He Aha Oti i te Ingoa Māori
What's in a Maori Name?
Nā Hepa Taepa
I roto i tētahi tautohetohe āta riri tika nei, ka puta i tētahi tana pātai koi tonu, “E kī, e kī! He aha koia i te ingoa Māori?” Pai tonu te pātai nei, ahakoa i puta ake i te pukuriri, i te ngākau kino. Tēnā koa, he aha tā ngā kupu pērā me Aotea, Tarore, Haerehuka, ngā ingoa huhua noa iho a te Māori? Ki ētahi o tātou, tētahi wāhanga nui tonu, ki a rātou nei, kāore rawa he whāinga kiko, he tikanga rānei. I te aha? I te kore aro ake ki te reo nei a te Wāhingaro ki a ngāitāua. Ki ētahi anō, he maninohea noa iho te kimi i te whakahuatanga tika i ngā kupu a te Māori. Nā konei, ina rongo i ngā pēnei e nana ana, mamae ana rā ngā taringa i te takakino a te hunga nei i te taonga a ō tātou tūpuna, ki a tātou, arā, i te reo Māori. Ētahi takakinotanga ko te hoatu reta kāore i reira, i aua kupu, ā ko te whakarere ake, he aha hoki te mutunga, he kupu rerekē noa ake, he kupu e kore rawa e kitea i roto i te reo Māori, ahakoa pēhea te kimi a te tangata. Ko Paraparāumu
In a heated argument someone posed the searching question, “Is that so! Then what's in a Maori name?” The question was a good one, though asked in anger and enmity. Now, what is the significance of words like Aotea, Tarore, Haerehuka and numerous others? To quite a number of us, there is no real value or significance. Why? Because of a lack of apreciation of the language. God's gift to us. Others regard seeking correct pronunciation as unnecessary and bothersome. That is why it is painful to hear such people mutilating the language that our forebears left us. Some such acts have been the omission or insertion of letters, so that a totally foreign word is made, one that can never be found in Maori no matter how hard one looks for it. Para-
Parapara-a-umu) tētahi o ngā ingoa nei, Paramutia ana, waka tōtō tamariki nei.
E hoki ana ngā mahara ki tētahi tangata nō Āirana, i beare manurere mai ki Niu Tīreni, he waewae tapu hoki ia. Ko tana whakamau mai he kauwhau ki tētahi hui nui tonu. Ka tau ia, whakatika tonu mai ki te teihana matua o Ākarana. I reira ka kite atu te pōta i a tauiwi e kimi ana i te tereina hei hari i a ia ki te takiwā o tana hui. Te uinga atu a te pōta ko hea tana tira, ko te whakahoki mai ki Nākerewākere. Ka raruraru te pōta ko te kīnga atu ki te Āirihi nei, kāore i tika tana haere pēnei mai, te āhua nei me haere kē ia ki tētahi whenua kē. Ū pū tonu a tauiwi ki tāna, arā, ki Nākererwākere, takiwā o Niu Tīreni, ā, kei a ia te kauwhau i taua pō tonu, i mea hāora. Ka puta te mahara ki te pōta, ko tana ngaronga atu, kāore i roa, ko te pōta ka puta anō me tētahi mapi o Niu Tīreni, ka whakaaturia atu, arā, tika tonu tāna, ko Ngāruawāhia rā hoki tāna e whakamau atu nei. He tika rā, ēngari he waewae tapu tēnei ki ēnei moutere, nā reira hei aha ake tana whakahua, ēngari tātou o te wā kāinga, te hunga māngere ki te whakahua tika i ngā kupu Māori. Rongo ai hoki au i ētahi o ngāitāua ina whakahua i ngā kupu a tauiwi, ē, kia tika tonu, ā, ko ā te Māori hei aha ake.
He pātai ka uia, “He aha tā te whakahua tika ki te pātai kei ō tātou aroaro, arā, ‘He aha oti i te ingoa Māori?’ ‘Ki tōku whakaaro he nui tonu te hāngaitanga o tētahi ki tētahi, ma te tika hoki o te whakahua e puta ai te wāriu o ngā kupu, arā, o te reo tonu anō. Nā Tā Ānaha Pēka i tuhi, “Ehara te reo i te kupu kau. Kikī tonu a ia kupu i ngā āhuatanga e pā ana ki te hinengaro, ā, ka puta ko ngā whakaaro. E kore e taea te rotarota i ā te hinengaro, mātua maringi mai aua āhuatanga. i te huakanga i te tatau o te reo. E kore e hou ki te manawa, e mōhio rānei ki te hinengaro o te iwi mātua mōhio rawa ki tana reo.” Koinei rā ōna whakaaro.
Nā, hoki mai ki te pūtake tūturu, ā, titiro ki ngā ingoa tāngata, takiwā, manu, kararehe, whānau rānei a Tāne Mahuta, ko te wherahanga mai tēnā o tētahi ao whakamīharo, o ngā mea-ā-wairua, o te
paraumu (Parapara-a-umu) is such a name, abbreviated to “Pram”—a child's perambulator.
The mind recalls an Irishman who flew to New Zealand for the first time. He was set on reaching a certain important conference which he was to address. When he landed he made immediately for the main Auckland station. There a porter noticed the stranger seeking out the train for his destination. When the porter enquired his destination, the reply was, “To Nagarywogary.” The porter was doubtful and informed the Irishman that it locked as if he had come to the wrong country. But the stranger was adamant; Nagarywogary was a place in New Zealand, and he was scheduled to give an address there that night at a certain time. Then a thought occurred to the porter. He disappeared for a short time then returned with a map of New Zealand which he showed to the traveller; just as he had thought, Ngaruawahia was the place he was making for. True, he was a first-timer to these isles, so we can overlook his pronunciation, but what of us locals who find it too much trouble to pronounce Maori words correctly? I hear many of us being very particular in the pronunciation of foreign words. but caring less with Maori.
