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No. 57 (December 1966)
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Te Ao Hou

The Department of Maori Affairs

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Two views of the feather box carved by Mr J. McEwen and presented to the Maori Women's Welfare League as an annual trophy, to be won by the area with the biggest increase in membership. The box is carved in Kajika wood, from Niue Island, and the designs originate from the Tai Tokerau district.
John Ashton photos

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published quarterly by the Department of Maori Affairs and sponsored by the Maori Purposes Fund Board.

printed by Pegasus Press Ltd.

n.z. subscriptions: One year 7/6 (four issues), three years £1. Rate for schools: 4/- per year (minimum five subscriptions). From all offices of the Maori Affairs Department and from the editor.

editorial address: Box 2390, Wellington. New Zealand.

overseas subscriptions: England and other countries with sterling currency: One year 10/-, three years £1/5/-. Australia: one year $1.35, three years $3.15. U.S.A. and Hawaii: one year $1.50, three years $3.50. Canada: one year $1.65, three years $3.75. Other countries: the local equivalent of sterling rates.

back issues (N.Z. rates): Issue nos. 18–22, 27–49 and 51–56 are available at 2/6 each. A very few copies of issue nos. 13, 23, 24 and 25 are still available at 5/- each. Other issues are now out of print. (Overseas rates for back issues are available on request).

contributions in maori: Ko tetahi o nga whakaaro nui o Te Ao Hou he pupuri kia mau te reo Maori. Otira ko te nuinga o nga korero kei te tukua mai kei te reo Pakeha anake. Mehemea hoki ka nui mai nga korero i tuhia ki te reo Maori ka whakanuia ake te wahanga o te tatou pukapuka mo nga korero Maori.

Statements in signed articles in Te Ao Hou are the reponsibility only of the writers concerned.

Te Ao Hou

Wohlers of Ruapuke, Sheila Natusch 6
Southern versions of Maori Tales, Wohlers 8
An Introduction, Norma Allen 21
Punga-Haruru 15
Transcriptions of Authentic Maori Chant; Part 10 Mervyn McLean 23
Maori Women's Welfare League Conference 30
Northland Parents visit Auckland 34
Hamilton Festival of Maori Arts 36
Whakatane Primary Schools' Maori Festival 38
Tokoroa Maori Culture Festival 38
Gisborne Cultural Competitions 40
John Waititi Memorial Scholarship 41
Maori Clubs 45
The Spiral Tattoo 49
Haere Ki o Koutou Tipuna 2
People and Places 26
Younger Readers Section 52
Records, Alan Armstrong 57
Books 61
Crossword Puzzle 64

the minister of maori affairs: The Hon. J. R. Hanan.

the secretary for maori affairs: J. M. McEwen.

editor: Joy Stevenson.

associate editor (Maori text): E. B. Ranapia.

CORRECTIONS: In Issue 56, the boy polishing his money box pictured on page 38 is not Wayne Day but Hahi Kaiawe of Te Tii. The two old pupils cutting the cake are Mrs Trainer and Mrs Rangiaho.

FRONT COVER: Aramiha Baker, son of Mrs Raina Baker, at the Ngararatunua Play Centre.‘Northern Advocate’ photo.

BACK COVER: Some of the rafter patterns in Te Whatu Manawa O Rehua meeting house in Christchurch, including the stylised kiwi pattern pictured on the cover of Issue 56.

National Publicity Studios.


Mr Hana Tamaka, O.B.E.

South Taranaki's leading Maori spokesman, Mr Hana Taua Tamaka, O.B.E., died at Hawera on 8 August after a brief illness. He was 63.

Chief of the Ngati-Ruanui sub-tribe, Mr Tamaka, like his father before him, the late Mr Awarua Tamaka, was a member of the Taranaki Maori Trust Board, and had been chairman for the last 10 years.

Born in the Taiporohenui area, he spent his whole life in the district, farming there and at Ohangai.

He was a director of the Ohangai Dairy Company for 15 years, a member of the Rangiatea Methodist Maori Trust, the Taranaki Museum Board, the Taranaki Patriotic Council and the Hawera Rotary Club, Mr Tamaka was a man of wide and varied interests, and was awarded the O.B.E. in 1958, for his service to the Maori people.

After a service at the Taiporohenui Pa, attended by hundreds of Maoris from all over New Zealand, Mr Tamaka was buried at the tribal cemetery.

Mr Tamaka leaves his wife, Mrs Whakamamairoa Tamaka, three daughters and a son, Reta (Mrs Maui, Hawera), Bella (Mrs Tutauha, Wellington), Manu (Invercargill), and Tawa (Mrs Teaotonga, Hawera). Five children predeceased him.

Mrs Oriwia Rehu

Mrs Oriwia (Olive) Rehu, who played a leading role in the Arowhenua Maori Pa's affairs for many years, died suddenly at her home in early August. A former president of the Arowhenua Maori Women's Welfare League, and president for nearly 30 years of the Arowhenua Red Cross, Mrs Rehu had lived at the pa for 46 years since her marriage.

Mrs Rehu was born in Otaki, a member of the Ngati-Raukawa tribe. She was a daughter of Mr and Mrs Pihopea Hawea, and during her life in Arowhenua was an acknowledged expert on the Maori language. She taught Maori language, arts and crafts, and Bible class at the Arowhenua Maori School for some years, and also conducted courses in Maori language at the Adult Education Centre in Timaru for a period.

Keenly interested in all forms of Maori culture, Mrs Rehu was the composer of many Maori action songs used on special occasions at Arowhenua Pa, and she was always on the marae to welcome visitors on formal occasions.

She was interested in the closer association of Maori and pakeha relations, and encouraged visits to the pa by neighbouring European organisations.

Her two daughters, Ranui and Elizabeth, were among the first Maori pupils of Timaru Girls' High School, for Mrs Rehu was alive to the advantages of a good education, and she attended the inaugural meeting in Timaru of the Maori Education Foundation to which she continued to give active support. Both daughters became registered schoolteachers, and Elizabeth later look the leading female role in Bruce Mason's play The Pohutukawa Tree.

Mrs Rehu is survived by her husband, Mr J. P. Rehu, and by two daughters, Ranui (Mrs J. Brooking) and Elizabeth (Mrs Murchie, Dunedin). There are 15 grandchildren.

Revd N. K. Kukutai, M.B.E.

The death of Reverend Ngatete Kerei Kukutai, M.B.E., on 1 August has deprived the Maori people of an outstanding leader.

Ngapaka, as he was familiarly known to many people both Pakeha and Maori, was a member and chieftain of the Ngatitipa subtribe of lower Waikato. He came of a line of chiefs whose names are familiar to students of the history of that area.

In early manhood Mr Kukutai became a lay preacher of the Methodist Maori Mission. In the year 1934 he was received by the Mission as a full-time Home Missionary, and appointed to the King Country where he lived in Te Kuiti and served for many years. In the year 1941 he was ordained as a Maori Minister and he retired from full time employment in 1954 and returned to his home town of Tuakau.

Mr Kukutai early identified himself with

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The Reverend N. K. Kukutai with his wife on the occasion of his presentation with the M.B.E. in 1961
“N.Z. Herald” photo

the King Movement and after the death of the late Revd Heemi Rihimona, Mr Kukutai was appointed by the late King Koroki as his personal chaplain and leader of the arrangements for all services at Turangawaewae Pa, Ngaruawahia, in connection with the Movement. He travelled widely with King Koroki, acting as his personal chaplain, and his voice was heard on most of the maraes of this land when Waikato visited afield.

He was richly equipped for his task. He had a full repertoire of the waiata and ritual of his people. He was listened to with respect and it was a great personal joy to him to represent Koroki on any marae in greeting distinguished visitors. Never was this more marked than at Ngaruawahia itself where he became a recognised authority on the culture of his people.

Even after his retirement from full time church work, Mr Kukutai continued to serve as a supernumerary Minister and he gave unsparingly of his gifts to the service of his people.

In 1961 he was honoured by the Queen with the M.B.E., an honour well deserved which he carried with dignity. He was a staunch supporter of King Koroki and the Kingitanga, and it was his urgent wish to pay the last tribute to both Atairangikaahu and Koroki in their funeral services at Taupiri. In spite of growing weakness he was determined to be there in each instance, and the loyal old friend was assisted by strong younger men to climb the slippery clay steps of Taupiri, the burial place of kings.

Following the death of King Koroki, Mr Kukutai's strength slowly ebbed away and he passed away quietly at his home in Tuakau.

The tangi was held at Nga Tai E Rua Pa at Tuakau where large crowds gathered to honour the memory of a beloved leader; and his body was laid to rest at Taupiri on Friday, 5 August 1966. He lived a full, active, and useful life and he died honoured and trusted by all who knew him.

Mr J. T. Waetford

Mr James Tono Waetford, a much-respected elder of the Ngapuhi tribe and long a public worker for the Maori people of Northland, died in Whangarei on 13 September, aged 59.

Mr Waetford, with the former Chief Judge I. Prichard, was a member of a special committee set up to report on Maori land titles. This committee made far reaching recommendations which are still being considered by Government.

Most of his Public Service career was spent working for better utilization of Maori land and to improve land titles for Maoris. Most of his work was done in North Auckland but from time to time he gave a helping hand in other Maori Land Court districts.

Many hundreds of Maori families in North Auckland have Mr Waetford to thank for the good title to their farm. Much of the success achieved in land development and settlement in North Auckland can also be attributed to

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Mr Waetford's work. He carried the gospel of land development to all corners of the district and more than anyone, he was responsible for persuading Maori owners to bring their land under development.

Mr Waetford was one of the last of the old school of Maori title experts employed by the Department of Maori Affairs, and his death leaves a void that can never be filled.

He was chairman of the Whananaki Maori Committee, a member of the Whangarei Maori Committee, and a member of the board of trustees of the Whangarei Maori Community Centre.

At one time he was chairman of the Tai Tokerau District Council and is an exchairman of the Northern Maori branch of the National Party. He contested one general election as the party's Northern Maori candidate.

Mr Waetford is survived by his wife Mange, and children Betty, Reokara, Wiwi, Hepi, Kaare, Tiuka, Aroha, Uru, Don, Jonathan, Maraea, Carolyn, Charlotte, Cushla and Rory.

Hemi Tono Wetiwha i mate ki te Hohipera o Whangarei i te 13 Hepetema.

I kurangia ki Whananaki, Whangarei Haikura me Tipene. I tu ia hei kai whakaako mo nga tau maha mo Tipene i te wa ko Albert Wilson te tumuaki. He tamaiti whakaaronuitia e ana matua o Ngatiwai, Ngatikahu, Te Parawhau, Uriroroi o te takiwa o Whangarei. I takoto ia i tana marae i Whakapaumahara, Whananaki. I ngaro ia ki te urupa hou o Whananaki i te puke tirohanga iho ki te marae—ona tau 59. I moe i a Mange o te whanau a Rongo raua ko Hiku Paraone Kawiti o Opahi. He taonga tangata a raua (16) tamariki.

Pae Peeni Henare

Ko te kuia tenei a Peeni Winiata Henare teina o Tau Henare M.P. I mate ki Motatau e 86 ona tau. He kuia aroha ki ana mokopuna me te iwi, a he mema hoki no te Roopu Whaea o Motatau.

No Ngati Tuwharetoa tetahi wahi o tenei kuia—a ko Atimana Atimana te ingoa o tona matua.

Riiwi Toeke, o Kaikou

I mate ki te Hohipera o Whangarei. He tamaiti ia na Puhi Paraone Kawiti raua ko Tia Toeke o te Orewai, hapu no Ngatihine. He tangata i noho ki Ngatikahungunu, a he tamaiti hoki i kurangia ki M.A.C. Hastings. He tangata kuti hipi, mahi puihi, whiu kau mahi hoki a he toa mo te whutupaoro i a ia e taitamariki ana. Ona tau 62. He pouaru.

Henare Te No Mahanga

He uri tenei no Mahanga rangatira o Ngatikorora i Whangarei. I noho a Te Matenga ki tana kainga i Pataua. He tamaiti marama tenei, he kai arahi he kai tuitui i tana hapu o Korora—ona tau 65. Kahore he tamariki a raua ko tana kuia engari he maha nga tamariki whangai. He rangatira no Ngatikorora. Haere e kara ki te Ariki.

Mei Keretene

Ko te hoa rangatira tenei o Hoori Winiana Keretene o Motatau. He tamaiti matamua tenei a Rev. Canon W. H. Keretene raua ko Te Paea. He wahine whakaiti, aroha ki te iwi a he mema hoki no te Roopu Whaea. Ko te potiki tenei a Tau Henare M.P. raua ko Hera—ona tau 54. E waru a raua tamariki—kua nunui katoa.

Ruka Herewini

He kaumatua tenei no Rangi Point, Hokianga. I noho ki Akarana mo nga tau maha raua ko tana kuia ko Taha, he uri no te Rapihana o Pukepoto o te Rarawa, Kaitaia. He tangata i mohiotia e te rahi, e te iti o Ngati Akarana. He pou no te Hahi Ingarangi—i ngaro ki Rangi Point. Ona tau 87.

He pou a Ruka Herewini no te Hahi i roto o Tamaki Makaurau raua ko tana hoa rangatira a Kahutaha. He uri ia no te Minita tuatani o Hokianga Rev. Piripi Patiki. He takere hoki no Ngati Akarana. I moe ia i waenganui i ana matua tupuna i Waiparera i te wahi hoki kei reira a Rev. Hone Papahia.

These Maori obituaries were sent in by Hoterene Keretene.

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Kua Wahangu te Pukorero

When Chief Hetekia te Kani te Ua, O.B.E., died suddenly and peacefully at his home at Tower House, Puha, near Gisborne, a mighty totara fell in the forests of Tane and the reverberations of its crashing were felt through the worlds of the Maori and the Pakeha.

Throughout Maoridom the news swept, accompanied by a sense of dismay which bordered on unbelief. He had been so familiar a figure on almost every important marae and on every important occasion for so long that he had come to be regarded as the very embodiment of Maori etiquette and ceremonial procedure and as an almost eternal figure impervious to the laws of change and age.

By descent, by training and by years of constant and undeviating service, Te Kani was demonstrably of the upoko ariki—one had only to see him on the marae, his grizzled locks waving in the breeze, his mako ear-rings with their long, pendant, black ribbons, and his famous walking stick of twisted vine with its stag-horn handle flourished vehemently to illustrate some point he wished to drive home. He might—except for his modern clothes—have stepped from the more picturesque past.

continued on page 32

Mr Hori Paki

On his 101st birthday recently, Mr Hori Paki of Huntly made a donation to the Waikato University Halls of Residence fund, as a thanksgiving for what he has enjoyed in life.

Mr Paki still reads and writes in the Maori language without glasses and takes an active interest in current affairs. He speaks very little English although he understands it. He encourages his family to avail themselves of all opportunities, as he realises that education plays a big part in a person's life.

A member and principal orator of the Ngati Whawhakia tribe, Mr Paki served under four Maori kings and is proud to have seen the crowning of the new Maori Queen Te Atairangikaahu.

Mr Paki, in a varied life, worked as a miner, a builder and a farmer. He still remembers the first mine and the first shop in Huntly and tells of the methods of transport of food and coal. He remembers his mother making big flax baskets in which to carry coal to the boats for transportation down the Waikato river.

He has three sons and six daughters (all living), 39 grandchildren, 99 great-grandchildren and 14 great-great-grandchildren. His sons George and Brown have represented New Zealand as League footballers.

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With Mr Hori Paki in this photograph taken on his 101st birthday are: his son George and great - grandson Barry Maipi, grand - daughter Joyce, and great-great-grand-daughter Ngaronga Hohaia

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A Tohunga by Adoption

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J. F. H. Wohlers

About ten years ago, when Southland Province was celebrating its hundredth year of existence, two memorials—one in Invercargill, the other on Stewart Island—were dedicated to the missionary J. F. H. Wohlers. There was no mention of Wohlers in our school history books, nor would he have expected it. All he asked was to push quietly on with his work.

