steel plaque says in bright scarlet letters ‘Maketu Post Office’.
A number of local residents and the older children of the Maketu School were present for the occasion. Mr D. R. Froggatt, Chief Postmaster for the Rotorua district, spoke briefly of the history of the Post Office in the Maketu area, and handed the keys of the new building over to Mrs Pat Newdick, wishing her many happy years as Postmistress of Maketu. Mr D. R. Campbell, Postmaster of Te Puke assisted Mrs Newdick to raise the house flag of the post office, for the first time in Maketu. The sun shone brilliantly, a light breeze wafted the flag overhead and everybody deemed the simple ceremony a great success.
For the last forty years this small town has been served from ‘temporary quarters’ for its Post and Telegraph facilities, but now this pleasant, modern building means that the Post Office of Maketu reverts to something akin to its outward status of over one hundred years ago.
Maketu township, nestling in the inner curve of a narrow peninsula, lies half way between Mount Maunganui and Whakatane on the shores of the Bay of Plenty, but is almost unknown to the rest of New Zealand. This even though it is one of the earliest, if not the first settlement in ‘Aotearoa’, and one of the oldest harbours and trading centres used by the European settlers of New Zealand. At Maketu the Arawa canoe landed back in the 1340s, and at Maketu, Pakeha traders and missionaries arrived in the 1830s. using it not only as a port but as a base for travelling inland to the Rotorua and Taupo districts.
Opened in December 1859, Maketu's original Post Office was one of the earliest in New Zealand, and for a number of years it served a very large area of the Bay of Plenty and back country areas, including the Rotorua district. Sited on the ridge
known as Te Rahui, the Post Office stood between St Thomas' Anglican Church and the Maketu Hotel overlooking the Bay. Built in the early Colonial style, it was of considerable size as it included residential quarters for the Postmaster and his family.
As the services for Money Orders, Savings Banks and Telegraph came into being in New Zealand, so were they made available from the Maketu Post Office. For some years mail services were operated by Maori runners on foot, between Maketu and Te Ngae (Rotorua) and Maketu and Tauranga, taking in the Te Puke area en route. In the late 1860s primitive roads, really little more than tracks, were used by horse traffic, the road to Rotorua being improved in 1869 in readiness for the visit of the Duke of Edinburgh, who travelled through from Maketu to Rotorua by this route. By the mid-1870s coaches were being used for mail services, but these were still often erratic and hampered by innumerable difficulties. One early mail contractor, perhaps the first in the area, was Te Kiri Karamua, who was highly respected and could be trusted to get the mail through safely.
Prior to 1880, settlers in Te Puke obtained their mail by a once-a-fortnight service begun in 1873 by the Maori runners, or came to Maketu themselves to collect it. In April 1880, a weekly mail service by horse was established between Maketu and Te Puke, but by the end of 1881 Te Puke had direct mail services with Tauranga. For many further years, Maketu served the Pongakawa and Paengaroa areas.
In the early 1920s the residential quarters of the Post Office were no longer being used and later the building was closed and sold, the facilities being transferred to a local store. where they continued at a small counter until 1949. In July that year, in response to urgent requests because of an upsurge in the population, the P. & T. Department deposited an ex-Army hut in Maketu and the Post Office resumed operations there until 1971.
A complete list of earlier postmasters and postmistresses is not available, but from 1949 to 1971, the township has been well served by one postmaster and four postmistresses. Of these five, three have been Maoris. The present postmistress, known to everyone as ‘Pat’ is Mrs Pat Newdick (nee Tewhakamiharo Tatana) youngest daughter of the late Rawiri Tatana of the Ngati Huia subtribe of Ngati Raukawa tribe of Poroutawhao, Levin. Her husband's family is of Arawa heritage through the maternal side, and is well known in Maketu as also were the families of Mr Chris Rolleston and Mrs Alma Rae.
Work behind the counter of this small country Post Office is something many city dwellers would barely know existed. The position carries great responsibility, and, to be as successful as the Maketu officers have been, wide experience and knowledge of the infinitely varied sections of the P. & T. departments, are essential. Add to this considerable patience which the official needs to help folk fill in innumerable forms and explain so many of the department's regulations, and add again, that some knowledge, the more the better, of the Maori language is a necessity, then one realises that the postmaster or mistress is no ordinary citizen. And only for a few short weeks at peak holiday time is there an ‘assistant’.
As with most Post Offices the mail seems to be the most important item of the day. Outward goes without much fuss, but half the resident population gathers with eager expectancy while the inward mail is being sorted, and departs with smiles or sighs. After school almost every child pops in to make sure there's nothing in ‘their box’, and here the advertising leaflet is really ‘something’ to them. The arrival of the high school bus brings a fresh influx of mailseekers, often the third or fourth member of the same family to ask for the day's mail—this for all those resident within a radius of one mile of the Post Office.
Inward and outward telegrams are handled, often for people who are unknown names in such a holiday resort. All types of Post Office money transactions are carried out, registrations of vehicles, etc., sundry types of licenses, and when it is taken into account that as is often their custom, many Maoris are known by more than one name, it is easy to understand that the job of a
postmistress in such a place as Maketu is no easy task. Yet one can step into the Post Office any time of any day and be met with a cheery greeting and happy smile. The Maori tupuna could be well and truly proud of their descendants who serve so well in the small township where one of the canoes of the Great Migration arrived in safe harbourage after their long voyage.
On 9 June 1971 a group of Hamilton people met at the Hamilton Y.W.C.A. for a six-week course entitled ‘Maori without Fear.’ The course was conducted by Mrs Ruma-tiki Wright, O.B.E. (formerly of Wanganui) of the Maori and Island Affairs Department and a Y.W.C.A. Board member. About 30 people enrolled for the course, which consisted of learning Maori conversational phrases from Alan Armstrong's book Say it in Maori, Maori action songs, and marae etiquette. The course was so successful that it was extended for a further three weeks.
The course culminated in a visit to Kai-A-Te Mata at Morrinsville on July 25 where our group was formally welcomed onto the marae by the Ngati Haua.
Mrs Wright led us onto the marae and gifts of food were placed there by members of the group. (Mrs Molly Hotene commented afterwards that she had not seen this done since she was a young girl and that it was lovely to see the old custom revived.) Mrs Rene Thomas (retired school teacher), Miss Kopak (nurse) and Miss Kennedy (student nurse) each gave the Karanga, and Mrs J. Manihera. Mrs M. Walker. Mrs R. Whauwhau, Mrs C. Thompson and Mrs M. Hotene welcomed us.
Mr Robert Hotene, elder of the Ngati Haua, Mr Jack Manihera and Mr George Thompson then welcomed us in turn, while Messrs Jim Morrison (flooring contractor). John Ormsby (farmer) and Ray Rossiter (pharmacist) replied in Maori. The group then sang the action song ‘Me He Manu Rere’. In his welcome Mr R. Hotene said, ‘Thank you, thank you, thank you for learning my language’, and all present were visibly moved by the occasion. Introduction followed and then we worshipped together by singing the hymn ‘Koutou Katoa ra’. joining in the Lord's prayer together and the blessing in Maori—a great experience for all. An informal chat followed and then we were entertained to afternoon tea in the hall. Before departing homeward our group sang Manu Re and Pokarekare.
