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No. 60 (September 1967)
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The Department of Maori Affairs September–November 1967

Tongan Coronation

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Among the 20 New Zealand guests at the coronation of King Taufa‘ahau Tupou of Tonga were Queen Te Atairangikaahu and her husband Mr Whatumoana Paki.

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Wearing their coronation robes the newly-crowned King and his Queen. Mata‘aho walk on tapa cloth past the Royal Palace as they leave the chapel
National Publicity Studies

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published quarterly by the Department of Maori Affairs and sponsored by the Maori Purposes Fund Board.

printed at Pegasus Press Ltd.

n.z. subscriptions: One year 75c (four issues), three years S2. Rate for schools: 40c per year (minimum five subscriptions). From all offices of the Maori Affairs Department and from the editor.

editorial address: Box 2390, Wellington. New Zealand.

overseas subscriptions: England and other countries with sterling currency: One year 10/-, three years £1/5/-, Australia: one year $1.35, three years $3.15. U.S.A. and Hawaii: one year $1.50, three years $3.50. Canada: one year $1.65, three years $3.75. Other countries: the local equivalent of sterling rates.

back issues (N.Z. rates): Issue nos. 19–22, 27–29 and 31–59 are available at 25c each. A very few copies of issue nos. 13, 18, 23, 25 and 30 are still available at 50c each. Other issues are now out of stock. (Overseas rates for back issues are available on request.)

contributions in maori: K0 tetahi o nga whakaaro nui o Te Ao Hou he pupuri kia mau te reo Maori. Otira ko te nuinga o nga korero kei te tukua mai kei te reo Pakeha anake. Mchemea hoki ka nui mai nga korero i tuhia ki te reo Maori ka whakanuia ake te wahanga o ta tatou pukapuka mo nga korero Maori.

Statements in signed articles in Te Ao Hou are the responsibility only of the writers concerned.

Te Ao Hou

Number 60 September-November 1967

Rewi, Margaret Hapi 14
The Challenge, Dorothea Joblin 23
Ambition, Marjorie Laurenson 12
Poutu, Rangi Harrison 12
Lament, Ian Maclean 13
A Warning of Pirongia, John Barrett 15
Deep Mystery, Dinah Moengarangi Rawiri 15
Steve Watene, M. J. Taylor 3
Sam Emery, Meke Tukuru 5
Koanga O Te Tau, Puwharariki, Te Ranga-a-te-anewa 6
Me Pehea Tatou? Anne Bosch 9
Wallace Mangu, Margaret Wright 11
Australian Pre-school Conference, Betty Brown 17
Coronation Hui at Turangawaewae 25
Aotea Tua-Toru opened at Makirikiri 29
M.W.W.L. Conference at Tauranga 32
Taranaki Boy's Success, S. A. Hunt 38
New Zealand Police 39
Maori Clubs 42
Haere Ki o Koutou Tipuna 2
Letters 5
People and Places 35
Younger Readers' Section 49
Records, Alan Armstrong 55
Books 57
Crossword Puzzle 64

the minister of maori affairs: The Hon. J. R. Hanan.

editor: Joy Stevenson.

associate editor (Maori text): E. B. Ranapia.

FRONT COVER: Popcorn time at Turangawaewae—Theo Kist.

BACK COVER: The winning article in the Wellington Maori Arts Festival carving competition—‘Evening Post’ photograph.


Ivor Arthur Te Puni

A great-grandson of Chief Honiana Te Puni, who welcomed the settlers in the Tory when she arrived off Petone foreshore in 1840, Mr, I. A. Te Puni died on 29 May, aged 82.

He spent some time in Taranaki, and went farming in Queen Charlotte Sound in 1927, moving to Picton in 1931. There he later was employed as a builder with the Department of Maori Affairs.

Mr Te Puni made carving in traditional Maori style his life-time hobby, and did his best to persuade the younger generation to preserve the ancient arts. His home contained many valuable relics, and his advice on Maori matters was often sought.

He was buried in the family cemetery at Petone.

Harold Tarewai Wesley

Maori and Pakeha joined to mourn the acknowledged leader of the Kaik Maori community, 60-year-old Mr H. T. Wesley, who died in Dunedin on 17 July.

Mr Wesley, son of a well-known Morven family, held positions on many Maori Committees. He was a strong member of the interdenominational church at Otakau and was involved in all community activities.

He farmed on the Peninsula for 20 years and gave long service to the Peninsula A. & P. Society.

Mr Wesley is survived by his wife Edna and son Sutton.

George Heperi

Mr George Heperi, Takapau, died suddently while on a visit to Nelson.

Mr Heperi, who was 69, was educated at the Takapau Primary school and Te Aute College. He played rugby and tennis in his youth and later took up golf to become club champion of the Takapau Golf Club in 1930.

He was secretary of the Aorangi Trust Board until his death and was a member of the Anglican Church. He was also a member of the RAOB and held office in the Takapau Masonic Lodge.

He belonged to Ngaitahu and though not vocal on the marae, was a most active organiser in tribal matters.

He leaves a wife and three children, Mrs Wiki Grogan and Mrs Huia Halbert (both of Gisborne) and Sergeant Tahu Heperi, of the New Zealand Army.

Frederick Te Tiwha Bennett

Mr. F. T. Bennett, third son of the first Bishop of Aotearoa, the Rt Revd F. Bennett, died on 31 July, aged 61.

Mr Bennett was one of 14 children. His brothers include Mr C. M. Bennett, former New Zealand High Commissioner in Malaya and now Assistant Secretary of Maori Affairs, Dr H. R. Bennett, medical superintendent at Tokanui Psychiatric Hospital, Te Awamutu, and the Revd A. M. Bennett, prison chaplain at Waikeria.

One of seven brothers to be commissioned from the ranks in the Second World War, he went overseas in the second echelon, the original Maori Battalion, and after serving in the Middle East returned home as a captain.

Mr Bennett was educated in Rotorua, at Te Aute College, Napier Boys' High School and Otago University, where he graduated as bachelor of dental surgery.

He lived and practised dentistry in Ponsonby, was a member of the Auckland Lions Club and a member of the Auckland Racing Club.

He is survived by his wife, four daughters and one son.

Many fellow Battalion members attended his tangi at the Mangere marae, the service at St. Andrews' Anglican church and burial at Purewa cemetery.

Revd Wharetini Rangi, M.B.E.

A prominent figure on the East Coast, Revd W. Rangi, Vicar at Ruatoki died early in August.

People from all walks of life. Rugby Union officials local body members. Maori leaders

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and Government officials gathered at Tauarau marae for his tangi.

Born at Tolaga Bay in 1885, member of the Hauiti tribe, he was educated at Te Aute College and ordained in 1927. He served at Porangahau, Tokumaru Bay and at Ruatoki, and spent three years overseas as padre to the Maori Battalion. He was also a Justice of the Peace.

An early member of the Whakatane Historical Society, his ability as interpreter of karakia was welcomed.

Revd Rangi leaves a family of four sons and three daughters.

Tribute to the late P. T. (Steve) Watene

In the fifteen years during which I knew Steve Watene, I came to appreciate him as a warmhearted friend, a man of high Christian principles and a staunch champion of his beloved Maori people.

He was a true servant of his people.

Steve was constantly to be seen acting as friend, confidant and guide to a host of Maori people who came to seek his help and through him perhaps to petition Parliament with their problems.

The massive Tangi which his death inspired was vivid testimony to Steve's lifetime of service.

His career as a Member of Parliament was a brief one of only three and a half years. Though he was a most conscientious and industrious Parliamentarian it was in tribute to Steve the man rather than in deference to his status as an M.P. that all of Maoridom gathered at the Tatau-o-te-po Meeting House at Petone and at the nearby Te Puni Cemetery.

The East Coast people of the Hikurangi and the Hokowhitu-a-Tu parties were there in force as a tribute to the wonderful post and support which he had been to them. The same could be said of groups or representatives from all over New Zealand who came to pay their tribute. Gathered in large numbers were, of course, his own Ngati Maru tribesmen whom he had led in many a cause such as the Hauraki goldfields claim, both in and out of Parliament.

Pakehas also were there in large numbers. The Prime Minister, the Right Hon. Keith Holyoake, the Minister of Maori Affairs, the Hon. J. R. Hanan, the Leader of the Opposition, Mr Norman Kirk and the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Mr R. Jack led the waves of Parliamentarians at the Tangi, all showing by word and action how genuinely shocked and grieved they were at the sudden unexepected loss of their friend.

The presence of other leading Pakeha citizens was further evidence of the way that Steve had acted as a bridge between Maori and Pakeha.

He had made his mark in many and diverse fields.

Sporting notables from an earlier generation were a reminder of another area of endeavour in which he had made an outstanding contribution. Notable football heroes George Nepia and Jack Hemi recalled Steve's golden days in sport in 1936–37 when he captained New Zealand at Rugby League.

Other fields in which he had devoted himself to the welfare of the Maori people for the

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‘Dominion’ photograph
The Prime Minister and Mrs Holyoake and Mr Hanan greet Mrs Watene at the tangi at Tatau-o-te-po Meeting House.

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good of both Maori and Pakeha were as a long-time Industrial Welfare Officer, as a member of the Petone Borough Council, as a member of the New Zealand Maori Council, as a long-time worker for the Labour Party and member of its National Executive.

Steve was too young to die. But if the end was inevitable it could not have been in more fitting surroundings.

He died in the Maori-decorated Maori Affairs Committee Room of Parliament Buildings while the committee was considering the Maori Affairs Bill—legislation in which he took an intense interest.

As he lay there on a Wednesday morning peaceful in death in the Maori Affairs Committee Room I thought how appropriate were his surroundings. There in the room he loved so well beneath the giant facsimile of the Treaty of Waitang and the photographs of Maori Members of Parliament of an earlier generation—Buck, Ngata, Carroll. Pomare.

How fitting an epitaph to a lifetime of service to the Maori people.

He Poroporoaki i te Ariki
o te Tairawhiti,
i a Puti Watene Tipene, M.P.

Kua horo ngā puāwai o te Rātā, kua memenge ngā rau, kua maroke te tinana, kua heke te wai ki ngā pakiaka, ki te kōpū nui o Papatuanuku.

Haere, e Tipene, haere ki te Pō, haere ki ō tūpuna, ki te Iwi, te ara o ngā ariki, ngā kīngi me ngā rangatira. Haere, haere!

Whatiia ake ngā puapua o Papatuanuku, te tōtara whakamarumaru o te Wao-nui-a-Tāne. Nga maunga teitei o te wā kua oti te whakahoro te mea hei mānia.

Haere, e te hoa, i roto i ngā whakaaro mō te Iwi, kōrua ko Tā Eruera Tirikātene. Haere atu ki te Pō, ki te Pō nui, te Pō roa, te Pō tē kitea, kia whiti atu ki te Pō uriuri, te Pō kerekere, te Pō tuangahuru, te Pō e whakaau ai te moe. Haere, haere, haere!

He mihi ki tō hoa wahine me te whānau

Noho mai, e hine, i roto i te pōuri me tā kōrua whānau. Kua iri te kaitaka o ngā rangatira ki a koe i te rā nei.

‘Whakarua i te hau e taea te karo; whakarua i te mate tē taea te karo.’

—Hōne P. H. Tukariri

The bloom of the rata is shed, its leaves withered and its trunk dry and lifeless; its lifeblood has drained away through the root to the body of Mother Earth from which it sprang.

Depart, Tipene, pass on to that Other World to be with your ancestors and those of our people who have gone before, along the path that chiefs, kings and leaders all must tread. Farewell, farewell.

The branches of the sheltering totara of the Great Forest of Tane are broken. The lofty mountains that were, are levelled to the dust.

Depart, dear friend, from the strivings and the labours for your people that you shared with Sir Eruera Tirikatene. Pass on to the Po. the Great Unknown of our ancestors, the long the unseen Po, and on to the dark Po, the Po of intense blackness, the ever-changing Po. and so to the ultimate Po, there to find deep sleep and rest. Farewell, farewell, farewell.

My sympathy goes out to your wife and family.

Our sympathy goes out to you, his wife, and to your children. Today, the mantle of responsibility rests upon your shoulders.

‘From nature's storms one may find shelter; from the storms of life there is no shelter.’

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Sam Emery

One of the last, and certainly one of the most successful of Maoridom's fading generation of illiterate elders, Rotoiti's Sam Emery will be remembered as the man who did the impossible.

Without a single day of schooling, and though unable to read or write a line of print, he became a leader in business, an administrator, and an official on numerous Maori incorporations and committees. Born to poverty, he rose from the ranks of roadmen and gum diggers to high finance.

Perhaps his greatest attribute was thought for his people at a time when many lesser men would have been obsessed with enjoyment of the fruits of their success in life.

Sam was born in the Maori settlement of Kakepuku, near Te Awamutu, in 1885. Times were so tough as a youngster that he got hungry enough to suck milk out of his uncle's cow a few hours before milking time—at the risk of a heavily clipped ear.

He ran away from home at 12, launched his first business on the Coromandel gum diggings at 16, and opened a shop at Rotoiti at the age of 26. His capital came from navvying on the roads, gum digging and planting trees for the forestry.

Success came to Sam in his thirties. He became a transport operator, launch owner and timber miller. He pioneered motor transport.

He became a farmer, and encouraged his people to do likewise, playing a leading role in the development of the wealthy incorporations in the Rotoiti district today. He was a staunch supporter of Sir Apirana Ngata's early land schemes, submitting two areas for development under the schemes.

He became a county councillor, serving Rotorua County for 18 years, and winning a name as an able, fair and devoted councillor, widely respected by Maori and Pakeha alike.

With all his involvement in public life, committees, meetings and business deals, Sam Emery was never too busy to forget his people. He took a leading part in the financing and construction of five meeting houses, including one at his birthplace for the Ngati-Kahu.


The Editor,

‘Te Ao Hou’

I greatly enjoyed Kani Papa's advice to the young Maori on how to behave when he went to have tea with the Spencer family.

Could Kani Papa give similar advice to a Pakeha who wants to do the right thing when he goes to have tea with Maori friends?

This kindly humour goes a long way towards showing us how others see us.



(‘Townie’ has agreed to write an article on the subject Mrs Thornley suggests—Ed.)

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He pitopito kōrero ēnei nāku o Te Whānau-a-Apanui mō ngā kai whakatiputipu o te tau, arā, mō te kūmara. He nui ō tāua tohungatanga ki ā tāua rā, ki ā tāua pō whakatō kūmara, ēngari ka raua mai anō e tāua ko te hinu mano whenua a te Pākehā, hai wai rākau mō te oneone, hai waiū hoki mō te kūmara.

Ko Te Whānau-a-Apanui, ko tōna tohungatanga ki te whakatō i tēnei kai, i te kūmara, i tuku iho rānō i a Kaiaio, uri o Apanui. I noho tēnei tangata ki Hauruia, ki Wahaotiu, wāhi o Pāhāoa e tata ana ki Te Kaha-nui-a-Tiki. I tirohia e Kaiaio ki ēnei māra āna te whakatō o te kūmara; te whakapiringa o āna pō, ki ia pō o te marama me te āhua o te tai, ki ia āhuatanga o te marama, o ngā whetū.

Ki te hiahiatia te kūmara hai roroi, ka whakahaerea anō i ngā pō e tika ana, kia nunui ai te kūmara, kua paraha—pai ana ki te waru.

Te kao, hai ngā pō anō e tika ana, kia mata ririki ai te kūmara, ēngari kia roroa, kia pai ai hoki te rau mānuka ki te tahitahi i ngā peha o te kūmara.

Kūmara tāpae ki te rua, kia kaua e pōtakataka, ēngari kia roroa, kia rarahi te kūmara.

Kūmara tunutunu, kia tahuna pēnei me te Toro-mahoe, me te Mākakauri, kia māngaro tonu; mā te wai hoki o te kina e whakamākūkū.

Enei āhua katoa o te kūmara, i tirohia katoatia e Kaiaio; ki te marama, ki te tai, ki ngā whetū, Kāore e hauhake noa i te kūmara kia paepae rānō a Whānui, kia āta pakari mārika ai te kūmara, kia kore ai hoki e pirau.

Ki te pirau te kūmara ki te rua, kāore e kawa, ēngari ka tīhorehorengia te kiri o te kūmara, ka kopēngia te wai kia heke (ēngari he pai tonu hoki ki te unu), ka pakipakingia kia maroke, ka tāpuke ki rō pungarehu wera kia maoa, tētahi kai reka. Tuarua, he mahi; he


These are some observations of mine on kumara culture among my tribe. Te Whanau-a-Apanui. We have a great deal of expert knowledge about the days and nights of the month that govern our planting of the kumara; but we are inclined to overlook the Pakeha method of manuring the land and giving nourishment both to the soil and to the kumara.

Te Whanau-a-Apanui's expert knowledge of kumara culture has been handed down from generation to generation since the time of Kaiaio, a descendant of Apanui. Kaiaio lived beside his plantations, Hauruia and Wahaotiu, at Pahaoa near Te Kaha. He regularly inspected these gardens of his and kept a close watch on all aspects of kumara growing, noting and keeping in conjunction the phases of the moon and stars.

If kumara were to be grown for roroi, that is, to be grated, they would be planted when the moon was at the correct phase for them to grow large. When the kumara were broken open they would be broad and flat and excellent for grating.

Again, kumara to be grown for making kao (preserved kumara) would be planted at the correct phase of the moon for them to grow small, but long, so that their skins could easily be rubbed off with manuka leaves.

Kumara to be stacked in storage pits should not be globular, but should be long and large.