It will be asked what pronunciation has to do with the question before us, “What's in a Maori name?” I think it is relevant, for correct pronunciation leads to better appreciation of the value of words and ultimately, of the language. Sir Ernest Baker wrote: “Language is not mere words. Each word is charged with associations that touch feelings and evoke thoughts. You cannot share feelings and thoughts unless you can unlock their associations by having the key of language. You cannot enter the heart and know the mind of a nation unless you knows its speech.” These are his thoughts.
Now, to return to the original matter, look at the names of people, places, birds, animals or plants and a fascinating world unfolds, a world of profound spiritual experience, of history, of folklore, customs, legends and proverbs, all contributing to the birth of a modern word, “Maoritanga”-the word that can answer the question.
hītori, ngā mahi a ngā tūpuna, ā rātou tikanga, pakiwaitara, pepeha, whakatauākī, aha noa ake i whānau mai ai tēnei kupu a te ao hou, “Māoritanga”, arā, te Māoritanga o te hunga o nehe i waiho ake ai ki a tātou o tēnei whakatupuranga. Koinei katoa ngā tītahatanga o tēnei kupu, “Māoritanga”, te kupu mana nei hei whakahoki i te pātai tuatahi rārā, “He aha oti i te ingoa Māori?”
Tēnā, whakaarotia te ingoa nei, a Aotea. He aha tōna nei āhuatanga hei hopunga atu ma te tangata? He maha ōna nei whakamāramatanga, kotahi hoki he kapua mā. I ētahi takiwā anō he kupu whakapotonga te roanga atu, arā, Aotearoa, te kapua mā tino roa hoki, koirā rā tētahi o ngā ingoa o tēnei moutere i huaina ai e ō tātou tūpuna, Te Ika-a-Māui-tikitiki-ā Taranga, e ai ki tēnei karangatanga ōku, ki a Te Atiawa ki te Upoko o te Ika. Ko Aotea anō te ingoa i meinga mō tētahi moutere ki te takiwā o te Tai Tokerau, he moutere rongonui, ā, ko tōna ingoa a te Pākehā ko te Great Barrier Island. Ki te tonga, ki a au nei e noho atu nei i te Upoko o te Ika, hoatu ana tēnei ingoa ki tētahi o ngā Wāpu i te Whanganui-ā-Tara, he tika tonu kia tapaina te Wāpu nei ki tēnei ingoa, no te mea he ingoa nā Tangaroa. Tētahi hoki o ngā waka rongonui o te Hekenga mai i te 1350 te tau, ko Aotea, tōna nei tangata ko Turi. He waka tino nui tēnei notemea nōna i mau ai hei taonga māku mō tēnei whakatupuranga tētahi whakataukī, i mōhiotia ai e tēnei reanga te tino hōhonutanga o te wairua Māori ki ngā mea whakateatua. Waiho ake ka rere ai ki reira ngā kōrero ki taua whakataukī.
Tērā tētahi waiata he mea tito nā tētahi matua tāne mō tana tamāhine. I reira ka waiatatia ngā mahi a tana tupuna, a Te Hau, i haere mai nei i te Hekenga mai. I haere mai a Hau ki te whai mai i tana wahine, ā, whāia rawatia mai ki te Tai Hauāuru ki Pātea, ā, nāna, nā Hau o te waka o Aotea, ka whānau mai ngā ingoa-ā-takiwā i tēnei takutai ki te uru, a Whanganui, a Whangaehu i te tūehutanga o te wai; a Rangitīkei, i te tīkeitanga o ngā waewae o Hau ki te whai i tana hoa wahine. A Manawatū, i te tūnga o tana manawa ki
“What's in a Maori name?”
Consider then the word Aotea. What is there so interesting about it? It has many meanings, one of which is white cloud. It is sometimes an abbreviation for Aotearoa, the white cloud and long, that was one of the names given to this island named by our ancestors, the Fish of Maui-tikitiki-a-Taranga according to this part of the the Atiawa tribe resident at the Head of the Fish. Aotea was also the name given to a northern island of import, named by the Pakeha Great Barrier Island. In the south, to us who reside at the Head of the Fish, the name was given to an important quay in Wellington harbour, which is appropriate, for it is a maritime word. One of the important canoes of the 1350 migration was Aotea, under the command of Turi. Important indeed, for its crew was responsible for preserving for us of this generation a treasure, namely a proverb that reveals the depths of the spirituality of the Maori soul. Reference to this proverb will be made later.
There was once a song composed for a young girl by her father. Therein was sung the exploits of their kinsman Hau, who came here in the Migration. He was in pursuit of his wife, finally reaching Patea on the West Coast; and by him, Te Hau, were originated the place names of that coast in the west: Whanganui; Whangaehu, when that river was in turbulent spray; Rangitikei, because Hau lengthened his pace in chase after his wife. Manawatu,
te whakamiharo i te ātaahua o te whenua huri noa. A Hōkio, i te rorohiotanga o ana taringa i te mahi a te hau kōwhiowhionga; a Ōhau, i tana tapanga tonutanga iho i tana ingoa mo te awa reka i tana inumanga ake. A Ōtaki anō hoki, i te nanaonga iho a Hau ki tana tokotoko hei taki ara haere mōna, ā, puta atu ana ki Waikanae. I Waikanae ka titiro iho ia ki roto i te awa, arā e titiro ake ana ki a ia ko ngā whetū tini mano pēnei me te kanae ika e pūkanakana ake ana ki a ia. Tae rawa a Hau ki Rimutaka maunga, tana tirohanga iho ki tērā whaitua ko te moana rā e rarapa mai ana, anā ko Wairarapa ka whānau mai.