Ten members of the group are continuing meeting each week to study the Maori language and culture at Mrs Wright's residence. We are using W. H. Wills' Lessons in the Maori language.
In August the highlight was our formal welcome onto Turangawaewae Marae on Sunday morning 15 during the Jubilee celebrations. Our group was led onto the marae by Mrs Rene Thomas who gave the karanga. Our group was welcomed by Mr Robert Kerr, formerly principal of Taneatua College and now teaching at Mangere. Mr Nad McKinnon of Ohaupo, a member of the Tainui Trust Board, introduced our group and Mr Jim Morrison replied on our behalf with the following speech—Queen Te Atairangikaahu
Tena koe, tena koe, tena koe.
Karangi mai, karangi mai e nga rangitira
Tena Koutou. tena koutou. tena koutou.
Tena matau o te ropu,
Ke te ako i te reo Maori
E iwi iti nei matau
Kanui te hari me te koa
Ki tenei honore, koa tae mai
Ki te mihi kia koe
Ma te Atua koe e
Tiaki i nga wa katoa.
Because time was short only Mr Morrison spoke, and at the conclusion he placed a gift from our group on the porchway of Mahinarangi. This and the rest of the day's activities will always be remembered by all of us.
Pictures from the 1971 Maori Women's, Welfare League Conference held at New Plymouth.
Mrs Olive Hill. Mr Bill Herewini, Controller of Maori Welfare, and Mrs Marjorie Rau. one of the hostesses
Mrs Mere Penfold, one of the League's vice-presidents. discusses some of the hand-spun woollen garments made by Mrs MacIntyre, wife of the former Minister of Maori Affairs.
Lake Lease Signed
The former Minister of Lands, the Hon. Duncan MacIntyre and Sir Turi Carroll, after the signing of the ‘Treaty of Waikare-moana’. Leaders of the Tuhoe and Ngati Kahungunu tribes, co-owners of the lake, signed documents leasing the lake to the Government. Although ownership is retained by the tribes, the lake will now be available to all New Zealanders as it is administered by the Urewera National Park Board.
In a highly successful new venture, the National Bank, in association with the Department of Education, brought together 26 promising young artists from schools throughout New Zealand for a week's residential workshop under specialists in the visual arts. Pictured are Peter Brunt of Auckland and Albert McCarthy of Taihape with painting tutor Ralph Hotere, well-known artist.
Capped Master of Science
George Habib of Tuwharetoa and Arawa descent, has graduated M.Sc. with distinction in zoology at Canterbury University, and is continuing on to complete his Doctorate with a thesis on the red cod.
Born at Oruanui, 12 miles north of Taupo, he is the eldest son of George Habib and Monica (nee Thomas), and is a nephew of the writer Rowley Habib. George attended Oruanui Primary School, and except for one year at Rotorua High School, had all
his secondary education at the newly-formed Taupo-Nui-a-Tia High School, where in his last year he was head prefect. All his university education has been at Canterbury.
Old Girl's Achievement
Mrs Georgina Te Heu Heu (née Manunui). a former pupil of Turakina Maori Girls' College, is accompanied by the present headmistress. Mrs Helen Jackman, and Mrs Day. as she receives the warm congratulations of staff and pupils after being guest speaker at her old school's break-up. Already a B.A. graduate, she had made history by becoming New Zealand's first Maori woman lawyer.
South Pacific Guests
Following their meetings during the first South Pacific Forum, these Pacific leaders visited Maori land Incorporations. Pictured with Dame Te Atairangikaahu after a formal welcome at Turangawaewae Marae are the then Minister of Island Affairs, the Hon. D. MacIntyre, Mr Albert Henry, Premier of the Cook Islands, Fijian Prime Minister. Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara, Prince Tu'ipele-hake, Prime Minister of Tonga, the Prime Minister of Western Samoa. Tupou Tama-sese Leolofi IV, and the Australian Minister of External Territories. Mr Barnes.
Living in the City
Des O'Connor, a law student at Auckland University answers questions put by Lorraine Watene of Huntly College, Ngahera Palmer of Western Heighs High School. Rotorua, and Kura Pahuru of Opotiki College, three girls attending a ‘Live in the City’ course at Auckland. These courses, designed to prepare country pupils for life in the cities, have now become well-established in all the main centres.
Ngati Poneke Appeal Begins
When it became known that the Ngati Poneke Maori Association, because of an expanding government centre, would have to vacate their club rooms, given to them by the Government some years ago in recognition of their great contribution during the war years, and raise funds to erect a building on a piece of land given them, one of the first groups to show their support was the Early Settlers' and Historical Association. Led by Mr Gladstone Hill, the association presented a concert at historic old St Paul's Cathedral last March.
The short speech given by the Hon. Duncan MacIntyre, then Minister of Maori Affairs, indicated the feelings of those present.
‘There is a Maori phrase which says “Kia ea”. It means. “To be returned in gratitude.”
‘An important Maori value and concept centres on this phrase. A tribe or family might need help—maybe to open a meeting house, to give support at a wedding, or to support a local sports day, or to rally at the death of a loved one and to share the sorrow and the sudden expense placed on a family.
‘So the visitors arrive in force. They are fed and entertained, and they bring with them gifts of food and nowadays, gifts of money to help the home people.He rourou māu,
He rourou māku,
Ka ora te manuhiri.
With your small basket of food,
and my basket,
The visitors will be fed.
‘The point is, that this is done to repay the assistance and help given by the host people some time in the past. The elders remember that they gave help when help was wanted, and they quietly wait to see if help will be returned.
‘It is about 35 years since Ngati Poneke was founded and in these years, Ngati Poneke has performed thousands of welcomes to visitors, has helped thousands of charities, and has provided the finest of Maori culture for all to enjoy.
‘According to Maori practice, the time has now come for this city to return that love and help given so willingly. Now is the time for all organisations to say to themselves: “Ngati Poneke is calling for help—the first time in 35 years—and we must help them”. This is the basis of Maori community life and mutual help. It is a way of spreading the work load, and is the greatest test of friendship that Maori people have.
‘Ngati Poneke worked tremendously hard during the last war. They rallied time after time, when help from them was asked for by the Government, by the civic authorities, by churches, by schools, by all sorts of organisations. This concert tonight is one of the small ways used to raise money for the new Ngati Poneke Hall to be built next to the Government Printing Office in Thorndon Quay.
‘The symbolism of Maori and Pakeha meeting together and performing their best was deliberately organised this way. That old campaigner, 91-year-old Mr Gladstone Hill, is at it again. Some people retire from their working life and quietly disappear from notice. But Mr Hill, year in year out,
continues his love of music, his love of Maori culture, and his love of people generally, and once again is seen in action. This evening's concert is a result of his boundless energy and a further indication of his love for this city. I wish him continued good health, and hope he is around for a long time yet, because he is the sort of man the city and Ngati Poneke need.