Tubers to be used for roasting, such as the Toroamahoe and the Makakauri should be floury; these were usually eaten with the liquid from sea-eggs to moisten them.

All these aspects of kumara culture were carefully noted by Kaiaio; the moon, the tide and the stars. Kumara would never be harvested until Whanui (the star Vega) was visible, so that the tubers would be properly mature and not liable to rot.

If kumara did begin to rot in a store-pit they would not be considered unpalatable, but would be peeled, the juice, which made a pleasant drink, squeezed out, then they would be patted dry and buried in hot ashes until they were cooked; this was regarded as a delicacy. The second kind of rot in kumara was known

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pirau anō tēnei nō te kūmara, ēngari ko tōna tohu ki te oneone, ki te rua rānei, whawhati ai, ka hongia iho e te ihu, ka puta tōna kakara. He waruwaru kau i ngā kiri, e ngau ana, ā, tōna kai reka anō.

Koainei ētahi o ō tāua ō o te Māori, nāna tāua i kawe mai ki te wā o te parāoa nei; e waiho nei hai mea aroha ki ngā mokopuna, he kore pani mō runga.

Ko te mea kāore i tirohia e Kaiaio, ki te marama, ki te tai, ki ngā whetū rānei, ko te whakahoki i te wairākau o te whenua, e reka nei, e māngaro nei te kai. Ko te wairākau o te oneone, e ai ki tāna, ko ngā tarutaru i tipu ki te māra, koianā tonu te waiū o te oneone, i rite tonu ai tāna hōmai i te kai, me tōna reka me te māngaro hoki.

Ko tēnei tangata ko Kaiaio, ko ōna tuākana, tāina, he tāngata mau rākau katoa. Kāore he ata kē i roto i ō rātau nā ngākau, ko te riri anake. Ka tū he pakanga, ka haere ērā ki te riri, ka noho a Kaiaio ki te ngaki i āna māra. Ka taka ki tētahi wā, ka whakataka ngā tuākana: he ope taua hai ngaki i ō rātau nā mate i ō rātau nā purei whutupōrotanga i aua wā. Ka whāiti mai te ope whakataka a ngā, tuākana, ka tū tōna toa ki te kōrero, ki te whakatū i te kōrero o te toa: tū ake tēnā, tū ake tēnā, nā te mea noa anō ka mene ngā toa ki te kōrero. Ko Kaiaio kai reira anō e noho ana. Kua rere te kupu a tētahi, “E, Kaiaio, e tū rā ki te kōrero i te kōrero o te toa.”

Ka tū a Kaiaio ki runga, āta whitiki mārika ana i tōna rāpaki, ua rawa, ka nanao atu ia ki tāna rākau, he kō. Kātahi ia ka peke, ka pou i tāna rākau ki te papa o te whare, kātahi ia ka pepeha “Rākau tahi anō aku ki a Hauruia he mano te hinganga ki a Wahaotiu he mano te hinganga.”

Kua rere i tētahi, “Kaiaio, me kōrero kai ia te kōrero o te toa ki te riri?”

Ka whakautua e Kaiaio, “Apōpō rā koe te toa riri. te haere ai, manako ake anō koe he kai.”

E mau nei tēnei pepeha i a Te Whānau-a-Apanui, ngā uri whakatipu kai o Kaiaio.

Nō reira mai rānō a Te Whānau-a-Apanui,


as mahi, a kind of blemish that could be detected either when the kumara were in the soil or when they were in the storehouse by the distinctive smell they had when they were broken open. They were simply scraped and eaten and were also regarded as a delicacy.

These are some of the delicacies that were part of our diet up to the time when flour was introduced. To mention them now brings back memories of our old people and how their grandchildren would cry because they had nothing to spread on their bread.

There was one aspect of kumara culture, however, which Kaiaio in his careful calculations of conditions of the moon, the tide and the stars omitted to consider. This was the manuring of the soil which gives the kumara its flavour and texture. He considered that the proper fertiliser for the soil was the weeds that grew in the plantations and that these gave an abundant crop and also gave the tubers their flavour and texture.

Kaiaio's elder and younger brothers were all fighting men, preoccupied with warfare. Whenever fighting broke out they would be off to join in the battle, while Kaiaio stayed at home to tend his cultivations. At one time, the brothers were preparing to set off on an expedition to seek revenge for a defeat, in the same spirit as we avenge defeats on the Rugby football field today. The members of the brothers' war party met to plan the campaign, each warrior taking his turn at standing up to speak and, with the dramatic gestures of the Maori orator, to tell of deeds of bravery, this being the purpose for which they had gathered. Kaiaio was seated among them. One of the speakers addressed him, “Kaiaio, stand up and let us hear about your deeds of bravery!”

Kaiaio got to his feet, slowly and deliberately tightening his working kilt about him, then, after an impressive pause, suddenly snatched up his weapon, a digging-stick, and making an orator's leap, he struck his stick on the floor of the house and uttered this saying: “With my one weapon I attack Hauruia and thousands are defeated; I attack Wahaotiu and thousands are defeated.”

Another of the warriors present said. “Kaiaio, do you liken talk of food to talk of bravery in war?”

To this, Kaiaio replied, “Tomorrow you will go out as a warrior to do battle and even you will think of food.”

Te Whanau-a-Apanui, his food-producing descendants, still treasure this proverbial saying of Kaiaio.

He is the source from which Te Whanau-a-

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āna pō me āna tikanga mō te pou kūmara. Kotahi te waha o te kō ki te pou, kotahi anō te anga o te hunga pou. Kāore e anga kē e pare kē. E mau nei ēnei tikanga i ngā hapū o Te Whānau-a-Apanui nei, mai i a Kaiaio, heke iho noa mai ki ēnei whakatupuranga.

Ko tēnei iwi ko Te Whānau-a-Apanui he iwi hākere, mā te waewae taka tonu ki tōna aro-aro, ka maringi noa āna kai, ka makere anō āna taonga, ka ngahoro noa āna kōrero.

Ka taka mai nei ki te wā o te whakapono nei, kātahi ka hurihia ngā pō whakatipu kai a tēnei iwi ki ngā pō whāngai i te wairua; kāore he tohu o ngā pō a te wairua. I kōrerotia, kotahi anō, me anga nui ō koutou kanohi ki runga, kaua e tiro whakararo, nō te mea kei runga hoki ngā hōmaitanga papai katoa. Ka hurihia ngā whakaaro o ēnei hapū ki te whai i ēnei pō-tikanga rānei.

Ka taka te whakaaro i ēnei hapū kia whaka-arahia e rātau he whare karakia ki Whanga-parāoa hei pupiri i te mauri o te whakapono ki waenganui o tēnei karangatanga hapū o roto i a Te Whānau-a-Apanui, arā, i te Whānau-a-Kauaetangohia. Mā te huruhuru hoki te manu ka rere! Ka takoto he pūtea i te whānau nei, me ngā tikanga katoa e ara ai te taonga. Huri rawa iho ngā kanohi i whakatirohia whaka-rungatia rā, kua eke kē te pūtea nei kai runga i te waka nei i a * Marutawhao hai tiki i te kūmara i Hawaiki.

E te wairua ki āu pō, ‘Ka runga te kōrero, kai raro te rahurahu’. Ka wāhi rua i konei a Te Whānau-a-Apanui, te mauri pupuri i te whakatō o te kai; pupuri i te mauri tangata, i te mauri pupuri hoki i te whakapono. Kua tiro kē, kua huri kē, kua kuhu kē, kua whaka-angaanga te hinengaro, ki konei rānei, ki kō rānei; me pēnei rānei, me pērā rānei; me te mamae iho anō o te ngākau ki ngā taonga ātaahua whakarerenga iho a ngā tīpuna kua tere nei i te ia o te wā …. ki Whananui e te hoki mai nei tō wairua ora ki te ao nā ….

nā Pūwharariki, Te Ranga-a-te-anewa


Apanui derived their knowledge of correct planting times and methods of cultivation of the kumara. At planting time, the planters worked always in unison. The digging sticks were all lifted in one way and the planters all faced in one direction. No one would move in a different direction from the others. These customs have been retained by the various subtribes of the Whanau-a-Apanui, from the time of Kaiaio right down to the present generation.

The Whanau-a-Apanui people are careful with their food, but are at the same time generous. Their generosity and their careful husbanding of food supplies enable them, when they have guests, to be lavish in their hospitality and to lay before their visitors not only a wealth of their finest provisions but also a feast of stories and traditions.

With the coming of Christianity, the people likened the growth of the new religion to their planting; but there were no signs to guide them in the things of the spirit. They were told, “You must be steadfast in turning your faces up towards heaven. Don't look down, for all your blessings come from on high.” So the people of these sub-tribes devoted all their thoughts to cultivating their spiritual well-being.

They decided to erect a church at Whangaparaoa (Cape Runaway) as a shrine for the deep faith of this sub-tribe of Te Whanau-a-Apanui, the Kauaetangohia people. As the proverb says, the wherewithal is necessary before we can accomplish anything. A fund was established by the people and money raised in various ways. However, by the time the eyes that had been turned heavenwards returned to earth, the fund had gone with the ancestral canoe, Marutawhao, on its long journey to Hawaiki to bring back the kumara.

So much for the things of the spirit; as the saying goes, ‘A prophet is not without honour, save in his own country’. From this time, Te Whanau-a-Apanui became a divided people, in their allegiance to different beliefs; the things pertaining to their agricultural activities, the part of them that held on to the cultural values and the call of their religion. Some are looking in one direction some in another, turning this way and that to find a satisfactory means of sustenance; not any more a people all of one mind; wondering whether to stay here, or to go there; whether to do this, or to do that; and with all this, constantly concerned over the priceless traditions left to them by their ancestors which are now drifting away on the current of the times.

by Puwharariki, Te Ranga-a-te-anewa


*Ki etahi, ko Te Aratawhao.

– 9 –

Me pehea tatou?

Enei kōrero āku, e pā ana ki a tātou ngā iwi Māori, arā, ki ngā wāhine. Ko taku hiahia kia kite au i ā tātou tamariki e pīrangi ana ki te whai i te mātauranga. Ae, e tika ana he toko-maha ngā tamariki kua puta i tēnei karanga-tanga, ēngari e hia atu kei ngā tāone, kāinga, pā rāianei e noho ana, e hia anō ngā tau i pau ki te kura. Aue te moumou! Whakamahia ngā kura me ngā kaiwhakaako, e hoa mā.

E mea nei aku whakaaro e kite ana ahau hei whakatika i a tātou:-


Ina kī mai ō hoa, Pākehā, Māori, aha rāianei, ‘E hoa, te pai hoki o tō pēpi!’ Whakahoki atu, ‘Ae, tino pai.’ Kaua kē e kowhete ki ngā mahi hīanga a tō pēpi, ki ngā mahi tutū rāianei a tō tamaiti.

Kia kaha ki te rapu i ngā mea e tika ai ā tātou tamariki.

I ngā tau i mua atu i tā rātou haerenga ki
te kura:

Me huri tātou ngā mātua ki te hoko i ngā pukapuka e tika ana mā rātou. Nā, riro mai ō pukapuka me huri koutou ngā whaea ki te kōrero pukapuka ki ā koutou tamariki ia pō, ia pō. He aha ngā āhua pukapuka hei hoko mā tātou? Hei ngā pukapuka whai pikitia. Etahi e mea ana ki ngā pāmu, kararehe, ngā mea e tupu ana i runga i te mata o te whenua; ētahi e pā ana ki ngā tāone, toa, pahi, tereina me ērā atu mea; ētahi e pā ana ki te moana, ngā ika, mātaitai, poti, tima me ērā atu mea; me ngā pukapuka hoki e pā ana ki ngā āhua waka rererangi, me ērā atu mea e haere ana i te rangi nui nei. Koēnei ngā āhua pukapuka hei hoko mā tātou.

Engari, kia tūpato. Kaua rawa koe e mea atu ki tō tamaiti, ‘Kaua e tutūngia ngā puka-puka nā.’ Inā hiahia ia ki te titiro i ngā taonga nei, tukunī atu. Nā, ina puta ngā pātai mō ngā pukapuka nei, whakautua atu ngā pātai nei. Kaua e mea atu, ‘Hōhā! Haere ki waho! Kaua e tutū! Turituri!’ rāianei, Tino hē tēnei mahi, c aku hoa, tino hē. Mā te tutū i ngā taonga nei, mā te pātapatai ka kakama ai ā tātou tamariki ki te rapu i te mātauranga.

Te taha tinana:

Ki te taha mō ngā tinana, whakamahia ā tātou hōhipere, rata, nāhi tiaki pēpi me ērā atu mea. Whakatupungia ō tamariki kia kaua e mataku i ēnei mea, i ēnei tāngata. E hoa mā, i te wā i a au e nāhi ana ka kite au i tēnā mea te tamariki Māori e tangi ana i te mamae


What Can We Do?

These writings of mine concern us the Maori people, especially the women. I would like to see more of our children striving to seek more and higher education. Yes, it is true that a number of Maori children have done this, but how many more are there living at home in the towns, villages and pas, who gave only a few years of their lives to schooling? This is truly wasteful. Make full use of our schools and teachers, my people.

Here are a few ideas that may help you.

In general:

When your friends and acquaintances say to you, ‘What a beautiful baby you have!’ reply, ‘Yes, I think she is.’ Whatever you do, don't carry on about how mischievous or how troublesome your child is. Always look for that which will benefit your child.

Pre-school age:

In the years before they go to school we the parents must buy suitable books for our children and when we have the books, we must read to them regularly every night. What sorts of book do we buy? Well, picture books are best at that age. There are books about farms, animals plants and trees; there are those about towns, shops, buses, trains; there are books about the sea, about shellfish, fish, boats and ships and there are books about planes and rockets. These are only a few examples.

A word of warning. Do not forbid your child to touch these books. If he wants to look at them or to handle them, let him. Also, when he asks questions about the books, answer them as best you can. Don't say, ‘Be quiet! Go outside! Don't touch!’ or such things. This is very wrong, my friends. It is only by handling these books and by asking questions about them that our children will learn and become interested in learning.


On the physical side, don't forget our hospitals, doctors and nurses, starting with the Plunket nurses. Bring your children up so that they aren't afraid of these people. You see, when I was nursing I saw many of our Maori children crying with pain and loneliness. Yet, when the doctor asked them, ‘What is the matter?’ they turned their heads away. I could see that it was because they were afraid, not so much of the pain of their sickness, but of the Pakeha doctor. My friends, if you had

– 10 –

i te mokemoke hoki, ēngari uia atu e te rata, ‘He aha te mate?’ kore rawa ngā tamariki nei e kūihi mai. E mea ana ahau nā te mataku i pēnei ai. Mehemea koe i reira ki te whaka-rongo atu i ngā tamariki nei e tangi ana, mehemea koe i kite i te aroha e puta mai ana i ngā kanohi o te rata nei, e hoa, e tangi nōki koe.

Kaua ō tamariki e whakamatakungia ki ēnei mea, ki te iwi Pākehā, ngā kura māhita rānei. Whakatupungia rātou kia māia.

Mēna he whare tākaro kei konā i a koe nā, mauria ō tamariki ki reira. Enei whare tākaro, arā, e kīngia nei he ‘play-centre’, he kindergarten, he kura pai. Ko ēnei ngā wāhi e kite ana ahau hei whakakotahi i ngā tamariki, ngā māmā, nā, i ngā pāpā hoki. Kotahi atu mea tino nui ki aku nei whakaaro. Ina hiahia to tamaiti ki te mou mai i ana hoa ki tō kāinga tākaro ai, tukuna atu. Nā, me tuku hoki koe i tāu kia haere ki ngā whare o ōna nei hoa tākaro ai.

I ngā rā kura:

I ngā rā kura, ā, tae noa ki ngā rā kāreti, kia kaha koe ki te whāngai, ki te kākahu i tāu. Tukuna ō tamariki kia tākaro i ngā tākaro o te kura. Mēna he aha te mea e haere ana i te kura, meinga atu ki tāu, māna tērā mahi. Whakamahia ā tātou kōtiro ki te mahi i ō rātou nei kākahu, ki te mahi kai, ki te tatau moni, ki te mahi i a rātou kia ātaahua. A tātou tamariki tāne, whakatupungia mai rātou hei tāngata pai, aroha ki te tangata, kaha ki te mahi, mātau ki ngā mahi o te ao nei. Hoatu ki ā tātou tamariki, ki tēnei, ki tēnā, te manawa kaha ki te whai i te mea nei te mātauranga. Tonoa rātou ki ngā whare wānanga o ngā motu nei.

I roto i ēnei mea katoa, e aku hoa, i roto i tēnei ao Pākehā, kia mau mahara koe ki tō Māoritanga. Kaua e wareware ki tō tātou reo Māori, ā tātou waiata, haka, poi rānei. I Pōneke nei, tō mātou whare ko Ngāti Pōneke. Kei konei ēnei mahi e puehu ana. Mō tātou i Pōneke nei, haere mai ki konei.

Arahia ā tātou tamariki. Hoatungia ki a rātou ngā mea papai o ngā ao e rua. Te aroha ki te tangata me te mātauranga mō ngā mea Pākehā, Kei ā tātou tamariki te tikanga mō tātou te iwi Māori mō nga tau e heke iho nei. Kia kaha, e hoa mā. Tātou tātou. O raruraru, nōku, Mēna koe e tika i a au, uia mai ō pātai.

Hoatu ki tēnei, ki tērā, o ō tamariki te taiaha ko manawakaha te ingoa, nā, me te mere me hua e au ko manawanui, kia ora ai tātou te iwi Māori.