I kī ake au, me kāore te waka nei a aotea, e kore tātou o tēnei rautau hou e whiwhi ki tā tātou whakataukī tohunga, ā, e kore hoki te waimarietanga o ō tātou tūpuna ki tētahi ingoa mo te tūāhu e tū mai rā i Ōtaki, arā, a Rangiatea.
Nā Aotea te whakataukī nei, “E kore au e ngaro, te kākano (purapura) i ruia mai i Rangiatea.” Ko te Rangiatea nei ko taua ingoa anō ki te takiwā o Rarotonga, arā, ko Ra'iatea. Ko Ra'iatea he moutere kei runga tata atu i Rarotonga, ā, ki ngā kōreroa a ō tātou tūpuna, i rere mai ngā waka o te Hekenga mai i reira, i whānau mai ai te whakataukī rārā, i runga ake nei, mo te hōrapatanga o te Māori i te Moananui-a-Kiwi, puta noa. Koirā rā tā tētahi wāhanga tāna whakamārama, mo te toitūnga tangata, e kore rawa e ngaro.
He tika ki tētahi titiro. Engari tērā tētahi kē atu whakamārama, arā, kei te whakateatua, ko Rangiatea hoki, ko te tūāhu o te Runga Rawa, o Io, me ōnā karangatanga huhua. He mea tiki atu i Tikitiki-o-rangi, o ngā rangi-tū-haha, te ingoa nei a Rangiatea, mo te moutere o Ra'iatea me te tūāhu tonu hoki i whakaarahia i runga anō i taua moutere.
Nā Aotea te whakataukī, engari nā Raukawa te whakatinanatanga o ngā āhuatanga o taua whakataukī, i tana hanganga i te tūāhu e tū rā i Ōtaki. Anei ngā kōrero mō taua ingoa, mō Rangiatea.
Tērā a Tānenui-ā-rangi me ana whakaaro kimi i te ora mo te tangata e noho nei i runga i te mata o te whenua. Ka roa e whakaaroaro ana i te take nei, ka puta te
where his heart stood still in wonder at the beauty of the land all round. Hokio, where the wind whistled piercingly in his ears; Ohau, to which river he gave his name after drinking its sweet water. Otaki, when he used his staff to clear a path, thence to Waikanae. At Waikanae he looked into the myriad stars reflected in the river, like the eyes of the mullets shining up at his. He went as far as the Rimutaka range and saw the lake flashing on the other side, hence Wairarapa.
I have mentioned that were it not for aotea canoe, we of this century would have been denied our classic saying, nor would our ancestors have been fortunate in having a name for the shrine that stands at Otaki, Rangiatea.
The proverb was Aotea's. “I will never be lost, the seed broadcast from Rangiatea.” This Rangiatea is the same Ra'iatea in the region of Rarotonga. Ra'iatea is an island just north of Rarotonga and according to tradition, this was the Migration's starting-point, thus the proverb quoted above came into being, referring to the general dispersal of the Maori through the Pacific. This is how one school of thought explains the survival of man.
In one respect it is right. But there is yet another explanation which is spiritual, Rangiatea being the abode of the Absolute, of Io of the many names. The name Rangiatea was obtained from Tikitiki-o-rangi, the topmost of the heavens, for the island Ra'iatea and the shrine on that island.
The proverb is Aotea's but the Raukawa people made it a reality and gave it great significance by building the shrine that stands at Otaki. Here is a part of the mythological background of the name Rangiatea.
māramatanga ki a Tānenui-ā-rangi. Ko te māramatanga nei, kia haere ia ki te marae o Tikitiki-o-rangi, ā kei reira ko ngā kete e toru, ko ngā kawenga o roto ko ngā mātauranga e whiwhi ai te tangata i runga i te whenua, ā, mō ake tonu atu.
Ko te kakenga tēnā o Tānenui-ā-rangi ki te rangi tuatahi, tuarua, tuatoru, ā, tae atu ana ki te rangi tekau mā tahi. I reira ka puta te manu nei ki te whakataki i a ia, ā, nāna i taki haere, ā, tae atu ki Rauroha, te marae o Tikitiki-o-rangi. Te taunga atu, ka puta te rongo me tapoko rawa a Tānenui-ā-rangi ki roto ki te poho o te tūāhu e tū hāngai mai ana, ā i reira ka riro mai ngā kete a toru, uruuru matua ka tahi, uruuru rangi ka rua, uruuru tau ka toru. Ka riro mai ana kawenga, ka hoki mai tana kotahi, ko tana kaitaki ko te manu rā i noho atu ki Tikitiki-o-rangi, ā, ko taua manu ko te kōtuku; koirā i kotahi ai tana rere, ko tana takinga ki Tikitiki-o-rangi. Nā tēnei rere ka whānau mai te whakataukī mo te waewae tapu, pērā me Irihāpeti, te Kuini, “Haere mai e te manuhiri tūārangi, nau mai e te Kōtuku rerenga tahi.” He hōnore nui tēnei ina pōwhiri pēneitia te tangata. Mā tēnei whakamārama, arā, mā ēnei kōreroe kitea ai te hōhonutanga o te hinengaro o te Māori o nehe ki ngā mea-ā-wairua, kitea ai te hingaitanga o ngā whakaaro ki ō te Karaiti, “E kore te tangata e ora i te taro kau, engari mā ngā kupu e puta mai i te māngai o te Atua.” Otīa, mātua ringihia tonu mai i te poho o Rangiatea, te tūāhu o Io matua-kore, aua mea e ora-ā-wairua ai te tangata, e kore ia e puta.