‘May I also thank the soloists and ensemble of the Wellington Citadel Band for giving their talents and ability for this important occasion. I assure them that their help is greatly appreciated.
‘And finally, I congratulate the Early Settlers' and Historical Association which invited us all to be here tonight.’
Over $100,000 of the $300,000 target has now been subscribed. We were to have printed an exterior view and a floor plan of the proposed building, but the original plans are now out of date because of possible boundary changes on the site.
of ‘Karangahape Rd, Whangarei, Papatoetoe, Papakura, and Pakuranga… the keenest place to shop.
the place for Bargains always
BUY FOR CASH, LAYBY, TERMS, CHARGE or “STORE CURRENCY”
$1.00 initial deposit in “Store Currency” gives you $20.00 spending money within the Store… with 20 weeks to repay.
KARANGAHAPE ROAD, AUCKLAND
PRIVATE BAG, C.1.
and at Papakura, Papatoetoe,
Pakuranga and Whangarei.
Department of University Extension
This new course is due to commence in late February 1973. Applications for enrolment may be received during February.
Applicants should have some knowledge of Maori or another Polynesian language.
No strict formal qualifications are required.
The course is a part-time one covering two academic years and involves students in attendance at class sessions twice a week at University. The main studies are in Maori Language (with a view to use and teaching of the language) and Society and Culture (with special reference to Polynesia and New Zealand). Main lecturers are Mr Bill Parker and Mr John Rivers (anthropologist).
The course is intended to help teachers or prospective teachers of Maori language, teachers of Social Studies and welfare and community workers.
For further information, brochure and application form, write or ring—
Director of University Extension
P.O. Box 2945, Wellington.
Returned to Niue
November 23 1971 was a great day for Niue, with opening by Mrs Hanan of the Niue International (Hanan) Airport. After the formalities and feasting, the then Minister of Island Affairs, the Hon. D. MacIntyre, presented to the Hon. Leader of Government Business. Mr R. R. Rex, one of the oldest ‘hiapo’ (or Niuean Tapa) known to be of truly Niuean origin.
Making the presentation, Mr MacIntyre said, ‘This Niue hiapo was presented to the Rev. George Lawes in the 1860s. He and his brother Frank, the first European missionaries in Niue, are still some of the best remembered missionaries. The hiapo came into the possession of the Nicholls family, one of whom lived at Avatele. For many years, it has been with a family at Port Chalmers, near Dunedin, and it was recently purchased from them by an American working at Otago University. When he showed it to Dr Duff, Director of Canterbury Museum, it was immediately recognised as a great treasure of Polynesia, and was purchased for the Museum.
‘When the airport opening was arranged. I tried to think of something especially suitable to bring as a present to the people of Niue. Mr McEwen enquired of all the museums in New Zealand, and Dr Duff realised that this hiapo was probably the finest piece of Niuean art in New Zealand, and he decided that it was something that should come back to Niue. So today I have brought it back where it belongs. I hope it will inspire the women to teach their daughters how to make this real Niuean hiapo, with your own beautiful designs.’
Mr MacIntyre asked that the hiapo be hung on the wall of Niue's Assembly Room until a proper museum was established.
Tamaki Makau RauBecause the soil
was lava rich
made each bay
of fern swept land
Tamaki makau rau,
‘Tamaki sought for
by a hundred lovers.’
Naming it more truly
than they knew.
They lived there,
fought great battles
for the narrow land
that lay between
the fierce Ngapuhi
in the north
The white man came.
a greedy lover trading blankets
for a lover's rights.
So the people
of the isthmus
built their homes
beside the bays
along the ridges,
loving the land
as Kiwi Tamaki.
and the other
of the past.
YOUNGER READERS' SECTION
Ko te Ariki Tapairu tena koe, ki nga iwi o Waikato tena koutou, ki nga tipuna tena koutou katoa. Mihi atu matou ki o koutou ahuatanga, ka nui a matou, aroha. Ki a koutou. Ka pai te aroha o nga nui pai, no Waikato. No reira, kia ora koutou katoa.
It is with great appreciation, that we now look back on what we term a first successful tour of the Waikato District. There are many people to whom we are grateful, for their help and their guidance throughout the whole period in which we toured. First to mind is Canon Wi Te Tau Huata, whose brilliance it was to organise the trip, and whose guidance saw us through in times of need, whose open house made us at home. Canon, we appreciate most sincerely all you did for us and only hope that other ‘Old Boys’ will follow your fine example.
To your wife and to your family also, we extend our aroha, for they went out of their way to make us all more than welcome. To those also in the Fairfield-Claudelands area who billetted boys in the first two nights of their tour we send a special thank you.
To the Rev. Sonny Melbourne who met us at Tokanui and took us into his area, we also express thanks. It was great. Nowhere else have we found hospitality as great as we did in your district. To the Old Boys, and Hukarere Old Girls in Te Kuiti we extend an extra thank you. To Mrs Anderson of Otorohanga, to the Parish Members of Te Awamutu, and to Mrs Johnson and family also we extend our aroha.
Thirdly to the Reverend Flavell and the people of Ngaruawahia. Thank you. Our special thanks to Queen Te Ata and her elders who showed us Maori custom and tradition in the fullest. To the women of Ngaruawahia and to Mrs Ngataki, we thank you too for your help.
Also to the people of Morrinsville, thank you all for your kindness and friendship. And may we just say here that we only wish that we could have spent more time, to learn your art in music.
And so once again we thank you all. To the people of Otorohanga, Te Kuiti, Kihi-kihi, Te Awamutu, Hamilton. Ngaruawahia, and Morrinsville, thank you from the bottom of our hearts.
Lastly to Mr Vickridge; Sir, thank you too for allowing us to make the trip. As our headmaster and father we thank you for all you did for us, and do honestly feel that without your hand things would not have been the same.
Kia Ora Ki Waikato.
To those who were not aware, Te Aute, during the last week of the second term, spent eight days in the Diocese of Waikato. The Goodwill Tour included concerts at Hamilton, Te Kuiti, Te Awamutu, Ngaruawahia and Morrinsville, also performances at Tokanui, Waikeria, Te Kuiti High School, Kihikihi, Te Awamutu College, and Morrinsville College. Also there were visits to places of historic interest like Orakau. Rukumoana and Kaia te Mate, along with a visit to a coal mine in Huntly (Rotowaru) and a visit to the Te Rapa Anchor Milk factory. The tour party consisted of 38 boys ranging from form three to form seven. It is said to have been the first time Te Aute has ventured into the Waikato.
Bruce Stone, Wairoa.
Songwriters at St. Stephen's School
In recent years Maori secondary schools throughout the country have composed their own waiata or Maori songs on special occasions.
St. Stephen's School at Bombay, Auckland, has led in this field and two of their efforts are printed here.
The first, ‘Nau Mai Ra’ was written by Paraire Huata, of Wairoa, Paratene Ngata, of Te Araroa, and others, as part of their school's participation in the celebations at Waitangi on 6 February, 1964. Queen Victoria School also took part, but performed separately because Waitangi Day was too early in the school year for practising a combined show.