Should any civilisation impose its teaching and preaching on another culture? In Wohlers' day there was no doubt about the answer, though there were always those who thought the home community was the most in need of mission work—‘not that they ever did any,’ said Wohlers. He had been brought up as a ploughboy in North Germany; he had a terrific thirst for learning (and little chance to do anything about it); and when he stumbled upon a pamphlet called Pity Poor Fiji he thought he would be able to expand his horizons by going out to the heathen. He wasn't sent to the tropics, as he hoped, but to New Zealand.

When Wohlers and three other mission workers arrived in Nelson in 1844, they found the Maori population already flourishing prayerbooks. Though a little apt to ‘unrest’ (this was the year of the Wairau affair) the people were already Christianised. The missionaries settled for a while in the Moutere, where their flax-and-raupo hut was washed out. ‘Thus must the people have fled at the time of Noah's Flood!’ cried one, as they headed for higher ground. The ship that had brought them to New Zealand had also brought German immigrants, who settled along with them in the flood-prone valley, later moving to the Waimea. There was at least some church work to be done among these people.

When the survey-vessel Deborah set off to look for a site for what is now Dunedin, Wohlers went too, hoping to find some wild corner of New Zealand where he could do real mission work. At Port Cooper (now Lyttelton), he met the southern chief Tuhawaiki, who sugested his home island—Ruapuke in Foveaux Strait—as a good centre for mission work. Wohlers was accordingly put ashore there, with his few belongings (he had been warned to travel light because of muru), a good mission school grounding in Hebrew and Greek, and a smattering of Maori. What a wonderful chance, he thought, to learn about these people and their language!

One thing had shocked him about the mission school: the learned squabbles that went on about whether it was holier to be Lutheran Church or Reformed Church. Out here in New Zealand he found people arguing the point about the respective merits of Methodism, Anglicanism and all the rest. He couldn't be bothered with ‘isms’ himself: his teaching was straight from the Bible.

But he needed to be able to put it in Maori. Ruapuke at this time was still an important place, where chiefs from all over the South Island gathered in conference, but it was an uneasy mixture of Maori and European cultures. The pakehas had brought fleas and swear words and measles, as well as a few rough-and-ready seamanlike virtues; the old Maori traditions and cultural patterns were on the wane. A very few of the old tohungas were left; and it was to these old wise ones that Wohlers went, evening after evening, to learn Maori.

Hearing the old tales told in Southern Maori, for almost the last time, was a memorable experience. The old men looked upon him as their successor, who would pass the stories on; and he did. They are printed in the Trans-

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actions of the New Zealand Insurute, mostly in Maori as well as English—good everyday English, interesting to compare with Sir George Grey's stately translations. It fascinated Wohlers to find so much common ground between the Biblical and Maori accounts of creation: ‘then he returned and saw what he had done—kua pai.’ When he later prepared his notes for the New Zealand Institute he omitted repetitions, but kept the Murihiku turn of phrase: unfortunately, he altered the spelling to standard (northern) Maori. In his own memoirs, he writes of ‘Rangiura’ and ‘ngaeo’ for Stewart Island and the edible sea-squirt, though the ng is pronounced k in the south.

To a nineteenth-century European whose homeland was, geographically, an extension of spotless Holland, cleanliness came a very close second to godliness. Wohlers began by making his bedroom flea-proof; and he built a garden: ‘these flowers were sermons.’ He travelled about the island, preaching in turn at each of the seven little villages there. Later he built a church, mainly with his own hands, but helped by a few old Maoris—‘for tobacco’. People came along to be baptised. One woman told him: ‘I think of [myself as] a shag, a koao: it swims in the waves, dives under, comes up—flies off—perches on a rock. And Christ is that rock.’

He went by whaleboat to other settlements: The Neck, Williams' and Tupouri's Bay, Otaku and Port William; Whakaputaputa, Koraka Pe and Jacob's River. Some of these Foveaux Strait villages were whaling bases, some kaikas, some mixed. With his limited funds (his home mission thought New Zealand was a cheap place to live in), he sent away for improving literature: A Book of Common Prayer. The Art of Correspondence and The Medical Guide for the use of the Clergi, heads of families, and practitioners in Medicine and Surgery, comprising a practical Dispensatory and Treatise on the Sumtoms, Causes, Prevention and Cure of the Diseases incident to the human frame; with the latest discoveries in Medicine.

Whaling households where Maori wives were encouraged in Pakeha notions of hygiene set a good example, but Wohlers was saddened to find poor health among the full-blooded Maori population. In spite of his medical books, he couldn't really cope with the ‘sumtoms’. His own health, mental and physical, began to suffer. At last his mission friends at Waikouaiti asked him up for a holiday; later, when he had to revisit Nelson and call at Wellington, he had with him a letter of introduction to ‘a pious female’, view matrimony. ‘Es wirkte’, wrote Wohlers: it worked!

Mrs Wohlers was a tower of strength and character. Cries of, ‘Here comes Mata!’ sent the Maori housewives scurrying with their brooms; patches of many colours began appearing on Sunday clothes; sick children were no longer allowed to be shaken in the belief that it kept them alert and alive. She ran home-science classes in the mission house, and

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Eliza Wohlers

taught hymns in church. What she achieved by energy, Wohlers managed by tact. Tuckett (the surveyor of the Deborah cruise) kept sending ploughs and mills and demanding immediate results: ‘Wait a little bit!’ protested Wohlers, who understood the Polynesian point of view, ‘Nothing will make a Maori do till his time is come.’ And in the fullness of time Ruapuke had its wheatfields, its flour mill, its cows and sheep, with all hands busy harvesting, churning and shearing. Fishing and mutton-birding there had always been; but in bad weather the people (including Wohlers) had had nothing but potatoes and water. Now the standard of health rose hearteningly. Ruapuke (apart from the mission house) grew prosperous, trading with the mainland; ladies swept into church in silk dresses. Wohlers had a school full of pupils learning to spell and read English and grow up in the way they ought to go: ‘our Gretchen (the Wohlers' little daughter) also grows well, only she will not speak English—she only speaks Maori.’

Where is that community now? A handful of its descendants farm the descendants of the

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original Ruapuke sheep. By the 1880's most families had moved to Stewart Island, where there were better anchorages for the growing industry of fishing. There Gretchen Wohlers, married to an Orkneyman, helped him carry on her father's eductional and missionary work. The old man himself died at the age of seventy-three, worn out by his years of unrelenting work. ‘The heartfelt sorrow of the Maoris,’ wrote an observer, ‘is very touching.’

‘No world-shaking misionary life this,’ said the North German Mission Society, editing Wohlers' memoirs. Perhaps not; but he had been an important and comforting figure in those forgotten communities of Foveaux Strait, and he must emerge as one of the most likeable, if least obtrusive, of our early missionaries.


With permission from the Royal Society of New Zealand, the following tales are reprinted from Transactions of the New Zealand Institute, Vol. VII, 1874. The tales were read before the Otago Institute on 7 April and 10 August of that year.

This paper is a copy of the Maori Mythology in the same words as dictated to me by some old Maori wise men; out of which text I translated the paper into English, which has been read before the Otago Institute. In that paper I left out several names and passages in which I could not find a meaning, but they are all here in the Maori text. The language is in the Murihiku dialect, but in the pronunciation I have mostly kept to the general Maori orthography, because that is better for the understanding of the meaning of the words.

I must also mention here that about the time I was collecting the tales I sent a few specimens of the same to Sir George Grey, and that part of them have been printed in his book in the Maori language. I only mention this, because some, when they see a few passages in that book and in this paper exactly alike, might thing I had copied them. It will be also observed that in Sir George Grey's book those few passages which are alike are in the Murihiku district. All that is here has been collected by myself here in the south.

The old Maori tales, as originally collected by me—written down word by word out of the mouths of several old Maori—are bulky, incoherent and rambling, and few readers would have the patience to wade through them. I undertook the labour of collecting and studying them chiefly for the purpose to learn the Maori language and way of thinking. In the following Maori text I have tried to order the narration, and have left out tiresome and useless repetitions, but have retained the essential passages and expressions of the untutored old Maori, as spoken in this dialect, even if the grammar does not seem what it ought to be. This is, I presume, what the Society wishes, namely, a Maori text by the old Maori, and not a modernised Pakeha-Maori text.

Those tales could no more be collected now—at least not here in the south; for the old Maori are dead, and the younger ones have not learnt them, because the new ideas introduced by Christianity and European settlements have superseded the old Maori ideas. The tales can only have historical worth when the mythologies and traditions of other nations from widely different parts, can be compared with them, as thereby the migration, and the archaic place where the Polynesian race may have had its growth and development, might be traced. They may also be worth reading as curiosities.

As indicated by Wohlers in his notes, the English text should not be regarded as a translation, but merely as a paraphrase of the Maori text. Many parts of the Maori text were not translated by Wohlers, but in spite of this, it is interesting to note how these tales vary from North Island versions.

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The Maori race, as it now is, seems to be in its old age; but it must once in some former time have had its youth, when, in buoyancy of spirit and yet simplicity of mind, it saw in the surrounding nature and natural phenomena beings of a higher order, to whom the national poets gave names and a history. This must have been before they came to New Zealand, as these names, and a similarity of the mythology attached to them, are to be found among the whole Polynesian race, and may likely be traced back still farther. Ethnology might be assisted if all who are in a position among uncivilized races to do so, would make themselves acquainted with their mythology and ancient tales, and then communicate the result to scientific men, who might thereby trace the development and migration of the races.

The ancient tales among the Maori have been handed down through many generations by word of mouth only. The tohunga, or wise men among them, told those tales over and over again, almost always in the same words, so that the younger ones, who had a mind for learning, learnt them by rote, and could impart them in the same way to a following generation. Still discrepancies would creep in, and deeds which in some localities are imputed to one personage, in others are imputed to another. But that is of no consequence. Although some tales may have been built on facts, and if even these could be stripped of the fictions, which they cannot, they would not be of the least historical value, as they lie altogether outside the bounds of general history.


Tangaroa is known and worshipped by the whole Polynesian race as the chief god and creator of the world. His name is also well known among the Maori in New Zealand, and occurs frequently in the ancient forms of invocations. Sometimes he might be seen for a few seconds standing on the crest of the waves of the sea, when the sun happened to shine against some misty spray, but little else is known of him. According to Sir George Grey's collection he was the son of Heaven and Earth, and was the god, or personification, of the sea and the fishes. But here in the south he is affirmed to be the uncle of Heaven, and the first husband of the Earth, whose personal name as a woman and a mother was Papatuanuku. The tale runs thus:—

Tangaroa lived with his wife Papatuanuku. Once he made a journey to Kahuipuakiaki for the treasures (or ornaments) of Whakitau (not to be confounded with Whakatau, a later person). When he came back he found that Rangi (Heaven) had taken his wife, Papatuanuku (the Earth), and was living with her. Now there was to be a fight. The two, uncle and nephew, met, each armed with a spear. Rangi threw his spear first, but missed, because Tangaroa bent aside. Then Tangaroa threw his spear, which pierced both loins of Rangi and lamed him. Then Tangaroa left his wife, the Earth, and she was henceforth Rangi's wife.

(This is all that is known here about Tangaroa).

I noho a Tangaroa i a Papatuanuku.—Ka haere a Tangaroa ki waho, ki te Kahuipuakiaki, ki nga taonga o Whakitau. Ko hoki tera, hoki rawa mai, kua noho te wahine, a Papatuanuku, i a Rangi. Ka hemo mai a Tangaroa ki te huata; ka hemo mai a Rangi ki te huata. Ka tata mai. Werohia e Rangi ki a Tangaroa, ka ngaro a Tangaroa, ko taha te huata a Rangi. Ka werohia e Tangaroa ki a Rangi, ka whiti te tao te papa o te iramutu, taua rua o nga papa: takoto tou a Rangi. Ka tukua te wahine ki a Rangi.

Inaianei, ka kitea te atua uira, e tu ana i runga o te ngaru o te moana, ko Tangaroa tena.

Tutakahinahina and Te Roiroiwhenua

The following tale bears some marks of a later period; also I cannot find the names mentioned in it among the gods of the Pacific islanders; yet, as the old Maori here told it in connection with Tangaroa, I will put it here. It runs thus:—

He tangata; haere noa tenei tangata i runga i te mata o nga wai: ko Tutakahinahina te ingoa o tenei tangata. Kahore ia ana matua. Ka noho ia taua tangata i te wahine, ko Kaihere te ingoa o tenei wahine. Ka puta ki waho


Tutakahinahina walked upon the waters. He had no parents. His wife's name was Kaihere. They had one son, called Te Roiroiwhenua.

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tana tama, ko Te Roiroiwhenua te ingoa o tenei tamaiti.

Ka mate a Tutakahinahina, ka korero ia, kia mahi nga tangata; kia mahia he kai, kia mahia he wahie. Ka mahi nga tangata; ka mauiui, ka noho. Ka mahi Te Roiroiwhenua; ka mahi ona tia. Ka tae ki te rangi i mate ai tona tupuna, a Tutakahinahina, ka mutu tana mahi. Ka mate tona matua, ka tapuketia ki te tara o te whare, taepatia. Ka hurihia tona aroaro ki raro, tona tuara ki runga.

Katahi ka puritia te ra e Kumeateao, e Kumeatepo, e Unumiatekore. Ka kutia nga po, kahore ia kia marama. No reira i pouri ai te rangi me te whenua me te moana. Ka noho nga tangata i roto i te pouri Kahore e kitea te huanui ki te kai, te huanui ki te wahie. Ka noho tonu nga tangata i roto i o raton whare; ka kai i a ratou kai, ka tahu i a ratou wahie; ka tahu i a ratou takitaki, ka tahu i a ratou poupou. Ka mahiti o ratou kai, ka mahiti o ratou wahie; ka mate nga tangata. Ka ora, ko Te Roiroiwhenua, ka ora ona teina ka ora ona tangata.

Ka mahiti nga wahie a Te Roirowhenua, ka tahuna tona patatara tapu. Katahi ka rongona te korero a tona matua. ‘I konei i mate au, tapuketia ahau, ki te tara o te whare, taepatia. I konei, kia aro mai koe, tirohia ki te rewanga ki runga o te oneone.’ Ka whakarongo atu a Te Roiroiwhenua e ngau ana i te tuataata. Ka puta nga iro o Tutakahinahina ki reinga, ka tirohia, e haere ana i roto i te taepa, e rua, ko te uwha, ko te toa—no te hinu o tona hakoro. Ka kohia ki tona ringa. Ka karanga ia ki nga tangata i roto i te pouritanga. Ka hikaina ki te ahi; ka tu. ka tawhiri, ka mura. Ka tahuna te oumu. Ka taona te toa, ko te uwha i waiho.

Ka tae mai a Tamatea-mai-tawhiti, i muhu mai i te po. I roto ano ratou e noho ana i te Nukutaiki, i te Nukuterea, i te Nukumuruaitu. No te tukinga a Tamatea i te oumu ka tae mai te ohanga ki raro. Ka tu te ata matua, ka haea te ata, ka hapara: ko te ata nui. Na ka tangi te umere: He awatea. No mua te waha a nga manu i karanga ai, no muri te waha a nga tangata. Ka marama te rangi, ka marama te whenua, te moana. Ka kitea nga tangata, e takoto ana i reira, i a Hakorotu, i a Hatatai, i a Tanenuiarangi. I reira e takoto ana te kaueti i whakakitea ai te ahi. Ko te ingoa o tenei ahi, ko Toi, ko te ahi i taona ai nga iro o te hakoro. Ka puta te ra, ka rewa ki runga, ka tu Tokinui-a-Rehua. Ko Tangaroa ia Te Roiroiwhenua.

