Tempe University who aspired to be a lawyer.
He led us to his home in New Oraibi village and this was our first visit to an Indian home. He with his wife and parents extended us hospitality after which we departed for an ancient Hopi fort still in use. It was called Walpi, meaning ‘the place of the gap’.
The Hopi Reservation consists of 6,000 acres. Its population exceeds five thousand and the meaning of the name Hopi is ‘The peaceful ones’, its language is Shoshone and they retain their native religion and faith in God.
At the foot of the First Mesa, the site of the Walpi subtribe, we were benighted. Snow was falling at the time, but our cars managed to reach the fort above. The height of the Mesa was more than 300 feet. It was an awesome sight. We learned at the pa that they had had no word at all of our visit. We therefore retraced our way down, for fear that we might become snowbound, and be compelled to remain longer than we anticipated. The people were preparing for their observance of the festival of the Snake Dance. This was also a religious observance. We missed this, but having reached the highway below we felt more at ease, because of the dangerous road down, so narrow and slippery with the falling snow. We spent the night at the motel at Keams Canyon.
In the morning, Lawrence Geshey with his wife and child had arrived to escort us. When we left Keams Canyon behind, we also left the Hopi Reservation, and once again came out into Navajo territory. Along the way we called in on one of the old trading stations called Hubbell Trading Post, once a resting place for man and beast, and still a trading post. From there we hurried on to Window Rock, the capital of the Navajo, and from that point to Gallup township. Thus we entered New Mexico from Arizona. The two States are about the same in size. Arizona is 113,000 sq. miles
tekau mā toru mano koēa māero (113,000 sq. miles), ko New Mexico, kotahi rau, e rua tekau mā tahi mano koēa māero (121,000 sq. miles), ko Niu Tīreni, nei, arā, ko Aotearoa, Te Waipounamu me Wharekauri kotahi rau mā toru mano koēa māero (103,000 sq. miles).
Koinei rā ko Gallup ka tomo atu mātou ki New Mexico, ā, nā te tangata nei nā Lawrence Geshey, o te Nāwaho iwi, ā, he Kaitohutohu o te Community Action Programme — he Rōpū Rangaranga-ā-iwi — nāna mātou i taki atu ki tō mātou mōtēra. I konei, i Gallup, ka whakawhitiwhiti motokā tō mātou hoa, a Myron Jones, i te mate o tētahi o ō mātou waka, ko te rironga mai o tētahi waka a te Ford Motors, ō mātou waka kē hoki i te tīmatanga atu he Chrysler kē. I konei ka haere mātou ki te torotoro i ngā kura i kōrerotia ake rā e au, arā, i te kāreti o Many Farms, me te kura mō ngā tamariki ririki i Rough Rock, ā, ki te mātakitaki whenua hoki mā mātou. Heoi anō te mahi he whakamīharo ki te nui o te whenua, ki ngā mano eka koraha, ki ngā toka-tū-whenua e kīia nei e rātou he Mēha (mesa), ki ngā mano toka pēnei, ki te nunui me te maha, me te hōhonu rawa c ngā whāruarua, te teitei o ngā pari kōhatu, i hoki mai ai ngā whakaaro ki te wā kāinga, ki ngā kōrero, ki ngā whakataukī, ‘Ko mea te maunga, ko mea te awa, ko mea te tangata.’ Whakamataku ana, āno he tipua, he taniwha.
I te 25 o Pepuere, he Tūrei, kātahi anō mātou ka haere atu ki te Rāhui tuatahi o ngā kiriwhero e kīia nei he Pewepero (Pueblo). Ko tēnei te Rāhui Zuni. Tokorua ngā kiriwhero o te rōpū ki Niu Tīreni nei nō tēnei karangatanga, arā, ko Seferino Tenorio o te Rāhui Santo Domingo, ko Roger Tsabetsaye o te Rāhui Zuni, anei hoki te tuatoru, ko Joe Sando o te Rāhui Jemez.
Tekau mā iwa katoa ngā Rāhui Pewepero,
and New Mexico 121,000 sq. miles, whilst New Zealand with its three major islands make up together 103,000 sq. miles.
So at Gallup we had really entered New Mexico, escorted by Lawrence Geshey, a member of the Navajo tribe and a Director of the Community Action Programme, who directed us to our motel. At Gallup, Myron Jones exchanged one of our cars for a more reliable one which happened to be a Ford whereas, peculiarly enough, we had started out with Chryslers. With this as our base we visited the Many Farms and Rough Rock schools already described, and also went sightseeing. We marvelled at the vastness of the desert land, at the beauty of its many mesas stretching for miles, at the terrific size, and frightening depths and countless number of valleys, at the high rocky precipices, all of which recalled to mind the ancient Maori sayings, ‘So and so is the Mountain, so and so is the River (or sea or lake), and so and so is the Man’. These tremendous formations of nature are aweinspiring and yet symbolic of great leadership.
On 25 February, Tuesday, we made our introductions to the first of our Red Indian Pueblo Reservations, namely Zuni. Two of the party to New Zealand were of the Pueblos, Seferino Tenorio of the Santo Domingo Reservation, and Roger Tsabetsaye
Canon Hepa Taepa, author of this article, with Roger Tsabetsaye, expert jewellery-maker, outside Arohanui-ki-te-Tangata, Waiwhetu
ā, kei roto katoa i te whenua o New Mexico. Engari, o ēnei tekau mā iwa Rāhui, e whā rawa ngā reo o ēnei karangatanga, ko te Keresan, Tiwa, Tewa, Towa. He rerekē anō tēnā reo, tēnā reo, i ēnā reo. E ai te kī tēnei, ko te kaute o ngā iwi kiriwhero e toru rau, rerekē, rerekē, tētahi i tētahi. E whā tekau mā whā ngā reo o ngā iwi toru rau nei. Engari, ngā tokoiwa kiriwhero i haere mai nei, e ono rawa ngā reo o taua rōpū, ā, waimarie nā te reo Pākehā ka mōhiohio rātou ki a rātou, tēnā e kore rawa, i te rerekē o ō rātou reo.