Nau mai raNau mai ra,
Piki mai te kawana.
Mauria mai ra
Nga mihi ki konei.
Kua rangatira matou
I tenei ra.
I o kupu aroha.
E koro, koro, koro.
Taitamariki o Tipene
Kua whiwhi i nga hua
O te ao Pakeha,
Me te Maoritanga e.
The next waiata was written by Wassie Shortland to welcome the Minister of Maori Affairs, the Hon. Duncan MacIntyre, during a visit to the school last year.
Te Kotuku Rerenga TahiTe Kotuku rerenga tahi.
Haere mai ra.
Mauria mai te mana
Ki runga i te marae,
Kei pahekeheke noa
te iwi Maori
Kia awhina i nga mahi
a o matou tipuna
Te Kotuku rerenga tahi,
Haere mai ra.
Ko te karanga tenei
he tangata nui.
Nana ra i whakato
Nga pua mo enei ra.
“Kia mau te titiro
Ki te Rangi, ki te Atua”
Te kotuku rerenga tahi,
Haere mai ra.
I kawea mai no te rawhiti
Tae ki te tonga,
Whakaheke ki te uru
kake ki te raki e.
Whakawhiti te moana
Ki nga moutere,
Nga iwi katoa.
Te kotuku rerenga tahi,
Haere mai ra.
WelcomeWelcome, welcome O Governor
bring all the blessings here
We are honoured
on this day,
by your words of love,
These are the young men
of St. Stephen's, who greet you.
They who have reaped the fruits
of the European world
and of Maoridom.
The White Heron of Single FlightThe white heron of single flight
Welcome to you.
Bring your prestige
upon this Marae
lest the Maori people
will backwards fall.
Help uphold the works
of our ancestors.
O white heron of single flight,
Welcome to you.
This is the call of these
There came in the past
One great man.
It was he who planted
the seeds for these days.
“Fix firmly my gaze
Into Heaven and unto God.”
O white heron of single flight,
Welcome to you.
They were drawn from the east
and from the south.
Crossing to the west
and from the north.
Crossing the seas
to the Islands,
To unite all the people.
O white heron of single flight.
Welcome to you.
TRADITIONAL MAORI CLOTHING
In 1970 a pageant was held in the Auckland Museum under the name of ‘Mauri Ora ‘70’, during which a major part of the programme displayed both pre-European and post-European clothing of the Maori. In 1971, to mark the Centenary of the City of Auckland, a similar pageant was held in the Town Hall. On both occasions, present to direct the pageants was Dr S. M. Mead. It was appropriate that Dr Mead should direct both pageants, for he is today regarded as one of the foremost experts on traditional Maori clothing.
The book ‘Traditional Maori Clothing’, contains the most comprehensive and detailed account of Maori clothing ever published, containing four major sections. It is ‘a study of technological change’ of Maori clothing. As the preface records, it is a study of clothing based on a corpus of material which includes ethnographical accounts, museum collections, early pictorial records, photographic files and some extensive field work carried out by the author. Much of the material relevant to the modern period has been seen by the author in the so-called Maori Cultural Competitions.
The foreword, written by Ernest S. Dodge of the Peabody Museum of Salem, Massachusetts, records that research and publication on the subject of early Maori clothing ‘has not lacked for students in the past. Names of such giants as Hamilton, Roth, Best and Buck come to mind. With these men the study of weaving and clothing reached a particular plateau of excellence—a level not exceeded for many years.’ Now Sydney Mead carries this study on to a still higher plane.
‘Traditional Maori Clothing’ will prove of inestimable value to all who are interested in what is now loosely termed ‘Maori Culture’. There is no doubt that Dr Mead has spent hours on research and study. There are no less than fifteen pages of illustrations which range from material found in pre-European days through to the 1960s, and it is interesting to note the marked change in Maori clothing at official receptions throughout this period. Some of the clothing listed is to be found today only in museums and in a few private collections, and I am convinced that as a result of this monumental work by Dr Mead, those who are closely associated with and take an active part in the preservation of Maori culture will rely a great deal on this book for guidance in the dress of Maori cultural groups of today.
There are also some classical terms for various garments of the Maori which only ethnologists and the very few who still have knowledge of the weaving of Maori garments, would know. To the average Maori the korowai is the only garment worthy of mention, simply because this garment is often used, even today, by Maori cultural clubs. And yet there are scores of others, and names such as parawai, nekoneko, kahu toi, and whanake are foreign to modern Maori ears.
It is difficult enough to acquire from our elders some knowledge of local history. It must have been extremely difficult for Dr Mead to acquire the material which he has gathered and collated in this book, and because of this the Maori people, in particular, are indebted to Dr Mead for Traditional Maori Clothing which will undoubtedly prove of lasting value.
Dr Mead of course, is already well known as a historian and his previous books on The Art of Maori Carving, The Art of Weaving, etc., are equally well known to those who take an active interest in the art of the Maori. I congratulate Dr Mead and extend sincere gratitude for this work and I commend the book to all those who have any connection with Maori cultural groups, as well as an interest in the material culture of the Maori—yesterday and today.
LINGUISTIC FACTORS IN MAORI
EDUCATION—a report by Byron W.
Despite its imposing title, Bender's report is eminently readable for the interested layman as well as being of interest to those with some background in linguistics and/or the education system in New Zealand. All New Zealanders, particularly parents, will find its contents touch on matters which are very much on their doorsteps.
The foreword states that the purpose of the report is to provide an independent assessment of the need for research into the language difficulties of Maori schoolchildren. Dr Bender, a linguistics expert with the University of Hawaii, spent some time living in and travelling through New Zealand while gathering material for the report. He writes from first hand observation in the context of his professional background.
The report is intended mainly for those concerned with the administration of our school system, but should attract wider interest. The foreword traces the concern of the New Zealand Council for Educational Research for study in this field since the question was first raised by Sir Apirana Ngata in 1937. As is almost a foregone conclusion in these cases, the project has regrettably been beset by financial difficulties, but after the 1962 Currie Commission on Education's recommendation, the government accepted financial responsibility for this work. The Council also acknowledges its debt to the J. R. McKenzie Trust, the Golden Kiwi Lottery Fund, and the Carnegie Trust which have contributed to the cost.
Chapter 1. ‘A scientific outlook on language’, is a well-documented introduction to the essentials of linguistics as a science. It deals with the approaches to language as formulated by traditional grammarians, structural linguists, and the more recent generative transformational school — all in clear layman terms but still sophisticated enough to avoid criticisms from those in the trade of ‘popularising’ the subject. The message of this chapter is that a scientific approach to language is based on observation and drawing conclusions which can then be applied to the business of seeing what makes a language tick. ‘Languages, like women, were seen to have a logic of their own, which did not necessarily conform to any one system of formal logic.’ The chapter concludes with the thought that there is a need for teachers to be aware of the basic principles of linguistic study to help them appreciate language problems.