Ki ta etahi ki: I a Tangaroa te ata i mua; no te kutunga i a Tutakahinahina, i a Tamatea te ata.


When the son was born, Tutakahinahina told his people to get in a good supply of food and firewood. Then he died, and was buried by the wall inside the house, the face downward and the back upward. The grave was fenced round.

Now the sun was withheld by Kumeateao, by Kumeatepo, by Unumiatekore. Then it was dark on sea and land. The darkness was so great that no road could be seen to fetch food and firewood. The people used what there was in the house. Then they broke up in the house what they could, to keep the fire burning.

At last Te Roiroiwhenua heard the voice of his father, speaking in his grave: “Here I am buried, look where the earth heaves up.” Then Te Roiroiwhenua went to the spot and listened. He heard a gnawing inside the grave; it was the maggots gnawing at his father. Then he saw two of them crawling out of the grave inside the fence, a male and a female. He caught the male, to be roasted in an oven; but the female he let go. The oven was heated with sacred fire.

Then Tamatea (perhaps identical with Tawhirimatea, the personal name of the wind) came and shook the oven. Now there came a start, and the first sign of the morning appeared. The morning advanced. First the birds sang: ‘Light of the day.’ Then the people shouted: ‘Daylight.’

(Some of the Maori tohunga say that Te Roiroiwhenua is identical with Tangaroa; others say he is not—only before, the Morning was with Tangaroa; but after the shaking of the oven, the Morning was with Tamatea. Perhaps the tale is a skeleton only, left of what may have been a good poem, the deeper meaning of which has been lost.)

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Rangi and Papatuanuku

Rangi means Heaven in the common language, and is here used as a proper name, but Papatuanuku is the personal name for the Earth (te whenua). These two were not worshipped as gods, but were regarded as the parents of all visible nature.

I noho a Rangi i tona wahine, i a Papatuanuku. I te takoto mate a Rangi; kua tu i a Tangaroa. Ka puta ki waho nga tamariki a Rangi raua ka Papatuanuku: Ko Tanekupapaeo, ko Tane-mimiwhare, ko Tane-nakatou, ko Tane-waroro, ko Tane-hupeke, ko Tane-tuturi, ko Tane-tewaiora, ko Tane-tematatu, ko Tane-tutaka; takoto tou tenei tutanga. Ka puta ki waho: Ko Tane-nuiarangi, ko Paiao, ko Tawhirimatea; ko te tatanga tenei i whakatika ki runga.

I roto i te pouritanga e noho ana aua tamariki. Kahore he wahi ma te maramatanga e whiti mai ai, kahore he wahi ma te hau e tangi ai. Takoto tou a Rangi, piri tonu ki te whenua. Ka korero nga tamariki, kia patua a ratou hakoro, kia whai wahi ai ma ratou. Kiia e Paiao, kia wahatia ki runga, tu ai. Kiia mai e Tane, ‘E kore e taea: kahore he tangata.’ Kiia mai e Tawhirimatea: ‘Me waiho marie.’ Tare tonu a Paiao, kia wahatia a Rangi ki runga. Ka ki atu a Tane: ‘Wahatia.’ Kahore hoki kia taea. Ka whakamatau a Tane; kahore hoki kia taea, takoto tou. Ka kiia atu e Tane, ma ratou katoa e hapai. Ka karangatia e Tane: ‘Ko wai ki runga nei?’ Ka kiia iho e tera hanga: ‘E tu pa whaia!’ Ka karangatia e Tane: ‘Ko wai ki raro nei?’ Ka kiia mai e tera hanga: ‘E tu pa whaia!’ Ka karangatia e Tane: ‘E tu ma totoro! Whakaekea te maunga! E tu ma totoro, whakaekea te maunga kia iheuheu e Tane.’ Ka tukua e Tane ko tona upoko ki raro, ko ona waewae ki runga; na, ka ekea a Rangi ki runga, e aue ana. Ka tokoa ki runga e Tane, mau ai.

Na, ka hoki iho nga kai waha. Ka titiro ake a Tane ki tona matua ki runga: Pouri kerekere haua. Ka haere ia ki Okehu, ko te Kura tu ki a Warue. Na, i reira nga kura. Ka mauria mai e Tane, ka tataitia. Ka hoki iho a Tane, ka titiro ake; kahore ano kia pai. Ka haere tera whakahoki ki a Okehu, ka tikina nga whetu, ka tataitia. Ka whakamarokia te ika o te rangi, ka pakaina Panakoteao, ko nga Patari; ka pakaina ko Autahi, ko te whetu o te tau. Ka haere a Tane, ka tae ki te kainga o Tukainanapia, ka tangohia ki a ia


Rangi, having been lamed in the duel with his uncle, could no longer stand upright, and had, therefore, to lie always flat on the earth. The consequence was a still darkness; no wind could blow, no light could shine. Notwithstanding, they had many children. Most of them were cripples; some had crooked, drawn-up legs, some had stiff stretched out legs, and other deformities; however, a few had sound limbs. The most conspicuous among the latter was Tane; also Paiao (Cloud), Tawhirimatea (personal name of the Wind), deserve to be mentioned.

The children felt very inconvenient in that close darkness, and the more able ones among them held a consultation of what to do, in order to gain light and liberty. Some were for killing their father; others proposed to lift him up, and there let him live as a stranger to them. The counsel of the latter prevailed. After this they set to work. First Paiao (Cloud) tried, but could not lift him. Then Tane tried, with no better result. Then they tried all together; but Heaven was too heavy for them. At last Tane put his head on the ground and stretched his legs upward. That succeeded. Rangi cried and lamented that he was illtreated by his children; but they carried him up, and then Tane fixed him.

It seems that Tawhirimatea (the Wind) took no part in this movement, but rather that he had opposed it from the beginning, counselling to let things remain as they were. This seems rather strange of such a restless fellow as the Wind; but the northern natives, according to Sir George Grey's collection, account for this by saying that Tawhirimatea was a quiet, loving boy before, but that, when he was outvoted by his brothers, and Heaven and Earth were separated against his will, he became dissatisfied and restless. He followed his father heavenward, and talked to him about the injuries he had received from his children, and then came down again, fighting with his brothers from all quarters of the heavens.

When Heaven had been carried up, and Tane had fastened him, and then come down again to the earth, he (Tane) looked up to his father; but the old man looked dark and sad. Then he went to Okehu, to fetch ornaments for his

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nga tupuni o Wehinuwaiamomoa. Tangohia ana mai ko Hirautu, ko Porerinuku, ko Kahuwiwhetu, ko Poaka (Orion) ko Takurua, ko Whakarepukarehu, ko Kuakimotumotu, ko Tahuweruweru, ko Whero, ko Whero-iteninihi, ko Whero-tekokoto, ko Whero-iteao-maori,—ka tae ki te raumati. Na, ha hoki iho a Tane ki raro. Ka titiro ake ki tona matua: Katahi ano kua tau.

Na ka mahara tera, a Tane, kahore ano te whakatau mo tenei matua, mo Papatuanuku. Ka whakaarahia e Tane ana hua hei whakatau i tenei matua, ko nga rakau. Ka parea, ko nga upoko ki runga, ko nga waewae ki raro. Ka peke mai tera, ka titiro;—titiro atu: kahore hoki kia tau. Ka tikina, turakina ki raro. Ka parea, ko te upoko ki raro, ko nga waewae parea ki runga. Ka poke mai tera ki tahaki, ka titiro atu: Katahi ano ka tau.

Ka tonoa e Rangi a te Aki, a Watui ki waho, ki te whakarongo. Rokohina atu nga hua o te papa, o te inaho, o te maru: whakawarea tonu, kai ai. Ka tonoa a Uru raua ko Kakana ki runga; rokohina atu nga hua o te puarakau: kai tonu, kahore hoki kia hoki mai. Tamo tonu atu.

He Tangi Na Rangi

‘Ko Rangi ko Papa, e takoto nei;
Tamairetoro, tamairetoro, taua ka wehea.
Ko Ari ko Hua, e takoto nei;
Tamairetoro, tamairetoro, tau ka wehea.
Ko Tamaku ko Tamaiwaho, e takoto nei;
Tamairetoro, tamairetoro, taua ka wehea.
Ko Rehua ko Tamarautu, e takoto nei;
Tamairetoro, tamairetoro, taua ka wehea.’

Ahakoa, kei te noho ke atu a Rangi i taua wahine, i a Papatuanuku, kei te mohi tonu te aroha o te wahine ki tana tane: koia te kohu o nga maunga e rere ana ki runga. Ka ringitia hoki nga roimata a Rangi ki runga ki a Papatuanuku, koia te hauku.


father. With this he put on him a bright polish. When he came down again and looked up, he thought his father did not yet look so good as he ought to; so he fetched more ornaments, and with these he drew the Milky Way, painted the Magellan Clouds, and set the constellations. This done, he came down again to see how that did suit his father. Now he looked handsome.

Now Tane looked at his mother, who was still void of ornaments. So he raised some of her crippled children, and put them upright, as trees. First he put their legs downward and their heads upward, and then went aside to look at them. But the trees did not look well in that position, standing on their branches, with their stumps and roots as heads and hair, up. Then he took them up again, and put their heads down and their legs, the branches up; and went again aside to look. Now they looked good; now both parents were adorned with beauty.

Though Rangi and Papatuanuku have now been long separated, yet their love toward each other continues. Her sighs out of her bosom may be seen ascending up to Heaven in the vapoury mist that rises from the wooded mountains; and Heaven weeps his tears of love down upon her in dew-drops.


All over Polynesia, Tane was held to be a great god, next to Tangaroa. In New Zealand he superseded Tangaroa in importance. The word Tane, in the present language, means man or male; but I do not know if the name indicates any meaning. His full name was Tane nui a Rangi (Great Tane of Heaven). In Sir George Grey's collection he is called Tane Mahuta, and there he is made the god, or personification, of trees and birds. There are also indications here, in the south, of his having had to do with woods and forests, but a great deal more with the origin and final destiny of mankind.

Ka mutu te mahi a Tane ki ona matua, ka haere, ka porangia he wahine mahana. Ka porangi ki nga maunga ki nga wai matatiki,


When Tane had separated Heaven and Earth (his parents), and adorned each with becoming beauty, and was now at his leisure,

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ki nga rakau, ki nga manu: kahore hoki i kitea he wahine mahana. Ka tahuri mai ki tona hakui, ki a Papatuanuku. Ka ki atu te hakui: ‘Hoki atu. Nahaku hoki koe. Nai te wahine mahau; whakaahua i te oneone.’ Na, ka haere a Tane, whakaahua i te oneone, he wahine mahana. Ko Hinehaone te ingoa o taua wahine Ka noho i a Tane, ka whanau he tamahine, ko Hineatauira te ingoa o tenei tamahine. A, ka tupu, ka kaumatua, ka noho i a Tane, he wahine mahana. Kahore ia i matau, ko tona hakoro ia. Kua ngaro noa atu tona hakui. Ka noho raua, ka whanau ki waho: ko Tahukumea, ko Tahuwhakairo, ko Tahuotiatu, ko Tahukumeatepo, ko Tahukumeateao.

Muringa ra ka haere a Tane, ka porangi ki a Rehua, ki te tuakuna. Ka tae tera ki tetahi kainga i runga nei, ka ki atu tera: ‘Kahore he tangata i runga nei?’ Ka ki mai nga tangata o taua kainga: ‘He tangata ano i runga nei.’ ‘E kore ranei au te tae?’ ‘E kore koe e tae; ko te rangi tenei i kumea e Tane.’ Na, ka wahi ake a Tane, noho ana i runga i tera rangi. Ka haere ake, ka tae ki tetahi kainga ake, ka karanga atu: ‘He tangata ano i runga nei?’ ‘He tangata ano.’ ‘E kore ranei au e tae?’ ‘E kore koe e tae; ko te rangi tenei i tuhia e Tane.’ Ka wahi ake, ki tera rangi. Ka tae atu ki tetahi kainga, ka karanga ake: ‘He tangata ano i runga nei?’ ‘He tangata ano.’ ‘E kore ranei au e tae?’ E kore koe e tae; ko te rangi tenei i rohea e Tane.’ A—whenei tonu tae rawa ki te ngahuru o nga rangi.

Na, ka tae ki te kainga o Rehua. Ka haere mai tana tuakana kia tangi raua. Ka tangi makure a Rehua; na Tane te tangi karakia: –

Tipia, tahia, ngakia, rakea;
Tipia te rangi kia rahirahi,
Toto mai i waho.
Wariki o te rangi
Auaha tou ingoa,
Ko te rangi puaiho,
Turuturu o te rangi;
Kia mau ai, ko Tane anake,
Nana i tokotoko te rangi tou.'

No te mutunga o te tangi ka matau a Rehua, ko Tane tenei. Ka ki atu a Rehua ki ona tangata, kia tahuna he ahi. Ka ka te ahi. Ka homai he ipu. Ka mahara a Tane, kei whea ranei nga kai ma enei ipu i homai nei? Ka tirohia atu e wetea ana e Rehua te upoko—i herea te upoko. Wetea ana, ka ruia ki nga ipu—he koko e kai ana i nga kutu o te upoko o Rehua. Ka ki nga ipu i nga koko, ka mauria


he wandered about among trees and birds to find a wife for himself; but found none. Turnning to his mother for advice, she directed his attention to Hinehaone, a maid formed out of the soil. With her he had one daughter, called Hineatauira (Maid of the glistening Morning). After this, the mother, Hinehaone, is lost sight of, and when the daughter, Hineatauira, grew up, she became Tane's wife, without her knowing that he was her father. They had several children, the names of which indicate a drawing toward death, corruption and the world of night.

Once Tane made a journey to the heavens, to visit his elder brother Rehua. Who, or what this Rehua may have been I cannot find out, except that he dwelt in the tenth strata of the heavens. When Tane came to the first heaven, he called up: ‘Are there men above?’ The answer was: ‘There are.’ ‘May I come up?’ ‘No, this is the heaven that has been stretched out by Tane.’ Still Tane went up, and onward, till he came to the second heaven, when he again called up: ‘Are men above there?’ ‘There are.’ ‘May I come up?’ ‘No, this is the heaven that has been painted by Tane.’ Still he went up, and onward, till he came to the third heaven, when again he called up: ‘Are there men above there?’ ‘There are.’ May I come up?' ‘No, this is the heaven the bounds of which have been fixed by Tane.’ So he went on through other strata, till he came to the tenth heaven, where he found Rehua. When the two met, they both sat down to have a cry together. Rehua cried carelessly, but Tane cried, with a meaning, in verses.

(The verses are hard to be understood, and, if translated, would not carry with them the poetical beauty they bear in Maori. They begin as if he had met Rehua cultivating the soil; and are then to the effect that the ground is cleared, carpeted, and beautified by the cultivator, which adds to the splendour of Heaven; and then end: ‘Whatever be thy name, it was Tane who has set the Heaven. Hereby Tane made himself known to Rehua.)

When Rehua had learnt, by the crying, that his visitor was the great Tane, he had a fire made, and empty vessels brought. Tane wondered where the food was to come from. Presently Rehua untied his head, and shook out of his hair a lot of birds, tuis, into the empty vessels, and then had the birds killed and

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ki te ahi, ka kohua. Ka maoka, ka mauria mai ki te aroaro o Tane. Ka kiia mai e te tuakana kia kai. Ka kiia atu e tera, e Tane: ‘E kore au e kai. Titiro rawa ahau, e wetea ana mai i roto i tou upoko. Ma wai hoki te kai, i kai ai i nga kutu o tou upoko.’ Na reira i mataku a Tane, ki te tuakana.