Ka mawehe mai mātou i Gallup, tau rawa mai ki Zuni Rāhui. I konei ka mihia rawatia mātou e ō rātou koeke. I konei hoki ka āhua uru mai anō te whakaaro whakamataku, i te noho mai a aua kaumātua. Haunga tō rātou Māngai, a Robert Lewis, nāna nei ngā kōrero i wāhi, he mātau tonu hoki ki te reo Pākehā, ā, nāna ngā kōrero a tō rātou kaumātua i whakapākehā mai. Ko te noho mai a aua kaumātua nei anō he mākutu tonu mai, koinei ka whakatūpato anō, i te mōhio ake koa kei te ao tawhito tonu te iwi nei e noho ana. I reira anō ka manaakitia mātou, whāngai rawatia anō, kātahi anō mātou ka takina atu ki tā rātou nei whare hokohoko, heoi anō kia kite ai mātou i ā rātou mahi, i ā rātou nei raranga, whakairo, mahi-ā-ringa hei hoko-hoko ki ngā tūruhi. I konei ka toko ake te whakaaro ki tētahi aroha mā mātou ki tō mātou kaiārahi, ki a Myron Jones, i tana pai ki te tiaki haere mai i a mātou, ā, tae noa mai ki taua wā. Ka hokona mai tētahi here mō tana wati. Taua here nei ka kitea tonutia iho te ringa o te tohunga, ā, he hiriwa whakatakoto rawatia atu ki roto he kōhatu, he turquoise taua kōhatu, ko tāna nei ko tā te kiriwhero kurutongarerewa. Ā, koinei tā matou aroha ki tō mātou kaitiaki i a mātou, ā, nō te taenga anō ki tō mātou mōtēra i tētahi tāone nui anō hoki, ki Albuquerque, kātahi anō ka tukuna atu e mātou tā mātou aroha. Kore noa iho te tangata nei i mōhio me aha he kōrero māna, wahangū tonu atu, i te hiahia hoki ki te tangi i te aroha.
I a mātou ka maunu mai i Zuni, ka haere mai i runga huarahi, ā, ka tae ki tētahi pekanga, ka kī atu ahau ki a Myron Jones kia tū ia tō mātou waka. Ka whakaaro he aha hoki tēnei. Ehara kua kite kē atu te tohu i te huarahi, arā, ko te Ara Nama Ono Tekau mā Ono, o te Terewihana. Ka
of the Zuni Reservation, and there was a third, Joe Sando of the Jemez Reservation.
There are nineteen Pueblo Reservations and all are in the State of New Mexico. But of these nineteen there are four different languages, the Keres, the Tiwa, the Tewa and the Towa. Each of these languages is quite distinct from the others. According to records, the total number of Indian tribes in the States is 300, with many distinct languages. Of these 300 tribes there are forty-four different languages, not dialects, so these peoples may be looked on as nations and not as tribes as we know them. But the nine who did make the visit to New Zealand had among them six different languages; however, fortunately they had one language known to them all, namely, the English language, otherwise they would never have been able to communicate with one another.
From Gallup then we came to Zuni Reservation where we were received by the tribal elders. It was here that I felt some misgivings about the manner of the older men. Robert Lewis, who opened the speeches was very good, and fluent in English. It was he who interpreted the elders' speech to us. The disturbing thing about the older men was their attitude; it seemed as though they were ready to perform witch-craft, the practice of former days. Never-theless such misgivings were unfounded, for they received us hospitably, fed us, and then conducted us to their trading store, where we saw their weaving, carving and handicrafts for selling to tourists. Here one of us conceived the idea of making a presentation to our consultant, Myron Jones, for his landness to us up to that moment. So a watch band was purchased, a band made of silver with the precious turquoise stone expertly inlaid into the silver metal. That stone, of course, was to the Indian what the precious greenstone is to the Maori. This was our gift to our consultant and confidant, and this was presented to him when we settled in at our motel in the City of Albuquerque. He was dumbfounded. and so overcome was he, that he could not find words, for he was also on the verge of tears.
When we left Zuni we arrived at a signpost where I requested Myron Jones to stop our car. They wondered what was the reason. I had already noticed the signpost,
tata atu ki Albuquerque tāone, ka whakaaturia mai e Myron Jones tētahi pā tūwatawata āno e tairanga mai ana i runga maunga kōhatu, he pā nui tonu, he pā kotahi mano tau te tawhito. Ko taua maunga pōhatu nei ko Akoma (Acoma), tōna tikanga o taua ingoa ke ‘Te iwi o te Pōhatu Mā’. Tōna reo he Keresan, te kaute o tōna iwi e rua mano, e whā rau, e rua tekau mā tahi. Tona tairanga ake e toru rau ono tekau mā rima putu, ā, he pā tino nui rawa atu, ātaahua hoki ina tirohia atu i tawhiti. He mēha (mesa) te pōhatu nei, he pēnei me tētahi maunga pōhatu nui whaka-harahara, e hia ngā rau eka, ā, ko runga rawa o taua maunga nei he pāraharaha. Nō taua mēha te ingoa o taua Rāhui, arā, Acoma, ‘Te iwi o te Pōhatu Mā’, i te komā o taua Pōhatu-tū-whenua. Haere tonu mātou, ā, tae noa ki tō mātou mōtēra i Albuquerque, he tāone e rua rau mā tahi mano tāngata, me tōna whare wānanga ātaahua hoki. I konei ka hoki ngā whakaaro ki ngā kōrero a Kara Puketapu ki a mātou mō tēnei tāone nui, te rite o Pōneke ki taua takiwā. He tika tonu hoki, E rima rawa ō mātou rā ki konei, i kite ai mātou i tētahi o ngā awa rongonui o Āmerika, arā, i te Rio Grande; i tūtakitaki ai ki ngā māngai whakahaere tikanga mō ngā kiriwhero o tērā whenua o New Mexico, ō rātou kaiwhakahaere i ō rātou kura ririki, kura nunui, arā, ngā kāreti, ō rātou whare wānanga, i kite ai mātou i te noho a te kiriwhero i roto i ō rātou Rāhui, i te noho a te kiriwhero i roto tāone nunui, i te noho a te Pākehā hoki, te noho a ēnei iwi i te awatea, i te pō. I kite ai i te hiahia o te Pākehā o ērā takiwā ki te manaaki i te tangata, arā, i tō mātou tira.