The next chapter, about language learning, outlines approaches to language teaching, emphasising the ‘Aural-oral’ methodology and the move away from dependence on a first language as a vehicle of instruction for the teaching of a second, to teaching through experience in the language being taught. This is in contrast to the translation methodology, and is embodied in John Waititi's Te Rangatahi series of Maori language textbooks. Modifications to the basic ‘Auraloral’ approach are intended to reduce distraction or ‘interference’ from the instructor and instruction method to enable the learner to work under his own steam. The author touches on the problem that an adult knows what he means to say, while a young child may not have sufficiently firm concepts to crystalise into definite ideas which in turn can be expressed in language form.
Chapter 3, ‘Bilingualism’ describes ‘compound bilinguilism’ where two languages are learnt simultaneously as ‘first’ languages, and ‘Co-ordinate bilingualism’ where the second language is learned through the medium of the first. There is also the much debated question of whether knowledge of one language can reduce skills in another—has the mind enough capacity to be highly proficient in both? This postulation is countered by the suggestion that there can be a situation of ‘balance’ where there is no interference on the part of one language with the other, provided both are learnt equally. Another suggestion, that bilingualism can reduce intelligence as measured in,
say, problem-solving arithmetic, has also been hotly debated in linguistic circles. As an interesting aside, the fact that only a small minority of the world's population is truly monolingual is mentioned.
Normal language development, the subject of Chapter 4, is largely dependent on language ability developed in the pre-school years. What is learnt after that stage is refinement and development of essential basic skills. This process seems to take place almost naturally. ‘The only condition (for learning language) would seem to be exposure to examples of the language in use, and some motivation to use the language itself—which are part of what it means to be a physiologically normal individual in society’ (author's italics). The message for parents is obvious.
The processes involved in learning reading and writing are less clearcut but, as is stressed throughout the chapter, depend to a large degree on mastery of less advanced skills at an earlier age. There seems to be no obstacle to mastery of two languages at school but it is first necessary to learn to read and write well in one language so that the skills involved can be transferred to the second language. It is important to note that here the author is referring to the formal teaching of written language, and not the all-important matter of basic spoken language learned in the pre-school years. From this it follows that ‘The major rub would seem to come when a child who has had normal pre-school monolingual development in one language, finds himself in a school situation in which he is expected to undergo the sort of advanced development we have been talking about—the learning of reading and writing and the further development of vocabulary and sentence-building power—in a language with which he is unfamiliar, or one in which he has received only minimal exposure.’
This situation can be met, the author continues, by either teaching in the first language until sufficient mastery has been developed to allow the learner to proceed to learning the second language, or else by deferring the teaching of reading and writing while building up a knowledge of the second language through teaching in it using an ‘Aural-oral’ method until the pupil is proficient enough in the spoken language to be able to start learning to read and write it. The chapter goes on to discuss aspects of language development, illustrated by excerpts from the work of other researchers. The point is made that speaking in a dialect or idiom (non standard dialect) involves following patterns just as formal as those accepted and approved in the standard dialect. In other words, it is not the place of linguists to judge what is right or wrong in a given idiom; such forms of expression can be equally as valid as standard English or any other middle class mode of communication in any language.
The book concludes with a chapter of recommendations and substantiating argument. Quoted in isolation from the context of the author's well-reasoned supporting statements the recommendations may seem a trifle pallid and even trite. What Dr Bender says is almost self-evident to any New Zealander who has ever thought carefully about this subject but this, I consider, serves to underline the common sense and judgement which has been the foundation of Dr Bender's research. To assess the full implications of the recommendations it is necessary to read the report in full. I have tried not to compile a digest of this report but to give an account of it sufficient to show that the work itself is well worth reading. The recommendations are:
That the major colloquial varieties of English and Maori be subjected to intensive scientific description and analysis.
That tests of basic language ability be developed and used in making a rigorous linguistic census of Maori children in the New Zealand school population.
That reading and writing of Maori be offered as an optional subject in all primary schools having an appreciable number of students whose first or strongest language is Maori, and that schools having a preponderance of such students accomplish the initial teaching of reading and writing in the Maori language, while building an oral English base for later transition of such skills.
That the methodology of modern foreign language teaching be incorporated into the training of all primary-school teachers who will have any essentially Maori-speaking students in their classes.
That the schools take steps to introduce modern grammar and scientific information about language at all levels in the curriculum.
That steps be taken to enhance the status and prestige of Colloquial Maori.
That the language teaching potential of modern mass media, especially television, be not overlooked.
Even if the implementation of these recommendations is slow in forthcoming, owing to shortage of financial and other resources, or political/administrative ineptitude, Dr Bender's short book should be required reading for teachers, educational administrators, teacher trainers, and all who have the future of our children, Maori and Pakeha, at heart.
From my own point of view I was impressed by the manner in which the author reserves his judgements, placing material at the reader's disposal and allowing him to draw his own conclusions. He does not labour his point and a good deal of the material he presents is couched in general terms which apply to languages used and taught anywhere. The implications for New Zealand therefore will hold true as they have in other countries.
MORE AND MORE MAORIS
It's a pity this most useful booklet has such a strange title—giving to some people the impression that ‘Maoris are arriving in an avalanche’, an impression possibly reinforced by the cover picture of one Maori man surrounded by twelve children. As the 1969 census figures were the latest used, surely ‘Maoris in 1970’ would have been an apt title.
As its author says, the booklet is ‘a simple statistical survey of the Maori today’, and to have so much information set out clearly and concisely in 50 pages will be of tremendous value to all sorts of students. The topics covered range from numbers and geographical distribution of Maoris, employment and incomes, land and its uses, attainment and destination of school leavers, the Maori Education Foundation, crime, health, housing, electorates, Maori Welfare and Maori organisations, to tribal areas, historical influences and the Maori language. A six-page essay on ‘Maoritanga’ reprinted from Affairs ‘69 is good value, and will be of great help to those who previously knew nothing of the ‘world of the Maori’. A brief glossary is included, and the bibliography selects good reading for those interested in further study.
MAORI EDUCATION FOUNDATION
FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FOR MAORI PUPILS, 1973
The Maori Education Foundation seeks to encourage Maori pupils to make the best use of educational facilities and provides financial assistance to this end. For the purposes of the Foundation the term ‘Maori’ includes any descendant of a New Zealand or Chatham Islands Maori. Assistance granted by the Foundation is based upon the dual criteria of merit and need. Teachers aware of promising Maori pupils in need of financial assistance to further their education are requested to encourage such pupils to apply to the Foundation.
For secondary school pupils, application form M.E.F. 5A should be used. This form has been widely distributed to schools together with the leaftlet, Guidance Notes for Teachers. Any schools omitted from this distribution, or those seeking additional copies of either may obtain them from the Foundation at the address below. They are also available from Education Department offices in Auckland and Christchurch; Vocational Guidance Centres in Auckland, Hamilton, Napier, Lower Hutt, Wellington, Christchurch and Dunedin; Education Boards; District Offices of the Department of Maori and Island Affairs.
All applications for assistance at secondary school level should reach the Secretary, Maori Education Foundation, Box 8006, Government Buildings, Wellington, C.1 no later than 31 October 1972.