Nā Ani Hona


only been there and heard their cries, if you had only seen the pity and love in the doctor's eyes. You see, they understand; they know, and you would cry also as I have done many a time. Don't threaten your children with the Pakeha doctor, nurses or teachers. Bring them up to respect them, to be unafraid. If you have a play centre or kindergarten near you, take your pre-school children there. These will help our children to become used to other children, to play with them, and enable mothers—and fathers too—to meet each other. When your child wants to bring his friends home to play, let him and if he is invited to other children's homes to play, let him go. We must all learn to give as well as take.

The school years:

All through their school years both primary and secondary, try to the best of your ability to provide your children with the necessary equipment, especially a good diet and clean clothes. Allow them to take part in the school sports. Encourage your child to volunteer for drama clubs, for activities other than those that are compulsory. Encourage your daughters to learn dress making, to cook and bake, to handle and budget money and to keep themselves neat and attractive. Bring your sons up to be good, clean young men with love for their fellow-men, and to be conscientious and willing workers. Let us give each one of our children inspiration to seek higher education. Make every possible effort to send them to University.

In all these things, my friends, in this Pakeha world always carry with you your Maori heritage. Never, never lose your Maori language, your Maori songs, and poi dances. Here in Wellington we have our centre of Maori culture in the Ngati Poneke Hall. I'm sure you would be welcome here.

We must lead our children. Give to our children the very best of both worlds—the strong bonds of affection that we are known for as well as the education from the Pakeha world. Our children hold the key to our future. It is up to them and their children to decide if the Maori will vanish or stay, but at least we can have a say now. Be strong my people. Your troubles are my troubles. If I can help you, ask me your questions.

Arm our children with the taiaha or spear of inspiration and encouragement and with the mere or club of patience, of searching and of stout-heartedness, so that we as a people will survive.

Anne Bosch née Hona.

– 11 –

A Tribute to Wallace Mangu

How can the word integration be defined? The dictionary says, ‘Combine parts into a whole’. Applied to Pakeha and Maori, what does this mean? Too often it means brown puppets with white men pulling the strings. Too often it means a flashy house, a T.V. set, a big car; and too often it means that one more Maori family has lost its identity.

Instead of combining parts that have character and depth of their own into a whole pattern full of colour and variety, the tendency has been to produce a whole that is a colourless, dull mass.

A tukutuku must remain clear and bright if it is to retain its meaning. If it is soaked until the colours run its character is gone. It is smudged and dirty and meaningless.

Wallace Mangu who died this year had become part of the integrated whole; yet he had retained the colour, the individuality and the pride of a Maori. He never apologised for his Maori blood. He never said, ‘Us poor Maoris. Give us time’. He kept his Maoritanga in his heart and the Pakehatanga in his head. He held his head high, he worked with all the energy God gave him and he envied no man. He had the best of both worlds because he contributed to both.

At his funeral the two worlds joined to pay a tribute to a man whose forty-eight years had been spent ‘combining parts to make a whole’. Proud of his race, he believed in its ultimate ability to give New Zealand a culture unique to her.

Those who mourn him remember his fun, his banter; but they remember too that he was ruthless in his condemnation of any man not proud enough to hold his head up or stand firmly by a principle no matter what it cost.

Wallace Mangu was born at Ruatoria in 1919. Educated at Manutahi Maori School, he began his farming career while still a school boy. He milked by hand, with cousins and uncles to help, and freed the family farm of mortgage. That task completed, he set off for Hawkes Bay, where he worked for four years before returning to share-milk at Ruatoria until the war broke out.

He was a volunteer, leaving with the second Echelon to see service in Britain, Greece, Crete and North Africa. He returned to be discharged with the first furlough group in 1943. Wallace's philosophy was not learned from the pages of Homer or Plato. Life was his university and honesty his school master. He was never half-hearted, and no job of work was done ‘halfpie’. Apathy was not in his vocabulary. He played rugby, he broke in horses, he hunted, he showed ponies, he loved music, he lived. Pain could not defeat him. A back injury bequeathed by the war was never his master.

In 1944 he married a teacher, Rose Mac-Vean from Otago, and their family of seven

Picture icon

Wallace Mangu and his wife, when presented with the Ahu-whenua Trophy in 1962.

– 12 –

sturdy New Zealanders are making their mark as personalities, proud of the blood they share with their Maori and Pakeha ancestors.

When he arrived in Otorohanga in 1956 to develop his Maori Affairs rehabilitation farm, his zeal and wisdom earned him, in 1960, second place in the dairy section of the Ahu-whenua Trophy, presented by the late Lord Bledisloe, and in 1961 he gained first place. The trophy was presented by the Hon. Mr Hanan at a great Hui Topu at Ngaruawahia in 1962.

Wallace Mangu's interests were wide, R.S.A. was his first love. From membership in his own home area he earned a seat on the Dominion Council. The same enthusiasm brought him into prominence as member of the Maori Battalion Assn, Lions International and Federated Farmers. He helped raise funds for Otorohanga College Gymnasium, Hangatiki School Committee and Whawharua Settlers' Hall, No worthy cause found Wallace uninterested.

Music was one of Wallace's creative mediums and his ability has been passed on to his eldest son, whose dance band is sought far and wide in the Waikato.

To serve, to live fully, to keep what is best in his own culture and accept what is good in another is the heritage Wallace Mangu has left to his family and his country. It is for them to take up the challenge and go on developing a beautiful, balanced, integrated, whole community.

Margaret A. Wright, Hangatiki


Guided by Southern stars.
My forefathers, intrepid, intent,
Dared unknown hazards
Of storm-ravaged seas,
Seeking these fabled shores.

I, Hone, too, shall journey;
My urge that imbred impetus.
Those mystic forces
That impelled my ancestors.

I, Hone, shall fly—
A bird migrating—
Outer space my passage,
My goal those same bright stars.

Marjorie Laurenson


Haruru ana te awa i Poutū,
Ko te poutū nā wai,
Ko te poutūhanga a Tamatea,
E kimi ana e hahau ana.
I tōna huānga i a Ngātoro,
E whakamau ana i te kei o tana waka
Ki Tongariro maunga e ha.

Pupuha ana te auahi i runga o Ngāuruhoe,
Tau ana te hukarere o Ruapehu.
Aki mai ana ko te hau tonga.
Aue taukiri e. te makariri e.

E kui, Pīhanga, kāti koa tō huna
I roto i te kohu heke mai i runga e,
Tukuna mai ngā hihi o Tama-nui-te-rā
Kia pā mai ana ki taku kiri,
Kei mate ahau i te anu mātao e.

nā Rangi Harrison

Martyrs Reburied

Following a special ceremony at the graveside, by Revd A. Arrowsmith, vicar of Turangi and Revd N. Te Hau, vicar of Ohinemutu, the martyred remains of two Wanganui missionaries, Manihera and Kereopa, who were murdered more than 120 years ago, were re-buried in the graveyard of St. Paul's Anglican Church, Tokaanu.

New Post for Artist

Aupouri artist Selwyn Muru has taken up a position as a Maori Programme Officer with the N.Z.B.C. in Wellington, working with Mr W. Kerekere who has been appointed Senior Officer of the section following Mr Leo Fowler's retirement.

Interesting task for
Dunedin League members

Following a lecture by Mr D. Simmonds, Keeper in Anthropoligy at the Otago Museum, members of the Dunedin branch of the Maori Women's Welfare League are going to make a cloak, the exact replica of one found around the remains of a Maori lady at Lake Hauroko, dating back about 300 years

– 13 –


O Tane Mahuta
Who felled
Living tree
Twisted driftwood-
Seeking anew
Recreated beauty
Cold beach
Oh, Tane Mahuta, Oh, Tane, Tane.

Ian Maclean.

– 14 –


‘Rewi's dead,’ says Sarah.

I stop peeling the potato knowing in my mind it's true even though the flat tone of her voice does not differentiate between a query or a statement.

I look at her dumbly.

‘The hearse is there,’ she says.

My body has already filled with the nauseous chill. My life has not yet experienced deep grief and my emotions cannot cope with death.

Later Judy comes over. She has been crying but grief suits her and she wears it like a new gown.

‘We'll go up to the house after tea,’ she says. I'm ashamed. I have an overpowering urge to be in the house now, unrelated as I am to the deceased, to see and hear what is being said.

What does it feel like when your husband dies?

Is grief at death a pain as though part of one's body is severed? Or is it more sadness and remorse as in an unaccomplished task?

The house is already filled with relations, and the air is heavy with the emotion that only the very old Kuias generate as they renew their wails with each arrival of new mourners.

We kiss the widow who cries.

I stand awkward and embarrassed at obvious emotion as I always do.

They are naked before my gaze. Where can I look.

There is worse to come. I should have known this would come. I can't. I can't.

‘We'll go in now,’ says my husband and puts out his hand to take me to the bedroom where the body lies.

I panic. I have never seen a dead body, and I'm terrified that there will be a smell.

Not the rotten stench of animal decay. I know that smell. I'm frightened that human death will smell so horrible and unforgettably cloying that I will never free my nostrils of it should I enter that room.

But there is no smell.

Rewi lies still in his body shell. His skin is taut and young and he looks very much at peace.

I am quite overcome with relief.

‘Hullo Rewi,’ I say softly.

I want to talk to him.

‘How you doin' sweetheart,’ he used to say to me as he wandered in the door of our bach.

‘Fine’, I would shout. He was slightly deaf He would wait a moment or two to let his dark suit, polished shoes and tie make their full impact before saying redundantly, ‘Gotta go to de tangi for whatsisname’, or ‘Gotta big land meeting on today’.

Both were important functions which punetuated his life at regular intervals, and for these he borrowed Sam's suit. This always proved awkward if Sam had a formal function which coincided with Rewi's.

‘Well’, says Sam, ‘there'll be no argument about the suit tomorrow. I've beaten the old man to it this time.’

No one misses the warmth of memory in this statement and the laughing is free.

I remember the way I laughed at his reminiscence about his younger days.

‘Too right—walk all the way from Maketu for a dance here in Rotorua. Silly blinkin’ kids.’ He'd pause, and smile, his knotted fingers struggling with the Park Drive shreds which defied all his attempts to roll them neatly within the paper.

He never seemed to notice that, and when he smoked, stray pieces often stuck unheeded to his lips where they dried and eventually slipped off when an appropriate facial expression moved them. I was always consumed with a mad desire to pick off all the half dried ones which I could almost feel on my own face.

Next morning his mokupunas say solemnly, ‘Koro's asleep in the box.’

‘A big box,’ says Carol, solemnly indicating

– 15 –

with her hands it's at least a couple of miles long.

I have to laugh.

‘Where are they taking her?’ asks Terryboy.

‘Well, you know where Maketu Nanny is don't you?’

‘Oh yes,’ they all nod knowingly. ‘She's in the ground at Maketu.’

‘Under all the dirt,’ adds Carol.

‘Well, they're going to take Rewi down for a mate for her.’

‘Oh!’ Again solemn nods and sighs.

The problem has been solved logically, and they run off, brown legs disappearing into the yellow summer grasses.

The sun is warm on my face.
It's a fine day for the tangi.

A Warning of Pirongia

The soft drumming of rain,
Wets the window-pane.
Misty, the sky connects
Hill to hill,
Where roams still ….
Nga Patu-paiarehe.

Moaning softly on the wind
Of an age gone by;
Calling for his earthly kin
To join him in the sky;
Soft and high,
Long and clear.
Mount the sky,
And disappear.

Eddying clouds his horse;
Moaning winds his voice;
Whispering leaves his thoughts;
Misty hills his choice.
Climb not that hill,
For there are many dangers;
Unseen they haunt,
Still taunt ….
Nga Patu-paiarehe.

—John Barrett

Deep Mystery

Deep mystery
Black, and cool, and reflective.
Give back to the onlooker
Something of that native calm Shadows and shifting shadows
Breaking and breaking
And forming with darkness
Shadows and shifting shadows
Like the eyes one can never read.

Slanting sun …
The rays like silver spears
Cool waters, silver and black
Shimmery and cool
Touch those ferns—the dark green
And, unbidden, like a sigh, the whisper of Te Reinga
Sadness and sorrow, drooping and swaying Even as the women of the death wail
And like a slow unveiling
The mystery …

It is there in the ripple of mosses
The pleading silence of the grey Kauri
Look down, oh King of my heart
See the darkness your shadow has cast?
Tane!—oh Tane! plead not with this silence
Come Kereru … your voice brings pain to my heart
Why does your voice plead of that which I do not understand?
Murmer on Awa
Shadows and shifting shadows
Deep mystery …

Tarie's tears, the sorrow of a land …
Come back. Awa
Don't leave … ferns, dark green, and grey rock
Touch them, they are cold
Deep below them runs now a mighty river
The forest is cold, many hours have passed,
I have found the death of a river
And the sorrow of a land
Which has said ‘Farewell’.

—Dinah Moengarangi Rawiri.

– 16 –
– 17 –

Australian Pre-School

On 20 May, twenty-six delegates, eleven of whom were Maori mothers, from play centres throughout New Zealand, left Mangere Airport to attend the eleventh conference of the Australian Pre-School Association in Canberra. To many of us it was our first trip out of New Zealand, and all of us were filled with excitement and anticipation and perhaps a little trepidation as we wondered what lay ahead of us.

To a certain extent our fears were justified, for never had we met so many doctors, professors and highly qualified women as were among the Australian pre-school personnel. However, all were charming and expressed interest in our play centres. New Zealand's contribution aroused much interest. Our emphasis on parent education and participation, which is so different from the professionalism of Australian pre-schools, was a concept which many could not accept. Only two of the key speakers referred to the importance of education as a continuing process or the need for close liaison between school and parents. The prevailing opinion was that the parents' role is a passive one, not the active, complementary, supporting role that we envisage.

The theme of the Conference was ‘Children and their Families’. The most rewarding talk of the Conference was given by Dr Ase Grude Skaard of Norway, president of O.M.E.P. (Organisation Mondiale pour I'Education Prescolaire), a world organisation for early childhood education. Dr Skaard said that children in a rapidly changing world were faced with situations which were quite different from those of preceding generations. To cope with these differences she stressed the importance of being aware of the changes within society.

Another speaker who struck a responsive chord in the hearts of New Zealand play centre mothers was Mr Paul J. McKeown, Headmaster of Canberra Grammar School. Introduced as a man with revolutionary ideas in Australian education, he said that increased contact between parents and teachers could reduce the stress between parents and children. Stress between parents and children he described as a major cause of juvenile delinquency. If a child was to develop soundly it was essential that parents had an understanding of children's behaviour and that teachers knew what went on in the home. He referred to the Glasgow scheme which had reduced delinquency in the poorer part of that city by about 50%. The basis of the scheme was close co-operation between teacher, school welfare officer and parents. With counselling, parents came to a better understanding of their children, and teachers an understanding of the children's problems. He was the only speaker to emphasize the preventative role of preschool and active parent involvement.

Needs of Aboriginal Children

On Friday morning. Miss Betty Watts, Senier Lecturer in Education, Queensland University, spoke on the need for pre-schooling for aboriginal children. As we listened to her, a clearer picture of the problems that faced the Aborigine emerged. He is not accepted on equal terms with the Australian. He has not been encouraged to do things for himself, but has existed in a society that has made the rules for him. Because of this, he has lost his sense of self and exists as a ‘fringe dweller’—not only living on the outskirts of the community but tolerated only on the fringe of society. One way of approaching this problem is through pre-schooling. Aboriginal children could then start on better terms, at least at school entry.

During the question period at the end of

– 18 –

Miss Watts' lecture, Mrs Kahu Tapiata of Auckland said that as a Maori, a member of a coloured minority, she could understand how the aborigine felt. She pleaded with the Australians to try to understand him, to be patient with him and to accept him as the Maori is accepted in New Zealand. This plea won an enthusiastic response.

Discussion Groups

Two full mornings were spent in discussion groups. I joined the group discussing. ‘Education for Parenthood’, and found myself in a group of Kindergarten teachers and trainees. The general attitude of these teachers was that parents contributed little towards the education of the pre-school child; the three year training period these teachers had undertaken had given them the answers to the problems of the young child's development; little attempt was made to communicate with the parents, with the result that parents were unaware of the intellectual development and growth and expression of creativity possible in the preschool.

They became unwilling to share this knowledge with parents or to provide opportunities for mutual interchange with parents. Parents were capable only of accepting instruction and assisting with money-raising activities, kitchen duties and children's outings. Our New Zealand emphasis on parent involvement was quite foreign to them. While they could see the value of this involvement, they resisted the idea. As one young Director said, ‘My three years training would be of little value if parents were given more responsibility in the Kindergarten.’

Enthusiastic Response

On the other hand, once the principles of Family Pre-schools and Play Centres became clear to them, there was an enthusiastic acceptance by delegates from Ceylon, the Philippines and New Guinea. They recognised the Family Pre-School as an economical technique of providing pre-school enrichment and more enlightened, responsible parenthood.

The Family Pre-School is a unique New Zealand development, pioneered by Mr A. Grey of the M.E.F. Two or more families can start a pre-school group. The only rule is that all mothers must attend with their children. A living room and backyard and a minimum of equipment meet the initial physical requirements. As the mothers gain insights, so more equipment is added. The result is that mater-

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ials are fully used and meet the needs of the children.

The mothers divide their time between working with the children, observing and interpreting their behaviour, making equipment from local materials and developing handcrafts and art work. The results can be seen in positive changes in the children, their parents and also in the local community.

Experiences Shared

The five days of the Conference gave us a wonderful opportunity to meet interesting dedicated people from other Pacific countries and share a rich variety of experience and concepts. For us, one outcome was a feeling that New Zealand can be proud of its pre-school development. Principles and practice in New Zealand compared favourably with the other countries represented and appeared more progressive than in Australia.