Nā ēnei kōrerohoki ka mārama te huhua o ngā rangi, e toru rawa ki ngā kōreroa ngā Hūrai, ki a tāua, te Māori, tekau mā rua; ka mārama te huhua hoki o ngā ingoa o Io, me ngā ingoa o Ihowa, ka kitea ai te tātatanga o ngā ingoa nei o Io, o Ihowa, “He aha oti i te ingoa Māori?” Ā, tēnā e huri ki ngā tamariki a Tāne Mahuta, ana, kei a rātou ētahi kōrero ātahua, hei whakahoki i te pātai i pātaingia.
Kua tae mai a raumati me te mātārere nei te koekoeā, tēnei tohu, “Kia kori, he wā ngakinga kai tēnei”, “Kia korim he wē ngakinga kai tēnei”, i pāterengia hoki, “Ko taua manu he koekoeā, te manu tēnē o te Mātahi o Orongonui raumati.” Ka rere
There was one Tanenui-a-rangi with his thought of seeking sustenance for man on the face of the earth. After constant meditation, enlightenment came to Tanenui-a-rangi. His understanding was that he should go to the Tikitiki-o-rangi courtyard where there were three baskets holding all the knowledge that would benefit man on earth forever.
Tanenui-a-rangi ascended to the first, second, third and finally the eleventh of the heavens. There this bird appeared, to conduct him to Rauroha, the plaza of Tikitiki-o-rangi. On his arrival he learned that he must enter the shrine that stood before him and there obtain the three baskets, Uruuru matua. Uruuru rangi and Uruuru tau. Having received the objects of his quest he returned alone, his escort to Tikitiki-o-rangi remaining there, and that bird was the White Heron; and that flight to Tikitiki-o-rangi was the only flight it ever made. This flight gave rise to the saying used for any personage such as Queen Elizabeth, visiting for the first time, “Welcome, illustrious visitor from beyond the horizon, twice welcome thou White Heron of rare flight.” This is an honour when extended to any person. This explanatory background reveals the depth of Maori spirituality, reveals also the parallel to christain thought, “Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God.” Nevertheless, unless sustenance comes continuously from Rangiatea, the shrine of Io the parentless, for man's spiritual well-being, he will not survive.
From this background we have the concept of the plurality of heavens common also to Hebrew thought, and the further concept of the plurality of Io attributes in common with Jehovah. “what is there is a Maori name?” Then turn to the children of Tane Mahuta, where there is a wealth of beautiful legends and myths, for a reply to the question.
The harbinger of spring, the shining cuckoo, has arrived with its message, “Bestir yourself, the time to cultivate has arrived.” As the ancient recital notes, “That bird was the shining cuckoo, the bird of the first month of spring.” So the mind recalls
ngā mahara ki te whakataukī rā, “Tama tū, tama ora; tama moe, tama mate kai.” Koinei hoki te hāngaitanga o te tangi a te manu nei, a te koekoeā, ā, ko tā te puawānanga o rō ngahere tōna tohu, “Kia mataara”.
Ētahi kōreronunui kei a ia, ina hoki ki mua noa atu tātari mai ai, arā, ki te moenga a Rehua whetū i tana karearoto i a Puanga, he whetū anō hoki, ā, ki a Papatuanuku anō rāua ko Ranginui me ā rāua tamariki tohetohe ki te riri.
Arā rā te whakataukī: “Mā te punga e ū ai te waka, waihoki te tāne te whānau, mā te wahine.” Koinei tāua te tangata ka tōtika, i te morimoringa a tō tātau tupuna wahine, a Papatuanuku. Pērā anō a Puawāannga te rauhīnga tana whaea a Puanga, mai i te tīmatanga e haere tanu nei. Nā reira e hoki ki a Rangi rāua ko Papa i a rāua anō e takoto pipiri ana.
I kreira ka kakari ā rāua tamariki, ko ētehi ki te wehe, ko ētehi ki te waiho noa iho i ō rātou mātua. Riro ana i a Tāne Mahuta ka wehe ngā tokorua nei. Koinei ka whānau mai te pepeha. “Nā Tāne i toko ka mawehe a Rangi rāua ko Papa, nāna i tauwehea ai, ka heuea te Pō, ka heuea te Ao.”
Takoto kau ana te kuia nei a Papatuanuku i; te mahi a Tāne. Ka roa, ka roa a Tāne e mātaki iho ana i tana whaea, ka oho te whakaaro ki te kimi wahine māna, kitea ake e ia, a wai ake, a wai ake, moea katoatia i tana whāwhai kia puta he uri mōna—puta kē ana he rākau, he tōtara, he maire, mataī, rimu, kahikatea, he aha ake.
Koinei ana uri i waihotia ake e Tāne hei kahu mō tana whaea, ka rere ki te pokepoke one, kia rite ki tōna te āhua, hāngia atu te Hau Ora, tū ana mai ko Hinehauone, “He atua, he tangata, hou!” Ka moea e ia tāna i hanga ai, ka puta ko Hineātauira, moea tonutia anō tēnei tamāhine e ia.
Nāwai ā, ka puta te hiahia o Tāne ki te toro i tana tuakana i a Rehua. te whētu, ko tana pikinga ki te rangi. Ka ngaro atu ia, ka rongo a Hineātauira, he mea moe ia e tana matua tonu. Ka whakamā te kōtiro nei ko te omanga ma te huanui jo te Tupurunga o te Pō, ki te huna. I reira ka huaina ia ko Hinetītama. Kāwhaki tonu ia,
the proverb. “he who works survives; he who is idle perishes.” This is the parallel to the; shining cuckoo's message and that of the clematis of the forest, “awake!”
There are tales about the puawananga that go right back to the marriage of the star Antares and his beloved rigel, even back to Earth Mother and Sky Father and their argumentative, rebellious children.