Applications on behalf of those undertaking study at a university, a technical institute, a polytechnic, or other tertiary institution, must be made on form M.E.F. 5B which is obtained from the Secretary, and should reach him no later than 31 January 1973.
MAORI ROCK ART
Until recently, Maori rock art was largely the concern of museum staff and archaeologists. Michael Dunn emphasizes rock art as a valid art form and describes its history of discovery and the debate over the origins of the drawings and carvings found on natural rock surfaces in New Zealand. Twenty-six illustrations, eight in colour, each with a full descriptive caption make up the main part of the book.
Michael Dunn, lecturer in Art History at the University of Auckland, has written both for the student and general reader.
9 ¾ × 7 ¼ in, 32 pages, 8 colour plates, 18 black and white illustrations, casebound. $1.95
Roger Hart, painter, illustrator and art teacher, is well-known for his sensitive, imaginative artwork in several successful books, including MYTHS AND LEGENDS OF AUSTRALIA, MYTHS AND LEGENDS OF FIJI and MAORI PICTURE DICTIONARY. A.W. Reed has written many popular books of folklore and studies of Maori and Aboriginal life. In MAORI LEGENDS Roger Hart has provided 28 magnificent illustrations (15 in full colour) employing his full imaginative power to depict the wonderful legends of the Maoris. A.W. Reed has provided delightful prose to illuminate the fantasies depicted in this charming book. Together writer and illustrator combine to make a book that is fascinating to read.
A.H. & A.W. REED LTD
In his preface, the author expresses his hope that the illustrations and supporting notes will “together produce more unanswered questions than conclusions, and absolutely no simple ‘solution’. “The ‘implications’ listed under 13 of the 20 subjects certainly provide ample stimulus for discussion, and the graphs of various kinds illustrate the statistics well.
There seem to be some inaccuracies, e.g. note 2.2 describes the pie graphs as showing population in 1956 and 1961, but the graphs are labelled 1956 and 1966, with the total 1966 non-European population component being 9.4%, including 7.5% Maori; yet the bar graph 3.1 on the next page gives the Polynesian component in 1966 as 10.2%. However, the book is well worth buying—it is undoubtedly a ‘useful source of reference’.
It is disappointing that the only comments made about the Welfare Division of the Department of Maori and Island Affairs are negative in tone, and no mention is made of the tremendous amount of help given by welfare staff in establishing preschool centres and guiding the hundreds of teenagers who are accepted for trade training and pre-employment schemes.
Mr Walsh's comment that ‘statistics are constantly changing’ is borne out by the fact that the introduction of Maori language teaching into increasing numbers of intermediate and secondary schools and that the number of students taking Maori has almost doubled in the last two years, makes the section on Maori language already out of date. However, the book is well worth $1.75, and should be bought by all interested in facts about the Maori.
and ways of life that they say they want preserved and taught.
‘In the short time I have come to know you I have learnt that what happens here on this marae represents that very strength and security that many of the young people want, and I pray that this marae will continue to nurture the young people and indeed take in those who need help and sustenance.’
ECHOES OF THE ISLANDS
Kiwi Mono-Stereo SLC-55 12 in. LP 33 ⅓ r.p.m.
This recording features the combined choirs of St. John's College and Loreto Girls' High School, Ovalau, Fiji—two of the best known educational boarding institutions in Fiji which provide schooling not only for young Fijians but also for many young people from other Pacific islands. In many ways, because of the performers and the type of songs they sing, this record will invite comparison with its New Zealand equivalent, reviewed earlier, the record of the combined choirs of Hato Paora and St. Joseph's Maori Girls' Colleges. I would not like to say which is the better. They are both very good records.
‘Echoes of the Islands’ features a collection of makes (dances) and of Fijian, Rotuman, Tongan, Maori and calypso melodies. The New Zealand listener will find particular interest in the choir's fine rendering of three Maori numbers, ‘Pokare-kare’ ‘E Rere Taku Poi’ and ‘Po Atarau’. ‘Pokarekare’ is sung in five different languages—Maori, English, Tongan, Rotu-man and Fijian. Each language gives its own characteristic inflection to the verse. All in all this is a sensitive and attractive version of the song. ‘E Rere Taku Poi’ is sung in Maori and the words come through clearly and. for the most part accurately. A girl starts each verse off with a charming ‘tahi, lua, tolu, wha’. The record cover notes that although the poi is not native to Fiji, the girls at Loreto were fascinated by the Maori art form and soon mastered the twirling of both the short and long poi. The song is given the droning, sonorous Fijian harmonies and there is added interest with the variations in tempo of the various verses. I doubt if any Maori group has recorded a better version than this one by these Fijian youngsters. Last of the Maori items is ‘Po Atarau’, sung first in English and then in Fijian with tremendous poignancy.
There is a good selection on this disc and listeners will enjoy the variety of the Fijian items. ‘Wai ni bu ni Ovalau’ is most catchy. ‘Mauluulu’ with its fast flowing unusual rhythm is sure to catch listeners' fancies. Another item, ‘Na Vanua Ni Vei-senikau’ is a calypso tune first made popular by Harry Belafonte. This version is sung in Fijian to the accompaniment of a Hawaiian guitar and castanets! Another highlight is a most unusual meke, ‘Tua i Sirine’. The choirs sing the words in three languages, Rotuman, Fijian and Tongan. The only musical accompaniment is the beating of a Tongan drum made from a four gallon kerosene tin with a dried calf skin stretched across each end. There are a number of other interesting and attractive Fijian items. My favourite is a catchy little Fijian love song, ‘Sa Moce Lei Sisi’ (‘Farewell Cecilia’).
If you are not accustomed to Fijian music, this record provides a first rate introduction. If you are so accustomed, the disc could please you even more. There are excellent cover notes to help you appreciate the items.
I cannot help but end on a note of personal reminiscence. Ovalau is a small volcanic island about an hour or so launch run (if memory serves me correctly) off the coast of Fiji's principal island. Viti Levu. Levuka, its only town, was the first capital of modern Fiji. Now it slumbers peacefully at the base of the cone looking from a distance vaguely like Papeete or, at any rate something out of Robert Louis Stevenson. Boarding the bus at Levuka one morning some years ago to travel to the end and back of what was then almost the only road, I met the school teacher from a village at the end of the road. After only a few minutes conversation he invited me to stay the weekend at the village. It was typical Fijian hospitality, and what a weekend! It coincided with a village festival and no doubt memory plays a trick or two but some of the tunes on this record sound just like the ones I heard many years ago in two days
of almost non-stop feasting, singing and dancing. An echo of the islands indeed!
A RAINBOW IN THE SKY
Kiwi Stereo/Mono SLC-96 12 in. LP 33 ⅓ r.p.m.
THE BEST OF KIRI
Kiwi Stereo/Mono SLC-85 12 in. LP 33 ⅓ r.p.m.
If Kiwi reflects the requirements of the record-buying public—and one has every reason to suppose that they try and give the customers what they want—then the issue of two more Kiri records would seem to prove that Miss Te Kanawa's long absence studying overseas has done nothing to diminish the affection in which she is held by her fellow New Zealanders or the demand for her voice on record.