I New Mexico ka tae mātou ki ngā Rāhui Pewepero o Santa Fe, te tāone rongonui o ngā pikitia kaupoi, ā, i tēnei rā, tāone nui mō ana kura me ngā mahi e mahia ana i rō kura, ngā tūmanakoranga o ngā kaiako, kia mau tō rātou nei Māori-tanga, ngā āhuatanga katoa huhua o taua Māoritanga kia kaua e ngaro i roto i ngā wāhi ako tamariki, mai ka tīmata atu te tamaiti ki te kōrero, ā, pakeke noa. Koinei ngā kaupapa a ngā kiriwhero o ngā
Highway Number Sixty-Six, of television fame. As we drew nearer to Albuquerque City Myron pointed out a landmark, a fort high up on a mesa, a huge fortification over a thousand years old. This mesa was called Acoma, meaning, ‘The People of the White Rock’. The language of these people was Keresan and its population was 2,421. It rose to 365 feet, and its fort, held aloft in all its beauty, was from the distance, a magnificent sight. This mesa was a huge rocky mountain of several hundred acres, with a flat table-like top. From that mesa originated the name of the Reservation, that is, Acoma, ‘The People of the White Rock’ because of the whitish appearance of the rocky landmark. We continued to our motel at Albuquerque, a city of 201,000 people, with a beautiful university also. Kara Puketapu's words about this city and how like Wellington it was, were brought to mind here. For there was truth in this. We spent five days here, so that we saw the world-famous river, the Rio Grande. We met also administrators of the New Mexico Reservations, directors of their schools, Head Start, primary and secondary, also of their university, so that we met too the Indian in their own Reservations, in urban areas, and saw as well, life at night and during the day. There also we saw the sincere desire of the Pakeha to extend the hand of friendship to our party.
In New Mexico we were able to visit the Pueblo of Santa Fe, this town of western fame, but today important for its adventurous
kāreti me ngā kura, pēnei me Lloyd New, me Jim McGrath, me Marilyn Black, he Pākehā tēnei, me te huhua noa iho.
Tae rawa mātou ki runga, ki te nōta, ki te Rāhui o ngā Taos, tētahi o ngā takataka-hanga o te tangata rongonui o roto pikitia, arā, o Kit Carson, he toa ki te eke hōiho, ki te takahurihuri pū, ki te whakaū i te ture. I konei utu rawa mātou, kātahi anō ka tomo atu ki te pā o te Taos. O rātou kāinga he mea mahi mai i te uku, i te kōhatu, e rua, e toru rawa ngā whakapaparanga whare. I tupu mai i ēnei whare te ingoa mō tō rātou nei pā nohonga, arā, te kupu nei te Pewepero (Pueblo). I kō kē hoki, tū ai ngā kāinga nei me ō rātou whakapaparanga i runga mēha (mesa), pēnei anō me ō tātou nei pā, nō nāianoa nei ka heke iho i ngā hiwi, i ngā maunga, i ngā wāhi teitei, nō te maunga o te rongo.
I te Rāhoroi, 1 Maehe, ka haria mātou i te ata, ki tētahi Rāhui ko Santa Felipe te ingoa. I te pā nui tonu o taua Rāhui ka kite mātou i te ope nei, nuku atu i te kotahi rau, e whakaeke mai ana ki tō rātou marae. He koēa nei te hanga o taua marae, ā whakapipi tonu ngā whare huri noa.
Ka whakaeke mai taua ope me te pakupakū mai o ā rātou pū, āno nei e ngeri haere mai ana, e pōkeka haere mai ana. Tau ana te wehi, te ihi. Tata te hāora e kanikani, e waiata mai ana, ā, ka hoki ki tētahi whare nui ki te whakatā. Kāhore i roa ka mōhio mātou he hāora e kanikani ana, he hāora e whakatā ana, ā, tae noa ki te toenetanga o te rā. I noho mātou mō taua hāora kotahi. Tēnei kanikani ko Te Kanikani o te Buffalo. Te mea nui o te whakatū-waewae nei, arā, o te nuinga tonu anō o aua kanikani, ko ngā waiata, he karakia tonu atu, he tapu hoki, ki te Atua i roto i ā rātou karakia Māori motuhake.
Ka tae mātou ki te kāinga, ka tohe ngā tamariki nei kia haere māua ko Hēnare, ngā koeke o tō mātou rōpū, kia kite i tētahi pikitia. Ko tō māua haerenga, tō māua hokinga mai heoi anō te ngeri, ko tēnei nā: ‘Āhahā, ā, ka ngarue te whenua, ka ngaoko te tangata, i te aitanga a te ure, aue hā!’ Ko tenei tū tātai pikitia ko tōna karangatanga ko te ‘pikitia purū’, arā, ko ngā pikitia e kore e whakaaetia kia whaka-huatia ki Niu Tīreni. Hangahanga noa iho te whakaatu mai i te wahine, i te tāne, e pūremu ana.