There is a proverb, “As the anchor is to the canoe, so is the woman to her husband and family.” This has been true for man as sustained by Earth Mother. So also the clematis, by its mother rigel, from time past until now. Let us then return to Rangi and Papa when they were still together.
Their children strove, some to separate them, others to let their parents be. Tane Mahuta won and he separated the two; so came the saying, “Tane thrust upwards and separated Rangi and Papa, so there was night, and there was day.”
Thus, Papatuanuku lay alone because of Tane. Tane watched his mother below for some long time, then came the thought that he should seek out a wife, and he sought out many, taking them all to wife in his desire for offspring; and when they were born they were trees—totara, maire, matai, rimu, kahikatea and others.
These were his children whom he left to robe his mother, while he turned to shaping from sand a human form like himself, breathing into it the breath of life, and lo, there stood Daughter of Earth-aroma, “divine and man”! He knew her whom he had made, and so was born Hineatauira, the Model Daughter, whom also he married.
In time tane desired to visit his elder brother. Antares the star, so he scaled the heavens. Whilst he was away. Hineatauira learnt of her shameful parentage. For shame, this young girl ran down the pathway called “The Great Expanse of Darkness” to hide. Whilst there, she was renamed Daughter of Defiance.
On to the very low regions of Te Reinga she fled, where she was named a third time Daughter of the Dark Expanse. When Tane returned he pursued her to the underworld of Te Reinga, only to find the Doors of Darkness closed by Hinenui.
tau rawa atu ki te riu o te Rēinga. i reira ka huaina tuatorutia ia ko Hinenuitepō Hoki rawa mai a Tāne, whai noa atu ki te Rēinga, tūtakina kētia e Hinenui “Te Tatau o te Pō.”
Ko te tanging atu o Hinenui ki a Tāne, “E hoki ki te ao hei whakatupu i ā, tāua tamariki, ā, waiho au ki konei kukume mai ai i a rātou.” Ko te hokinga o Tāne ka pōngia i te are whānui, noho ana i a Hineāteao ka kite ake ia i te Aitanga-a-Ira je whiti iho ana, ka pātai ia ki a Hineateao, “Ka whakaaetia rānei taku hopu i aua tini whetū hei whakapaipai mō taku matua, mō Rangi?” Whakaae tonutia mai. Ka whakaaro a Tāne me waiho kia whakatā ia, ka haere ai ki te hopu. Ka moe ia, oho rawa ake, tū, ana ko tana taina ko te Wehinui-ā-mamao, me ngā whetū rā kua mau. Ko te Weroininihi rāua ko te Weroikokoto me te takurua, ko te weroiteaomarie mo te raumati, ko Puanga mo te mahuru, te wā mahi kai.
Ka mau a Puanga, ka rongo a Rehua, ka rongo i te ātaahua o taua wahine, haere ana, ka mau ki tana wahine. moem iho, ka-puta ki waho ko ā rāua mātāmua, ko Puawānanga, ko Puahou, ko Taumate, he putiputi ātaahua katoa. Te puhi a Puanga rāua ko Rehua ko Puawānanga ki tētehi reo, ko Poānanga ki tētahi reo kē, ko Pikiarero ki tētehi reo anō.
Ko tētehi atu kōrero mō Puanga kei a Te Atiawa ki Waiwhetū, ki Pito-one. Kei runga tonu ake i a mātou i Waiwhetū he maunga, ko Pukeatua. I te Pūpū ata. i te rua tekau mā tahi o hune, te rā tuatahi o tā te Māori maramataka, ko te Puanga whetū tērā kua puta me tana pae-kapua, kei runga tonu o Pukeatra e tū ana. Tēnei tena tohu: mehemea kei raro tana Pae-kapua i a puanga he tohu whai kai, mehenmea kei runga he tau mate kai, nā Konei ko te pepeha a Te Atiawa: “Titiro whaka Pukeatua, ki a Puanga me tana Pae-kapua.” Kāore i ārikarika ngā kōrero mō tēnei ingoa te Puawānanga.
Tērā tētehi whānau rākau. hei tāina ki a Puawānanga, ko te Ake tō rātou ingoa whānau.
Te wa tika, e ai ki ngā kōrero, hei puanga mō rātou, mō ērā atu hoki pērā
Hinenui cried sorrowfully to Tane, “Return to the world of light to foster our children, whilst I remain here to draw them to me.” Tane, returning thence, was benighted on the wide pathway to be accommodated by Daughter of the Light; there he saw above him the Children of Lightning shining forth from above and asked of Heneateao, “Would I be permitted to take those myriad stars to adorn my father Rangi?” Permission was given. Tane decided to rest first and then retrieve them. So he slept and awoke only to find standing there his younger brother Wehinuiamamao with the captured stars. These were Challenge the Stealthy and Challenge the Interceptor to preside over the winter. Challenge the Calm and Peaceful to preside over the summer, and Rigel to preside over the spring, the time for growing food.
When Rigel was captured, Rehua saw what a beautiful woman she was, so he went and took her as his wife, and there were born their eldest children, Puawananga, Puahou and Taumate, all beautiful flowers. The favourite of Rigel and antares was puawananga. according to one dialect, to another Poananga. and to another Pikiarero.
The Atiawa at Waiwhetu and Pito-one have more to sat about Rigel. Above us at waiwhetu stands a mountain called Pukeatua (Sacred Hill). In the early morning of June 21st, the first day of the Maori calender, Rigel appears with its perch, an accompanying cloud. standing above Pukeatua. This is her sign: should her perch be below Rigel, the signs are good for cropping, but should the perch be above her, the; season will be lean, so the Atiawa people have their saying: “Look towards the sacred Hill, to Rigel and her perch.” There is quite a story in connection with this name Puawananga.