Te kiinga atu a Tane ki a Rehua: ‘E kore ranei e haere i au.’ Kiia mai e Rehua: ‘E haere i a koe. Ka hua te rakau, na, rere atu te manu, ka tau ki reira kai ai.’ ‘Me aha! Ki te mea ka tangi te hau, ka maroke te kaki o te manu, ka tae ki te wai: me ta ki te kaha.’

Ka tae atu a Tane ki te kainga o Nukuroa raua ko Tamatea-kaiwhakapua. Ko nga wahine anake i rokohina atu; ko nga tane kua riro ki te whai kiore. Tokorua nga wahine. Kotahi te wahine i noho, kotahi te wahine i whakapekapeka. Na ka mea kai ma Tane; he kiore te kai. Kahore ia i kai. Kiia atu e ia: ‘Ko te kai tenei a o korua nei tane?’ Ka ki mai nga wahine: ‘Ae.’ Ka kiia atu e Tane: ‘Me waiho tenei kai ma a korua ariki, ma Te Tupuao raua ko Hinekitaharangi.—Na ka kiia atu e Tane, kia haere raua ki a raua tane. A, ka haere aua wahine. Rokohina atu e noho ana nga tane. Na ka korero atu: ‘Kua noho maua ki te tane. Ko tenei toku hoa i whakapekapeka, ko au ia i anga atu.’ Ka ki mai te tane nahana te wahine i whakapekapeka: ‘He aha koe i whakapekapeka, te tahuri atu?’ A ka kiia mai e nga tane: ‘Haere ki to korua manuwhiri, apopo maua whana atu.’

Na te ata haere mai nga tane ki te kainga, ka homai i te mataahi ki a Tane. Kahore a Tane kia hiahia atu ki taua mataahi—he mea kiore e kai ana i nga tutae, e ketu ana i a raua paruparu. Kahore kia kainga e Tane; i mataku i reira; na te tangata i mua.

Na ka hoki mai a Tane, ka tae mai ki te kainga o tona hakui. Na, kahore tana wahine i reira. I runga ano i te kainga o Rehua a Tane, ka ui atu a Hineatauira ki tona hungoi, ki a Papatuanuku: ‘Kei whea toku nei tane?’ Kiia mai e te hungoi: ‘E, ko tou tane! Ko tou hakoro ra pea.’ Katahi ka rongo a Hineatauira he tamahine ia na Tane, ka mate i te whakama. Ka poroporoaki ki tona hungoi, kiia, kia noho a Tane i te ao, hei whakatupu i a raua nei hua; ka haere tera ki te po, hei kukume i a raua nei hua. Na, ka hoki mai a Tane ka ui atu ki a Papatuanuku: ‘Kei whea toku nei wahine?’ Ki mai te hakui: ‘Kahore ia wahine mahau. Kua riro ia, kua heke. Kiia iho koe, kia noho i te ao hei whakatupu i a korua hua.’

Ka haere a Tane ki te whai atu i tana


cooked. But Tane did not eat of them, because it is against the tapu religion for an inferior to eat anything that has been in contact with the body of a superior, and Rehua is called Tane's tuakana, which means either an elder brother, or a descendant from an elder branch of the house.

Then Tane asked: ‘Cannot I catch some birds?’ ‘Yes,’ answered Rehua, ‘when the trees bear fruit and the birds feed on it; when the wind blows and their throats get dry, and they fly to the water to drink, then snare them.’

(There is more of the tale of this sort, as when Tane went to another place in that region, where people lived on rats and were out rat-catching; but I can see no meaning in it. In Sir George Grey's collection, this sort of tale is attributed to a visit of Rupe to Rehua. Now Rupe is a different person from Tane, and belong to a later period. Also this catching and cooking of birds and rats seems to indicate a later period than that of the gods. But the following is more godlike again:—)

While Tane was absent, Hineatauira asked her mother-in-law (the Earth): ‘Where is my husband?’ ‘What!’ replied Papatuanuku, ‘thy husband! he is thy father.’ When she heard this she felt so much ashamed that she took leave of her mother-in-law, and went away to the world of night below.

When Tane came home again from his journey to the heavens, he asked his mother: ‘Where is my wife?’ ‘Thou hast no wife any more,’ was the reply; ‘she is gone to the Po (world of night).’ Then Tane also went down to the nether world, to bring her up again, if possible. There he wandered about for a

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wahine, i a Hineatauira. Na mahana ka tae atu ki raro, ki te po; kopikopiko noa atu. Mana ka tae ki te whare, ka ui atu ki te poupou o te whare. Kahore hoki he waha kia ki mai. Ka ui atu ki te maihi o te whare; kahore hoki he waha kia ki mai. Ka mate tera i te whakama, ka nunumi, ka tawhe ki te tara o te whare.—Na ka ui mai te tangata o te whare: ‘E haere ana koe, e Tane, ki whea?’ Ka kiia atu e Tane: ‘E whai atu ana ahau ki ta taua tuahine.’ Ka ki mai te tangata o te whare:

‘E hoki, e Tane, ki te ao,
Hei whakatupu mai i a taua hua.
Tukua tonu au ki te Po
Hei kukume i a taua hua nei.’


long time in a lone, dim, shadowy night. At last he came to a house, but saw no living being. All was still. He spoke towards the pillar of the house, but received no answer, he spoke toward the gable of the house, but received no answer. Then, when he went confused and ashamed along the wall of the house, he heard someone inside the house, calling out to him: ‘Where, Tane, art thou going?’ ‘I am following our sister,’ he replied. Then that one inside said:—

‘Go back, Tane, to the world of light,
To train up our children.
Leave me here, in the world of night,
To draw down our children.’

Activities of a Maori Educational

The Whanganui Educational Advancement Committee takes a practical interest in all fields of education and its influence extends from pre-school to the universities. Much of its time is devoted to helping individual students and families with problems that affect the children's education. However, it also believes in long-term planning to foster in Maori communities the kind of cultural and intellectual climate which will encourage their children to make the most of their abilities and to become useful and well-informed citizens.

Its main venture in this sphere revolves around Punga-haruru, Mr and Mrs Ted Waitere's little cottage at Putiki which has become the headquarters of the Advancement Committee and where three linked activities are now in progress: story hours, a study and coaching centre, and a community library.


In May, 1964, the Advancement Committee in collaboration with members of The Friends of the Alexander Public Library was planning a weekly afternoon story hour for primary children at Punga-haruru. It was to be ostensibly for entertainment only, its educational purpose cunningly concealed beneath the choice of the very best stories and the very best illustrations, and weekly borrowing of the very best books, from a collection lent by the School Library Service.

It was meant chiefly for Primers 3–4 and Standards 1–2, but any interested child was welcome to come. By the time these classes ended for the year in November there were 37 children on the roll, their ages ranging from four to twelve years. The intention was to give the children extra experience with language—to encourage them both to listen and to talk, and to foster in them a love of books.

A co-opted member of the Advancement Committee, Mr G. Turner, headmaster of Castlecliff School, asked whether such a scheme could be extended to some of his pupils. Castlecliff has a high proportion of seasonal and migrant workers. Many of these are relocated Maori families from country areas. Mr Turner described the plight of children beginning primary school handicapped by poverty of ideas and language. They had not been read to, had not attended any pre-school centre and were shy and inarticulate. They were an extreme case of the ‘two years’ edu-

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cational handicap' so eloquently described by some of our leaders. Other children had missed a great deal of schooling through illness or the parents’ unawareness of the need for regular attendance. Some had attended up to eight different schools in a short period of years.

With true aroha the Putiki people immediately offered to sacrifice their class in favour of Castlecliff, where the need was so much greater. The Friends of the Library appealed to members for more help, began the story hours at Putiki as planned, and undertook to begin at Castlecliff as soon as arrangements could be made. Mr Turner telephoned the secretary of the Friends to say thank you: ‘I have one hundred children waiting for you. When can you start?’

Pressure Cooker Courses

In view of the special needs of these children, a ten-weeks' ‘pressure cooker’ course was drawn up, which included examples of the different kinds of literary experience a young child needs — nursery ryhmes, fairy tales, folk tales, stories about animals and people and machines. An attempt was made to encourage

each child to have something to say at each class, and cyclostyled poetry sheets were prepared with a short poem to learn and an illustration to colour in. These were never a great success; probably they reminded the children too much of school work.

Each of the three groups at Castlecliff contained twelve children, carefully chosen and close in age. They came from P.4 and Std. 1, and about half of them were Maori and half pakeha. This bears out the findings of Ian Barham, N.Z.C.E.R. research fellow, that impoverishment of English vocabulary and concepts is attributable to the socio-economic background of children and not to their race.*

The actual story-telling was an enormous success and the classes continued until nearly the end of the school year. A warm relationship grew up between the storytellers and their children. One little fellow, at home with stitches in a badly gashed leg, insisted on being taken to the school on story hour afternoons.

Classes were taken with new groups of children throughout 1965, and the children from the three original groups were encouraged to continue the book borrowing habit the classes had established.

Aramoho School, in a suburb similar in many ways to Castlecliff, next asked for help, and in the last term of 1964, two classes were held there also.

The Council for Educational Research was advised of the scheme and asked for assistance in providing tests which might give the Advancement Committee some indication as to whether the story hours were achieving their purpose. One test was administered at Castlecliff before the ‘pressure-cooker’ courses. This test proved unsuitable, and a new test was given to the Aramoho children both before and after their course. The new test was not much better, and all the test results were inconclusive.


It was believed firmly from the outset that the effectiveness of all the story hours would be at least doubled if good books were available for every child to borrow regularly.

The School Library Service strained its picture book resources to the limit to provide for each of the three centres an initial loan of fifty books, chosen with a good deal of thought and care.

The Advancement Committee donated £13 to buy books for Castlecliff, and the Aramoho

The English vocabulary and sentence structure of Maori children. N.Z.C.E.R., 1965.

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School Committee made a grant of £10 for Aramoho. These sums, spent through the School Committees, earned a £ for £ Government subsidy and were also subject to educational discount, so that books to the value of £54 were actually purchased. They were all chosen as being outstanding of their kind, and were selected by Mrs Hillary Wooding, a committee member of the Friends and formerly Organising Librarian for the School Library Service in Wanganui.

There was never any question as to the success of the classes at Putiki. They went with a bang from the start, have been thoroughly enjoyed by both story tellers and children, and two years later are still attracting bumper attendances. This year one of the story tellers is Mrs L. M. Sutherland, one of the local mothers.

To begin with there was a great lack of books for this group. The residents of Putiki are in an unusual situation so far as Wanganui Public Library is concerned. They are outside the city boundary, although less than half a mile from the G.P.O. as the kotare flies across the Whanganui River. If they wish to join the Public Library they must pay an annual subscription of £1, but very few do so. Many reasons besides cost keep them out of the library — time, effort, diffidence, feelings of ‘it's an all-pakeha show’, or lack of any particular inclination to read. Their children, by virtue of attending city schools, are entitled to free membership until the age of twenty-one, but very few use this privilege after leaving primary school. The local secondary schools have good libraries for the pupils interested enough to use them, but there is no carry-over to the Public Library when they leave school. A few join commercial lending libraries in town.

Towards the end of 1964 the chairman of the Whanganui Educational Advancement Committee, Mr H. R. Metekingi, made an appeal for donations of children's books for Punga-haruru. By March 1965, 500 books had been received. Of these less than 200 were reasonably modern, and less than 30 were new. Roughly 10% were non-fiction for adults, and 30% adult fiction. The remaining 60% consisted of picture books and stories for the standards. It was evident that there was going to be an adult section in our growing ‘library’ whether we had planned one or not.

Study Centre

During 1965, Punga-haruru was made available to secondary school students as a study centre

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“Wanganui Chronicie” photo
Wilson Huwyler and Neddy Ihaka helping to set up the Punga-haruru library

on three nights a week. Coaching was given by Mrs E. McRae, a member of the Federation of University Women. This year Mrs McRae has continued her expert help to our secondary students, beginning in the first term.

A reference collection has been built up for the use of these pupils and others, and it is now small but first-rate. All the books are new and up-to-date. Its main lack is a copy of the Descriptive Atlas of New Zealand, which the Advancement Committee would dearly love to obtain.

Donations of books continued to arrive and by the end of 1965 more than 1,200 had passed through the hands of the volunteer librarians. The pressing problem was where to house the ones selected for use. The children's books were put on some second-hand kitchen shelves, and some shop shelving was donated by the local store. At one stage seventeen cartons of adult books and reference books were stacked in the front porch of Punga-haruru.

Mr and Mrs Waitere cleared out the store-

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room at the end of the hall and painted it, and now this little room, 11′ × 10′, serves as our library. Shelving has been made from 40lb apple boxes nailed together, fixed to the walls and painted. Half inch rounded moulding covers the joins, and attractive shelf signs in engraved formica indicate the various sections of the book stock.

Wooden bookends which we hope will eventually be carved, have meantime been covered in waxed paper with rafter pattern designs. Two large panels of gibraltar board await an artist to design murals.

Members of the Advancement Committee from Ratana Pa asked for advice and assistance, and went off to find a spare room they could use as a library. They found an army hut, and shifted it to a more central position in the pa. From this time onwards, most of the books donated were sent on to Ratana where Miss M. Widdowson, a member of the Advancement Committee and Librarian in Charge of the School Library Service at Wanganui, has prepared them for use as soon as the hut is repaired and painted.

Visitors to the Library at Punga-haruru have included delegations from the Hawera Educational Advancement Committee and the Waverly-Patea Educational Advancement Committee; Mr John Grace, a trustee of the Maori Education Foundation, Mrs I. R. Ratana, M.P., and Mr Harré, a new Officer for Maori Education.

Aid From Country Library Service

At Punga-haruru there are now about 850 of our own books on the shelves, over 200 of the earlier books having been weeded out because they were shabby, or out of date or not being borrowed. The School Library Service has continued its regular loans to the children's section, and at the end of last year Miss Helen Cowey of the Country Library Service, Palmerston North, who is also Convenor of the N.Z. Library Association's Maori Library Committee, visited us to discuss help. The first loan of 150 books arrived from the C.L.S. in January, and the C.L.S. book van will be calling twice yearly to exchange supplies.

Punga-haruru began officially lending books to the adult residents of Putiki on Saturday, March 12, 1966. In true Maori tradition the doors had been hospitably if unofficially open for some time, and borrowing had already

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A group of secondary school girls take part in a charm course run by Mrs Anna MacGregor, held in Punga-haruru in 1964

taken place.

Mrs Wai Waitere is the oficial librarian and Mrs Tari Bates is in charge of adult borrowing. The library is open from two to four each Saturday afternoon regularly and at other times as necessary. Members are asked to pay an annual subscription of 2s 6d per annum (to cover the cost of the C.L.S. service) and no restriction is placed on the number of books borrowed. Books are issued for a period of three weeks, and primary and secondary school pupils have free use of all collections.

Punga-haruru belongs to the Putiki community and is run by the community. It has adapted pakeha procedures for libraries to the Maori way of life.

Generous help has been freely forthcoming from many sources. Bascands, library publishers of Christchurch, donated the initial supplies of book cards and book pockets for both Punga-haruru and Ratana. A plastics manufacturer in Auckland and Woolworths Wanganui both provided bags for the children to carry books in. Individual donors of books have come from Wellington in the south to Opotiki in the north, and Encyclopaedia Britannica donated a fine world atlas. Our own people have given carpets, shelf labels, apple boxes, shelving, paint and voluntary work Donations of money for the reference library have been received from the Wanganui Adult Education Committee, the Maori Education Foundation, the Wellington branch of the Federation of University Women, and the Wanganui East Railway Workshops Library Committee. This last was a spontaneous gesture which was unexpected and warmly appreciated.

A special section of the library contains books on the Maori people and includes such titles as The Coming of the Maori, Vikings of the Sunrise, The Making of a Maori, The Maori and New Zealand Politics, Race Relations in New Zealand, Encyclopaedia of Maori Life, A New Maori Migration, and Treasury of Maori Folkore. All these books are available for borrowing and are in great demand.