I taua pō anō ka tūtaki mātou ki tētahi
spirit in the field of education, for its directors of schools are courageous enough to experiment, in order to maintain the esesentials of their culture that these may never be lost in places of learning, where children begin from infancy and progress to older years. These are the aspirations of directors of schools, like Mr Lloyd New, Jim McGrath, Marilyn Black and many others.
We proceeded further north to the Taos Reservation, where once a famous film personality trod in days past — Kit Carson, an expert rider, an adept gunman, and enforcer of the law. We had to pay in order to enter this Pueblo, Taos. Their homes were made of clay and rocks — adobe — and were sometimes two or three storeys high. The word Pueblo orgiinated from these houses. These storeyed houses formerly stood on mesas, just as our pas stood on high and most inaccessible places, for it is only recently that the Maori has moved down from the lofty mountains and places — only since the advent of peace.
On Saturday 1 March we were taken in the morning to a Reservation called Santa Felipe. At their main pa we witnessed a body of men and women over a hundred strong, approaching their marae which was in a square shape surrounded by houses at the perimeter.
The people came onto the marae firing their guns, and as though chanting something like a war chant, or a special kind of action song. It was quite moving. After about an hour performing the whole body turned and retired to a quite large house to rest. We soon learned that the observance lasted till sundown. The performances were in periods of an hour on and an hour's rest. We remained just for that one performance. This dance was called the Buffalo Dance. Perhaps one of the main points about these various dances was that they were sacred and performed according to their own native religion.
Back at home, the younger men of our party would have Henry Northcroft and I see a film which came into the ‘blue film’ category. So the korohekes, for so we were to the younger men, returned to our next function with the chant in mind, ‘Lo! How the earth trembles, and how nobly man bestirs himself, in his toils to procreate!’
Later that night we met a Hawaiian
tangata nō Hawaii, he pai te reo ki te waiata, ā, he tangata i tū tahi i te taha o ā tātou tamariki o te ‘High Fives’ i Las Vegas. Nāna mātou i whakanui, i mihi, i manaaki.
I te ata, ka haere mātou tokotoru ki te Karakia Kai-Hapa i te Wharekarakia Niu o taua tāone. Kikī tonu te whare. E whaka-haeretia ana te karakia, ka puta te pātai mehemea kei te Wharekarakia tika mātou, i ngā inoi, i te whakahaere i te karakia, riterite tonu ki tā te Kātorika Roma. Mutu kau te karakia, muia ana mātou e te Pākehā, i te hiahia ki te whakatau i a mātou, ki te whānau kotahi. Kite tonu mai he tauhou mātou. Ko te takinga atu i a mātou ki raro whenua ki tētahi hōro tino nui kī tonu i tētahi wāhanga o te minenga ki te whakarongo ki te whaikōrero a te Kaikarakia, ki te kapu tī hoki. I reira ka mihia mātou, mahana ana te whakatau mai. I reira anō ka tūtaki mātou ki tētahi mema o te Pāriha o Pita o Pōneke, ēngari kua heke kē ki reira, ki Albuquerque, noho ai. Ka hoki atu a Hēnare Northcroft rāua ko Lewis Moeau, ka haria ahau e te whānau a Te Paaka tina ai. Mutu mai i reira, ka haere whakate-tonga ahau, tae atu ki te marae ātaahua o te Isleta Rāhui. I kite ai ahau i tētahi Wharekarakia e tū kau ana mō ngā marama tekau mā rua. Nā ngā uiuinga ka kite ake te noho o te iwi nei me tō rātou minita Kātorika Roma, arā, o te Ariki nui o taua Rāhui. Ka huri te iwi nei ki te Pīhopa hei whakatau i te raruraru, ā, hore noa iho, ko te āta makanga atu a te iwi nei i tō rātou Rāhui, rakaina ana te Whare. Ēngari tiakina tonutia ana e rātou tō rātou Whare.
Haere whakararo tonu atu ahau ki te toro i tētahi Pākehā, nō te Waipounamu i mua, me tana wahine Pākehā hoki he Māori nō Albuquerque tonu. I tūtaki atu au ki a rāua i tō rātou kāinga nui tonu i Bosque Farms, he nohanga tangata e rua tekau māero atu ki te tonga o te tāone nui o Albuquerque. Ka kite au i te whānau a ngā tokorua nei he whāngai katoa, he tamariki nō ngā huhua iwi, ā rāua taurima. I ngā tokorua nei, ka rongo au i ētahi kōrero mō tētahi mīhana Mihingare kei te tino nōta a New Mexico, kei Farmington, kotahi rau, e rua tekau mā rua māero ki runga tonu ake o Gallup.
Ko tēnei Mīhana, koinei anake anō tā te Mihingare, arā, kei roto kei te mutunga mai o te Rāhui Nāwaho, ki New Mexico.
singer who had got to know, when he was in Las Vegas, the High Fives. He could not say enough in their favour. They were terrific in this boy's estimation, sensational.