There is a family of trees, junior to the Puawananga, whose family name is the Aka. According to mythology and legends, the correct time for them to bloom, and also
me te Pohutukawa, Rātā, Kōtukutuku, Mānuka, te tini a Tāne Mahuta, kei a Ruamoko te tikanga. Ka huri te koroua nei ki ōna taha koinā te hurihanga-a-tau ki te raumati, ngahuru, takurua, mahuru rānei, kei tōna taha e huri atu ai ia te ritenga, ā, i a ia ka huri ka rongona tonutia tōna harurutanga, me tōna rūnga i tana whaea i a Papatuanuku. Ka hāngai ai te haka a Ngāti Porou: “Ara rā e..e..e! Ko Ruamoko e ngunguru nei! Au, au, aue Ha!”
Tetehi mea mīharo ki te Pākehā ko te maha whakataukī a ngāitāua hei whakarite i ngā āhua wā katoa. Irta hoki mo te pōwhiri i te toa taua: “Nau mai te pōporo tū ki te hamuti”; mo te whakatūpato kei whakahāwea ki te iti tāngata; “He iti mokoroa, natia i nanati te kahikatea”; mo te tangala māngere ki te mahi kai: “I hea koe i te ngaborotanga o ngā rau o te kōtukutukit?” Mō tēhea ake wā. tehēa ake wā, kei te hūnuku a Tāne Mahuta ngā kōrero, ngā pepeha, whakarile, taukī hoki.
Hoki ake ki te whānau Aka nei, e rua hei whatoronga atu, arā, ko te Akatea, ko te Akamatua, te Aka e korc e whakangāueuetia. He whakataukī tā Te Arawa, i take mai i ngā mahi a tō rātou tupuna a Rangitihi, nāna nei ngā Pū Manawa e MVaru o Te Arawa.
I tētehi pakanga ka taotū a Rangltihi. Na te hoariri ki te upoko, ko Rangitihi tērā ka hinga, ka what! a Te Arawa. I a ia e takoto ra ka kite ia i te akatea e toro iho ana, mau tonu ake ia, tapahitia e ia, takaia ana tana upoko, ko tōna kōkiritanga anō. Te kitenga o tana iwi, ko tō rātou whakaekenga anō ki te āwhina. mamae ana te hoariri, raru ana. Koinei ka whānau mai tēnei kī nā: “Rangitihi, upoko i takaia ki le akatea.”
Mo to akamatua, te kona a Tangolango ki tana tāne ki a Tāwhaki. arō anō ngā kōrero.
Ko Tangotango he wahine ātaahua nō te rangi. ka rongo ki te toa o Tāwhaki o tōna hekenga iho i tc pō takoto ana i a ia. Ka mahara a Tāwhaki he wahine nō konei and. t te tākiritanga o ie ala o ia rā ngaro ana laua wahine. E hia ngā pō ka hapū a Tangotango. kātahi anō a Tāwhaki
for others such as the Pohutukawa, Rata, Kotukutuku, Manuka—Tane's multitudes—is dependent on Ruaumoko. god of earthquakes. When this old man turns to his various sides the seasons of the year follow —summer, autumn, winter or spring, dependent on which side he turns to, and when he turns his rumblings and quakes may be heard and felt in Papatuanuku. Which makes the Ngati Porou haka appropriate: “Behold, ‘tis the earthquake god that groans. Au, au, aue. Ha!!”
One thing that impresses the Pakeha is the many proverbs we have appropriate for all situations. For instance, when welcoming returned men from battle, “Welcome to the Poporo who survived hell fire”; to caution with a word not to underrate a man of small stature, “Though small the mokoroa grub, yet it lays low the lofty and mighty kahikatea tree”; or to reprove the lazy one, “Where were you when the native fuchsia shed its leaves.” No matter what the occasion, Tane Mahuta's family have the apt words, legends, parables or proverbs.
Returning to the Aka family, there are two of interest, the White Rata and the Firm Vine that can never be shaken. The Arawa people have a proverb that originated from the exploits of their ancestor Rangitihi, whose sons became the eight pulsating hearts-the eponyms of the Arawa confederation of tribes. In one battle Rangitihi was wounded. The enemy chanced a blow to the head, Rangitihi was laid low and the Arawa war party broke and fled. Whilst lying wounded he saw above him a vine reaching down, and severing this, he bound up his cleft head, then charged into the fray again. When his people saw this, they too rallied again to help, causing havoc and inflicting defeat on the enemy. Thus was derived the rallying call, “Rangitihi who bound his head with the White Rata vine.” For the Firm Vine, Tangotango's parting advice to her husband Tawhaki, there are other stories.
Tangotango, a beautiful celestial maiden, having learned of Tawhaki's prowess as a warrior, descended and visited him at nights and became his wife. Tawhaki understood her to be an earthling. But at the dawn of
ka mōhio ehara kē tana hoa nō tēnei ao. I te whānautanga mai o tā rāua kōtiro ka puta pōhēhē i a Tāwhaki, “Te piro hoki!” I tērā, ka pōuri a Tangotango, ka tautohetohe rāua, te mutunga, mau iho a Tangotango ki tāna tamaiti, ko tana omanga. Aurere noa atu a Tāwhaki kua tae kē a Tāngotango ki te rangi. Ka karanga ake a Tāwhaki, “He aha tō koha ki a au?” Ka whakahokia mai e Tangotango, “Kei mau koe ki te aka taepa, engari kia mau ki te akamatua”.