There is a saying which has been left to the descendants of Te-Ati-Hau-Nui-a-Paparangi tribe of Whanganui: Toi te kupu, toi te mana, toi te whenua (survival of the language, our good repute, and the land). The Educational activities at Punga-haruru are helping to keep this faith.

S. Anderson

In our next issue, we hope to have an article on the new Decimal Currency.

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Prizewinners for 1966 in the Ngarimu V.C. Essay Competition were announced recently by the Minister of Education, Mr Kinsella, who is also Chairman of the Ngarimu V.C. and 28th (Maori) Battalion Memorial Scholarship Fund Board which organises the competition.

The essay competition is an annual event and is open to children of Maori descent. Some 330 children from 39 schools entered the competition this year. A prize of £5 is awarded for the best essays in Maori and in English in each of the five sections of the competition.

The prizewinners this year were:—Essays in Maori

Primary: Kathleen Samson, Towai School, Bay of Islands.

Form III: Sophie Kelly, Queen Victoria School, Auckland.

Form IV: Caroline Walker, Auckland Girls' Grammar School, Auckland.

Form V: Wikepa Keelan, Ngata Memorial College, Ruatoria.

Form VI: Mihi Kaiwai, Auckland Girls' Grammar School, Auckland.

Essays in English

Primary: Mihi Biddle, Rotorua Intermediate School, Rotorua.

Form III: Josephine Keelan, Queen Victoria School, Auckland.

Form IV: Janice Tumata, Queen Victoria School, Auckland.

Form V: Sonia West, Manurewa High School, Manurewa.

Form VI: Karen Latimer, Auckland Girls' Grammar School, Auckland.

An Australian Study Party including several aborigines is to visit New Zealand in December and will visit many parts of the country during an intensive ‘School on Maori Affairs’.

Mr Kuru Waaka is the new director of the Rotorua Arts and Crafts Institute, which was officially opened on 29 October.

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An Introduction

Mira straightened her back with a stretching motion, threw down the grubber, and while gently pressing a blister, surveyed with tired pleasure her first morning's work on the section.

During the weekend Dave and some of his pals had knocked up a rough-looking builders' shed and the Power Board had promised to bring in the electricity today.

‘Wish they'd come this morning,’ thought Mira, who did not relish the idea of lighting the primus for her lunch time cup of tea.

Dave, who was one of the Road Service's most reliable drivers, had shown surprise and pleasure this morning when Mira said, ‘You can drop me at the section on your way to work Dave.’

‘Gorry you're a one, but will do,’ replied the happy hearted husband. ‘I'll pop next door and borrow Pera's primus. You'll need to boil the billy.’

Then, just a few steps away from the next room in the big old house which the four young couples shared, Dave had stopped, as if it were not such a good idea after all. ‘What about the baby?’ he'd said.

‘Aw Dave, I'm as strong as an ox. Besides I'm only four months.’

‘P'raps you'd better not go. It's pretty hard work.’

‘Aw, get out with you Dave! Go and get the primus. I'll be all right,’ and as Mira turned to rescue the burning toast, she'd said as if to reassure herself, ‘At least I hope I will.’

Mira had felt strange and lonely when Dave drove off after settling her in the shed with lunch, primus, electric jug—just in case the Power Board came, and a motley selection of garden tools.

‘Twelve bob at the auction,’ Dave had said excitedly the day he brought them home and dumped them triumphantly at his wife's feet.

But Mira found grubbing out manuka roots a good cure for loneliness, and as she worked, an eager anticipation lightened the back-breaking job. By the time their house was advanced enough to move in, she hoped there would be greens ready to eat.

‘Must have greens with the baby coming.’ Funny how everything was—‘because of the baby’.

Dave's first reaction to the news of his approaching fatherhood had been, ‘Can't have kids in bed-sitters. Must get a loan.’ Most of the houses around their section were new, and in varying stages of completion; some with concrete paths, others marked out with boxing. There was a general show of ‘do-it-yourself’ every weekend.

The house nearest them was one of the first to be built on the new estate and was bigger than most of the others. Certainly grander than Mira and Dave's would be.

Mira had caught only glimpses of these neighbours, and thought they seemed a bit stuck up, but Dave said, ‘He seemed a good cove.’ They had two young children.

As Mira turned towards the shed a little voice said, ‘What are you doing.’

Mira smiled at a little chap about four years old, and said, ‘Just grubbing out some roots. And what's your name?’

‘David,’ and then as an after-thought, ‘David John Bell. What's yours?’

‘Mira Hutana.’

‘Gee! I can't say that. Mum says you're Maoris.’

‘Yes, we are.’

‘Got any children?’

‘Not yet,’ and Mira would have liked to add, ‘… but we will soon.’

‘Mum was hoping you wouldn't have any,’ said the honest little David.

So Mrs Bell hoped she wouldn't have any children. Mira's heart seemed to tighten, then she bravely smiled to herself as she wondered if all Davids were so frank and honest. Must be something in the name. Her Dave was like that.

During the weekend when Dora, Reti and their husbands were helping on the section, Mira had sensed her neighbour's reactions.

After all they were Maoris, and Mira felt

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that she wouldn't like to live beside some of her own people. She wouldn't like to live beside some of the Pakehas she had met and worked with either. She had found in the factory there were good and bad on both sides. She remembered how snobbily they had treated poor little Sally. Just because she went off the rails a bit. Poor kid didn't have a chance.

Mira gave herself a mental shake and set about pumping the primus. Tricky things primuses. She wished Dave were there to throw a chip at her and say, ‘Snap out of it Hon, what's the worry! We got plenty of friends—Maori and Pakeha.’ Dave never worried unnecessarily about anything.

After an hour's rest Mira tackled the roots with fresh vigour. She enjoyed watching the passing traffic. Truck drivers sometimes gave a friendly wave. One even gave a cheeky whistle.

Now a telegram was being delivered to the house opposite. Telegrams, They received dozens when they were married. Johnny the best man had made the best of reading them out too.

A door banged! The girl from over the road was running towards the Bell's house. She seemed upset, and dropped the telegram. She tried twice to pick it up, but it blew near to where Mira was working.

Handing it back, Mira asked, ‘Are you all right?’ By this time the girl was sobbing, and Mrs Bell, having seen the little drama, was coming to help. David looked anxiously at the three women. ‘What's the matter?’ he said.

The telegram was to say that the girl's mother had met with an accident and was in hospital.

‘Please take me in Jill. Our car is out of order. Besides I couldn't drive, I … and I've just put Sandy down for her sleep.’

Mira, who up till now had been a most uncomfortable witness and was feeling a bit bewildered at this unexpected introduction to her neighbours said, ‘Please let me help. I've already met David. I could mind Sandy. I'm used to children.’

‘Oh would you Mrs … uh …’

‘Hutana,’ supplied Mira, ‘But I just like Mira.’

‘And I'm Jill,’ said Mrs Bell (not at all stuck up), ‘And this is Helen, Helen Bates.’

‘We'd be most grateful Mira.’ Helen managed

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to smile and looked less strained.

‘You take David and go over with Helen now Mira. I'll fix up a bit and get the car out,’ said Jill.

Mira made a mental note that Jill was going to prove a down-to-earth neighbour. One you could rely on to keep a cool head.

Mira received instructions about Sandy, helped Helen get ready, and managed to calm her anxiety a little.

David was told to look after Mira and to see she made herself a cup of tea.

The roots of destiny stirred within Mira's heart as she stood holding David's hand and waved the other women out of sight. Then giving the little hand a gentle tug she said, ‘Come on Davie, help me put the tools away. No more grubbing today.’


The Editor,

‘Te Ao Hou’

I am collecting information about the life and work of Mr James Pope, who was organising inspector of Maori Schools between 1880 and 1903. If any of your readers could assist me with this I would be very grateful.

I can be contacted C/- Department of Education, Victoria University of Wellington.


Transcriptions of Authentic Maori Chant
part 10

To avoid any appearance of commercialising the songs, Dr McLean has declined to accept payment for his work in preparing this series.

Earlier articles in this series have included examples of nearly all of the song types still being used. The sung forms, waiata tangi (laments), waiata aroha and waiata whaiaipo (love songs), oriori (lullabies), pao (entertainment or topical songs), and poi have all appeared in the series, as have patere, haka and maimai of the recited types of song. So far there have been no transcriptions of karakia (incantations) and tau marae (recitations before speaking) or karanga (marae calls) but except for these the above represent the most common song types.

Other song types can either be regarded as sub-classes of the common types, are locally occurring forms or are now obsolete.

The hari kai or heriheri kai (food-bearing song), for example, is performed like a pao in some areas and like a haka in others. The mana wera or manawa wera (lit. the seared heart) seems to be a form of patere. The most noteworthy of the locally occurring forms is the pokeka which is a song type peculiar to Te Arawa and Mataatua, while of the songs now obsolete the most important are work or time songs and whakaaraara pa (watch songs).

An example of the latter is transcribed in the present issue, together with a tauparapara from Waikato, and these transcriptions will be the last of the present series. Some time next year, if there is enough demand, the writer hopes to resume the series and it may then be possible to include examples of hari kai, pokeka, manawa wera and other lesser known song types as well as songs from tribal areas that are so far unrepresented.

The songs variously called tau marae, tauparapara (Waikato) and pohua tau (Arawa and Mataatua) are those commonly recited on the marae before making a formal speech. This was very colourfully illustrated to the writer in 1958 by Arapeta Awatere who sang a few bars of ‘D' ye ken John Peel’ and then announced, ‘My subject this evening is hunting!’

A European would think it most strange if a guest speaker were to burst into song before, after or during a speech, but on the marae the reverse is true. In days past it would have been unusual for a speaker not to do this. And today, particularly amongst the older speakers, it is still the custom to precede a speech with a tau marae and to follow it with a waiata (song) of relevance to the subject, in which the speaker will generally take the lead and will be helped by his supporters. Often there

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will be several waiata or pao during the course of a speech. Also, a good speaker takes pride in his ability to make apt use of chant quotation.

We must hope that this will long be the case, because it is in the preservation of this custom that the greatest hope for the survival of Maori chant lies. If the use of the tauparapara and the waiata should ever lapse on the marae or if action song is allowed to take its place, the Maori people will have lost a vital part of their heritage.

Often the tau marae takes the form of a karakia but other recited compositions are also acceptable. Sometimes ngeri are heard and sometimes whakaaraara pa. Usually the tau marae is very short, often a mere fragment of a larger composition and is always recited solo by the speaker. It is only later when he gives his waiata that he is joined by his supporters. Generally the composers of tau marae are not known.

The transcribed tauparapara is one of several recorded from Tumua (Sam) Huia of Ngati Te Wehi tribe of Waikato, at Makomako on 3 March 1963. The metre is a basic 2/4 complicated by additional semiquavers.

Whakaaraara pa, also known as mataara pa (watch songs or summons to arms) may have originated during the period of inter-tribal conflict long before the coming of Europeans to New Zealand. Archaeological evidence has shown that the fortified village or pa was already part of the New Zealand scene by about 1450 A.D. and by the time Crozet visited New Zealand in 1772, ‘palisaded villages, surrounded by ditches and situated on very high cliffs,’ were thought by him to be the rule.

In the areas where most fighting was going on, lookout towers were a part of the defensive system and from time to time during the night, sentries posted upon them would recite watch songs in a loud voice or would beat upon a wooden gong (pahu) or blow a pukaea (war trumpet). Te Rangi Hiroa in The Coming of the Maori (p. 388) says that this was done to show both the enemy and the people within the pa that the watchman was alert, while Elsdon Best in his book The Pa Maori (p. 86) says that a further object was to keep the people in the pa from sleeping too soundly in case there was an attack! These could not have been the only objects, however, because some watchsongs have survived that warn of an enemy's approach or ask an approaching force to what tribe it belongs. Some at least of these songs must therefore have been alarm or challenging songs.

As with some other song types there is evidence that mistakes in reciting a watch song were thought to be a bad omen. In the book earlier cited (p. 85) Best quotes a Hauhau watch song that was recited in the Waerenga-a-hika pa during the attack on the place by government troops in 1865. It is said that a watchman was heard to miss some of the words when chanting it, and this omen of ill luck was followed by the fall of the pa.

‘Kia hiwa ra’ is one of the best known of surviving watch songs. The version transcribed in this article was recorded at Painoaiho Pa on 4 June 1958 from Turanga Mauparaoa of Ngati Manawa tribe. Its unusually regular metre should make it easier than most songs to learn.


Piki mai kake mai
Homai te waiora ki au
E tu tehua ana koa
Te moe a te kuia nei i te po
Na Wairaka i rarua ai
E papaki tu ana te tai ki Te Reinga
Ka ao, ka ao, ka awatea.


Kia hiwa ra!
Kia hiwa ra!
E tenei tuku
E tera tuku
Kai a-purua koe ki te toto
Whakapuru tonu!
Whakapuru tonu!
Kaore ko au ko au
E kimi ana
E hahau ana
Nga piringa
Nga kokonga
I nga rae ra piringa
Ha koakoa (a)
Ka ao, ka ao,
Ka awatea.

Mervyn McLean has written his last two articles from overseas. He will be returning to New Zealand towards the end of 1967 when it is hoped that his transcriptions will again appear in Te Ao Hou (Ed.).

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HE TAUPARAPARA as sung by Sam Huia on 3 March, 1963

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HE WHAKAARAARA PA as sung by Turanga Mauparaoa on 4 June, 1958

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National Publicity Studios

British Lions at Mangere

Pictured above with Mr Lui Paewai and Mr Arnold Reedy are three members of the British Lions rugby team. Jim Telfer, Bill McBride and Noel Murphy. They visited Mangere marae when the New Zealand Maori Council was in session and were welcomed by Mr Paewai and Mr Reedy, Noel Murphy replying on behalf of the visitors.

Next day, the Lions beat the New Zealand Maoris 16 points to 14.

People and Places

Study Tour

Dr Peter Tapsell, Senior Orthopaedic surgeon at Rotorua Hospital, and Consultant to Queen Elizabeth Hospital, left New Zealand in September for a study tour, after receiving a State Department grant to visit top arthritis clinics in the U.S.A. He will also visit Canada,

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Dr Peter Tapsell

Great Britain and Scandinavia, and on his way home, Hong Kong and Singapore.

Over the past five years, Dr Tapsell has published several papers on the surgery of arthritis, and has carried out research work into this problem. He has travelled extensively in Europe, Russia and the far East.

He is from the Ngati Whakaue hapu of the Arawa tribe, and was educated at Moketu Primary School, Rotorua High School, and Otago University, holding a Maori University scholarship and a Ngarimu scholarship while at Otago. Dr Tapsell trained in surgery at Edinburgh, London, and the Orthopaedic Hospital in Oswestry, England.

Korimako Trophy

The finals of the annual Korimako Trophy oratory contest, organized jointly by the Maori Education Foundation and the New Zealand Post Primary Teachers' Association, were held in Wellington on Friday, 26 August.

Sir Bernard Fergusson presented his trophy to the winner, Pamela Bennett, daughter of Dr and Mrs Henry Bennett of Tokanui. Pamela, head girl of Te Awamutu College,

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plans to study medicine at Otago University next year.

Second and third prize winners were Te Aroha Henare of Auckland Girls' Grammar School and Kathleen Heyder of Rotorua Girls' High School.

Home Again

Flight Lieutenant Baden Pere, who has rejoined the R.N.Z.A.F. as an instructor at the central flying school at Wigram, returned recently from Hawaii, where he had been since 1959. There he graduated M.A., B.Sc. (hons) majoring in political science and Asian studies, and became academic adviser to Asian, American and Pacific graduate students at the East-West centre, a U.S. State Department Education institution.