Perhaps age and attitude have something to do with this. The dynamic growth of preschooling in New Zealand is largely the result of the direct involvement of the young mothers whose enthusiasm made such an impact on those attending the A.P.A. Conference.

Aboriginal Family Education
Centres Established

Following the Canberra Conference, on Friday 26 May, six of us, Manu Rangi from Tiki Tiki, near Gisborne, Hiria Parata from Ruatoria near Gisborne, Hine Campbell from Whakatane, Hana Tukukino from Auckland, Pearl Allen from Ahipara in the Far North and I, flew from Canberra to Sydney, then 400 miles north to Casino and thence by car to Evan's Head, where we took part in a weekend school with Aboriginal leaders from northern New South Wales.

This was a follow up of a Leadership course held the previous March by Mr A. Grey, preschool officer for the M.E.F. From this course had come a request from the Aborigines themselves to start Aborigine Family Education Centres. The nucleus of each Centre was to be a pre-school group.

During this part of our trip we were sponsored by Sydney University's Department of Adult Education, and under the care of Mr Allan Duncan, Tutor in Aboriginal Affairs at the University of Sydney. We were all deeply appreciative of Mr Duncan's help and support during this period. He is an enthusiast, has a great respect for the Aboriginal people and works hard for their advancement.

Mutual Acceptance

There was instantaneous and mutual accepttance when Aborigine and Maori met. All meetings together had the same spirit as our meetings at home because of the empathy and warmth between us—racial differences did not exist. The first evening together, Mana Rangi gave the traditional Maori welcome which was watched with awe and applauded with vigour.

After this we talked of our play centres, showed pictures of play centre activities, our New Zealand way of life, and demonstrated some of the arts and crafts practised by our people. The end of the evening came with the

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Hiria Parata, Mana Rangi and Betty Brown board the ‘plane for their trip to Sydney from Canberra.

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Maori action songs to which the Aboriginal people became almost addicted—at every opportunity they asked for a repeat of the performance.

Racial Pride Lost

The Aborigine has not retained the pride of race and identity with his ancestors as the Maori has—many of the younger people are growing up without any knowledge of their tribal traditions and in many cases without even a smattering of their own language. This, to our eyes, was a tragedy, for they had nothing of their own with which to identify themselves. Strengthening this pride of race became one of our aims.

In helping start their pre-school groups, we suggested that grandfathers and grandmothers become members of the team, and spend time in telling the children the many fascinating legends of the past. We also suggested that they

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The Woodenbong Aborigines in discussion at Evans Head.

begin to help the children understand their own language. One of the satisfactions I gained later at Woodenbong, was to hear mothers repeating to their children the names of familiar objects in their own language.

Eager for Information

The weekend at Evan's Head was spent in discussing the methods of setting up pre-school groups, the nature and purposes of the different kinds of play and the absolute importance of mothers developing insight through a knowledge of the stages of development and through observation and interpretation of their children's behaviour. The Aborigines were eager for the information we gave. They were naturally observant, and as the stages of development were introduced they saw that their children had grown in the same way.

From the discussions we had, many things became clearer. These people desperately wanted to help themselves, to make their own decisions. Ours became the supporting role. We would tell of what we had done and from this would come the desire to do the same thing, but in terms of their conditions and needs. Another was that because of their own poverty and lack of Government support, improvisation and the use of local materials were the only means of meeting the need for equipment.

Memorable People

In the group we met many whom we will never forget.

There was Jim Morgan, a leader of his people, who was the first full blooded Aborigine appointed to the Aboriginal Welfare Board. Largely self taught, Jim had an ability that would have taken him anywhere. He was a remarkable man, combining the traditions of his past with the progressions of the modern world.

There was Nellie, a WIDOW with six children, whose eldest child was in a good job in Queensland and whose second child had just been awarded a scholarship that would enable her to continue at High School. Nellie's character was all strength and determination and some bitterness because of the white man's treatment of her race. Her strength was centred on her children in an effort to improve their chances of success in a world that had not dealt kindly with her and her generation.

In the A.F.E.C. she saw an opportunity to learn more about her children, and in the few days we were with her, we saw her attitude to her youngest child changing as she realised that guidance was just as effective as coercion.

Margaret was the mother of five children and one of the most vital and alive people ever met. She loved children and they loved her. When it became clear that we were just ordinary mothers with no formal professional training, who had learned to manage a preschool and in turn help other mothers, there was a dramatic change in her. She appeared to find reassurance and a new identity. We hope that this will be strong enough to carry her through the trials that lie ahead.

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Aborigines at Box Ridge clearing ground for their play area, Pearl Allen is sitting in the middle of the children.

There was Lena, who described her life as ‘a long black tunnel’ and who saw our coming as ‘a light at the end’. She is a potential leader of her people. She was determined to educate herself and her children. In the A.F.E.C. she saw a practical way of doing this.

Aboriginal Songs

Saturday night developed into one of fun and gaiety. It started slowly with some action songs by the New Zealand party. Then gradually one or two of the Aborigines joined in. The climax came when some of the older Aborigines sang their songs for us. The songs lacked our kind of melody, but fascinated us. One of them did a corroboree dance. The dance consists of very vigorous leg movements accompanied by a chant and two sticks beaten rhythmically together.

A sad commentary is that many of the younger men had no experience of the dance. I like to think that our obvious pleasure and pride in our own music communicated itself to them that night.

TV Documentary

A TV team from the ‘Four Corners’ documentary series of the ABC covered the activities of the weekend. They became enthusiastic about our aims and methods and their only complaint was that they could not capture on film the warmth and harmony between the two races.

Pre-School Groups Established

Sunday night we left the camp and travelled in pairs to the Aborigine Stations where we were to help establish pre-school groups. Pearl Allen and Hine Campbell stayed at Box Ridge where the TV team remained to film the start of an A.F.E.C. As there was no meeting place, the group's first task was to clear an area of scrub and weeds. The young TV men used axe and spade along with the aborigines.

Hana Tukukino and Hiria Parata travelled further to Tabulum while Mana Rangi and I continued on to Woodenbong, arriving after 11 p.m. in a very heavy frost. Next morning we visited the station and saw the conditions under which our new friends existed.

The Woodenbong Aboriginal Station is a tract of land administered by the Aboriginal Welfare Board for the Aborigine to live on, but which he does own. The men work away wherever they can find jobs, for the land does not support them. The Station is controlled by a manager, appointed by the Board. He is responsible for the Aborigines' welfare.

Because of the Australian policy of assimilation (to shift the Aborigine away from the settlements and scatter him throughout the community) nothing has been done to the houses in Woodenbong. These houses are wooden; small, unpainted and unlined, with a wood stove and no electricity, no water laid on—one cold tap outside, in some cases no glass in the Windows, very little furniture and no home comforts. But this was their land, their dead were buried on the hill and they did not want to leave.

We spent the morning visiting with those who had not been at the weekend, and at a well-attended meeting that afternoon the Woodenbong Aborigine Family Education Centre was born. When it was suggested that

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The Tabulum expert at mud-play. The children were at a high level at this activity.

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officers be elected, the feeling of the meeting was that they would prefer to work as a group and allow the natural leader to emerge as needed. This was an advanced theory of emergent leadership from a supposedly inferior group.

That evening was also an historic event. Our hostess, Mrs Crane, invited both Aborigines and the local Europeans to an informal party to meet the Maoris—the first time that both groups had mixed socially. The Headmaster of Woodenbong Central School and most of his staff were present and all expressed interest in the project and promised help. This help materialised the next morning in the form of paper, paint, brushes and books.

First Session

The second day, the first session of the preschool group was held. The first problem—that of material—had partly been overcome with a donation in kind from the school. As paint and dough were new to the Aborigine mothers, we demonstrated how to mix and make. For us it was an exciting experience to see children exploring these media for the first time. It was a colourful beginning in more ways than one. Paint flew in all directions!

We found the children very attractive, with brown skins, soft wavy brown hair and large, brown eyes ringed with long, spiky black lashes. However, they did not la [ unclear: ] gh much and showed a considerable amount of aggression

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Hiria Parata observing children pasting.

and hostility towards each other. Perhaps this was an expression of the barrenness of their lives.


In the little time remaining we evaluated what we had done, plans for the future were discussed—how the local environment could be exploited for equipment and materials at the least cost, we talked of the organisation and supervision within the group—how we could continue and help through correspondence, and finally, our hopes of meeting again.

That evening, six very weary women met again at Casino Airport. Our Aborigine friends from Box Ridge were there to farewell us. Somehow during the weekend they had learned “Now is the Hour’ which they sang as we crossed the tarmac.


In four days we had experienced a great deal. We had gained deeper insight into ourselves. We had made new friends and had seen how they lived. Because of their lives we had gained a deeper appreciation of our own way of life. We had given of ourselves, so that emotionally we were drained and empty, left with the feeling that the friendship, encouragement and support we had given must not be withdrawn.

I think that they saw in us a realisation of what might be. They had taken steps towards its achievement. They wanted recognition and equality for their own efforts. This feeling is best expressed in this quotation from a poem by Kath Walker, an Aborigine who has published two books of poems.

‘Make us neighbours, not fringe dwellers,
Make us mates, not poor relations,
Citizens, not serfs on stations.
Must we native Old Australians
In our own land rank as aliens?
Banish bans and conquer caste,
Then we'll win our own at last.’

Aboriginal Charter of Rights.

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A Tribute

The maraes throughout the land are thundering to the tumult of farewell to Brigadier Sir Bernard Fergusson, Governor-General of New Zealand.

At the beginning of his term, few could have imagined possible the manner in which he would fill his high office, for he was facing the most difficult challenge of all: that of stepping into the shoes of an outstanding man.

In these last months before departure, many will look back to the first time they saw Sir Bernard Fergusson, and started to take his measure. For me, it was the opening of the Maori Battalion Memorial Hall in Palmerston North, in 1964.

The wide street in front of the Hall had become the marae. For the concourse of people packed in front of the building it was a long wait. Facing them, drawn up in ranks, were the men of the Maori Battalion. They had matured well: still a fine body of men, well turned out in their dark suits, and well disciplined. Only one or twice a ripple of movement broke their solemnity: a strong handshake and clap on the shoulder as they recognised an old pal, a spurt of good-humoured laughter at the inevitable clown who scrambled miming and monkey-like onto the waiting dais, before they shoved him out of sight within their ranks.

There had been traditional moments of ceremony: the challenge and welcome to Princess Piki and to the ministerial party. There had been moments of immense dignity and splendid Maori oratory when a representative from each tribe slipped from the ranks and laid at the foot of the memorial the donation from his area.

There were moving moments that brought a sting to the eyes, as when the Battalion marched off the marae to take up guard-of-honour positions to greet the arrival of the Governor-General. As each man turned and passed before the watching eyes, the crowd started to sing softly:

Maori Battalion march to victory,
Take the honour of the people with you

Then the peak moment: the big car, viceregal flag fluttering, came to a halt. Many were seeing the Governor-General for the first time, curious to see what manner of man he was. They watched him move slowly, easily down the lines of men: a handshake here, a few words, a shared joke. There was coming through something real, not staged.

He was taller than expected, less the conventional ‘Colonel Blimp’ that some photographs showed him. In his uniform, he was proudly upstanding. But it was the intangible aura that was most arresting. When the review was over, he came to the edge of the marae to face the challenge of the welcoming party. Pace by pace he kept rhythm with the slowmoving Maori ceremony. He gave each moment its weight. Head high, eyes unwavering, his look said louder than words: ‘This is as big a moment for me as it is for you. I come, bearing my high office, not as a stranger, but as a man who in his own right knows you and understands you.’

Then turning away almost lingeringly, he mounted the dais while the Battalion marched back onto the marae to face him, to hear what he had to say to them.

It was strangely appropriate that as the Governor-General rose to speak, there occurred the only unplanned incident of the day. The Battalion burst into a spontaneous haka—the fighting dance, the challenge before battle.

The speech that followed would have been adequate if it had followed ancient patterns of eulogies on past glories. But it did not. It was a fighting speech that challenged the Maori people just as the speaker had himself been challenged.

‘It was a shock to read yet again this very week,’ he said, ‘that only seven Maori students have enrolled this year at Victoria University.

‘You … you … and you,’ he said, ‘who at Alamein advanced shoulder to shoulder with my old regiment, the Black Watch, you who in the darkness called to them “Jock!” and they called back to you “Kiwi”, you should be

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boxing the ears of your young people and encouraging them to take the advance as your rank and file did 23 years ago.

‘Are you showing the courage and imagination that you showed at Alamein?’ he challenged them. ‘Only you know. I do not.

‘You will find no better friend of the Maori people than you will find in me, but I refuse to be sentimental. I hope and feel you know me well enough to accept such blunt words

‘I say it again,’ he said, ‘whether you like it or not, that the Maori people are going to find their leaders in the Universities and the higher professions, not in the freezing works. I say to you, as 91 years ago my grandfather said to your grandfathers at Turangawaewae, “Be thirsty for education”.’

This representative of the Queen in one of the last stands of a dwindling empire, had given a speech, not moribund but pulsing with vigour. It was received, and perhaps answered, with a second spontaneous haka.

The Maoris are a singing people. Sir Bernard speaks of the ‘vast singing crowds at Tikitiki, 38 years ago’. Rowley Habib in his poem The Raw Men speaks of it:

Enraptured in the singing. Always there is the singing.

In the deserts of Egypt there was the singing.

In the streets of Rome there was the singing …’

That day the Maori people laid on the altar of the past a very considerable sum of money. Sir Bernard Fergusson charged them to live the words they so often sang: by accepting his challenge to lay the honour of the people on the altar of the future, by their achievements.

Now, on the maraes throughout the land, there is a sadness of singing paying tribute to a great Governor-General, a forthright and an understanding man who has himself splendidly answered a challenge.

Hemi Wiremu

The Head Receptionist at New Zealand House in London is Hemi Wiremu of Kaitaia who went to the other side of the world with the Maori Battalion and now, at fifty-four, is settled with his family in London.

Hemi was educated at St Stephens and was later on the staff there, teaching agriculture from 1931–1936. He then worked at the Forestry Department in Rotorua, working also for the St John Ambulance Brigade there. As well, he started the 2nd Company of the Boys' Brigade at Ohinemutu, and was a lay reader at St Faith's Church.

This busy life was interrupted by the Second World War: Hemi was a lieutenant in the Nga Puhi A Company. He was captured in Greece and spent four years as a prisoner-of-war in Germany. In 1945 he was released, came to London, met his English wife, and spent a year at Bangor University in North Wales doing a forestry course. He and his wife visited New Zealand in 1946, returned to London in 1947, and have remained there ever since. Hemi worked in farm management, and as a member of the voluntary civil police, until in 1963 he joined the staff of New Zealand House as Commissionaire.

Hemi and his wife have two sons and a daughter, all at school. The eldest son hopes to go to Oxford University next year.

Hemi is an active member of the Aotearoa Maori Club. He enjoys the chance of meeting New Zealanders in his job, and obviously often thinks of home.

—Barbara Ewing.


Continued from page 34

Mr R. G. Falconer, had made his comments. The McEwen trophy went to the Ikaroa area.

Thursday morning saw elections resulting in Mrs M. Penfold, Auckland, and Mrs M. Te Kawa, Ruatoria being elected Vice-Presidents. and evaluation of the conference. In an afternoon bus tour, visits were paid to the Mission House, Judea Pa, where Dr Maharaia Winiata was remembered, Gate Pa, where trees were planted by Mrs Sage and Mrs Grooby (Waipounamu's Area Representative), and Mount Maunganui.

Conference ended with a magnificent Debutante Ball, when 30 daughters of members were presented, and a wonderful supper was enjoyed. Congratulations go to Miria Karauria, Tainui's Area Representative, and the local host committee.

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Coronation Hui
At Turangawaewae

From all parts of New Zealand, people came to Turangawaewae to commemorate the death of King Koroki, to celebrate the end of Queen Te Atairangikaahu's year of mourning and take part in the annual celebrations marking her coronation, and to farewell the Governor-General, Sir Bernard Fergusson, who was making his final visit to the marae.

The five days of celebration began on 18 May with a Pai Marire service in Mahinarangi at 5.30 a.m., the time King Koroki had died a year before. A memorial service was conducted on the marae at 11 a.m. by the Revd Rangi Rogers.

Visitors began arriving on Friday evening, and all through Saturday many groups were welcomed, among them a large party of Cook Island Maoris who performed many of their traditional dances in front of Mahinarangi. A large group of Ratana Church people came, and Mrs Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan made her first visit to the marae since her father's death. A group of vocational Guidance officers when replying to their welcome promised support and help for Maori pupils who sought their advice.

Sports competitions began, and in the evening, the Cook Islands people again entertained the large crowd.

A misty Sunday morning began with early services on the marae and a challenge and welcome to Princess Pilolevu and Prince ‘Alaivahamamao, children of King Taufa'ahau Topu of Tonga, and their cousins Prince ‘Uluvalu and Princesses Siulikutapu, Taone and ‘Ofieina, children of the Tongan Prime Minister, Prince Tu'ipelehake. Their attendants brought a huge Tongan mat, a gift for the Queen.

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Cook Island Maoris perform their traditional dances in front of Mahinarangi after being welcomed to the coronation celebrations.

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Photographs by Theo Kirt
Dave Manihera places the wero-stick during the challenge to the Tongan Royal party.

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Some of the visitors to Ngaruawahia wait outside. Kimikimi for their meal, on the misty Sunday morning.