These two latest records do not contain entirely new material but are no less welcome because of this. They provide something of a contrast. ‘Rainbow in the Sky’ contains songs which are indeed a far cry from the music which Kiri sings in the course of her operatic career. They are, for the most part, ballads and pop songs including ‘On a Clear Day’, ‘A Time for Us’, ‘A Day in the Life of a Fool’ (from ‘Black Orpheus’) and several others. Like most serious singers, Kiri obviously enjoys the chance to sing songs which, comparatively speaking, make little demand on her artistically but which allow her to relax, or, as the record cover says, ‘drift lazily’ or ‘swing stylishly’. These are apt descriptions of the mood of the record. In presenting Kiri at play, ‘A Rainbow in the Sky’ is sure to be popular and please her many fans.
Although the range of music is wide, ‘The Best of Kiri’ shows Miss Te Kanawa in generally more serious mood. A simple Maori song of welcome ‘Haere Mai’, begins the record. Then she ranges through songs from shows such as ‘West Side Story’ and the ‘Sound of Music’ to operatic items from Strauss. Bizet and Puccini. In calling the record ‘The Best of Kiri’. producer Tony Vercoe says that ‘best’ is used in the sense of ‘most popular’ of all the music which Kiri has recorded to date. Certainly all who have enjoyed this young artist in the past on record, or in person, will not fail to welcome this disc which gives such a broad sampling of Kiri Te Kanawa's style and moods.
HE TOA TAKATINI—Maori Music
from the Waikato
Kiwi Stereo/Mono SLC-84 12 in. LP 33 ⅓ r.p.m.
Led by the redoubtable Canon Wi Huata, He Toa Takitini has travelled widely through New Zealand and become well known for its goodwill performances for the benefit of charitable organisations, hospitals, prisons, the Red Cross and other bodies. It draws its members from the Hamilton area where Canon Huata is Superintendent of the Anglican Maori Mission. Diocese of Waikato. The group has also toured overseas—to Australia in 1965 and 1966, the United States in 1967 and, since the making of this record, they have again been on extended tour overseas which included parts of the Continent and South East Asia.
The disc ‘He Toa Takitini’ is an agreeable record without finesse or artifice. It is pleasant listening although not without its faults, and in this respect it is worthy of some study by fellow concert parties because it exemplifies certain weaknesses, as well as strengths, in contemporary Maori singing and concert performance.
There is an increasing tendency for groups to perform ‘pot-pourri’ items which all too often consist of stringing together unrelated items without regard to meaning or mood. Thus He Toa Takitini have coupled ‘Te Ope Tuatahi’, a stirring song of that great ‘taua’ the First Maori Battalion, with A.E.I.O.U., written by Canon Huata as an entertaining and amusing way of teaching Pakeha audiences how to pronounce the Maori vowels. This strikes me as the equivalent of connecting the Maori Battalion Marching Song with ‘Mary Had a Little
Lamb’. Almost immediately after it is ‘He Rourou Ma Koutou’ which consists of a dispirited version of the haka ‘Utaina’ sandwiched between a number of other songs. I do not mean to decry the joining together of items but I do believe that there should be some unity of mood or theme between items so joined.
There are other examples on the record of songs being rendered in a way which conflicts with their original meaning and mood. ‘I Runga o Nga Puke’ is belted out as a pop song. It is pleasant enough and the rest of the group gives a good backing to a very agreeable duet but it is just too swingy for a song which is essentially a cry from the heart of a Maori soldier in hospital in the dark days of the First World War. The plaintive lament which introduces ‘E Pari Ra’ is spoiled by use of the guitar. Of course He Toa Takitini is a much travelled group and there is often a tendency for such groups to vamp up their items for Pakeha consumption but one takes a risk if one does it at home.
‘Kuarongorongo’ is an example of a fault in this and many other Maori groups—to go at an item great guns and then suddenly have several singers, who either don't know the words or who need a breath, stop dead in the middle of a line. This sort of thing just does not go unnoticed on a record even if one can get away with it on stage. Similarly in ‘Tahi Miti Toru E’ some of the singers are not sure of the words. The microphone is merciless in picking up passengers. It is best either to leave people out of a recording session if they are unsure of the items or to have the words up on a blackboard for all to see.
The record is notable for featuring a number of items for which the words were written by Canon Huata. Of particular interest is the poi chant and action song ‘Whakatangatanga’. The words were set to music by the group's guitarist Hemi Huata for performance at the opening of the Roman Catholic Maori Centre called Hui-Te-Rangi-Ora. The words employ classic Maori sayings. A slip however is the item ‘Tutira Mai’
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which is described on the cover as ‘an original song of He Toa Takitini… written by Canon Huata’ and which starts by swinging in to the tune of a well known pop song. There is, of course, no attempt to mislead here but I think it is necessary to state that it is the words and the use of the particular tune for those words which is original and not the tune itself. Listeners could otherwise claim misrepresentation where none is intended.
On the credit side the party is enthusiastic and whilst the group singing is thin in places there are several good solos. The cover is attractive with full notes on the items and on the group. Also pleasing is the fact that the notes take pains to explain just what an action song or a poi dance looks like. Often items are blithely named as action songs, etc., forgetting that the listener may never have seen, or have the prospect of seeing, the items so described. A brief description of what each type of item is about helps to make a record much more meaningful to the non-Maori buyer, particularly from overseas.
WAIHIRERE SINGS MODERN MAORI
Kiwi Stereo / Mono SEA-171 7 inch 45 r.p.m. EP
Waihirere ranks as one of the premier Maori cultural groups in New Zealand with a well-deserved reputation which goes far beyond their home territory of Gisborne.
Maori music fans will therefore welcome the news of a new Waihirere record, despite the fact that this disc does not seek to add anything to the Maori cultural scene. This record is a rattling good collection of Pakeha pop tunes combined with Maori words, and a few ‘Hei Has’ and lines of haka thrown in for good measure. The singing is tuneful, the enthusiasm infectious and the whole record has real ‘zip’.
Side one features ‘Inch Worm’ (I think that is the title in English), ‘Do-re-mi’ (from ‘Sound of Music’), ‘Begin the Beguine’, and ‘Five Minutes More’. On the other side are ‘Never on Sunday’, ‘What now, my love’ and ‘The Wayward Wind’. All items are sung as action songs. A resume of the meaning of the Maori words is included on the reverse of the record cover.
BORA BORA—ISLAND OF DREAMS—
Hotel Bora Bora Entertainers.
Hibiscus Stereo/Mono HLS-22 12 in. LP 33 ⅓ r.p.m.