He is a member of the Ngati Kahungunu tribe, and his grandfather, Wi Pere, was member of parliament for Eastern Maori before Sir Apirana Ngata.

Wellington Visit

During “Braille Week”, a visit to Wellington was made by a party of children from Homai College, the Auckland school run by the New Zealand Foundation for the Blind.

The children visited the Unilever factory, the inter-island ferry, and Parliament Buildings, and gave a concert for Braille club members and parents of the children with whom they were billeted.

They were photographed in the Maori room at Parliament Buildings. Here Tiwai Skipworth of Rotorua and Fred Daniels of Otahuhu look at a bust of Sir Apirana Ngata.

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Sir Bernard present the Korimako trophy

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Baden Pere National Publicity Studios

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National Publicity Studios

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Ruwhiu Shield

A 1964 carpentry trainee who is now a joinery apprentice, Ben Ruwhiu of Ohura, has made a shield to be competed for by rugby teams from the two Christchurch hostels.

Here he presents it to Dennis Skipper of Waitara, captain of Te Kaihanga Hostel's team, which beat Rehua Hostel boys 25–8.

Holding the shield with Dennis Skipper is Peter Phillips of Urenui, who scored four tries during the match.

Te Kaihanga's team won last year's under-17

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Rehua and Te Kaihanga boys at the Ngati Poneke club National Publicity Studios

rugby competition, and this year's under-18 competition. Seven Te Kaihanga boys were in the under-18 Canterbury representative team.

Visit to Trentham

Boys from both Rehua and Te Kaihanga hostels made the boat trip to Wellington for rugby matches with Wellington apprentices at the Trentham hostel.

Afterwards they were welcomed at the Ngati Poneke club and given dinner before returning to Christchurch.

Hamilton Play

Over 2,500 people saw Turongo and Mahinarangi, written and produced by Ron Kilgour, and played for five nights by the Maori club at Fairfield College Hamilton, then performed at Founders Theatre during the Festival of Maori Arts.

Pei Te Hurunui's story is followed closely,

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A taiaha duel between Whatihua and Turongo, played by Russell Fransham and Puti Rau

with chants, songs and pois contributed by Rev. Napi Waaka and Canon Wi Huata being an essential part of the production, helping to tell the story and heighten the drama. The play attempts to blend a well-known gem of Maori historical tradition, a story that appeals to all Maoris, with lively action and traditional songs, dances and pois, so appealing to the average pakeha, and to increase the understanding of both races. For the College pupils the production has become a focal point of solid achievement, and speaks well of things to come.

The play begins with an argument between Turongo and Whatihua as to who is the tuakana or elder brother. Whatihua by the artful use of the taiaha knocks his brother to the ground. This is but a forerunner of Turongo's ill fortunes. His snare remains empty while Whatihua displays his skill, and as Act I closes, Ruaputahanga, Turongo's betrothed, is drawn away to Whatihua's marae by trickery, and Turongo's shame is complete.

As Act II opens, the carvers at work in Kahotea are interrupted by Turongo's arrival.

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After his arrival in Hawkes Bay, Turongo displays his prowess with the taiaha

His carving skill greatly impresses them. The Chief, Tuaka, relates Turongo's whakapapa to his people and Turongo becomes one with his newly-found tribe.

The moonlight scene and songs of declared love leave Turongo with a mystery, but he resolves to ask Tuaka for a bride—the one who adorns herself with Raukawa perfume. So it comes about that the tribes of the East and West Coasts are united by this marriage of Royalty, between Turongo and Tuaka's daughter Mahinarangi.

The choir of 40 members was well trained and accompanied by the Rev. Napi Waaka.

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The Governor-General with Mrs Sage president of the Maori Women's Welfare League

Maori Women's Welfare League Conference

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A Wainui-A-Rua District Council delegate speaks National Publicity Studios

The 14th Annual Dominion Conference of the Maori Women's Welfare League held in Wellington Town Hall from 26 to 29 July 1966 was opened by the Governor-General, Sir Bernard Fergusson.

Before the official opening, delegates and observers were welcomed by the Mayor of Wellington, Sir Francis Kitts, and by Mr Ralph Love. The Minister of Education, Mr A. E. Kinsella, spoke of the increase in the number of Maori pupils at school and the greater educational opportunities now available. Mr D. J. Riddiford, M.P. for Wellington Central, and Mr N. P. Kirk, Leader of the Opposition, also spoke briefly.

After being challenged at the door and proceeding into the hall, the Governor-General was welcomed on behalf of the League by Sir Turi Carroll and the League's president, Mrs R. Sage. His Excellency replied in both Maori and English, speaking of the League's past achievements and future work, and leaving with members the same advice his grandfather had given: ‘Be thirsty for education.’

Gifts were presented to Sir Bernard and Lady Fergusson, and Her Excellency accepted the League's Life Membership badge. The Ngati Poneke Young Maori Club then entertained the guests, and many members of the audience rose spontaneously to join in the songs of welcome, after which afternoon tea was served.

Greetings from other women's organisations and a full and interesting report from the President occupied the evening session.

The second day's programme included discussion of remits, a talk by Miss J. Howland, Supervisor of the Arohata Girls' Borstal, travel talks given by Miss N. Te Uira and Mrs P. Grice, a ‘City Lights’ tour, and supper served by members of the Wellington Anglican Maori Club.

More remits were discussed on the third day and short explanatory talks were given by the Secretary for Maori Affairs, Mr J. McEwen, and the Commissioner of Police, Mr C. L. Spencer. The decision was made to hold the 1968 conference in Whangarei and the 1969 conference in Gisborne. A highlight of the afternoon was the announcement of Rotorua District Council as winners of the Te Puea Trophy after a helpful talk by the judge, Miss M. Riley, principal of Wellington East Girls'

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Some of the delegates at the conference National Publicity Studios

College. Morrinsville Isolated Branch came second, winning the Penrhyn Trophy. The day concluded with a Grand Social and supper.

On the busy morning of the fourth day, two new vice-presidents, Mrs T. Potaka and Mrs M. Penfold were elected, the Area Representatives were declared and the Evaluation Committee members made their comments on the running of the Conference.

A pleasant surprise was the presentation by Mr J. McEwen of a new trohy, a feather box he had carved in a Nga Puhi design, using a piece of wood brought back from Niue Island. It was won by Tai Tokerau, who showed the greatest membership increase, with 101 new members. This box, the Whaka Huia trophy, will be competed for annually.

Following the conference, 40 League members toured Victoria University of Wellington, where they saw classes in session, were televised in the Geology section, and were entertained by the University Maori Club.

Dominion Executive members were entertained by Sir Bernard and Lady Fergusson at an informal afternoon tea at Government House, where they saw Raukawa's cloak and many of Sir Bernard's greenstone artefacts. They felt honoured to represent the League, and the visit brought to a climax a successful conference.

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Miss M. Riley presents the Te Puea trophy to Mrs Maureen Waaka (a former ‘Miss New Zealand’) a delegate from the Rotorua District Council National Publicity Studios

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continued from page 5

There were some who thought his ear-ornaments an affectation but they were not. He once told me that one belonged to the late Major Rapata Wahawaha, N.Z.C., M.L.C., the famous war-leader of Ngati Porou in the Hau-Hau and the Te Kooti campaigns, and the other to Te Pairi, a tohunga of Ngai Turanga of Waimana and Tuhoe, and one of those elders at whose feet Kani acquired so much of his Maori wisdom. Kani told me that he wore them at the request of elders of both tribes and that he had discussed the propriety of his doing so with his father-in-law, the late Sir Apirana Ngata, who encouraged him to do so.

Te Kani attended the wharewananga at Ruatoki where he studied nightly, from sunset to sunrise, under the tutelage of three adepts. It was this thorough grounding, to which was added the knowledge imparted by kaumatua of many tribes and Kani's own lifetime studies, that made him unanswerable on any marae, and made him, too, an accepted spokesman for many tribes with whom his affiliations were but slight.

He acted in many capacities but it was widely said of him by those who knew best that he was never so respected as when he acted as peacemaker between those who took vehemently opposite sides in some take or dispute.

His knowledge of whakapapa (genealogy) was infinite. He could relate individual to individual and tribe to tribe with a sparkling wealth of historic anecdote and circumstance, reciting from the rich storehouse of his memoried mind—and in the manner of the expert—without reference to notes or other aid.

In matters of marae procedure and etiquette he was unrivalled. Even Waikato, possibly the most conservative in tribal tradition, conceded to Te Kani the right to speak on their behalf even in so delicate a matter as the naming of their Queen. When the kawe mate visited Turangawaewae recently, Waikato were the first to acknowledge his services to them and to the Maori people.

Te Kani spoke with force of phrase and gesture but with a subtle, and at times a trenchant humour. His mind worked with the speed of lightning and he never missed an opportunity of scoring with biting repartee if he thought the occasion called for it. On all occasions, he looked, spoke and acted as a rangatira. Like the Maori of a bygone generation, Kani was extremely sensitive to the law of tapu and when he was personally involved, he would not brook the slightest deviation from its strictest observance.

He was equally a scholar in the world of Pakeha culture. He attended Nelson College and was a graduate of the Nelson Conservatorium of Music. As a pianist he could have made a name for himself had he cared to specialise, but he preferred to identify himself with his Maoritanga. He read widely and his command of English was wide and precise. He had friends throughout the world with whom he kept up a regular corespondence. His letters were always entertaining and informative. It was nothing for him to write a dozen closely written pages in his neat, small hand-writing. His correspondents, like his friends, were chosen from all walks of life. For many years he kept up a spirited exchange of letters with the then King Carol of Rumania, and many other overseas notabilities; but he would write at equal length and with equal interest to a young person who had newly sought his advice.

Kani made few concessions. He held his own values and deviated from them for neither high nor low. He was an individual and you accepted him or rejected him as such, but in spite of this there was something intrinsically likeable about him which attracted affection and respect.

Kani had his faults, but, like his virtues, they were those of a man of unusual stature. As he could be undeviatingly loyal, so he could be inexorably unforgiving to one whom he regarded as being mercenary or unduly self-seeking. While he would eargerly share his knowledge with those he thought seekers after true knowledge, he could be witheringly blunt to any he thought were seeking to commercialise things he held to be tapu to his people.

At his tangi in Gisborne, and later at the ‘shedding of his tears’ at Turangawaewae, it was made abundantly clear that his death had really consolidated the contribution his life had made to the cause of the Maori people by bringing his people closer to one another—his family, his tribal affiliations and on the wider field, Maori with Maori and Maori with Pakeha.

As a friend he was affectionate, outspoken and ever loyal; as a kaumatua and adviser he spoke with authority and wisdom; as a member of the Maori race he became in his lifetime a figurehead. In his death he will continue a legend and an inspiration.

Haere e te rangatira
Haere ki o tipuna i te po.


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Hetekia Te Kani Te Ua, M.B.E.

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The busload of Northland parents on their arrival at National Women's Hospital

Northland Parents Visit Auckland

A group of 30 Maori parents representing 20 families from rural areas of Northland visited Auckland from Tuesday 9 August to Sunday 14 August, to see the accommodation and

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Mr H. Tukariri of Renana

types of employment available for their children.

The visit was arranged by two Maori Welfare Officers, Miss M. Paitai of Kaitaia and Mr W. A. Panapa of Auckland. Although most of the parents had previously been to Auckland, none had ever visited training centres, hostels or industries, and as many had children in apprenticeships or trade training schemes, they were keen to see what their children were doing and where they were living.

On their arrival at the Maori Community Centre where they stayed during their visit, the parents were welcomed by church elders, departmental officers, Mr M. Rata, M.P. and others. Replies on behalf of the visitors were given by Mr S. Ngaropo and Mr H. Leaf of Panguru, Miss M. Paitai and Mr Tukariri, an elder of Kenana.

In his speech, Mr Tukariri quoted the old proverb ‘The old net is laid aside and the new one goes a-fishing’. The parents were obviously keen to see for themselves what the city offered to their children, the opportunities to further their education and training.

On Wednesday morning the parents visited Greenlane Hospital, National Women's Hospital and Middlemore Hospital, where they saw the Auckland Hospital Board's ‘Hospital

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Housekeeping Course’ in action. They were impressed with the training given and the living quarters provided for the girls.

Following afternoon visit to boys' and girls' hostels, the parents were welcomed to the Auckland University's Anthropology Department by Dr P. W. Hohepa, who showed them how the language laboratory operated. Several Maori students were introduced to the group and briefly described their studies.

As seven of the parents had sons studying under the carpentry and motor mechanics sections of the trade training scheme, Thursday morning's visit to see the boys at work was a great thrill. The men of the party were particularly interested to see the manufacture of building materials during the afternoon visit to Fletcher Industries. In the evening the parents saw 15 primary and secondary pupils doing their homework under the supervision of Mr and Mrs Dunn at the Orakei Play Centre, and all praised the scheme enthusiastically.

After visits to the Post Office Telephone Centre and Crown Lynn Potteries on Friday, and a brief stop at the Museum of Transport and Technology, the party was welcomed at the Mangere marae, where the New Zealand Maori Council was in session. Tea there was the last official engagement, and the parents

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Dr Hohepa with Northland parents, some of whom come from his home district, Panguru

were then free to make private visits before leaving for home on Sunday 14 August, after a most successful trip.

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Miss Suzanne hall demonstrates bulk preparation of food at the National Women's Hospital

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Just as it should be—old and young working together. Members of the Morrinsville group supporting their Tumuaki, Te Waharoa Tarapipipi, demonstrate their skill in a city shop

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Te Waharoa Tarapipipi demonstrates carving

Hamilton Festival
of Maori Arts

A most successful Festival of Maori Arts, organised by the Hamutana Progressive Association and in aid of the proposed Ngati Hamutana Community Centre, was held at Hamilton from 21 to 28 August. The Festival covered all aspects of Maori culture, from traditional weaving, carving and chants, to haka, poi and action song competitions and displays of contemporary Maori painting and sculpture.

It began on Sunday 21st with a field day at Fairfield College and an interdenominational church service at Founders' Theatre, and was followed on Monday with an International Night, organised by Hamilton Jaycees.

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An ambitious programme Mythology in Sound and Light was presented on Tuesday, and on Wednesday Hannah Tatana and the New Zealand Opera Quartette covered a 300 year history of opera.

Turongo and Mahinarangi played by members of the Fairfield College Maori Club was Thursday's major attraction, and on Friday the Founders' Theatre audience heard poetry read by Hone Tuwhare and Rangi Harrison, and saw the Rukumoana Group perform ancient chants and modern action songs.

Best attendances were at Saturday's Cultural Competitions, where Waioeka and Gisborne High School won first places in the senior and junior competitions.

Throughout the week the traditional skills of Maori weaving, basket-making and carving were demonstrated in city shops, and displays of modern Maori art were open to the public.

The Festival meant hard work for many people, but special tribute was paid to the Mayor of Hamilton, Dr Denis Rogers, for his encouragement and advice.

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Cliff Whiting and Para Matchitt prepare to set up the display in St Paul's Methodist centre. Both men come from Te Kaha, and work for the South Auckland Education Board as Art Advisers
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Fred Graham, Art teacher at Auckland Boys' Grammar School, looks at a piece of his work with Para Matchitt

Already, a bigger and better festival is planned for next year, and it is hoped that the Festival will become an annual event.

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Members of Apanui School's decorative art group … …and the carving group

Whakatane Primary Schools' Combined
Maori Music Festival

In December 1965, ten primary schools in the Whakatane district held a combined music festival with two evening performances. These performances comprised songs by the combined choirs, ranging from Luigi Denza's Funiculi Funicula to Verdi's Chorus of the Hebrew Captives, English and American folk dances, instrumental items and Maori songs and posture dances. Needless to say, the festival, the first of its kind to be held in the district, was a great success.