Ka roa e noho mokemoke ana a Tāwhaki, ko tana kīnga atu ki tana taina, ki a Karihi, ka haere rāua ki te whakataki i tana whānau. Ka haere rāua, rokohina atu ko tō rāua kuia ko Matakerepō kei te take o ngā aka e rua, e iri iho ana i te rangi. Ka tohutohungia atu rāua, “Ina, e piki; kei taka ki waenga, kei titiro ki raro, kei pūawhe”. Ka whakatōnga rāua i te mahara ake ki te kuha a Tangotango, “A, kei mau ō kōrua ringa ki te aka taepa, engari kia mau ki te akamatua.” He aha rā, mau kē ana a Karihi ki te aka taepa, tāhi ka piupiua e ngā hau. Waimarie i a Tāwhaki ka mau a Karihi, ka tangi rāua i reira mo te oraititanga o te taina. Ka hoki te taina, whakamau tonu atu ki te akamatua te tuakana, ka piki tae atu ana ki te rangi tuarea, ki tana whānau, noho tonu atu.
Kei roto i ēnei kōrerote hōhonutanga o ngā whakaaro-ā-wairua o ō tātou tūpuna. Tēnā, whakarongo ki te tīmatanga o te maioha ki te mātāmua ina whānau mai.
“Nau mai e tama, kia mihi atu au—
I haramai rā koe i te kunenga mai o
I roto i te āhuru mōwai, ka tāka te
pae o Huakipōuri—
Ko te wharehangahanga tēnā a Tānenuiārangi—
I tātaia ai te puhi ariki—
Te hiringa matua, te hiringa tipua, te
hiringa tawhito rangi e…”
Kei konei e mau ake ana te hāngaitanga o ngā kōrero mō ngā mahi a ngā tūpuna, te tohungatanga o ō rātou whakaaro, wawata, tūmanako. Tēnā, whakarongo anō ki tētehi
day each morning his wife disappeared. After some time Tangotango was with child and only then did Tawhaki learn that his wife was not an earthling. When their daughter was born, he tactlessly remarked. “The smell!” Tangotango was hurt, they quarrelled, and Tangotango took her child and fled. Tawhaki made lamentable protests, but Tangotango was already at her celestial home. So Tawhaki cried, “What is your last word to me?” Tangotango's reply was, “Lay not hold of the swinging vine, but rather take hold of the Firm Vine.”
At last, after a long and lonely life, Tawhaki confided in his younger brother Karihi that he desired to visit his family. They set out and found their elder, Matakerepo, at the foot of the two vines suspended from heaven. They were advised, “Come, make your ascent here, but don't fall in between and don't look down, or you will be thrown about in the wind.” They remained silent, remembering Tangotango's parting words, “Lay not hold of the swinging vine, but rather take hold of the Firm Vine.” Somehow, accidentally, Karihi took hold of the swinging vine and was buffeted to and fro dangerously. By sheer good fortune Tawhaki caught Karihi and they mourned greatly this terrifying experience of the younger one. Therefore he returned home, whilst the older brother continued steadfastly grasping the Firm Vine, ascending the many celestial regions to the home of his family, where he remained permanently.
In this account may be seen the profound thoughts of our forebears for things spiritual. For example, listen to the greeting to a first-born child.
“Welcome, child, that I may salute you,
For from the sheltered haven of man's
embryo you came
Having crossed the threshold of Huakipouri fashioned by Tanenuiarangi
When he created woman from the body
of Mother Earth
And received powers from the Gods
and the ancient celestial home.”
Herein the great worth of the legends, traditions of the ancients, their deep spiritual
roanga atu o te karakia nei:
“Haramai e tama, puritia i te akamatua,
kia whitirere ake koe, ko te kauae
Ko te kauae raro.”
Kia whitirere ake ai ki ngā mātauranga teitei, nunui whakaharahara o te Wāhingaro kia tutuki ai ngā mea tika hei ora mo te nuinga.
Ki a tātou he aka anō te aka, he rātā anō te rātā, he pohutukawa anō a ia, ehara ki te Pākehā. Ki a ia no te whānau kotahi rātau, ā, kei tēnei whānau tētahi āhuatanga, he haeretahitanga o te kaha rākau me te ātaahuatanga rākau, e hapa nei i ngā rākau Pākehā. Koinei i tapaina ai e te Pākehā ki te ingoa Kariki tōna whakamāoritanga “Uho Mataī”, koinei anō hoki i koha ai tā rātou whakahau kia kauā te tua i ngā rākau Māori. He whakataukī anō tā te whānau nei hei whakatūpato: “Kei whatiwhati noa koe i ngā rau o te rātā.” Nā tētehi kaituhi tana tuhinga: “Ina kite ake au i te pohutukawa, i tēnei rākau rangatira, e ura mai ana i roto i tōna korōria whakamīharo, e piri haere ana rānei i ngā tahataha, i runga i ōna whāriki kākāriki, e tū ana rānei i tētehi wahapū pēnei me te matahī i te waharoa, ka rere whakaaroha aku mahara ki tētehi Maori i ū mai ki Niu Tireni i neherā. I te tatanga ki uta, ka kite atu ia i te pohutukawa e puāwai haere ana i ngā tahataha, ko te makanga i tana amokura ki te moana me te aue, “Kāore he take o ēnei hanga ki tēnei whenua mīharo, e tupu haere nei ōna whakapaipai ātaahua noa ake, i runga rākau!”
Ko Tauninihi rā hoki te tupuna i maka rā i tana amokura ki a Taiwhakaea, i te ūnga atu ki Whangaparāoa. Te taunga atu ki te one, horo tonu ia ki ngā kura e mumura mai rā i uta, warewaretia ake a Taiwhakaea. Te pānga atu o te ringa, ngāhorohoro ana, he pohutukawa putiputi kē rā hoki.
Tū pakapaka ana a Tauninihi me te pōuri i tana whiunga i tana kura. He roa tonu ia e kimi ana i a Taiwhakaea, ka rongo ia kua kitea e Mahina, i kitea atu ki te ākau ki Mahiti. Te tononga atu kia whakahokia
thinking, their hopes and dreams lie. Listen further to another part of the incantation,
“Come child, take hold of the Firm Vine
That you may ascend to realms spiritual
to acquire that learning that will equip you
To cope with the many problems
To reach up to the highest learning from the Unseen to complete all that is right for the betterment of the many.