– 27 –

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Escorted by Mr A. McKay come the Tongan royal children, Prince ‘Uluvalu, Princess Pilolevu and Prince ‘Alaivahamamao.

The climax came at mid-morning when the Governor-General and his party arrived. All then took part in the interdenominational service, at which Bishop of Waikato, the Rt Revd J. T. Holland gave the address. During the speeches of welcome Sir Bernard and Lady Fergusson were presented by the Queen's daughters, Princesses Heni Te Wharemaru and Tomairangi with a carved inkstand and an ipu, and their son Geordie with a belt.

Speaking on behalf of the people present, Mr Te O Uenuku Rene, Mr Paraire Herewini and Mr Haare Piahana asked Sir Bernard to convey the loyalty of the Maori people to the Queen and thanked him for his interest in their people—‘You have seen fit to visit our people even in the hollows of the land’, and referring to the past said, ‘Had you been our Governor then, some of the unpleasant things that happened would not have happened.’

In his reply, Sir Bernard said that his family's association with Turangawaewae went back 94 years, when his grandfather was brought to the marae. His message was, ‘Pakeha and Maori must not relax in their determination to get to know each other.’ He suggested that to avoid misunderstandings, the customs of both should be taught in schools, and urged young Maoris to learn their own language.

‘As long as we live we will never forget the

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Lower, lower and still lower … one of the Tongan visitors joins in the fun while the band plays.

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Mr M. R. Jones and Mr. W. Paki lead the vice-regal party onto the marae.

kindness of the Maori people of New Zealand. We will never forget you, and we will miss you terribly.’ He offered Queen Te Ata his best wishes for her future, wishing her deep satisfaction and happiness in her position of authority, and in farewelling the people said the best words he could use were those from Holy Scripture, ‘The Lord watch between thee and me when we are parted one from another.’

After lunch in Turongo, the vice-regal party watched the senior section of the cultural championships before leaving the marae, crossing from side to side to greet old friends. Many people wept during the farewell song.

Cultural competitions and sports finals continued for the rest of the day, and on Monday members of the Maori University Graduates' Association visited the marae.

Many of the weekend crowd returned on Tuesday for the final celebrations marking the actual coronation, when the service was conducted by ministers from several churches, and the sermon given by Canon Hohepa Taepa.

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As they leave the marae, Sir Bernard and Lady Fergusson turn to greer old friends.

– 29 –

Opened at

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Visitors were challenged by warriors on two platforms erected at the side of the road leading to the marae.

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The Prime Minister, accompanied by Mr Lui Paewai, picks up the wero-stick as he arrives at the Makirikiri marae.

Aotea Tua-Toru, at Makirikiri, near Dannevirke, was opened by the Prime Minister, the Rt Hon. K. J. Holyoake on Saturday 17 June, and blessed by the Metropolitan of New Zealand, Archbishop P. T. B. McKeefry.

This new house, built of concrete blocks on a steel frame, and with modern amenities, incorporates old carvings from Aotea Tua-Rua, which stood at Tahoraiti.

Also opened was a well-equipped dining room, Te Kurairirangi, which stands alongside the meeting house.

In a pre-dawn ceremony. Queen Te Atairangikaahu with her Waikato elders and people advanced slowly across the marae, and were given the name of the house by Taane Nikora and Kurairirangi Paewai, who stood by the

– 30 –

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The local people sing an action song during the opening ceremonies.

paepae. They then entered the house and completed the ancient kawa ceremony.

Breakfast over, the crowd at the marae grew and new arrivals were welcomed. Soon after the presentation of the New Zealand flag and the playing of the National Anthem, the official party arrived.

After being challenged as he drew near by warriors on two raised platforms at the sides of the road leading to the marae, the Prime Minister, accompanied by Mr Lui Paewai, and wearing a feather cloak given him 30 years before by Princess Te Puea, was challenged at the entrance and led onto the marae by Mr Taanga Tomoana.

There during the welcoming speeches Mr Holyoake was presented with a beautifully worked taniko cloak, which was placed over his feather one.

In opening the building, Mr Holyoake refer-

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Mrs H. Tupai and her friends, visitors from Turangawaewae.

– 31 –

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Mrs Taka and Mr and Mrs Rawiri of Pokeno by one of the restored amo.

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Wearing his beautiful taniko cloak, Mr Holyoake chats to Mr Taane Nikora and Mr Naina Taka.

red to the event as a milestone in the history of the Rangitane people. Commenting on the wisdom of incorporating in the new house the carvings of the old, he said, ‘It takes a lot of courage to overcome the emotional ties of the past and change to meet the demands of the modern age.

‘Now this area around Dannevirke can hold its tangis and meetings in a proper manner, with the proper facilities to look after visitors. Today, after years of hard work, the Ruahine Maori Executive Committee and the Maori people here can be justly proud of what they have done.

‘We see here today evidence of the changing needs and culture of the Maori people. You have successfully merged parts of your traditional past with your modern community centre and facilities.

‘I am pleased that you are working hard to maintain and even re-learn some of the great traditions of the Rangitane people.’

Action songs were performed by a local group, and the Waipatu group from Hastings, and the Latter Day Saints choir sang an anthem.

The celebrations continued with a delightful hangi meal, and more speeches and items.

The local people, in particular Mr Lui Paewai. are to be congratulated on their achievement in erecting this house and on the wellplanned opening ceremonies.

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Miss Wallscott presents the Te Puea trophy to representatives of Rotorua District Council.

Maori Women's Welfare League
Conference at Tauranga

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Mr N. P. K. Puriri challenges the delegates to prepare for the future.

Tauranga turned on delightful weather for the annual Maori Women's Welfare League Conference held there from 10–13 July. Delegates from all over the country were so impressed with the weather that one South Islander declared that as soon as she arrived home she would ‘sell up’ and then ‘shift up here’.

The warmth of the welcome from the local people, led by Mr Haare Piahana, and shown first at the welcoming dinner at Hairini Pa, set the tone for the whole conference.

During the opening ceremony at the Town Hall, speeches were made by the Mayors of Tauranga and Mt Maunganui, Mr N. Kirk, Leader of the Opposition. Sir Walter Nash, Mr M. Rata, Mrs I. Ratana, Mrs W. Tirikatene-Sullivan and Mr G. A. Walsh, who opened the Conference on behalf of the Minister of Maori Affairs, Mr J. R. Hanan, and added his own welcome as M.P. for Tauranga.

The president, Mrs Ruiha Sage gave her presidential address on Tuesday morning, reporting on her tours, meetings attended, and the proposed revision of the League's constitution. Mr Charles Bennett, Assistant Secretary for Maori Affairs, spoke in the afternoon.

– 33 –

paying tribute to the achievements of the past and drawing attention to the ‘Maori casualties in the field of education’, the ‘few at the top and many at the bottom of the educational ladder’, and the ‘need to promote a much greater degree of togetherness and oneness between the two racial groups which live in this country’.

Following this, Mrs Murphy, Mayoress of Murupara, and Mrs H. Potaka presented on behalf of Murupara Isolated Branch a beautifully carved waka huia to hold the Dominion President's Chain of office.

Guest speaker was Mrs M. J. Drayton, principal of Tauranga Girls' College, who defined ‘education’ as ‘the passing on to the young by the old the sort of things considered important by the old’. She stressed that education should not only instruct the child for a means of livelihood but also teach her a way of life based on a set of values. She compared the Maori family's value of co-operation with the Pakeha family's value of competitiveness, saying that although they were both good they were different and that families must try to marry the two sets of values. Maori families couldn't put Pakeha values away and turn their backs on them, neither could they throw over their Maori values and adopt Pakeha ones—this was not sensible. She stressed that it was

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Delegates in the grounds of the Mission House at Tauranga.

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Mrs M. Te Kawa of Tokomaru Bay with her kuia, 92-year-old Mrs Ngaropi White.

not only Maori families that needed to work out these values, realise and use two sets.

The answers given that evening by a panel of eight pupils from the four local secondary schools to questions from chairman Mr M. Te Hau, produced possibly the most exciting session of the conference. (See Younger Readers' Section). Their intelligent approach to difficult problems, their broad outlook and their determination to hold on to their Maoritanga earned high praise.

In a most businesslike Wednesday morning

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Mr Haare Piahana and Mrs Ruiha Sage plant a tree at Gate Pa.

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President and vice-presidents of the League, Mrs M Te Kawa, Mrs R. Sage and Mrs M. Penfold.

session, the remainder of the 40 remits were dealt with, this efficiency earning the president's thanks.

After lunch Mr N. P. K. Puriri addressed the delegates on ‘Planning for the Future’. In outlining conditions likely to arise by the year 2,000, when there would be five million New Zealanders, one of every seven being a Maori, he suggested that the majority of Maori people would live in towns and monopolise the unskilled areas of industry, family ties would be broken, and the institution of the tangi would be a thing of the past.

Giving an indication of the scientific wonders we can expect in the next 40 years, Mr Puriri showed the necessity of making a choice—either to ignore these trends, give up, or prepare for the future. He stressed the need for educated and skilled people, for better understanding, for the ‘re-building of our society on the basis of self-confidence, selfrespect and dignity’, for family spacing and good child-rearing practices, and the need to participate at all levels of society. ‘Accept the challenge of the future and be masters of your own destiny,’ he said. ‘Whaia te iti Kahurangi i na tuohu koe hei maungateitei.’

Further discussion of the proposed constitution completed the afternoon, and in the evening Miss Wallscott presented Rotorua D.C. with the Te Puea trophy, and Morrinsville I.B. with the Penrhyn Island trophy, after the judge,

continued at foot of page 24

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Farewelled at Wellington

Revd Kingi Ihaka and his wife Manu were farewelled at several functions in Wellington before shifting to Auckland, where Revd Ihaka is now Maori Missioner. Among these was an evening with the Mawai-Hakona Club at Silverstream, where each was given a pendant, Mrs Ihaka a Maniheke pearl shell, inset with a greenstone cross, and Revd Ihaka a rei-puta, carved from the tooth of a sperm-whale.

Canon Hohepa Taepa of Otaki has taken Revd Ihaka's place in Wellington.

N.A.C. Air Hostess

Recently trained as an Air Hostess with the National Airways Corporation is Miss Whera Douglas. Initial training lasts about six weeks, and is followed by a three-month probationary period. We hope to have an article by Miss

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Douglas in our ‘Younger Readers’ Section’ shortly, giving details of training and opportunities in this career.

Wedding at Levin

Over 450 guests attended the wedding at the Gospel Hall, Levin, on 1 July of Miss Tangiwai Tihema, eldest daughter of the late Mr and Mrs R. Tihema of Levin, and Mr Keith Mildon (Keita Meretana) of Wellington, third son of the late Mr L. W. Mildon and Mrs C. Mildon of Wairoa.

Bride and bridegroom are both well known. Miss Tihema of Ngati Raukawa, granddaughter of the late David Raunini Tatana, M.B.E. of Levin, a descendant of Te Rauparaha, has worked for ten years as an Agrade cook at the Levin Hospital and Training School, and Mr Mildon, of Ngati Kahungunu, is a professional wrestler of long standing.

Both Maori and European delicacies were served at the reception, and among the vocal items was one given by Hannah Tatana, cousin of the bride.

Guests included Mr and Mrs Ike Robin, O.B.E. of Hastings (grand uncle and aunt of the groom) and Mr Watarangi Pohe of Putiki (grand uncle of the bride).

Mr and Mrs Mildon will make their home in Wellington.

U.S.A. Visit

Alan Nino Marino, son of Mr and Mrs David Raroa Marino of Gisborne, formerly of Tolaga Bay, left New Zealand on 20 July for an exchange visit to the U.S.A. in a party of six A.T.C. Cadets. Now a Pilot Officer, he intends entering the Air Force, when he leaves Gisborne Boys' High School, where is in the sixth form, a prefect, and a member of the first XV.

Alan's paternal grandfather was a direct descendant of Hinemoa and Tutanekai. His paternal grandmother was a granddaughter of Nopera Rangiuia, a chief of Tolaga Bay. His maternal grandfather was a descendant of Charles Ryland, one of the early whalers on the east coast.

Scouts attend World Jamboree

Two Maori boys, representing the North and South Islands, were chosen among the group visiting Idaho, U.S.A., for the World Scout Jamboree. They are Robin Pene of the Wakefield Scout Troop in Nelson and Pataka Bush,

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a Venturer Scout in the Ward 1 L.D.S. Scout Group in Hamilton.

Pataka, in the 5th form at Fairfield College, began as an eight-year-old Lone Cub when living 60 miles away from Napier, and with the encouragement of his parents progressed steadily, earning his 1st class award last January, His Scoutmaster, Mr W. P. Mitchell, accepted the challenge of raising the necessary funds and his efforts were so successful that Waikato were able to help Robin with the balance he needed.

Street stalls, an elephant race, a hangi and dance, support from other scout groups, and ‘buying the miles to Spokane’ helped to raise money for Robin, who is now a 1st Class Scout, after starting when he was 11. He is an apprentice upholsterer.

Graduates Conference

A seminar on education was held at the annual conference of the Maori University Graduates Association at Ohinemutu on 20 and 21 May. During the weekend, His Excellency the Governor-General, Sir Bernard Fergusson, patron of the Association, presented to Mr Pei Te Hurinui Jones a certificate of Life Membership,

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National Publicity Studios

in recognition of the help and encouragement he had given the Association.

Graduates and others attending the conference, are pictured below.

On the day following the conference, many of the graduates paid an official visit to Turangawaewae Marae.

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Taranaki Boy's

Roy Michael Robinson of the Ngati Ruanui tribe from Manaia near Hawera has achieved much since leaving home and coming to Wellington.

After taking an engineering course at Hawera Technical College, he enrolled as a carpentry trainee in the special Maori Trade Training Scheme at the Central Institute of Technology, Petone. Roy was one of the first intake of twelve carpentry trainees in June 1961. As a pupil he showed considerable initiative and enthusiasm for everything even remotely connected with building. His keenness and ability resulted in Roy's being the first Maori trainee at Petone to gain his Trade Certificate in Carpentry. He did this in 1966.

After two years trade training he was placed as an apprentice carpenter with Hansen and Baigent Building Contractors of Lower Hutt. Initiative being a powerful force, he was soon given the opportunity of office training which has led to his present position, that of Building Planner. This job involves ordering materials, seeing that all work on the site flows without hold-ups, co-ordinating the work of all subcontractors and conducting correspondence on matters concerning the site. A six day working week is commonplace.

Although he is married with a two year old son, Roy has still found time to draw his own house plans and intends to build himself a house on a section he has bought in Featherston.

The transition from rural to urban living has been most eventful and the future looks exciting for Roy Robinson of Hawera.

by S. A. Hunt

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National Publicity Studios

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New Zealand

The New Zealand Police is a government department, though it is recruited, organised and governed somewhat differently from other departments of State.

The Police Department is under the direct control of a commissioner, who is stationed at the National headquarters in Wellington. There too is the head of the Criminal Investigation (Detective) Branch, and the recently centralised Criminal Records Bureau.


Training is given first at Trentham, where a recruit (19–35 years old) trains for 13 weeks, and a cadet (17 years old) has a 19 month course

Then follows 21 months training under supervision, including further courses and final examinations.

After two years on beat duty, a constable

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Constable Taurima with his dog ‘Ensign’ patrols outside two of Porirua's banks.

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Maori members of Wellington's police photographed outside their three-storey barracks at Porirua.
BACK ROW: From left, Constables J. S. Moran, T. A. M. T. Wilson, T. L. E. Kenny, D. J. Nicholas, C. W. Hohaia, W. M. Joyce, A. J. Joyce, K. H. Ponga, H. W. Hodges, R. D. Waitai, H. T. T. Poi and J. A. P. Myers. In front, Constable J. Rarere, Detective Constable T. W. Parata, Inspector E. F. Bennett and Constable W. W. Taurima with ‘Ensign’.

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Constable Myers beside his police car.

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National Publicity Studios
Detective Constable Parata and Constable Kenny

may apply for transfer to the C.I.B. or one of the other specialist sections.


Women between 20 and 33 years of age may join the Police, and their duties are basically the same as for male officers. Women members of the C.I.B. deal particularly with thefts, false pretences, assaults and all crimes pertaining to women and children.

Maori Police

Maori men and women are in all branches of the Police, and recently most of those based in the Wellington area were photographed at Porirua.

Of highest rank is Inspector E. F. Bennett, B.E.M., of Ngati Manu, now in administration at Police Headquarters. From 1957–61 she was attached to the Auckland C.I.B. as a detective, and as a Uniform N.C.O. was in charge of the Women's Division at Auckland from 1961 to 1966. She was awarded the British Empire Medal in 1963.

Constable W. W. Taurimu of Ngati Kahungunu has been dog handler for the Porirua area since 1965.

Now an Inquiry Constable at Wellington South, Ngapuhi's Constable A. J. Joyce was from May 1964 to August 1965 a member of

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the New Zealand Police contingent attached to the United Nations Peace Keeping Force in Cyprus.

Detective Constable T. W. Parata, Ngati Awa, has been a member of the Wellington C.I.B. since 1965 and is stationed at Lower Hutt.

Also at Lower Hutt, as Watchhouse Keeper, is Constable K. H. Ponga, Ngati Kahungunu. Other Ngati Kahungunu members are Constable H. W. Hodges, stationed at Naenae, who was a member of the Police Bodyguard for the Queen Mother during her 1966 visit to New Zealand, and Constable J. Rarere who is attached to the Criminal Records Bureau, in the Fingerprint section.

Stationed at Wellington are Constable C. W. Hohaia of Taranaki and Constable T. L. E. Kenny of Ngati Toa.