This, however, prompted some members of the organising committee to consider an ‘All Maori Music Festival’. A meeting of interested school teachers was convened and the decision to hold the Maori Music Festival was made. It was held in August of this year. The schools which took part in the festival


Tokoroa Maori Culture Festival

On 9 and 10 August in the Tokoroa New Memorial Hall, a Maori Culture Festival was on display for both Primary School children and the general public.

This was all started when extension work on Maori culture and Arts was sought for a very new and keen group of children who had learned Taniko Weaving and Piu Piu making at the Tokoroa Intermediate School. They outfitted themselves in traditional Maori

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E. P. Christensen photographs
Jane Barrett of Tokoroa Intermediate school makes a piupiu

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Malvina Marsh, of Tokoroa Intermediate School demonstrates taniko weaving

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Apanui girls practise a stick game … …and an action song

were Te Teko, Paroa, Poroporo, Ruatoki, Tawera Maori Schools and Apanui and Taneatua schools. Items by each school comprised action songs, poi dances, stick games, group songs and the inevitable war dance—the haka. Dress was optional, though the majority of schools performed in traditional Maori costume. Each school performed for a maximum of twenty minutes. The opening item of the evening and the finale were sung en masse. With the finals came the approval by acclamation of the evening's performances.

A packed Whakatane War Memorial Hall ten minutes before the starting time assured the organisers that the evening would be financially successful at least. As if in response to the large attendance of parents the children, in turn, rose to the occasion and presented a two-hour programme with the naturalness, enthusiasm and enjoyment not often seen in the more competitive performances of this nature. Although the festival was strictly non-competitive, the winner was undoubtedly—Maori Music.

Many a parent and kaumatua must have left the festival fully satisfied that this aspect of

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costume for their very promising action song group, and following this, were striving for new knowledge of their culture.

As there was no museum and no chance for any first-hand experience of Maori Culture for Primary School Social Studies in the town of Tokoroa, it was proposed that a Maori Culture Festival be organised so that these needs could be provided, both for the Primary Schools and for the Intermediate School Maori Club; and in what better way could they hope to extend their knowledge than by taking part themselves in the exhibits of these arts.

The displays included taniko weaving and piu piu making done by the Tokoroa Intermediate Maori Club, carving and tuku tuku performed by Bethlehem Maori School of Tauranga, and plaiting and hangis displayed by Waioeka Maori School. Other exhibits were weapons and weapon fighting, games and pastimes, and the Auckland Museum sent down a Maori Decorative Arts Display which gave

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One of the Bethlehem Maori School carvers. Makohiti Brown

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Waioeka School children demonstrate flax weaving

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our New Zealand culture is being maintained to a very high degree. Many also must have received encouragement from the fact that in one school group nearly 50 per cent of the performers were Pakeha children. As Mr Richards, headmaster of the Apanui School, guest speaker of the evening, said in his opening address:

‘Our heritage of Polynesian lore is a rich one and one that we can not afford to neglect if we are to develop a truly New Zealand culture. Personally I feel that, for it to survive, it must be integrated into the over-all plan of our schools' curriculum and in my own school we endeavour to do this, both Maori and Pakeha children taking part in these truly New Zealand activities. However, for this to achieve the desired success requires interested and able teachers and a sympathetic public. I like to think we are progressing towards this.’

At the Apanui School which has a roll of 755 children, 35 per cent of whom are Maori, Maori cultural work is an integral part of the school's club activities. The club has equal numbers of Maori and Pakeha children, and all participate fully in the activities, which include Maori music, wood carving, flax weaving and decorative art.

Gisborne Cultural Competitions

A striking feature of the 15th annual Maori competitions in Gisborne on 3 September was the number of Pakehas taking part.

In fact, cheers and shouts of encouragement greeted the Gisborne High School haka team which was lead by a young European boy.

The guest artists at the evening performance—members of the Kawerau Maori Club who left on a tour of Australia on 12 September—had in their ranks many European children. Though a little unsure at first, the party soon relaxed and the large audience in the Gisborne Opera House enjoyed the competent action songs, hakas and stick games.

Other guest artists in the evening were members

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Mrs P. Kaua presents the new trophy, the Tuini Ngawai Memorial Cup to a member of the Mangapapa primary team
L. J. Edwards photo

of Te Hokowhitu A Tu party, which had just returned form a tour round the southern part of the North Island. Their performance was highlighted by four of the boys trying their skill with the long poi.

The afternoon guest artists were North Clyde Primary School pupils, from Wairoa.

Three teams competed in the primary and four in the junior sections of the competitions in the afternoon. Four teams competed in the senior section. Each team had to perform a modern action song, a haka taparahi, a poi and an ancient Maori melody.

The judges were Myna Poi, Gisborne, the late H. Te kani Te Ua, Puha, Koro Dewes, Wellington, and Hana Mita, Nuhaka. One of their decisions—awarding 100 per cent to three teams in the modern action song section—was not popular, even with the performers, who said they would prefer to have the judges explain their marking and tell teams where they could improve.

Mrs P. Kaua made the presentations to the junior and primary section winners and the Mayor of Gisborne, Mr H. H. Barker, officiated in the evening.

A new trophy, the Tuini Ngawai Memorial Cup for the best primary group, was donated by Te Hokowhitu A Tu party.

It was awarded for the younger competitors because the late Tuini Ngawai—who composed more than 200 songs—believed the future of Maori art was in the hands of the children, said Mrs Ngoi Pewhairangi, Tokomaru Bay, the leader of Te Hokowhitu A Tu.

The cup was won by Mangapapa.

After the evening performance a supper and dance, with a Kawerau dance band, were held at the Poho-O-Rawiri meeting house.

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TOKOROA FESTIVAL contd from p. 39

the finishing touch. All the participating schools sent very capable pupils to display these arts and the whole Festival was performed by these children. They handled it and accomplished it well.

This meant that all who participated saw meaning in what they were learning, and in being given an ultimate goal, they worked with more interest and vigour. The children gained much valuable knowledge of their own culture, and even more important, it gave them a deep sense of pride in what they were doing and accomplishing. This was their culture and part of their heritage—no wonder they gained so much.

Over 1,400 children saw these displays over the two days and gained unlimited knowledge and valuable material for follow-up classroom activities.

On 10 August, the Festival ended with a Grand Maori Concert lasting three very enjoyable hours. The four parties to perform were: Matarawa Primary School, Waioeka Maori School, Bethlehem Maori School, Tokoroa Intermediate School.

Overall, this child-centred Maori Culture Festival was an enormous success. It proved the worth and capabilities of children who are interested and can see meaning in what they are doing. All visitors gained much valuable information, and the exchange of knowledge, the friendships that were made, and even the participation of a Pakeha, a Pacific Islander, and a Canadian girl did much to promote the Maoritanga we need so much in our children of today.


The magnitude of the contribution of the late Mr John Waititi to the advancement of his own people and to the wider community in which he played an active part has been brought more and more to notice as others endeavour to fill the gap left by his death.

He has been replaced on various organizations by other people who most fortunately are proving themselves competent and willing, but it is in the more informal aspects of effort for the Maori people that his loss is perhaps most keenly felt.

A measure of the breadth of his activity may be gauged by the fact that examination of his papers and records show that in the past five years he was a member of or was associated with the work of nearly 80 organizations. It is quite certain that there were many more, of which there was no record kept.

An indication of his enthusiasm and dedication to a cause in which he believed is given in records of the campaign to raise funds for the Maori Education Foundation of which he was co-chairman for the Auckland region.

During the height of the campaign in 1962, John delivered 96 speeches to raise funds and to explain the aims of the foundation. The ordinary man or woman who finds letter-writing an exacting duty may be excused for feeling somewhat awed by John's record of 450 letters answered during this period.

The Maori language was, of course, a ruling passion. Its study was one of his official duties but, as in most things he tackled, he brought to it more enthusiasm and deeper understanding than mere competency demanded.

Perhaps the most material records of his endeavours are his text books in the Rangatahi series, but in addition he was language tutor at one time or another at St Stephen's School. Queen Victoria School, Auckland University Department of University Extension, Ardmore Teachers' College, Palmerston North Teachers' College, Auckland Teachers' College and the Maori class at Auckland Prison.

He was chief examiner in Maori for the school certificate examination.

He found time—no one is quite sure how—to be a member of the Anthropology and Maori Race Section of the Auckland Institute with a term as president of that body, of the Inter-racial Committee, of the Auckland Regional Committee of the New Zealand Historic Places Trust and of the University Maori Club of which he was president and then patron.

He was vice-president of the Police and Citizens Boystown Committee and a member of the Auckland Half-million Celebrations Committee.

When groups and organizations, particularly

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in Auckland, wished to learn more about the Maori, past or present, John was the man to whom they turned first. The list of organizations which he addressed is far too lengthy to be included here but the topics on which he talked included the pre-European Maori, the history of racial relations, the history of Auckland, Maori scholastic attainments, university Maori students, understanding the Maori and the problems of Maori children at school.

By his knowledge, which was deep and liberal, and by his example and presence, he was widely regarded as one of the finest interpreters the Maori people have had of their history, problems and aspirations. He was certainly so regarded by his wide circle of Pakeha friends.

The Governor-General, Sir Bernard Fergusson, speaking at the opening of the Mangere marae, publicly acknowledged his own debt to John as an adviser on all aspects of Maoridom.

John has been called the initiator of the ‘back-to-school’ movement of Maori adults, many groups of whom attended evening classes and sat the school certificate examination. While this is probably so, John did not make such a claim himself, but rather preferred to think of himself as one who assisted a movement which sprang spontaneously from the people.

Nevertheless, it was his efforts at fanning the flame that brought it to the glow it did gain.

In this he was helped by his understanding of the processes of press and radio publicity and by his personal friendship with writers, photographers, journalists and radio men.

As a fund-raiser for worthy causes John's record is truly remarkable. His papers show that he was the organizer of money-raising efforts for the following people and organizations: Ruia Morrison, to assist her to take part in major tennis tournaments overseas; Walter Godfrey and Sherrill Chapman, golfers; Neti Davis, table tennis player; Kiri Te Kanawa, to enable her to continue singing studies abroad; Pat Hohepa, to help his study in the United States for a doctorate; Ralph Hotere, for arts studies overseas; Bill Tawhai, a Rotary scholar; the dependants of the Brynderwyn bus disaster; the Auckland Maori Catholic Society, for their new centre, and the Mangere marae.

And how many individuals and families who called on him for help in trouble and sorrow, no one will ever know. Only one thing is sure—no one ever sought John's help and did not get it.

Mention of the Auckland Maori Catholic Society brings to mind the broadness of John's conception of the nature and meaning of Christianity. A practising member of the Church of England himself, he would lend support to Church causes whatever their denomination if these were directed towards the welfare of the Maori people or even a small section of the people.

Thus officials and pupils at the Mormon Church College always greeted him with pleasure. Presbyterians and Methodists valued his worth while his own Church called on him on many occasions. One of these was the organization of the celebrations in late 1964 of the 150th anniversary of the first sermon preached in New Zealand by Samuel Marsden.

He was a sponsor of the Billy Graham evangelical movement's New Zealand section.

His records also show that he was a member of ‘Task Force’, a co-ordinated committee of representatives of the New Zealand Maori Council, the Maori Affairs and Education Departments, and the Maori Women's Welfare League, which was planned to help Maori communities in specific areas.

His work for Maoris in prison has never been matched and no one has gained their confidence or helped them before or since in the way he did. Many a man came out the gate of Auckland Prison to find John waiting for him to drive him home and to ease the first meeting with the family.

And the records contain also comments of people who met John in the course of his work, letters not so much to him but to others, which contain such comments as these:

‘In the realm of youth work John Waititi has no peer.’

‘He bubbles with enthusiasm and zest for living. He has the ability to spread this enthusiasm to others.’

‘He has great zeal accompanied by sound common sense and good judgement. He is respected by Maoris and Pakehas alike and he is at home in both cultures.’

These, then, are facets of the many-splendoured jewel which was the life of John Waititi. That the memory of them will not quickly fade, a campaign to raise funds for a memorial scholarship is now under way.

It is under the patronage of the president of the New Zealand Maori Council, Sir Turi Carroll, and the Dominion president of the Maori Women's Welfare League, Mrs R. Sage.

It is well worthy of the most generous support.

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Ngati Poneke Young Maori Club's 30th

On Sunday 25 September, hundreds were turned away from St James Theatre, Wellington, when the Ngati Poneke club gave a concert to mark its 30th anniversary.

Present in the audience were the Governor-General, Sir Bernard Fergusson and Lady Fergusson, representatives of Government and Opposition, and members of the Diplomatic Corps.

The programme began with a ceremonial challenge and welcome to peaceful ‘visitors’, and the audience then saw a complete range of items, ancient and modern.

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Mr Te Reme Karepa, producer of the concert

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Sir Bernard, accompanied by club president Mr F. Katene meets Te Rongopai Tiini. Behind them is club secretary William Nathan

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Mr A. W. Kinsella with club members. From left; Mrs Lorraine Nikera, then girls' leader, Mrs Josephine Ferris, Miss Huia Maitai, Mrs Donas Nathan and Mrs Millie Clark. In front are two juniors, Rora Smith and Oiti Hiroti

Highlights were the performance of three items by the ‘Ngati Poneke Juniors’, the singing of the Ngati Poneke choir, conducted by Mr B. Raurangi, the thrilling taiaha drill and the skilful stick games. In a ‘grand finale’ all the performers moved onto the stage, demonstrating a variety of skills.

Members of the official party later went backstage to meet the performers.

Money raised at the concert will go into a building fund, as the present premises, given to the club in 1944 in recognition of patriotic services, will soon be demolished.

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Auckland Young Maori People's Group

When young Maoris from the country arrive at Auckland to find work or to study they can be sure of a welcome from the Auckland Young Maori People's Group.

The first move towards the formation of a club took place earlier this year, and it has yet to receive a constitution.

The group consists of some 200 young people, who hold socials and practise Maori action songs. In August a group performed at a charity concert given to raise funds for the Plunket Society.

The sponsors and executive members of the group include Mrs R. Paapu, Misses M. Mako and E. Johnston, Drs I. H. Kawharu and P. W. Hohepa and Messrs N. Harré and T. K. Royal. The sponsors have long recognised the need for a Maori club at Auckland to be run on similar lines to those of the successful Ngati Poneke at Wellington.

The aim of members of the group, which includes office workers, apprentices, factory workers and students has been for a club where young Maoris, especially newcomers to the city, could meet and find wholesome entertainment.

‘Young Maoris at Auckland need a club.’ said Mr “Choc” Kirikiri, second-year Auckland University student, ‘but they must support it too. This is the crux of the matter.’

Mr Abraham Karauti, a trainee school teacher and also a member of the group, said a club was needed years ago. Many national societies had their own clubs at Auckland, but there was no major Maori club, he said.

‘I think it is a terrific idea to get young Maoris together and many are coming to the city,’ said Miss Ripeka Hughes, also a trainee teacher. ‘At a club they would be able to make life-long friends,’ she said.

Charm School

In March a charm school for 52 young Maori women was arranged by the representatives of the Y.W.C.A. and Miss Mako. As a fitting climax to the course the city branch of the Auckland Maori Women's Welfare League, to which Miss Mako and Miss Johnstone belong, organised a cabaret at the Ellen Melville Memorial Hall.

The function, as well as raising funds for the John Waititi Memorial Scholarship, drew attention to the need for a Maori club at Auckland.

Many of the young men who attended and also those who helped to run the cabaret became

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Executive members of the Auckland Young Maori People's Group meet at the Academy of Elegance, Auckland. From left: Mrs R. Paapu, Dr P. W. Hohepa, Misses M. Mako and E. Johnston and Mr T. K. Royal.

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just as keen as the girls to form a social and cultural group. Also, as a result of the evening, the main body of the executive was formed.