Three of us, next morning, attended Holy Communion service at the Cathedral Church of Albuquerque. The church was packed. During the service the question was asked by us if we were in the right church, for the ritual was so High Church that there was little difference between this service and a Roman Catholic service. No sooner was the service concluded than parishioners converged on us from all directions, in their desire to make us feel one of the family, seeing that we were obviously strangers to Albuquerque. We were conducted to an underground hall where a large part of the congregation was already gathered for a fellowship cuppa and to listen to the Celebrant speak on the subject of Baptism. We were duly introduced to the people and enthusiastically received. We met there a recent member of that Cathedral parish; she was formerly of the parish of St Peter's, Wellington. Henry Northcroft and Lewis Moeau returned to our motel whilst I accompanied the Sparks family to lunch. Afterwards, I proceeded south till I came upon the Isleta Pueblo. Reservation. Outside a beautiful, well-kept church I saw a clean and spacious marae. Enquiries revealed that twelve months before a dispute had arisen between the Reservation Governor or Chief and the local priest. The dispute resulted in the Governor seeking the Bishop's help. The priest concerned was Roman Catholic. Because no satisfactory conclusion was reached, the people bodily evicted the priest and locked the church. And so it had remained for over a year, locked but still carefully tended.
I moved on south still to call on a young Pakeha couple. The husband was a South Islander whilst the wife was a native of Albuquerque. I met them at a rural village called the Bosque Farms, a community twenty miles south of Albuquerque City. I met also their children, all foster children and of different nationalities. From these two people I learned of the Anglican Mission to the north-west corner of New Mexico, at a town called Farmington, with a population of 23,000 people, and about a hundred and twenty-two miles further up from Gallup.
He kura, he hōhipera tō tēnei Mīhana. Ko te mea nui o tēnei Mīhana, ko te ako i ngā tamariki Nāwaho tonu, hei kaitaki mō ngā rā kei mua i ō rātou iwi tonu. Ināianei, hāwhe tonu ngā kaiako, he kiriwhero o te iwi o Nāwaho. Ko tā rātou whāinga atu kia puta ngā tamariki nei hei minita ki ngā hiahia o ō rātou iwi o te Nāwaho, ā, ko te āta tuku haere mai ki raro o ngā mīhana Pākehā, i te tūmanako, ka puta mai he Nāwaho Karaitiana hei tū i aua tūranga o te Hāhi Mihingare.
Ko Henare mā, he mea hari e Myron Jones ki te Rāhui o Santo Domingo. I reira ka tūtaki rātou ki tētahi kaumātua i manaaki nui i a Kara Puketapu i a ia i reira. Koirā tonu te kaumātua o taua iwi.
I te pō, ka haere mātou ki te kāinga o tētahi wahine — he Hawaii taua wahine — me āna tamariki kua moemoe tāne katoa. Nā te wahine nei mātou i manaaki, i whakatau.
I te Mane, 3 Maehe, ka tūtataki mātou ki ngā kaiwhakahaere o te Tari mō ngā Take Kiriwhero, arā, Bureau of Indian Affairs. He roa tonu mātou ki taua tari, e werowero ana i aua Pākehā, ka hoki pōuri mai mātou i te kore ngatanga i ngā whaka-hoki mai a aua Pākehā i ā mātou uiuinga. Ka kite mātou ko te nuinga o ngā moni hei whakapai, hei āwhina i ngā Rāhui, e pau
This mission was the only Anglican mission active in a Reservation in New Mexico. It consisted of a hospital and the mission proper. [The trend of conversation had veered that way because of some significant happenings there.] Its policy was revolutionary, as far as the Indian sphere of influence was concerned, in that from the church's mission to the Navajo there emerged a Navajo leadership that had not been seen before. [For example, Mrs Eloise Martines, a Navajo and Director of Religious Education there superintended a Bible School in which half of her teaching staff was now made up of Navajo women.] The outstanding facet of its total programme was the leadership potential displayed by youth volunteers. Furthermore, Indian missionaries were being trained to minister to their own Navajo people and thereby gradually work the Pakeha personnel out of a job, to the honour and glory of God.
Henry Northcroft and the rest of our party on this particular afternoon had left with our consultant, Myron Jones, for the Reservation of Santo Domingo. There they met an Indian elder who had been a very good friend to Kara Puketapu while he was visiting there and had shown him many kindnesses. This old man was the leading elder of his own tribe.
In the evening, we were entertained by a Hawaiian lady and her family of married daughters. They made us feel so very much at home that, when the time came to make our departure, we found it more difficult than we had anticipated.
The next day, Monday 3 March, we called at the offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, or B.I.A. We met several of the Officers of this Administration, and also posed many questions regarding their work. [This and OEO (Office of Economic Opportunity) and ICAP (Indian Community Action Programme) agencies seemed to us to overlap in their work in the Reservations.] We returned rather disappointed with the evasive attitudes of these men. We learned, furthermore, that the greater portion of the funds budgeted for the development of Indian Reservations by the Federal
kē ana ki te utu i ngā kaiwhakahaere Pākehā o aua tari.
Nō te Tūrei 4 Maehe i te ata, ka rere tō mātou manu, ka tau ki Oklahoma City. He wā poto ki reira ka rere, ā, tau atu ki te Kennedy Tauranga, i te toru o ngā hāora i te ahiahi. Tō mātou tatūnga atu, e tū mai ana te wahine nāna nei te whakaaro kia whakawhitiwhiti te Māori te Kiriwhero, a Siobhan Oppenheimer, ā, nāna mātou i taki ki ō mātou waka nunui, e rua aua waka, ā, tae atu ana ki te whare o ngā Tari o te Ford Foundation. Ka haria atu ā mātou kawenga, ā, ka whakaoha ki ngā rangatira o te Whakahaere nei, ā, tae rawa atu ki te hāora hei haerenga atu mō mātou ki te kai. He roa tonu mātou ki te wharekai, ka takina atu mātou ki tētahi o ngā whare tākaro nunui, ā, rongonui hoki, ki Madison Square Garden, ki te mātakitaki i ngā karapu toa o New York e kakari ana i te Pāhikete Paoro o te tau.