To us the aka is aka, just as the pohutukawa is pohutukawa, and the rata is rata, but this is not so to the Pakeha. To him they belong to the one family, and this family has the combination of strength and beauty lacking in imported trees. This is the reason why the Pakeha gave the Greek name which means “Ironhearted”, and why they earnestly campaign for the discontinuance of felling native trees. There is a proverb warning against vandalism, “Do not indiscriminately break off rata branches.” Prevent vandalism.
An author wrote, “When I see the majestic Pohutukawa a blaze of red about our shores or clinging to some cliff-face against a background of sober green, or standing at a river-mouth like a sentinel at an entrance, I find myself entirely in sympathy with a certain Maori chieftain who sailed to New Zealand a long time ago and who, on nearing the shore, saw the Pohutukawa in full bloom at the edge, threw his red head-dress into the sea declaring, ‘Such things are of no use in this wonderful land where adornments far more beautiful grow upon the trees’.” The chief, of course was Tauninihi who threw his red head-dress, Taiwhakaea, into the sea when he approached the shore at Whangaparaoa. When he, set foot on the beach he ran hurriedly to the red blazing along the beach, forgetting Taiwhakaea. When his hand touched them they dropped to the ground, for they were of course the pohutukawa blooms.
Tauninihi stood in amazement, sad at his thoughtless casting away of his own red head-dress. He sought a long time for
mai taua kura, ko te kupu mai: “Ē, e kore e hoki atu, ko te pae kura kite kē hoki tēnei a Mahina.”
I te tau 1950 ka whakanuia e ngā iwi tīmata atu i Te Kaha, muri iho ki Tūranga, te pūtahi o ngā iwi o te Tairāwhiti, hoki ake ki Mātaatua mutu rawa mai ki Waikato, te ono rautau o te tutukinga o ngā waka i maunu mai i Hawaiki ki ēnei takutai.
Nā wai i mātakitaki tērā ūnga tuatahi mai? Nāna rā hoki! Nā wai i mātakitaki te hākaritanga i aua tauranga? Nāna anō rā! Nā te tamaiti nei a Tāne Mahuta, nā te pohutukawa!
Nā tētehi tohunga titiro rākau tēnei whakataunga: “O ngā puāwai katoa o Niu Tīreni, kāore he putiputi kē atu i tātata ki tō te pohutukawa te ātaahua.”
He kupu nunui ēnei i roto i te āhuatanga i pātaingia rā, “He aha oti i te ingoa Māori?” Ina hoki i a te pohutukawa e puāwai ana i Aoteoroa nei, ko te Whetū Mārama o Peterehema i tērā pito o te ao, e pānui ana kua whānau a Ihu Karaiti. Koinei tā te Pākehā ingoa tuarua i whānau mai ai, arā, Te Rākau o te Kirihimete, notemea, kei te Kirihimete ka kitea te pohutukawa i roto i tōna korōria ātaahua.
1350 tau i muri iho i te pohutukawa e pua ana ka pōwhiritia e ia ō tātou tūpuna ki tō rātou kāinga hou. I te tau 1814, ka kauwhautia te kauwhau tuatahi e Hāmuera Mātenga i rongo ai ō tātou tūpuna i te Rongopai i te rā o te Kirihimete. I te wā anō e puāwai ana te pohutukawa, i te tau 1928, ka whakawahia he Māori hei Pīhopa tuatahi mō Aotearoa.
Koinei pai tonu, hāngai tonu hei mutunga kōrero, ko ngā kōreromo te pohutukawa, hei whakahoki i te pātai i uia rā, mehemea he whāinga-kiko anō i te kupu, i te ingoa, i ngā kōrero Māori.
He pitopito noa iho ēnei kōrero, Te Ao Hou pukapuka, arā kē e heipū mai rā i ō tātou marae huri noa, ngā kōreromo te pātai nei, “He aha oti i te ingoa Māori?”
Taiwhakaea, only to hear that Mahina had found it at Mahiti beach. When he asked that his red head-dress be returned, the reply was, “Oh, it will never be returned, this is the head-dress found by Mahina upon the beach.”
In the year 1950 tribes celebrated the sexcentennial of the canoes' arrival to these shores in the migration from Hawaiki.
Who witnessed that first arrival? He did of course! Who witnessed the celebrations marking those landings? He did again! Tane Mahuta's offspring, the Pohutukawa.
A certain botanist made these conclusions, “Of all the beautiful blooms of New Zealand, there are none more beautiful than the Pohutukawa.”
These are very important words in the light of the question that was asked at the very outset, “What is there in a Maori name?” For here in Aotearoa the Pohutukawa blooms whilst in the opposite part of the world the brilliant Star of Bethlehem ushers in the birthday of Jesus Christ. Thus the Pakeha gave the Pohutukawa a second name, The Christmas Tree, for it is at this time of Christmas that the Pohutukawa is seen blooming in all its beauty and glory.
1350 years later the Pohutukawa welcomed our ancestors to their new home. In 1814, Samuel Marsden preached the first sermon when our ancestors heard The Good News, on Christmas Day. At the time when the Pohutukawa was again in bloom, in 1928, a Maori was consecrated the first Bishop of Aotearoa.
So it is appropriate and fitting that this paper should conclude with a word about the Pohutukawa, to reply to the question that was posed, whether there is after all anything of worth in a Maori word, or name, or legend or tradition.
These are just some tit-bits to you, ‘Te Ao Hou’ magazine; much more may be found on our maraes to meet the query made, “What's in a Maori name?”