Jim Siers and Hibiscus Records are to be congratulated for this truly memorable recording of the music of Tahiti. Many visitors whose travels have not taken them beyond Tahiti Nui (with a visit to Quinns thrown in for high adventure!) will doubtless have the impression that Tahitian music and dance is largely backsides, bosoms and endless drumming. The true atmosphere of these islands is to be found more off the beaten track at exotic places like Moorea. Raroia, Raiatea and perhaps loveliest of all, Bora Bora. Jim Siers with hyperbole which is always excusable on a record cover but which is doubly excusable in this case because it is true says: ‘If Tahiti is the pearl of the Pacific, then Bora Bora must be a brighter jewel. The beauty crammed into this tiny island gives it a sparkle which must rival the polished lustre of even the brightest pearls’. Bora Bora is famed not only for its scenery but also for the excellence of its dancers, the fact that its traditional folk lore has been fully preserved and also for its tradition of welcome.
Fortunately paradise has not been disturbed too much with the establishment in 1961 of the American owned Hotel Bora Bora—an establishment which, with its individual guest rooms constructed like native fares, has blended in well with the landscape. The Vaitape Himine group which is featured on Side One of the record consists of some 25 to 30 singers who entertain at the hotel on barbecue nights. Few who have seen them will forget their performance, starting with the dramatic moment of their arrival at the hotel beach by outrigger canoe just as dusk is falling. However, on this recording you will probably hear them to better advantage than on the beach at Bora Bora. I recall seeing them in the flesh and feeling slightly irritated that the strident female voices in almost all but a few numbers overwhelmed the softer closer harmonies of the men. Jim Siers was obviously determined to avoid this on his record. “This was achieved by placing the men well apart (not without some protest) so that they could be recorded separately on one of the stereo channels.” The result is a superb recording of some traditional material which is not too difficult for Pakeha ears to appreciate and enjoy. There is a Tamure or drum dance also. My favourite of all the items is the beautiful and plaintive ‘Haere Mai Na e’ (‘Come and join us in our Way of Life’) which strangely enough I first heard some years ago performed by an itinerant troupe at Isle des Pins. Play it over and over if you buy this record.
Hibiscus, or rather Jim Siers who made the record, claims it as ‘one of the most authentic, if not the most authentic, record of Polynesian music’. Maoris will find it particularly interesting because it shows one direction which Polynesian music has taken from the ancient chants and waiata from which New Zealand Maori music sprang. Bora Bora is sufficiently off the beaten track to avoid the corruption which has made much Tahitian music a pale echo of numbers such as ‘Lovely Hula Hands’! The Vaitape Himine Group are older people and
their style, like their material, is sufficiently untainted to guarantee this recording a place in any collection of traditional Polynesian music.
On Side Two we have music rather more modern in flavour but which again is thoroughly indigenous to this area. Five songs and one instrumental piece are performed by a small group which entertains each night at Hotel Bora Bora. These are numbers from the Tuamotu Archipelago, a necklace of islands stretching to the east of Tahiti for more than 1,250 miles. Life on these islands is lonely indeed and the items catch this loneliness and nostalgia for other worlds.
SAMOA I SISIFO
Hibiscus Stereo/Mono HLS-21 12 in. LP 33 ⅓ r.p.m.
‘Samoa i Sisifo’ features the music and dances of Western Samoa as performed by the Western Samoa Teachers' Training College in Apia. The choir consists of some two hundred students divided into four and sometimes five parts.
It is difficult not to enthuse over this excellent record. Tremendous credit is due to the performers and to those who have trained and conducted them. It cannot fail to rank as one of the very best recordings available of Samoan music. Certainly it is the best this critic has heard. I first played it after an evening of reviewing a number of like a breath of fresh air and certainly in many aspects points up some of the Maori groups who commit themselves to record. In many ways the action song has ruined Maori singing—certainly it has cast melody and harmony into a subordinate role with the actions taking priority. Groups can probably get away with this when they are both seen and heard but on record some of the singing sounds pretty thin. On ‘Samoa i Sisifo’ the singing is red-blooded and passionate, disciplined but full of feeling, light and shade. Maoris can do just as well as this of course but regrettably they seldom do—at least on record! The singing also gains from the fact that the obtrusive guitar which dominates and spoils so many Polynesian records is absent. The only accompaniment on this record is a light drum on coconut matting and, in some songs, clapping of the hands.
There is a good selection. Side One contains the impressive anthem ‘Pese Faamavae’ composed by Mrs E. T. Malietoa—the Principal of the Training College and who conducts a number of the items—to farewell a former N.Z. High Commissioner. There is tremendous poignancy in this item. My favourite on this side, however, is the light hearted ‘Laulausiva’ (‘Behold it is a good thing’) with its spirited rhythmical clapping. Another item of interest is the Lord's Prayer in Samoan.
Side Two begins with a collection of songs for a Samoan siva. The men's voices are heard to particular advantage in these items. Also on Side Two is Samoa's famous song of farewell ‘Tofa Mai Feleni’ (‘Goodbye my Friend’) which ranks with ‘Aloha Oe’, ‘Isa Lei’, and ‘Po Atarau’ in its haunting evocation of the pathos of parting.
Although the cover notes are rather reticent on the items themselves, other than to give a free translation of the song titles, there are more full notes on Samoa and some background on the College, the repertoire generally and on the two conductors/ tutors, Mrs Malietoa and Mr Ueta Solomona.
Crossword Puzzle No. 68
|1.||Yearn, daydream (6)|
|12.||Grub found in rotten logs (4)|
|13.||Shake, tremble (2)|
|14.||Rocky coast (4)|
|18.||Kind of garment; swift cloud, scud (6)|
|19.||Food, eat (3)|
|22.||Unlucky, misfortune (5)|
|26.||Praying mantis (2)|
|28.||Brave, hero (4)|
|29.||If; slave, company of slaves (3)|
|31.||Earthquake God (7)|
|35.||Look after (5)|
|36.||Power, authority, rank (3)|
|38.||Parson bird (3)|
|39.||Fortified village (2)|
|40.||Day, world (2)|
|41.||Obstacle, prevent (4)|
|42.||Looks, shape, appearance (4)|
|45.||Verbal particle indicating an action is completed (3)|
|48.||Stand, wound (2)|
|49.||From, of, belonging to (2)|
|51.||Barge boards of meeting house (5)|
|52.||Rising up; Easter (6)|
|55.||Follow, pursue, chase. woo (3)|
|57.||Where to? (2, 3)|
|59.||Finished, completed (3)|
|61.||Earth oven; scarf for tree felling (3)|
|1.||Shy, ashamed (6)|
|4.||Don't know (3)|
|6.||I, me (2)|
|7.||Perhaps, surely (3)|
|8.||Red rock cod (5)|
|9.||High, lofty (3)|
|10.||Trouble, difficulty (8)|
|11.||Cry: Dear me (3)|
|17.||Just before dawn (5)|
|21.||Overlap; crowd upon one another; thatch (5)|
|23.||Sinew, muscle; difficult (4)|
|25.||By, belonging to (2)|
|27.||Shake gently; fur seal (4)|
|29.||Roam. circle around (4)|
|33.||Generous, abundant; keepsake (3)|
|35.||Turn, begin (6)|
|39.||Raised storchouse (6)|
|46.||Cramp, stiffness; benumbed (3)|
|47.||Int. expressing surprise; descendants (2)|
|50.||Sideboards of canoe (2)|
|54.||Isn't that so? (2)|
|60.||He, she; current (2)|
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