Kātahi tētahi whare ko tērā! Piki rawa mātou ki te whakapaparanga tuaono, ēngari nā ō rātou mīhini hari whakarunga anō i hari mātou ki tō mātou nei tauranga, ā, ki ō mātou nohanga. I reira ka kite mātou i te tini tāngata — e waru miriona kē hoki tāngata o tēnei tāone o New York. Ka mutu tā mātou mātakitaki, ka whakahokia mātou ki ō mātou nohanga. Ko māua ko Hēnare, ki te whare nohanga o ngā tamariki mō te mahi minita o te Kāreti o Te Hoani; ko Timoti rāua ko Vernon i haere i te taha o tō mātou rangatira, o Siobhan Oppenheimer; ko Apanui rāua ko Hāwea ki tō Stan Bresenoff; ko Moeau rāua ko Hori ki tō Victor Alicia; ko Mahuta rāua ko Tūroa i haere i te taha o tō mātou rangatira, o Myron Jones. I pai tō māua nei tatūnga atu ki tō māua nei ko Hēnare nohanga, ēngari a Hori rāua ko Moeau, tō rāua nei pō ki Harlem takiwā, ko te wāhanga tēnei o ngā mangu, ahaha, e pakanga ana ngā mangu nei, a pakupakū mai ana ngā pū, mō te mate tonu atu.
I te Wenerei, he rā whakatā tēnei. Heoi te mahi he haereere ki te mātakitaki i te nui whakaharahara o New York. I te Tātite te 6 Maehe ka whakamanuhiritia mātou e te Ford Foundation. Ā, he mea pōwhiri anō hoki a te ‘Whakakaupaparanga’ nei, a Mrs Hines, te Perehitini o te Rōpū Wāhine o Ngā Kiriwhero; ko Joe Belindo, Tumuaki o te Kaunihera o ngā Kiriwhero katoa; ko George Effman, o te Kotahitanga o ngā Iwi
Government was in fact expended on the salaries of officers of the administration.
On the morning of 4 March we took a flight which made one stop, en route to New York, at Oklahoma. We were soon airborne again for New York and at Kennedy Airport Mrs Siobhan met us and accompanied us to the Ford Foundation offices. Here we were introduced to some of the officers of the Foundation and then taken away to dine. [This was a huge establishment, Gallaghers 33, which was packed, and confirmed our previous observations on the south west that it was part of the American way of life to dine out.] After dinner our hostess took us to Madison Square Garden to watch a basketball match between the two top teams of New York. This was the game of the year.
What a terrific stadium! We ascended to the sixth storey by escalators, to our seats. We saw people by the thousands there — remember that New York's population is eight million people. At the conclusion of the game we were seen to our various billets, Henry Northcroft and I to the Theological Seminary of St John's New York; Timoti Nikora and Vernon Winitana with Mrs Siobhan Oppenheimer; Apanui Watene and Tom Hawea with Stan Bresenoff; Lewis Moeau and George Asher with Victor Alicia; and Robert Mahuta and Turoa Royal with Myron Jones. We were shown to our spacious rooms at the Seminary and settled snugly for the night, but Lewis Moeau and George Asher had an exciting and spectacular introduction to their billet in the negro Harlem area. Two negroes had resorted to a gunfight to settle their differences.
Wednesday was a rest day for our team. We took advantage of this respite by seeing the sights of New York and window shopping. Thursday 6 March also turned out to be an easy day for us all. This was the Foundation's day for officially extending to us its formal welcome. It also extended invitations to such persons as Mrs Hines, President of the American Indian Women's League; Joe Belindo, Executive Director of the National Congress of American Indians; Mr George Effman, American Indians United; Messrs Robert Lawrence and Rys Richards, New Zealand Consulate-General, Ambassador Frank and Mrs Corner, New Zealand Ambassador to UNO and U.S.A.
Kiriwhero; ko Robert Lawrence, Kanohi mō Niu Tīreni ki New York; me Rhys Richards o taua tari anō hoki; me te Reo mō Niu Tīreni ki te Minenga o Ngā Mana Nunui o Te Ao me Āmerika hoki, a Frank Corner rāua ko tana hoa wahine.
I te hākari nei, ka mutu ngā mihi mai a ngā rangatira o te Ford Foundation, ka tū mai hoki te Reo mō Niu Tīreni, a Frank Corner, ki te whakatau mai i tō mātou ope. Ka mutu te mihi atu a mātou nei ki a rātou, ka whakatakotoria atu ngā taonga a Kuini Te Atairangikaahu, hei tuku mā mātou ki ō mātou rangatira nā rātou nei i whakatinana te whakawhitinga atu ki a rātou.
I te pā, ka haria mātou e te wahine nei, e Siobhan Oppenheimer, ki tētahi wharekai, arā kē, aua atu ana ki runga, ā, i reira ka manaakitia anō mātou e ō mātou rangatira. Mutu kau i konei, ka haria mātou ki tō Victor Alicia, kia whakamanuhiritia e ngā Puerto Rican. I pai i te tuatahi, ēngari ka roa e whakangahau ana te iwi nei, ka rangona tonutia atu i roto i ngā waiata, te kino, te kiriweti o te iwi nei ki ngā Pākehā, rite tonu te kino ki tō ngā mangumangu. Rongo rawa ake au, ko tētahi o māua ko Hēnare ka tangi mai, kia hoki māua. Kua kite kē atu ia i tētahi mea rerekē, me te kaha haurangi haere o tō mātou hūnuku. Ko te mea rerekē, ko te auau o te putaputanga atu o ngā tāne ki waho. Tā rātou mahi kē hoki, he kai i ā rātou hikareti whakananu. Nā tēnei ka āwangawanga a Hēnare Northeroft kei tūpono tutū te iwi nei i ā rātou waipiro, hikareti hoki, arā, kei raru hoki i te iwi nei. Ko tana kīnga mai kia kaua e roa rawa, ka hoki ai māua. Nā tētahi tonu o ō mātou rangatira, nā Stan Bresenoff, māua i kawe mai ki te kāinga. Tau ana rā te ngākau, reka ana hoki te moe i te pō.