Attached to Taranaki Street Station are Constable J. S. Moran, Ngati Porou, who does Beat and Watchhouse duties, and Constables T. A. M. T. Wilson, Ngati Porou, D. J. Nicholas, Ngati Awa, W. M. Joyce, Ngapuhi, and H. T. T. Poi, Ngati Porou, all doing Beat and Motor Patrol duties. On the same duties at Lower Hutt is Constable R. D. Waitai of Ngati Kahungunu.

Well known in rugby football circles as a Maori All Black and Wellington Rugby Repre sentative is Constable J. A. P. Myers who is attached to the Information Section at Police Headquarters.

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Inspector Bennett at her desk.

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Maori Clubs

A Maori Club in London

In 1961, when the film The Castaways was made, all the Maoris that could be found in London were asked to be ‘extras’. Once they had all met up they decided that they would like to keep contact with each other and so a Maori Club was formed in London. Today, six years later, the club is still active and besides being a social meeting point the Aotearoa Maori Club gives many performances—under the strict control of the leader, Sam Karetu. There are still two original members in the group: Margaret Smith of Kaikohe and Luie Tawhai (now Mrs Thyne) of Rotorua. Of course members come and go as New Zealanders make a trip overseas and return home again; some of the members now back in New Zealand are Winnie Waapu (now Mrs Salmon) of Hastings, Cini Boynton of Waimana (now Mrs Hapi living in Gisborne), Marie Morehu of Taupo, Agnes and John Manunui of Wellington, and Aroha North (now Mrs Fitzpatrick) a Pakeha from Te Whaiti.

Present members are Sam Karetu of Hastings; Tom Russell of Hastings; Lindsay Hounsell, a Pakeha from Auckland who was previously with Arapeta Awatere's Maranga Club: Freer Crawford, a Pakeha guitarist from Rotorua; Hemi Wiremu from Kaitaia; Phyllis Komene from New Plymouth; Gwen Clarke (now Mrs le Marquand) from Hastings; Rena Tawhai (Mrs Pohe) from Kaitaia; and the original members Margaret Smith and Luie Tawhai.

The club gives concerts, provides the cabaret at balls, has appeared on television and has been invited to appear at the end of this year at the official farewell in London to Sir Arthur Porritt, Governor General-designate of New Zealand. Club members practise hard for their concerts: members meet most Tuesdays at Sam Karetu's flat in Chelsea in London, where they rehearse and gossip and drink innumerable cups of tea!

The photograph was taken at one of the latest appearances of the Maori Club. Garth Clarke, a New Zealander who was a finals student at the London School of Television

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STANDING: From left, Sam Karetu, Lindsay Hounsell, Hemi Wiremu, Tom Russell, Freer Crawford. Gavin Clark and Barbara Ewing. KNELING: Margaret Smith, Marie Morehu, Luie Tawhai and Phyllis Komene.
photograph by G. T. Adams

earlier this year, directed a private TV programme Songs of the Maori. The programme was shared by the Aotearoa Maori Club and Barbara Ewing and the protograph was taken as final instructions were being given before the programme was taped.

Any Maoris (or interested Pakehas) coming to England will be gladly welcomed in the club if they are competent and keen—but please bring piupius.

Barbara Ewing.

Whatumanu Maori Culture Club

On 3 May, a new Maori club was formed at the Hastings factory of Unilever N.Z. Ltd. Membership is open to all employees of Unilever and their families.

At the opening, about 100 people were welcomed by the club's chairman Mr John Meha, and the club was formally declared open by Mr John Bennett, chairman of the Heretaunga Maori Executive. Mrs D. Grainer, wife of Unilever's Technical Director, spoke on behalf of the company in her husband's absence, and Mr Taanga Tomoana, when speaking of Maori traditions, stressed the importance of preserving Maoritanga.

Action songs, kit making, taniko work, tukutuku and carving were demonstrated, and the enthusiastic committee intends that all these activities will be taught to club members.

An interesting display included kits, baskets, mats, weaving, piupiu, taniko, tukutuku panels, tekoteko, weapons, and feathered cloaks and kits.

Mr T. J. Collingwood sends us this report of the club's progress:—

‘Since its inception the club has progressed favourably, with meetings held every Wednesday night. On the first Wednesday in every month we have a guest speaker or demonstrator, followed by the club's ‘Manuao Action Group’ practice. So far we have successfully held classes in kit-making, taniko work, poi making, rourou making, and we are currently in the process of making piu pius. We have been greatly assisted by Maori elders and artists who have given of their time to assist the club in its cultural activiies.

‘The membership, excluding school children,

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is 63, and the club is in a strong financial position. One of the strongest groups is the carving class, in which up to 20 men under the tuition of Mr Riki Smith are learning the art of carving.

‘A donation of $20 was recently given to Robin Kora of Te Aute College who gained an American Field Scholarship.

‘The club is currently planning to invite senior Maori school leavers from six of the local colleges and high schools to attend a special function at Unilever factory, where they will hear talks including a talk from Mr W. Herewini of the Maori Affairs Department, who will speak on ‘Maori in Modern Society’. This will be followed by an evening meal, and a discussion panel, and it is hoped that the children will join with the club members in their normal club night.

‘A further project in which we are currently engaged is in the preparation of food parcels for Maori troops in South Vietnam. Using facilities at the factory it is proposed to prepare Karengo, and the Heretaunga Maori Executive have promised us support in our endeavours.

‘We have recently adopted the Karamu High School Maori Club, and we regularly supply speakers at lunch times to speak on topics suitable to the club. This has been greatly appreciated by the school, the club and the pupils.

‘Our club has received every support from the Maori and Pakeha community and in particular the employees of Unilever New Zealand Limited.’

Arai Te Uru, Dunedin

This club is ten years old this year, and to commemorate this milestone, members are holding a Ball in November.

The Ball will be held in Dunedin on Friday, 24 November, 1967, and dress will be formal. Saturday will be a free day and Sunday will take the form of a Church Service at the Maori Church at Otakou, combined with a picnic day for the children. The members of this club would be only too pleased to billet visitors from other parts of New Zealand. For further details contact the secretary, Mrs Nancye Morris, at 18 Ellesmere Street, Ravensbourne. Dunedin.

Tour of Schools

We have just returned from a trip to seven schools, all of them interesting, all of them different, and what a welcome we received, even though we were speaking on such ‘dry’ topics as teacher-training, university courses, apprenticeship requirements, hostel accommodation and boarding bursaries. Admittedly, we ‘sweetened the pill’ with Maori and Cook Island action-songs and hakas, but even so, teachers at all these schools said that there was interest and enthusiasm and a more realistic attitude towards the aims of schoolwork after we had been.

Who were we, anyway, to go gallivanting around secondary schools in the Wellington province? We were a group of students from Wellington Teachers' College, following up an idea raised at the Maori Student Federation meeting last May, where it was suggested that school tours should be made to help prepare the many Maori children who must in a year or two make the ‘big move’ into the city. A grant was forthcoming from the J. R. MacKenzie Trust, and our lecturer, Mr B. Mitcalfe, arranged for seven schools to receive us over a long college week-end, from Friday to Monday.

Away we went on a ski-truck that looked so much like a stock truck that at Hato Paora (Parorangi—near Feilding) the ‘Fathers’ came out, took one look at us and went back in again. They had thought it was the assignment of cattle for the farm. That misunderstanding cleared up, we soon settled in, met all the boys and Fathers Delaney, Atkins and Kinsella.

The group performed for the whole school, breaking the programme with a brief talk on ‘varsity life and the difficulties of the first year. This was from Iwi Henare, an old boy of St

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photographs by Brian Morell
In the Waitotara valley the students looked at these rua koauau—pits for storing kumara.

Stephens, whose first hand experience of the problems of social life, accommodation and adjusting to the freedom of ‘varsity life proved most valuable, provoking a whole barrage of questions during the informal supper session afterwards.

At Turakina Maori Girls' College it was teaching that most interested the seniors. Mrs Tiria Asher, who had been working for many years as an uncertificated assistant in schools all over the North Island, spoke on the advantages of teaching, not only as an interesting and varied job for young people, but also for married women who would wish to return to this work when their families had grown up.

Tiria was astonished to find that at some of the schools the pupils didn't realise students at Teachers' College were actually paid to

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David Andrews, Tiria Asher and Barry Mitcalfe took into a double rua.

learn, so that parents did not have to find money to send children to college. Similarly, many of the Teachers' College students do university subjects with ‘all fees paid by the college, and those who do well are given a year of full-time university work on a teacher's bursary.

Mac Burt, another second-year Teachers' College student, with very close links with Ngaruawahia, described the Maori and Pacific subjects one could do at university, ranging from Maori Studies and Maori Language through to Stage III, to Anthropology, Sociology and Asian Studies up to an Honours level, i.e. four years of study. He also took care to outline the $270 boarding bursary available, and to stress the need for two years of sixth form work before entering university.

College pupils were interested to hear of the alternatives to the ‘bonded’ bursary which offers free university work and living expenses in exchange for a year of service in a government department (on pay) for every year of study.

Both Mac Burt and Murray Bruce, speaking on apprenticeship, stressed the worsening economic situation and the way it would hit casual workers first, but even so it was still possible for a boy not sure about his future career to attend university during the eightmonth academic year and save the necessary money to support himself by working in the freezing works for the remaining four months. Mac himself had done this sort of thing; so had Tom Ihaka, the leader of the action-song group; it sounded much more convincing coming from them than from any vocational guidance officer.

The group was struck by the tightening of

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the economic situation—especially at Ratana Pa, where the acting headmaster, Mr Henry Everitt, said one-third of the men were out of work, partly bcause of seasonal fluctuations but also because of the ‘squeeze’. Even so, the students were vastly impressed by Ratana Pa, by the enormous hall in the course of construction, to be finished by next January, able to seat 4,000 at once, the energy and friendliness of the children whom we'd met before and hope to meet again, and finally, by the place itself, still one of the great centres of Maori life.

The other thing that struck the party was the difference between the boys' and girls' schools. At Wanganui Girls' College, where Miss Ellis (formerly of Kamo) was headmistress, the whole school received us with the utmost friendliness as did Turakina Girls', but it was the more formal and restrained boys' schools which asked the more searching questions about careers. It was as if there was still a different standard for girls, much lower, directed perhaps not towards a career, but solely to a family. Here Dovey Shedlock was careful to point out the advantages of education to a married woman, how it helped her help her own children, but it still seemed as if (apart from a few like Hine Delamere, the head girl at Turakina) most of the girls were setting their sights far too low.

Although we were impressed by the questioning at Wanganui Boys' College, I think for atmosphere and friendliness (apart from the boarding schools) our visit to Manawatu and Horowhenua Colleges will be remembered with warmth, for staff and pupils went out of their way to make us welcome. These were very much community schools, especially Manawatu College at Foxton where the parents, Maori

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Children at Ratana Pa with some of their visitors.

and Pakeha, packed the assembly hall for an evening concert, a talk and a sociable supper afterwards.

Here, Murray Bruce, who hails from Levin, came into his own, speaking on the minimum requirements for apprenticeship—two years or more of secondary education and a good grounding in maths for most trades—and outlining the various Maori Affairs schemes in carpentry, plumbing and electrical trades. David Andrews described the advantages of the many hostels in Wellington, how it was possible to find cheap living and the company of people like oneself in the hostel situation.

Apart from what was said, it was the personal contact that mattered, the friendships made, the hospitality given, and the contacts future school leavers will have in Wellington. We hope this school tour will become an annual event.

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Wanganui East Girls' College Maori Club members perform an action song for their visitors.

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Conference at

Dr J. R. Flynn, Professor of Political Science at Otago University was the principal speaker at the Wellington Federation of Maori students Conference in Wellington on 6 May. His topic was ‘A Comparative View: Race and Class in U.S.A.’ He spoke of the educational, social, political and employment situation of the American Negro, and of the formation of ghettos, asking the students to relate these problems to the New Zealand situation, finding similarities and differences.

Mr D. Rose and Mr G. Butterworth, authors of The Maori in the New Zealand Economy, university lecturers and prominent Maoris also took part in discussions, which covered urbanisation, credit unions, Maori organisations, land incorporations and effective leadership.

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Takiri Puriri and Graeme Takarangi, two students at the conference.

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National Publicity Studios
Mr N. P. K. Puriri addressing the students.

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We will be pleased to receive original work in art and language for publication in this section.

On Mount Tarawera

thinking of its eruption 80 years ago—inspired by a tramp up to the summit

A crater stark, sinister Deep, deadly deep In a naked gape. To ponder this once vomited, Spewed, coughed chaos death destruction upon an innocent world —this sight of strangely savage beauty.

Ngahuia Gordon

Pupils of Northland College have sent in more contributions. The first three are from Form 5.R.A.


like a black, glossy snake.
It moves silently—
gliding over the earth.
It gurgles when the smooth surface
is broken.
A slight splash,
then the fish is gone
beneath the glassy surface.
Dark shadows of weeds wriggle
To the flow of the water.

Lenny Harding


Flax lines the water's edge
like a band of warriors,
ready to charge the enemy,
like a picture,
changed into real life,
reflected through a mirror.

Taupaki Mohi


Greasy water, still with silence …
Calves enjoying the luxury of shadiness …
poking onto my socks,
eating up the cotton.

Myna Whautere

And here are three poems on ‘Wind’ from pupils of Form 3E.

strong, swift and powerful,
comes like a ghost
all wrapped in black.
Down comes the strong wind
pounds on our shivering bodies.

Moetu Heremaie

Wind blowing
waves rolling
blowing hard
while houses are stripped apart
trees collapsing
water crashing.

Hemi Epiha

Sweeping across the sky,
howling like a great dog.
trees rustling, hats flying,
shivering bodies crowd around
warm fires away from the cold, cold wind.
Everyone enclosed in houses,
away from this fierce wind.

Lance Nicholas

Te Rangatahi

So often we hear of the problems of Maori youth, so often we hear theorizing about the Maori language. Less frequently, however, do we hear of anything practical and concrete being done about these ‘problems’. At Northland College, in Kaikohe, from 14 to 16 July, over a hundred Maori post-primary students accomplished something very practical and very significant. Ropata Pouwhare, who attended the conference, reports on it.

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We all slept on the campus in true marae fashion—on the floor—girls in one block, boys in another. The general tone within the living quarters suggested, and even ensured, that the hui would be a success. Traditional Maori songs were sung deep into the heart of the night and we conversed freely in our mother tongue.

On Friday night, in the middle of the dance, the welcome was given. This dance played a very significant role. Not only was it enjoyable, but it helped to mix the young students, and we became better acquainted.

On the domestic side of things, we are greatly indebted to Mrs Sadler and her team of workers who put on a really terrific show with their catering, waitressing, and the substantial and tempting kai. The hustling and bustling could be heard in the early hours of the morning—the ‘parakuihi’—when breakfast was being prepared. There were the rattle of empty dishes, the groans from a few of ‘how cold it is this morning’, and the slightly anaemic-looking toast, which was a great joke. Even then we were happy, and suddenly burst into song.

However, we are also indebted to the guest speakers who willingly gave up their valuable time to come and speak to us. Mr Turua Royal spoke on The Future of the Maori Language. He gave us a stimulating and stirring talk on the importance of our language. ‘To be a well balanced person, one should consider one's Maori side of things,’ he said. He emphasized one important point—‘if a Pakeha is willing to learn let him learn.’

Miss Polly Hopa gave us an encouraging talk on Education. She spoke of ambition and confidence. She stressed that whatever opportunities there are, we should make the most of them. The Revd Marsden, who took the church service on Sunday, in Maori, spoke on Adjusting to City Life. He gave us an excellent picture of the problems and pitfalls that we, who moved to the towns, faced.

Mr Matiu Rata, M.P., spoke on Maori Land and the controversial new Maori Affairs Bill.

Dr M. N. Paewai took the floor towards the end of the conference and gave us an interesting picture of Our Future.

On Sunday afternoon, before the conference was officially closed, under the leadership of Miss Hopa and Mrs Arapera Blanc. the students were taught action songs, which everyone enjoyed.

At this point, it is fitting to mention the growing interest of the local press who published a stimulating commentary throughout the conference.

Our student officers were: John Sadler, who acted as President, and Marjorie Rapatini. Secretary. A special mention must be made of the wonderful work and organisation Jacob Te Whata contributed.

The conference, and the mingling of the students who came from all over Northland—from Te Kao to Wellsford, resultd in greater pride. It has made us aware of our cultural identity, and also taught us how to use our language with pride. We all left the conference with our heads held higher, with the invaluable and knowledgeable words ot our elders still fresh within us.

Ropata Pouwhare.

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Marjorie Rapatini, Federation Secretary, with Mr Matui Rata, M.P.

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A discussion group on Maori land problems — Mervyn Tatana, John Sadler and Isobel Pou

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Mr Bill Hohepe of Northland College supervises the cooking

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Panel at
League Conference

Eight pupils from Tauranga's four secondary schools discussed and answered questions put to them by Mr M. Te Hau, during the M.W.W.L. conference held there last July. They were Diane Faulkner and William Andrews of Otumoetai College, Gregory Tata and Grey Whaanga of Tauranga Boys' High School, Leslie Moffatt and Erica Rolleston of Tauranga Girls' High School and Kathryn Bluett and Buddy Mikare of Mount Maunganui College.

These pupils, all with Maori ancestry, showed by their excellent answers that they had a balanced and confident outlook on problems their elders were seeking to solve.

The best answer to the first question—How would you define a Maori?—was … ‘A Maori is usually defined as a Polynesian, but a real Maori is a Polynesian with his culture.’

Next came a question on integration—What do you understand by integration? Do you consider Maoris should be fully integrated in the New Zealand Society? If not, why not? The answer given by Leslie earned almost an ovation, and other members of the panel could add almost nothing to it. We quote it here in full:

‘Integration, to me, is the combining, the affiliation of two peoples—not the takeover of one group by another, but a free intermingling of different parts into one essential whole.

‘I think we must realise here that different groups have a heritage, a vibrant history, customs and beliefs, past and present, of their own. An integrated nation does not overlook certain aspects but collects all parts, all different customs and history and displays all as its proud heritage.

‘Different customs must be retained to preserve pride and self respect but should not interfere with goodwill. Integration is the intermixing. Integration is tolerance.

‘Thus as I see it, integration is when different ideas, different coloured skins, different beliefs are accepted—and a man is judged only by his worth, being given equal opportunity with everyone else to show it.

‘Integration is also the joining of people, ideas, customs, and beliefs, freely.’

‘Now for the second part of the question:

‘The important phrase here is N.Z. Society, Maoris are New Zealanders and as such Maoris should be fully integrated in the New Zealand Society. The phrase wasn't European Society, or Maori Society, but New Zealand Society.

The Maori has an important contribution to make. The Maori is a person, and deserves the opportunity to show his worth, deserves equal opportunities and advantages in our New Zealand life.

Integration means this. Integration gives man, all men, the change to contribute to our common good. Thus the Maori should be fully integrated into New Zealand Society.’

To the third question—What do you think are the main difficulties that face Maoris in an urban situation such as Tauranga?—there was a variety of answers, among them, ‘Maoris have a feeling of shyness and a sense that the Pakeha has a condescending attitude towards them’, ‘the difficulty of the non-existence of informal social interactions between the two races, apart from an occasional “Hello” or a beer in the pub’, ‘a lack of idea about money’. The general opinion was that if everyone went half-way, these problems would be gradually overcome.

Question four—With the rise in Maori population do you consider there is a likelihood of a worsening in race relations in New Zealand? If so, why?—looked as though it could be a ‘sticky one’, but was treated with aplomb by the pupils, some of them giving instances of a growing Pakeha interest in Maori things, and of being asked by schoolmates to explain Maori things to them.

Do Maoris require special attention at school? If so, why?—the fifth question—aroused some disagreement. Diane thought this depended on Maori children's abilities, their attitude to work, their social background, and their upbringing. She thought that many Maori children who had ability had their opportunities ruined by a lack of interest on their own or their parents' part. The attitude to work was more easygoing, and because a Maori mixed most easily with other Maoris, he found he couldn't chat with Pakehas about common interests. She felt that the ‘gap’ in fluency and the shyness of the young Maori child starting school was slowly being overcome by the play centre movement.

Leslie suggested that improvement should begin in the home, that special attention should

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not be given at school because this obviously set up a barrier between Pakeha and Maori.

In answering question six—What part do you consider education should play in the total life of Maori Society?—it was said that ‘The Maori's place in today's society depends entirely on the standard of education he has attained’. Reference was again made to the average Maori child's handicaps on beginning school, because the standard of English at home was poor, there was little preschooling, and usually no literature around the house. This stemmed basically from the oral historical tradition of the Maori. Lack of finance to keep children at school, and the temptation for Maori children to leave when they saw their friends earning ‘big money’ were also mentioned.

Verbal intelligence tests, resulting in the streaming of most Maori children into low classes, thus giving them the feeling ‘I'm a dumb Maori’ was seen as one of the answers to question seven—What do you consider are the special problems facing Maori children in Secondary schools? Another was that ‘there is nothing in the European education system which can be called Maori, and this causes a lack of identification by young Maoris’.

The teaching of the Maori language in secondary schools was advocated and a plea made for more who could teach Maori to serve as part-time teachers in schools that were eager to add Maori to their list of options but could find no teachers. Stressing this, Kathryn said, ‘A language does not survive only because it is useful. A language survives if the people care for it enough. The teaching of Maori culture is not a substitute for teaching the Maori language. Anyone can twirl a poi or stamp in a haka, but the best poi dancers, the best haka men, are those who know what they are shouting. You can dress up like an ancient Maori, know the stories of old Maori times, enjoy Maori food, but if you cannot speak like a Maori, you do not know what is in his heart.’ She asked that Maori be taught at least at 5th and 6th form levels.

This was further emphasized when Gregory answered the last question—What elements of Maoritanga should be retained in our Society today? How do you consider these can be extended to meet today's needs?—the Maori language being the basis of Maoritanga. He said that the music, crafts, and oratory should also be retained, and the language was the only thing that made these meaningful. The Maori marae too should be kept for a place of reunion for tangis and celebrations, and the only way to retain all these was to use them continuously.

He spoke of theatrical and operatic productions, the art and poetry of young Maoris, and the Maori oratory contest as modern extensions meeting today's needs, and drew prolonged applause when he said a national Maori language public speaking contest should be instigated, to give incentive to pupils and further the use of Maori.

Questions from the audience revealed that some of these pupils, although keenly advocating the retention of all the elements of Maoritanga, had little experience of some of them, and all were invited to Ngata College to meet the pupils there and see for themselves their strong retention of Maoritanga.

To Be A Teacher

It is exciting but not easy to go straight from school to Teachers' Training College, not only because you are changing from the receiving end to the giving end of education, but because there is a far greater degree of freedom, in choice of schools, courses and clubs.

I remember on the first day at college being bombarded with books, with forms to fill in, with course-requirements and options, and then on the second day visiting the various ‘areas’ of the college and choosing the one that seemed the most attractive. This was difficult: some of my friends had already decided to do art, which consisted of painting, pottery. carving, printing and sculpture, together with a course of study on the arts in New Zealand—but I was attracted by the Social Sciences area, especially as they were taking the Pacific as a theme, with a special look at ‘New Zealand today’.

I liked the idea that most of the staff in this area had first-hand knowledge of Maori or Pacific peoples, having worked in the field—so I settled for Social Sciences. I could have gone to the English and Language area: but no matter what area I chose for my first year, I would be studying English and three other ‘core’ or compulsory subjects—Education, Physical Education and Music. We all did some art too, so although we were not specialising in art, we weren't missing out entirely.

Our area consisted of about 90 students and six lecturers. A lot of work was done in mass

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Picture icon

Teaching is not all arithmetic and spelling! Here Mr Rex Manihera plays the guitar while his pupils at Glendowie school. Auckland, practise stick-games.
National Publicity Studios photographs

lectures, followed by small group discussions; this made it lively and we soon got to know everyone in the area fairly well.

At first I think I tended to be very quiet and wary; but the lecturers themselves were quite informal and friendly, so that I found myself discussing quite freely, although all through school I'd kept pretty quiet in class, for fear, I suppose, of making a fool of myself. This is probably the best thing about Teachers' College, especially for a Maori.

It wasn't all lectures—in fact, for about one-third of our first year, we were working in schools, assisting and learning from an associate teacher. Our first ‘section’ or ‘posting’ of three weeks gave us a chance to see the whole school in action. I went to an inner-city school with a roll that was 70% migrant, of whom most were Polynesian.

There was a short talk from the headmaster, and then we were observing what he'd talked about, in the infant department, where teachers had to take children from Greece, Hungary, India, Cook Islands, Samoa and New Zealand for the beginnings of reading and writing. It was a real ‘League of Nations’, but it was wonderful how quickly the infant mistress in this classroom got these children ready to begin reading, first through talking and singing games where they began to use words naturally and freely; second, through painting, drawing and talking about their pictures; third, through word-cards, labelling these pictures: and fourth, through stories and picture-books, so that children were usually ready in their first year at school to begin reading, although this wasn't always true.

There was one little Samoan boy who sat silent for six months; nobody knew any Samoan and he knew very little (if any) English, and everyone seemed to accept the situation! At the other end of the school, in Form II, some of the children were taller than I was, but they were all very friendly and polite.

This is the thing that strikes me most about children in the schools where I have worked. If you are friendly, direct and natural in your approach to them, they respond. There is no great problem with punishment, with not being able to use the strap; in fact, I prefer it this way, as it is easier to get to know and like the children and vice-versa. I have, on my four different school postings, struck only one teacher who used the strap, and he was dreadful, not only a tyrant but a lazy one, who seemed to believe an ounce of punishment was worth a pound of preparation.

My first pay-day (you are paid every fortnight) was a surprise. I did not know that I would be paid a boarding-allowance, and I received a pay-cheque of $32 odd instead of the $28 per fortnight I was expecting. This seemed

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all too easy; money for study, for being entertained, for belonging to Maori Club, to Swimming Club and doing things I had always wanted to do.

In some ways I was sorry that in my first year at Teachers' College I hadn't taken advantage of the chance to attempt a university subject or two. Over 100 of our 420 students—third-year students—were given some time off with all expenses paid to further their education at university on full pay. These were mainly students who had passed two or three ‘varsity subjects while at Teachers’ College.

In my second year at College I decided I would do Maori Studies at university. I found the work interesting and not too hard. I now have two units towards a degree—a degree that can be finished part-time while I am teaching, but as this is my P.A. (probationary asistant) year, in a Standard 2 class of 25 children. I have little time for thought of university!

I like teaching, mainly because it is a useful job, and you know that you are helping people develop, not just making money out of them. To be honest, I like the ‘paid holidays’ too; they give me time to travel, to see the places I have always wanted to visit. But I am particularly glad that I began a course of study on the Maori and Polynesia which can. if I want, lead me to a university degree.

It is only at Wellington and Auckland Teachers' Colleges that one can do Maori or Polynesian Studies. Maori students can ask to go to any college they like, although their local Education Board will suggest that they go to the local college, whether it be North Shore, Ardmore, Palmerston North, Christchurch or Dunedin—but for those with strong Maori interests, I recommend Auckland or Wellington.

—Tere Smith.

Queen Victoria School

A most enthusiastic report from Queen Victoria School's Honorary fencing instructor after the provincial trials and championships in July shows the progress made by the pupils, three being chosen as provincial representatives, Henrietta Ngata in the A Team, and Charis Rata and Janie Rangiuia in the B Team.

Rangi Piripi, another Queen Victoria pupil won a merit award in the Auckland Star secondary school art exhibition with her painting ‘Landscape’.

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Ethnic Folk Series

Vik'ng VP 243 12in LP 33⅓ rpm

This is an interesting and in many ways unique record. According to the cover it was produced in connection with Dr Terry Barrow's book Traditional and Modern Music of the Maori. The obvious intention was to provide music illustrative of that written about in the book, Unfortunately the paucity of cover notes or other explanatory material leaves this aim almost completely unfulfilled. Certainly the record should stand on its own feet without the necessity of the listener having to have recourse to the book to appreciate it. Nevertheless the reader of the book who is interested in the account of, say, the peruperu may well turn to the record to hear just what such a dance sounds like. There is a peruperu on the record but neither on the cover or record label is it identified as such. Thus, to the uninitiated, side two of the record will consist in the main of just a collection of sounds, for he will have no notes to identify them as war dance, action song, etc. Much less will he be able to appreciate their meaning and significance in the scheme of Maori life and musical tradition. This is a great pity.

It is side one which gives the record its uniqueness. It consists of an interview by Dr Barrow with Mrs Paeroa Wineera (incorrectly described on the cover as the late Mrs Wineera) of Ngati Toa, interspersed with musical items both vocal and instrumental by Mrs Wineera. Mrs Wineera is possibly the last exponent of the traditional koauau or Maori nose flute. She was born at Poroutawhao Pa near Levin and learned to play the instrument when she was only twelve years old. During a long lifetime Mrs Wineera has learned a wide selection of ancient music and chants and we hear a few of these on this recording. There is no slickness about the interview. It is conversational, in places a little hesitant, but very very natural. Whilst there is little in the dialogue for the serious student of Maori music. Mrs Wineera charms with her observations and

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pithy humour. Indeed one of the highlights is her bawdy little translation of Me He Manu Rere (to the accompaniment of uneasy laughter in the background from Dr Barrow).

The first track on side one introduces the sound of the koauau and Mrs Wineera plays two different specimens, one of which was discovered by Capt. James Cook. This is followed by Moe Hurihuri a Ngati Toa lament. Mrs Wineera tells the story, sings the chant and then plays it on her koauau. Another interesting track features a love song Te Kotiro played on the putorino. This rare instrument features in many Maori love stories. It is possible for an expert player to breathe words through it so that they come out with the melody and the tales are many of bashful beaus sending messages to girl friends via the music of the putorino. Finally there is a racy little discussion on and demonstration of the difference between Maori music old and new.

Side two features a selection of music, chant and dances from Hannah Tatana (singing solo or in duets and trios with herself—‘gimmicky’ but pleasant to listen to) and from the Ohinemutu Cultural Group under Sambo Mitchell. These items are well performed and there are some interesting items indeed in those presented by Ohinemutu. It is a pity Dr Barrow had not interviewed Mitchell on side two, to enable the listener to get a better understanding of these items.


Illustrated booklet with 7in 45 rpm extended play record Viking VSP 18

This is another excellent booklet cum record from Viking—beautifully illustrated, with a competent text and a short but comprehensive selection of items on record. These musical books do give the casual listener and souvenir hunter a rather better appreciation of the Maori people and their culture than do most records on their own. In places the text seems to draw heavily on Buck but within the restrictions of only twelve small pages it is scholarly and accurate. The author is Jim Siers, well known for his work on Wellington television. Whilst there is an emphasis on the Maori family, as suggested by the title, the text does cover much wider aspects of pre-Pakeha Maori social life and usage. Unfortunately the layout of the text is poor. There is no attempt to break twelve solid pages of text into minichapters with the use of paragraph headings and the like.

The illustrations are of the quality which one would expect from Herbert Sieben. My one criticism of the book is that although the text is couched in past tense, and the small foreword mentions in passing that it features the family ‘in olden times’, the overall impression from photos and text could give the passing reader the impression that the book depicts a way of life which can still be found in New Zealand. Sandwiched in somewhere I would have liked just one small photograph showing a modern Maori family and brief mention in the text that though there have been changes in the pattern of Maori family life in this day and age, the family is still of vital importance in the Maori society of the Twentieth Century.

The accompanying record features Hannah Tatana, the choir of Te Aute College, St Josephs' Maori Girls' College, the Waipatu Concert Party and the Motuiti Maori Youth Club. It gives good value and a varied selection.

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This book is another of the steadily growing number of tribal histories written by a member of the tribe—always a bold undertaking for a Maori, but one which we hope to see more frequently.

As a Ngati Ruakawa the author is naturally more concerned with the period following the settlement of the Tainui people on the Kapiti coast and the reader will find only a summary of the story of the Rangitane, Muaupoko and Ngati Ira who occupied the district before that time.

The complex pattern of migration from Waikato and Taranaki during and after Te Rauparaha's conquest is set out in a straightforward and readable way without the morass of detail which is always a temptation to the recorder of Maori tradition. A great deal of work was done by the author to identify the sites of various settlements and tribal battles and this section of the book, wisely separated from the main story, is a notable contribution to the history of Horowhenua, Waikanae and Kapiti.

We could do with more local histories of this kind. It is a tragedy that the author did not long survive the publication of his book. Haere, e tama, haere ki nga tupuna rongonui i heke mai na ki Kapiti ki te kawe tikanga hei ora mo nga uri o muri nei.

We add a comment by that indesctructible genealogist, Wiremu Kingi te Aweawe of Rangiotu.

The late Mr W. Carkeek, is to be commended for the work and time that he put into his book The Kapiti Coast.

From page I to page 10, ‘The People of the Land’—it covers a very exciting period. On page 3, the author correctly says that Buick had erred in calling Naitara, Ngatiara.

Half-way down page 3, a reference was made by Adkin, that Hau was a son of Popoto. Actually he was the priest of the Aotea canoe. On page 18, Te Awakautere is Te Aokautere.

On page 20, Te Rangihauku should be Te Rangikautaka. Page 22 states that Te Whatanui was defeated in Hawke's Bay by Kahungunu. There was a Raukawa party under Chief Te Momo defeated at Te Rotoatara by Kahununu. Te Ahu Karamu came with his party without Te Whatanui to Kapiti on pages 22 and 23.

The migration known as Te Kariritahi. When Te Ahukaramu returned to Ngati Raukawa at Maungatautari, Te Whatanui was there. It was Te Whatanui who led and brought Ngati-Raukawa down to interview Waitohi. This migration was called Te Hekewhirinui, the chosen sub-tribes of Ngati-Raukawa.

The main narrator in this book is Matene Te Whiwhi, a wonderful chief in his time and one who was held in very high esteem and affection by veryone. All that has been written by the author of Matene Te Whiwhi's versions is fairly accurate and I have no hesitation whatever in recommending The Kapiti Coast to any of our Maori scholars and people to read.

a study in social change and race relations

reviewed by K. Dewes

Through the combined efforts of Mrs Fraenkel, Blackwood and Janet Paul, the Maori Purposes Fund Board and Mrs Winiata, we at last have the long awaited dissertation on Maori leadership by Doctor Maharaia Winiata.

Maha, as he was popularly known, has written this study from the point of view of a Maori and a scholar trained in social anthropology, whose rich and varied background and experiences provided much of the source material. Added to this uniqueness is the fact that Maha was himself a keen observer of human behaviour and participated personally and effectively in the various leadership roles which he describes and analyses very competently and fairly. He had the qualities for dynamic leadership amongst the Maori people especially, and these were tribal and kinship status, varied experience, superior education, a dedicated interest in Maori aspirations and cultural values, and personality. While he respected and endorsed the conservative elements in traditionalist Maori culture, he also encouraged, advocated or introduced social change where this was desirable and acceptable to the people.