Nō te ata rongo māua i āta raru tonu anō te hunga nei, mutu rawa atu rātou i te hāpāhi o te whā i te ata ki tētahi hōhipera whawhai ai, he hōhipera i panatia mai ai tētahi o rātou tonu inatahirā. Ka tae mai rā mātou ki tō mātou rā whakamutunga ki New York, heoi ko te mahi he mātakitaki haere. Na, koinei ka haere mātou i te pō ki te tara o te tino whare teitei o te ao, te Empire State Building, me ōna whakapapa-ranga kotahi rau mā rua. Anō nei he moemoeā. I konei atu hoki ka kitea te roa me te whānui o te moutere nei, o Long Island, ā, ka āta kitea atu hoki te mahi me te
At this Ford Foundation luncheon the top executive officers of the Foundation spoke, extending a sincere and warm welcome to our group. The Ambassador spoke also, associating himself with our hosts in the welcome. One of our number was delegated to speak on our behalf at the end of which reply, the carved gifts we received from Queen Te Atairangikaahu, were presented to our hosts, representatives of the Foundation that had made the exchange between Maori and American Indian a reality.
In the evening we were again the guests of Mrs Siobhan Oppenheimer, at a dining-room called The Top of the Six's, in another New York skyscraper. Later, after dinner, we made our way to the Puerto Rican quarters. These people were entertaining us for the evening at the residence of Mr Victor Alicia. The evening started well, but after a while the Puerto Rican songs took on a very distasteful flavour, expressing hatred towards the white American, almost equal to that of the negro. It was not surprising therefore to hear Henry Northcroft expressing his desire that we leave about ten o'clock. He had already sensed a bitterness in the atmosphere — a change in the behaviour of the Puerto Rican men and their constant exits and entrances. They were of course availing themselves of smoking their reefer cigarettes every so often. Because of this Henry Northcroft anticipated trouble, hence his desire for our early retirement that evening lest we become involved in some unsavoury happening. Stan Bresenoff, one of our hosts, saw us home. So we settled in for the rest of the evening to a good night's sleep.
The next morning the boys informed us that the Puerto Ricans had become troublesome so that by about 4.30 a.m. they had caused quite a riot at a hospital where one of their people had been dismissed the day before. We had come now to our last day in New York and the order then was sight-seeing. Then some of us set off to scale, by lift of course, the highest building in the world, The Empire State Building with its one hundred and two storeys. This was done early in the evening so that the sight from that roof was as it were just a dream. From this vantage point we could see the length and breadth of Long Island and appreciate more fully the expansive spread
mātauranga o te tangata ki te hanga mai i tēnei ngahere pōhatu. He maha tonu ngā wāhi hokohoko i tae ai mātou i te awatea. Nō tētahi o ā mātou haere, ka kite mātou i ngā pukapuka huhua nei, e whakaaturia mai ana i roto i ngā toa, hore ake he whakamā, i te aroaro o te wahine o te tāne, o rāua e ai mai ana. E kore rawa e whakaaea ēnei tū pukapuka, niupepa rānei, ki Niu Tīreni. Koinei ka noho me ngā mahara ki te noho tahi a te rawa nui me te rawa kore, o tēnei whenua nui whakaharahara, o ngā taumata ikeike o te mātauranga kua taea e Āmerika, ka mīharo, ā, ka whakaaro, he aha i hīmene ai: ‘Ka mahue Ihipa, te kāinga o te hē’.
Nā ēnei pea ka rongo ake i te kaha kuku-me o ngā whakaaro whakatekāinga. I ō mātou kitenga i ngā taupatupatu huhua, a te noho tahi a te pōhara, a te whairawa, a te kūare, a te mātau, i roto i tēnei ao o te tino mātauranga rawa, ā, kite iho ko te tangata anō tēnei, i roto i ōna mamae hane-hane, i ōne aureretanga i roto o Āmerika.
I te ata o te Rāhoroi e rima hāora te rere atu i te Tauranga o Kennedy ki San Francisco. E rima anō, ka tae ki te tauranga ki Honolulu. I konei ka takina atu mātou ki tērā whaitua o Oahu moutere, ki te marae Māori, hei whakamanuhiri mā ō mātou rangatira Mōmona o te Kāreti Mōmona o taua takiwā. Whakamīharo tonu mātou ki te manaaki a te Pīhopa Mōmona, a Nephi George, ki a mātou. Nō te ata rawa anō ka kite mātou i te ātaahua o taua moutere, ā, ka puta ake anō te pātai: ‘He aha rawa rā i haere whakatetonga ai ō tātou tūpuna? Iwi kūare ki te waiho ake i tēnei whenua mīharo, mahana hoki!’
Nui rawa atu te manaaki. Waimarie, i reira hoki i taua wā ētahi anō o te wā kāinga. I muri tina, ka tae mai a Dr Pat Hōhepa me ētahi anō o tō mātou rōpū ki te hari i a mātou ki tō te Tākuta tatari ai mō tō mātou manu. I te 11.30 i te pō ka whakawhāiti atu mātou ki te tauranga manu, hei whakangahautanga mā te Pīhopa Mōmona me tana hūnuku. He haka, he poi te mahi, ā, tae atu ki te wā hei ekenga atu waka, ka riro i te Pīhopa Mōmona ngā inoi tautoko i a mātou ki te ara, tae atu ki te kāinga. E waru hāora atu ki Māngere. Ko Pīhopa Pānapa, ko Parāone Pūriri, e tatari mai ana i a mātou. Kāhore i roa, kitea rawatia ake
of this massive concrete jungle, man's own achievement. During the day we were able to visit several shops. It was on one of these excursions that we saw displayed quite shamelessly pornographic literature that would make our censors blush. Such literature would never pass our censors in New Zealand. So one's thoughts were again on the wealth and poverty side by side in this great country, of the tremendous achievements in the area of education in America and one wondered, and thought why we should still sing the hymn, ‘We have left Egypt, the land of sin’.
Perhaps this was why our thoughts were strongly drawn towards home. After seeing for ourselves this land of countless contradictions, of affluence and poverty at their greatest and worst, of ignorance and depravity amid terrifically advanced strides in the scientific and technological world, we realised that at the centre of it all was man again, in all his trials and tribulations, man of every nationality in this huge tract of land.
Saturday morning saw us in flight from Kennedy Airport to San Francisco, a matter of five hours' journey. [Along the route we sped high above the snow-capped rocky ranges, white as far as the eye could see, which scenery prevailed till we reached the shores on which lapped the waters of the Pacific Ocean.] Another five-hour trip across the ocean brought us to the Island of Oahu to land at Honolulu airport. We were taken to the other side of the island, to the Polynesian Centre, where we were received as honoured guests by our Mormon hosts of the Mormon College. The Mormon Bishop, Nephi George, was absolutely wonderful to us. It was not till the next morning, Sunday, that we had a chance to appreciate the beauty of the island and we wondered, ‘What impelled our ancestors to move further south? What foolish people to leave this wonderful tropical climate!’
We were treated royally. Fortunately there were folk from home there as well. After dinner, Dr Pat Hohepa and others of our party arrived to take us to his home and await the hour of our departure for New Zealand. By 11.30 p.m. we were gathered at the air terminal and handsomely entertained by the Mormon Bishop and his group. Songs and hakas were danced till just before we enplaned, when Bishop
kei Waiwhetū mātou e pōwhiritia ana e Ihāia Puketapu me ētahi atu, ā, tūtaki ai ki ngā Inia kiriwhero a Āmerika.
E rua ō mātou rangi ki Waiwhetū e hui ana i te mahi a te tangata nei, a Kara Puketapu, Arā, mātou ko ngā Inia kiriwhero, whakawhitiwhiti kōrero, whakaaro ai. I reira ka rongo mātou, me tō mātou koa nui atu hoki, i ngā whakamanuhiritanga nui a ō tātou waka i te tūārangi o Āmerika, i ō rātou tūmanako, i ā rātou i kite ai i konei, me tā rātou whakamīharo mō ngā manaaki i a rātou. Puta rawa ngā kōrero mō te tūhonohononga noho a te Māori me te Pākehā i roto i te wā poto o te kotahi rau rima tekau tau, kite ake rātou ahakoa tana ono rau tau e noho tahi ana i te taha o te Pākehā, kei te ao tawhito tonu rātou, arā, tō rātou nuinga e noho ana.
Nō te pō o te Tāite 13 Maehe ka poroakitia e Ngāti Maniapoto me ngā iwi o Pōneke, o te Hutt Valley, te rōpū nei. He pō tēnei e kore e warewaretia e ngā rōpū e rua nei o te Ford Foundation Whakawhitiwhiti. Nā Raymond Kane o te iwi Apache, tāna kōrero: ‘E kore e wareware au ki tēnei haerenga mai, i kite ai au, utua rawatia ai koutou ki te mahi tangata.’
I mua i tana wehenga mai i Āmerika mō Niu Tīreni, nāna i utu tana nama ki te hōhipera, e whā rau taara mō te whaka-whānautanga i tana hoa wahine, ka tae mai nei ia, ka rongo ki Te Social Security kaupapa o konei, ka kī ia, ‘He mea mīharo rawa atu tēnei! I te wā kāinga e whā rau taara tāku utunga mō te whakawhānau i taku hoa wahine; kia tae rawa kē mai au ki Niu Tireni nei, kātahi anō ahau ka kite, ē, utua kētia ai koutou tāne mā, ki te mahi tangata!’
Nephi George offered up prayers for a safe journey home. The night flight to Mangere took eight hours. At the airport both Bishop Panapa and Mr Brownie Puriri were there to welcome us home. It was not long before we were back at Waiwhetu marae to be received by our koeke, Ihaia Puketapu and several others and to meet the Indian team from America.
At Waiwhetu we spent two days, organised by Kara Puketapu, exchanging views and experiences with our Indian counterparts. During this period of evaluation we learned with great delight of the hospitality meted out to our American guests, their reactions, their hopes, their experiences, their appreciation of the countless blessings we as a people have received. They spoke of the degree of integration of Maori and Pakeha in the short time of hundred and fifty years and compared it with the six hundred years they had had contact with western civilisation, and still found the majority lagging behind.
On Thursday night 13 March the Ngati Maniapoto people, together with the assembled people of Wellington and the Hutt Valley, farewelled the Indian party. This was an occasion which will long live in the memories of both parties of the Ford Foundation Exchange. It was the Apache boy, Raymond Kane, who said, ‘You know, one thing I shall remember of our visit for a long time is, how you guys are paid to make them.’
Raymond Kane had, just prior to leaving for New Zealand, paid four hundred dollars for maternity fees, then he arrives here to learn of our Social Security scheme with a certain amount of astonishment and says, ‘This is marvellous! I pay four hundred dollars to get my wife and baby back home, and come to New Zealand to see that you guys are paid to make them.’