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In fighting for the retention of Maori cultural identity and its recognition by New Zealanders, and in publicly exposing Maori grievances, he was accused of being anti-Pakeha: his numerous sympathisers believed he was pro-Maori. In the book it is immediately apparent to the discerning reader that he felt keenly the injustices suffered by the Maori tribes in the past and slights occurring in the present. His temperament and feeling for things Maori is depicted in his style of writing and in his manner in the photograph on the dust cover.

The theme of Maha's book is ‘to analyse the pattern of Maori leadership in pre-European times, to investigate the changes that have taken place in the status and role of the Maori leader since the period of first impact with the European, and to give an account of the condition of leadership today’. His basic argument is that Maori society has adapted in the face of continual pressure from the superior technological social system of western society, industrialism and urbanisation. In doing so the essence of the traditional concepts of leadership have been adapted, new associations (e.g. the Ratana church, Women's Health League,

New Zealand Maori Council, Maori Women's Welfare League, Federation of Maori Students, Maori University Gradutes' Association) have been formed and moulded over the last 100 years, and thus additional classes of leaders have arisen to cater for Maori needs. However, this study brings forth quite clearly that effective leadership in Maori society is dependent upon both ascribed (tribal or kinship) status and achieved (feeling of Maoriness, personality, job, education, money) status. In the adaptation of Maori society to modern life the Maori associations have become more specialised and the leadership roles of both men and women, young and old, have been restructured.

The public will find the book a mine of information; Maori readers will have the opportunity of looking at themselves and their associations in new light; some scholars will find leads for further research. Maha's material might not provide all the answers on Maori associations and their leadership roles, but one thing is made clear, and that is that modern Maori society and culture is a dynamic force in New Zealand—it has always been this way since the coming of the Pakeha. For both Maori and Pakeha alike the book should help to get rid of some prejudices concerning some Maori associations.

It is a pity that the ‘National Council of Tribal Executives’ was not identified for today's readers by its modern title—the ‘New Zealand Maori Council’, and that captions for the photographs on the frontispiece and on Plate 9 were not checked carefully. Also, in line 5 of Sir Apirana Ngata's autograph on page 153, ‘matenga’ should be ‘mahuna’.

I agree with Maha's argument that the existence of Maori institutions or associations and the role played by Maori leaders in them (or other organisations) is evidence for a dual framework of organisation which exists in the wider New Zealand society, with Maori traditionalist society as a sub-system of New Zealand society; and that this duality is reinforced by differences in sentiments, attitudes and beliefs.

In brief, Dr Winiata's book should teach all New Zealanders that though a common loyalty to the British Crown is unquestioned, cultural differences (cultural dualism in a sense) between Pakeha and Maori are a reality. In learning to live with these differences, let us think of the Swiss people, who accept three official languages, and whose diverse ethnic groups live together in harmony and equality.

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TE ARAWA—A History of the
Arawa People

This book gives a comprehensive history of the Arawa people, from the feuds in Hawaiki which led up to the sailing of the Fleet until the eighteen-seventies or thereabouts.

Commencing with the familiar Hawaiki stories, the book goes on to the sailing of Te Arawa; the events of the voyage; the arrival in New Zealand; the exploration, claiming and settlement of territory; internal dissensions over the generations: inter-tribal feuds and alliances; contact with early traders, missionaries, settlers and officials; and finally, the various parts played by Arawa groups in the fighting of the sixties.

The author, Mr Don Stafford, after studying anthropology at Auckland University, went into business in Rotorua, but his avocation for many years has been the collection of material relating to the history of that district and, in particular, the history of Te Arawa confederation of tribes.

With a complete absence of any previous comprehensive work on Te Arawa, we would be bound to welcome almost any attempt in this direction. It has long been a matter for surprise and regret that this important tribe (or group of tribes) that has as much or more recorded material as any Maori canoe group in the country, should be without a fully assembled history.

Fortunately for us, Mr Stafford's work can be ranked as something considerably more valuable than a stopgap. It contains a wealth of detailed history, diligently and skilfully selected and assembled from the extensive sources which are conscientiously noted throughout.

The main written sources for the pre-European and early settlement periods are:


The material written down by Wiremu Maihi te Rangikaheke (William Marsh) for Grey and largely incorporated in Nga Mahi a Nga Tupuna (Polynesian Mythology):


Material published in early journals of the Polynesian Society—especially that of Takaanui Tarakawa:


Minutes of evidence given before the Maori Land Court by many elders.

Mr Stafford has also over the years obtained much valuable personal help and corroboration from individual members of the Arawa tribes—many, alas, no longer on this earth.

For some of the period covered, Mr Stafford must have suffered to some extent from an almost embarrassing profusion of material. I refer to the minute books of the Maori Land Court. Microfilms of all but the more recent minute books are held in the Turnbull Library, and also in the National Archives. Because of the fact that practically all Arawa lands were investigated by the Court and because of the rather unusual method of broad group investigation around the Rotorua area (Rotorua-Patatere-Paeroa) there is a great mass of evidence. It is true, of course, that some of this evidence conflicts, and must be weighed with due regard to the tendency of witnesses to put forward the story most favourable to their own claims (a tendency not confined to Arawas or to Maoris). Nevertheless, the broader lines are fairly clearly discernible to someone with Mr Stafford's zeal and patience. I have no doubt that many times in the course of his work, he must have thought with sympathy of the trials of the Judges whose steps he was retracing and perhaps agreed with the rather weary and pathetic comments that one Judge made on the termination of a long drawn-out case as to the aptitude of the Arawa people for organising proceedings in the Maori Land Court.

The result is a mass of detailed narrative, including names, places, etc., with some quite clear whakapapa and some effective commentary from the author. One small complaint is that at times the detail is so great, one cannot clearly see the wood for the trees. I should have welcomed a broad summary of some chapters in terms of wider hapu or tribal groups, movements and territory, although I would not want to lose the detail which provides a good picture of many phases of Maori life and thought.

Mr Stafford has wisely not attempted too much in detailing tribal or hapu divisions and consolidations. The fact is that we tend too much these days to look upon tribes, hapus and sub-hapus as fixed and immutable groups whose relationships have not changed. My feeling, (and this is formed largely from a casual acquaintance with many of Mr Stafford's sources) is that at different times, subdivision and regrouping of hapus, often under the pressure of tribal warfare, was a constant process and that it would be almost

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impossible to get far in untangling and tracing the various groups at different times. There is another trouble so far as Court minutes are concerned; the habit of using a new hapu name as a convenient method of grouping rights to land under one ancestor, though the hapu as such never existed as any kind of recognised or formed community. The question of early settlements around the Rotorua-Bay of Plenty area and of contact with pre-Fleet people or, at any rate, non-Arawas, to which Mr Stafford devotes an appendix is a particularly interesting one. There is little, if any, real evidence on the subject. Though Mr Stafford hopes eventually for some results from carbon dating, he is inclined to be dubious about the presence of other people and points out that there is no clear story of pre-Arawa occupation and that references to stranger tribes do not arise until many generations after the landing of the canoe. I must admit that the various stories of the original settlement of the Lakes district by different Arawa groups do tend to leave a strong impression that there were people about who were not descended from the Arawa crew. I have wondered if some earlier groups of settlers (possibly connected or related to Te Arawa) did not become identified after the Arawa arrival with individual Arawa men in some way (e.g. Marupunganui and Tuarotorua).

All the old stories so well known from Marsh's contributions to Grey are here. Tamatekapua's cunning exploits, Hatupatu, Hinemoa and Tutanekai are here where they belong, in their Arawa context. Later, of course, we have the story of Hongi's invasion, the Te Tumu fight, Kaokaoroa and the stirring story of Mair's devoted band. We meet again Tapsell, the first settled trader with the Arawa, the missionaries Spencer and Chapman and many others of the early days of this colony, but most of this later material is to be found published elsewhere and this book is likely to be more valued for its description of the pre-settlement period.

One more mild criticism. Since Mr Stafford thought it worthwhile to insert as an appendix to the book Chief Judge Jones' report on partitions regarding Rotorua Township (Pukeroa Oruawhata), he could well have added the later report of the Commission headed by Sir Michael Myers (published as Parliamentary Paper G7 of 1948) on the same subject, and also mentioned the settlement by the Government of the claims of the Maoris concerned.

This is a good and worthwhile book which must be a standard item in any New Zealand historical library. We can only be grateful to Mr Stafford for his work and for his decision to publish, a decision which so many other devoted collectors have postponed until too late.

The book is creditably produced and there is a good index and bibliography and a few interesting illustrations. Proof reading has apparently been of a high standard and your reviewer has noticed very few misprints or misspellings.

Architecture from Moahunter Days

A production of more than usual interest has appeared from the joint efforts of Alan and W. A. Taylor. Its appearance is most opportune, for information on Maori houses and their construction is not readily available.

The artistic work shows some skill and ability, but the exact origin of the source material is not always indicated as has been the custom in recent literature on such subjects.

Types of huts have been classified under various headings such as ‘Moa Hunter Phase. 850–1350’, ‘Classic Phase, 1350–1769’, and the ‘Early European Contact Phase 1769–1860’. This is a difficult subject, requiring much background information on the types, and I feel that author and illustrator have shown their lack of experience in this field.

I am reminded, for instance, of the tree fern huts in Maori communities seen during my boyhood—cool in summer, warm in winter, and reasonably malleable in the trunks which formed the walls. These trunks could be snugly packed together and were almost inflammable. Who shall now say that the moa hunter of the year 1,000 AD did not discover this, and use such huts for his gear and utensils? Thus, the difficulties of classification become obvious. Tree fern huts flourished in Otago last century.

Early visitors to these shores occasionally

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accepted the hospitality of the family wharepuni (warm house) for the night, every aperture being closed up to exclude air. As recorded by these visitors, the night was spent in an atmosphere of intense heat. The Maori living in a state of near nudity could apparently tolerate this high night temperature, while his European guest scarce dared to move.

This brings us to the importance of the building with the floor two feet below ground level and earth walls packed up at the sides (D.M. Monograph 8, fig. 8). Archaeologists have recently demonstrated the use of this house by the ancient Britons. Perhaps Moa hunter man used it too. In the light of this, the house figured on page 15 of the Taylors' book seems to me to be not a true replica of any sleeping hut or meeting house. The illustration showing the amo, or bargeboards, reaching down to ground level is to be deplored. Decay would quickly set in on the lower margins of such boards, and wet and damp would be a constant nuisance during winter. The view inside the house does not show any interior excavation likely to have been carried out for warmth at night.

The book should have included the type of house seen by Captain Cook in Queen Charlotte Sound, where outside crossed rafters hold the thatch in place. (loc. cit. 8, fig. 5)

Sir Peter Buck (The Coming of the Maori, in 1929, a Cawthron lecture, 2nd edition, p. 29) was the first to point out the importance of the oval house in the South Island, as northern tribes moved southwards. Mutton birders' huts were studied in a search for prototypes of older buildings persisiting in this marginal culture area. Possibly such a building may be seen in D.M. Monograph 8, fig. 35.

To conclude, the book ‘The Maori Builds’ shows too much generalisation and supposition, and not enough reliance on exact scientific data. In their presentation of houses, both writer and artist appear to have used their imagination, without a sturdy enough framework. An example is the ‘sewing’ on the house illustrated on page 9. Again too, we may mention the importance of exact locality and source literature. Extracts appear to have been taken from other publications, and drawings made from previously published photographs, without specific references being given. A collection of such material from various publications (some now unavailable), presented in an attractive compact form, with complete references, would be a most useful and valuable production.


This book, a reprint of an earlier publication, is made up of 30 stories written about the early days of New Zealand. I found it a pleasure to read and most valuable for its historical data. Nothing need be said of the author, as you will meet him through his stories.

When reading the first chapter I found that I was travelling along with the author and his companions. I could see the landscape unfolding before my eyes, smell the vegetation, hear the forest noises and even longed for a long cooling drink from the river. As for pork chops in the bush, it sounds fantastic, as it well may have been.

Further on in the book we meet and get to know Piwai, a likeable lazy clown, who achieves the impossible and buys an English saddle for his wife. Then there is Patokatoka with its four silent staring whares guarding its eel-grounds. We meet Tatai and her lover in a romantic interlude, where love does find a way, and later on at Hurepo, a swamp islet, we read of Ripeka—Chieftainess of Tuhoe—who was killed in a most tragic way, but with love. The author takes you right into the hearts and minds of his characters.

The story I liked best is one called ‘The Mate of the Ariki’, a cutter that sailed around the Hauraki Gulf and surrounding islands.

This is a truly wonderful book and I suggest you buy a copy immediately.


This is undoubtedly the most entertaining book that I have read for some considerable time.

The Irish-Maori brand of humour used by the author appealed to me, a Pakeha with a great interest in the Maori people.

Manu Gilbert, youngest of a family of three, describes himself as a blockhead who left college after two years to work as a bulldozer driver, thus breaking his mother's heart.

To my way of thinking, he is a tangata

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matau’, capable of writing 169 pages of good light-hearted reading and furthermore wise enough to become a cow-cocky after all his years as a pole-sitter.

For some rich entertainment, whatever your tastes, this book is a must.

And a comment from Mrs Muir:—

I went to a quiet beach cabin for a week's holiday and took two books with me, one Dr Zhivago, the other Lineman's Ticket by Manu Gilbert.

First I read Zhivago since he had made the bigger splash into the vast literary pool. However, it was from Lineman's Ticket that I got what my Dad used to call a real ‘belly laugh’. You know—the kind that makes you rollick in the armchair, upset your dish of salted peanuts, and then when you recover from the effects of Manu's dry hori wit, you call to your spouse, ‘Hey dear come and listen while I read you this bit’.

I like the writer's style—so true to type and unpretentious.

The preface indicates that Gilbert wrote this for his buddies of the Power Board gangs. However, I, an ordinary Pakeha housewife was so absorbed by the true Maori atmosphere of the book that when my husband came in from gathering pine cones and said, ‘Where are the matches?’ I went off into gales of laughter and said, ‘Rub two plurry sticks together.’

Two small booklets reviewed by A. Bosch

No. 3—The Maoris

As a picture-book, it is outstanding, in that the photographs shown are true to life. The 23 pages are packed with more information on the various aspects of Maori life than one would see in six months of touring New Zealand. I would heartily recommend this book for tourists or as an overseas present.


To begin with, Maui to the Maori was not a ‘wily rascal’. He was a man destined to be a God and because of this he acted the way he did. Also, when the Maori accepted Christianity he did not abandon his old Gods as is stated in this book. He publicly showed his acceptance but secretly held fast to his old beliefs. Believing the line of least resistance to be the most tactful, the Maori today still does this, in that outwardly he will live and act like his Pakeha neighbours but hold his Maoritanga privately. This could be why there is ‘a fusion of two civilisations’. I would rather see this happen than the ‘complete abandonment of one for the other’.

The authors of the text have, I feel, made too many subtle mistakes — as in the two examples I have given here, and should have used the pages to show photographs of the Maori rather than to try and describe them. The photographs following the text are factual and yet confined to only one or two particular areas.

In the picture of ‘Parts of a meeting house’ on the inside back cover, number 7, ‘Pare’ should be only over the door, and the part over the window should be named ‘Korupe’.

I personally wouldn't use this book either for myself or as a present.

– 64 –

Crossword Puzzle 57


1. Children (8)
7. Fry, fend off (5)
12. Graveyard (5)
13. Flour, bread (6)
14. Butt; attack (4)
15. Spit, splutter; cold (3)
17. Yes (2)
18. Although, in spite of (6)
20. Say; fill (2)
21. Shake; agitate; sow (2)
23. Wooden digger; girl; sing (2)
25. Day after to-morrow (7)
27. Over the other side of (3)
28. Downwards (3)
30. Last night (5)
31. I, me (2)
32. Finished, completed (3)
33. Line (3)
34. Run (3)
35. Descendant, offspring (3)
36. What? (3)
39. Hang up; be published, heard (3)
40. Material for caulking a canoe (8)
42. Embark; mount (3)
43. Nephew (7)
44. Come and go irregularly; wander (5)
46. Fear, dread, shudder (6)
51. Which ones? (4)
52. Spear: cook in native oven (3)
54. Dirge, lament (7)
55. Serves you right (6)

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Solution to No. 56


1. Meet, close (6)
2. Follow, pursue (3)
3. Fibre in flax (4)
4. Officer (5)
5. Day, sun (2)
6. Face (6)
7. Strike; fortified village (2)
8. Obstacle (4)
9. Forehead (3)
10. Day, world (2)
11. He, she (2)
15. Vine (3)
16. Was caught in the rain (5)
19. Morning (3)
20. Corporation (11)
21. Earthquake god (7)
22. Difficult; sinews, muscles (4)
24. Start suddenly (7)
26. Large; plentiful (4)
29. But, however (5)
35. Cover; yam (4)
36. Burrow; gorge; clutch; heap upon (3)
37. Hoist, pull up (4)
38. Fern root (5)
41. Be assembled, gathered together (3)
42. Avenged, paid for (2)
44. Abundance, plenty (3)
45. Bee (2)
47. Nose, prow (3)
48. Deer; adorn by sticking in feathers (3)
49. Brave, victorious; store (3)
50. Wind (3)
53. Health, wellbeing (3)

– 65 –


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M. F. Soper

Manakitia e te iwi te manu korimako reo rangatira e.
Nana nei i hora te marino i te wao nui a Tane e.
Ko ia te manu rongonui kua tata te ngaro ki te po.
Tukua e manu to reo kia rongo te katoa.
Kia arohaina ai koe mo ake tonu e.

Na Te Tari Kaitiaki o nga Manu