The young people now meet regularly at the Y.W.C.A. and at the Academy of Elegance. The principal of the Academy, Mrs P. Wilson, who lectured at the charm school, offered free tuition to several members of the original class.

With the combined enthusiasm of the young people and wise guidance of the sponsors, there is no reason why a very successful Maori cultural organisation should not be formed at Auckland.

Reunion Planned

A reunion to honour the famous chief Patuone is to be held from 29 December to 2 January. Patuone, one of the first chiefs to sign the Treaty of Waitangi, befriended and protected many early pioneers and missionaries.

Mill Hill Fathers

In a magazine marking the centenary of St Joseph's Missionary Society, is the story of the Mill Hill Fathers in New Zealand. It describes the history of the Maori Mission since the arrival of the first two missionaries in December 1886.

An Appreciation of THE SPIRAL TATTOO

A full scale production for broadcasting of a Maori legend is something of an occasion. Listeners to National Stations on 15 August heard an hour and a half long production of The Spiral Tattoo. This was a dramatization by Mrs Adele Schafer of Wellington of the ancient legend of Mataora and Niwareka — which appeared in both Maori and English in Issue Number 50 of Te Ao Hou.

The Spiral Tattoo tells of Mata-o-ra who is married to Niwareka, one of the Turehu or fairy folk. Mataora quarrels with his wife and strikes her and she leaves him to return to her old homeland in the Underworld. Mataora follows her there and after many adventures he finds her and regains her affections. During the course of his search, Mataora is ridiculed by the denizens of the Underworld because his facial designs are only painted on. He begs the local people to let his manhood be tested by having himself tattoed in the same manner as they. As a result he learns the art of tattoing, an art which he is later to pass on to the whole of the Maori people. Eventually the two lovers return to the world of men on the back of the sacred bird, Korotangi.

In the June 1965 issue of Te Ao Hou there was an interesting article by Mrs Schafer concerning the underlying meaning of the legend of Mataora and Niwareka and theorising on its affinity with some of the mythology of India and South East Asia. Mrs Schafer believes that Maori and the other Polynesian languages have developed from Sanscrit, the ancient language of India, and in her private studies she has carried out painstaking documentation of this theory. In her article in Te Ao Hou she points out that in Sanscrit ‘nivara’ means ‘rice’. In the Maori legend, the name Niwareka could be derived from ‘nivara’. If this were so it could be evidence of an interesting link with the mythologies of many countries which the tale of a person journeying to the Underworld and coming back again with the aid of someone who loves them, is a symbol for the grain which goes away into the earth by the act of planting and which in the Spring shoots forth again. Probably the best known of the many legends of descent into, and resurrection from, the Underworld is the Greek legend of Orpheus and Eurydice. Thus Adele Schafer has subtitled her play for radio An Orpheus Legend of the Maori.

Adele Schafer was born in Vienna in 1905 and came to this country in 1939 as a refugee from Nazism. Since then she has made a study of Maori mythology and dedicated herself to bringing Maori legend to life by dramatising it in a way which makes it meaningful in this modern day and age. The Spiral Tattoo was originally conceived as a three act play for the stage and later adapted and condensed somewhat for broadcasting. The N.Z.B.C. has also bought another of Mrs Schafer's plays but no production plans for it have yet been announced.

The Spiral Tattoo was produced in the Corporation's Wellington studios by Antony

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Groser. Mr Groser handled his large cast with a sure hand to achieve a result which was wonderfully true to the spirit and conception of the author. An interesting innovation was the use of electronic sound images especially composed by Douglas Lilburn. Despite occasional passages which were noisy and distracting, these images played a most important part in creating the atmosphere of the play. There was a surrealistic quality about the effects which served initially to heighten tension and expextancy as the Underworld was entered, and later to create an atmosphere which gave the dream sequences an eerie credibility. Technical adviser on Maori matters was Bill Kerekere. It is, however, a matter for the greatest regret that in a play concerning a race with a strongly developed a sense of the dramatic as the Maori, it was necessary to have all the parts played by Pakeha. Although the pronunciation of Maori was for the most part exceptionally good, the voices lacked the timbre and richness and the subtle accent of the Maori voice at its best.

The main criticism of The Spiral Tattoo stems probably from the fact that, as a stage play, it was conceived originally in visual rather than auditory terms. The transposition from a stage play to one for broadcasting was not entirely successful, in that some listeners I am sure, would have experienced difficulty in following the progression of the story, despite a sketchy outline provided by the announcer before the programme began. This is indeed a defect, and yet not a grave one for The Spiral Tattoo is not intended to tell a cohesive and entertaining story. (‘Stories are only for children’ says Mrs Schafer). The legend is a means whereby the author seeks to hold a mirror to an ancient culture and to interpret its psychological subtleties in terms which are meaningful to the modern radio listener. For this aim to succeed and for the result to be credible the terms must also be ones which are not incongruous to the mood and age of the original. In this, Adele Schafer has succeeded and succeeded well. Thus in the visions which Mataora has as he undergoes the painful ordeal of being tattoed, the author digs into the subconscious of her hero and calls forth the fear and guilt images which she feels an old-time Maori might have experienced. Mataora dreams of his father Hotoke who was killed in battle. In the dream Hotoke warns his son of the emptiness of honour gained in war. There is a timelessness in Hotoke's sadness for ‘life

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squandered in some doubtful cause'. He tells Mataora that ‘… last year's enemy may be next year's ally, but the dead remain dead’.

One can argue that in a people so steeped in warfare for warfare's sake it is doubtful if such thoughts could gain currency, particularly in one of the warrior caste. Yet such a theory would be tantamount to saying that a race which could produce warrior-poets could not produce warrior-philosophers. The seed which made the Maori people of later times so susceptible to the message of Christianity is contained in Hotoke's words: ‘Living is hard, thinking is harder, the hardest is to live, think and be content in a world made thus’ (where everything lives by destroying other life). ‘Life that comes from nothingness may easily be sent back to the nothingness from whence it sprung.’

Later Kuri the dog comes to Mataora in the delirium of his dreams. Kuri is a personification of the dog that dwells in every man—of the untamed animal within. He is the voice of Mataora's conscience and reminds him of various things which he has done and which are unworthy of a leader—of ‘the Ariki begetting slave-brats without pangs and then rising from the warm ground shaking all consequences from your back; of the shrieks of the women raped by Mataora's war party and of the children killed and eaten afterwards to the sounds of fire crackling in the conquered village.

Namunamu the sandfly expresses the universality of human suffering, a suffering which was as real and omnipresent to the ancient Maori as it is to mankind to-day: ‘I am not part of you. I am part of life. I am the long persistent sting of every day.

Occasionally the listener is jolted back to reality from the world of spirits with language which is evocative of a more modern age (‘I was only pulling your fat leg’; ‘If you were as tall as you're crazy …') or which refers to things unknown by the ancient Maori. Such lapses though are rare. More frequent is the interpolation of Maori words which tend to obscure the meaning in many places for those listeners without a working knowledge of the language. (‘Your wairua wakes while you slumber’) However, these are superficialities in a play of great depth and perception.

Unfortunately, but unavoidably, the radio listeners could not savour fully the rich flavour of Adele Schafer's language as the play moved swiftly on. She uses words deftly to create passages of startling beauty and deep tenderness. Such a passage is when Humarire, Mataora's mother, appears to her son in a dream and says of his wife, Niwareka: ‘Woman, dear son, is more than the delight she gives your flesh and your flesh gives her. She is the warm-swept house, the cooked food in the evening when you come cold and hungry from the outside. She is the summer-sea rocking you in her arms, birdsong, chuckling creek and rattling rain; she is the garden for the next world's crop, the wind driving your swelling sail upon the crests. She is the other half of all creation … she is the earth. Be you her Heaven.’

From the beginning of the play, when Mataora and his uncle, Hohonu come to Te Reinga, the leaping place of the spirits, image piles on image as the listener is wafted into an eerie half-world of creaking trees, rushing waters and spirit voices, into a kaleidoscope of savagery and splendour, fierceness and tender mother-love, sexuality and spirituality. This indeed is the world of the old-time Maori—a world in which the natural and the super-natural blended to make the stuff of life. The Spiral Tattoo provides us with a window into this world and in so doing takes the listener close to the very heart of the Maori people.

It is indeed a sad commentary that most of our daily newspapers, which devote endless columns to silly prattle about the comparative merits on TV of the Danny Kaye and Dean Martin shows, failed to examine, criticise and acclaim a notable work of New Zealand drama.

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In this new section, Te Ao Hou plans to present topics of particular interest to younger readers, and to publish original work in art and language. Young Maori men and women will write about their careers, giving information to those considering what occupation to take up.

The editor would welcome contributions, and suggestions of other topics for this section.

Art work would need to be in black and white.

Poems, stories and short articles will all be acceptable.

Pakeha Boy

I wonder if they still go eeling in the deep, clear river, at dawn, when the sun sends its golden rays to the valley, over the great range.

I wonder if they still swing over the river, by the great, thick rope-like creepers.

I wonder if they still wander in the bush, aimlessly.

I wonder if they still build tree-huts, small, leafy and strong.
I wonder if they still climb the look-out tree, tall and majestic, with a commanding view of the whole valley.

I wonder if they still bathe in the swimming hole, black tranquil and cool.

I wonder if they still explore the glow-worm caves, dim, eerie and strange.

I wonder if they still listen to the tales of Rangi, the old farm worker.

I wonder if they still listen to the morepork as they lie huddled in bed at night.

I wonder if they still remember me.

D. C. McInnes, Form 6 Palmerston North Boys' High School

The following poems are selected from several sent in by the Headmaster of Moerewa School, in the Bay of Islands. They are the result of a ‘Language through Art’ programme, a development of the Maori Studies scheme mentioned in Issue 54.

I Walked On …

The dawn was new,
I walked on …

Through a haze of mist
I saw a new world …
A white world.

In a trance-like
Wonder, the white world
Covered over.

I was alone … So …
I walked on.

As the mist cleared
There sparkling before
My eyes was another
World …

The sun had been playing
On thousands
Of drops from the
Morning dew … But then
I walked on … !

Raemon Parkinson, 13

A Frosty Morning

Gazing out the blurry window
With shivering thoughts
I see the ice on the lake
Lying like scattered glass.
Soon the sun will come
And melt it away.

Sandra Reti, 13

The Cold Frosty Morning

The frost stretches
Itself across the
Flat land.
Everything is quiet
Everything is still
Everything is white
With snow upon them.

Willie Nathan, 12

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One Frosty Morning

As I was walking across the grass,
It was so stiff that I walked on the tips.
The puddles on the road were full of ice.
And everywhere I could see the mist
But the sky was nowhere in sight.

Lynette Broughton, 12

The next two poems are written by pupils of Whanau-a-Apanui Maori District High School, Te Kaha.

The Stormy Sea

The deadly bellowing waves
Crashed down with a
tumultuous bang!
Their fury was like a wild bull.
The expanse.
The driftwood.
The roar of gulls.
The choppy swelling sea.
Breakers rose mountainously,
and crashing towards the land.
Its destructive
Temper and gigantic waves
tossed; a many-armed taniwha
And plundering
into a merciless spin.

Maudie Kemara, 5A

Pohutukawa Tree

Dominating the scenery
the vigilant pohutukawa sways
stately in the breeze.
It grows
despite the storm's rough-handling
though snail-like its movement.
Gnarled, but lovely—
resplendent as
it puffs up,
blossoms out, colourful,
breathes perfume
beautiful its scent.

John Wharepapa, 5G

Northland College pupils too are doing excellent language work. Here are a few of the many poems recently received. We hope to publish more in future issues.


Leaving the hot room,
A cold feeling embraces me,
My hair stands …
Like bristles on a hedgehog.
Goose pimples dot my clammy skin
I freeze in my tracks—
A white figure dances in front of me.


Red were the embers
As we sat near our flameless, hot-coke fire.
The room was clammy with hot, steamy air.
Windows were all misty,
Like fog in a valley,
Just above a lake.

Wiremu Andrews, 5 R.B.


Looking at this sour body
Its crinkled face forms a sneer
Which makes me freeze all over
As if it were a ghost
Choking me to death.


Red-hot flame leaping to and fro
As if trying to reach something it wanted—
Like a snake,
Moving its head back and forth …
Hissing viciously at its prey.

Wana Maihi, 5 R.B.

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Chills tingling the spine,
Numbing the body.
Like a revenge-finding soldier
The white sheet of snow
Hurriedly snuffs out the match-flame.

Frank Waa, 5 R.B.


Cold …
Melting through the body
Like a knife cutting away the flesh.

Glen Whautere, 5 R.B.


Slowly, slowly
Like a swing swaying in the breeze …
Then gone—like the wind.

Marara Pou, 5 R.B.

A stall demonstrating Trade Training schemes for Maori youths won first prize for ‘greatest impact on the public’ at the Whangarei Winter Show last June. Carpentry, motor mechanic and electrical trades were featured, with boys demonstrating their skill and answering questions. Photographs of boys training in other trades were also displayed.

Life in the Police Force

Terence McConnell, the writer of this article, is the younger son of Clifford and Marewa McConnell, who are head teachers at Paparore and Ahipara Maori schools. His elder brother Riri is in the R.N.Z.A.F. at Ohakea, and his sister, Hui-a-rei Wilkinson, is teaching in Kaitaia. Feeling that there were enough teachers in one family, Terry chose a different career.

I went to Paparore primary school, where I was taught by my parents, and attended Kaitaia College from 1959 to 1963, passing school certificate in 1962, but academically I did not have an impressive school record. I played rugby for the 1st XV, and represented the College in swimming.

In my last year at college I realised that there was more to life than just going to school for sports (something that my teachers had been trying to tell me for the past three years), so I looked for a job that could offer me good conditions and career prospects and would give me an opportunity to spend a fair amount of time out doors. I thought of the armed services and of the Police Department and decided on the latter, as offering the conditions and career prospects I wished for and a life I did not really know about but felt I would like.

I applied in Kaitaia at the local Police Station, was tested and medically examined in Whangarei, and was finally accepted for the Police Cadet Course of 1964/65. I could also have joined as a recruit when I turned 19 if I had been too old for a cadetship.

Cadet courses have been going for only 10 years, with an intake of approximately 40 cadets each January. My intake was the first large one and consisted of 80 cadets.

The course involves 19 months of intensive schooling and training at the Police Training School, Trentham, Wellington. Most of us were of School Certificate standard and some had higher academic qualifications. During the course we were instructed thoroughly in Police law and practice, English and current world affairs, and touch typing, in which we had to pass a State Services Commission examination.

Police law and practice consisted of Criminal law and Case law in New Zealand, Court procedure and evidence, and Police practice and duties. In English we did grammar, current affairs and a project in which we studied and discussed matters pertaining to Police work, e.g., alcoholics and their problems, habitual criminals, juvenile delinquency in New Zealand, drug addiction, crime prevention, etc.

We also had an intensive physical training course emphasising fitness and self-defence or unarmed combat. This fitness course was brought to a peak when we spent 10 days in the Tararua Ranges on a practice search and rescue exercise. This also included bush Iore, navigation in bush country — both day and night, rock climbing, river crossing and search and rescue methods.

Sport was compulsory, and I played softball

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Picture icon

During his Police Cadet training, Terry McConnell receives ‘first aid’ in the bush from Constable S. Mangell, while Senior Sergeant D. N. Scott looks on.

and cricket in the summer and rugby in the winter, playing for two seasons in the Cadet 1st XV in a Wellington junior grade competition.

I thought the course was hard and exacting—80 started and only 63 graduated—but considered it very satisfying and worthwhile. We lived in barracks divided into three-bed cubicles, one single bed and two bunks. They seemed somewhat crowded and it appeared as if everyone was living in another's pocket but we soon became used to it and even became used to the wide range of snoring that went on at night. Discipline appeared to be hard but we realised that if we took risks we had to be prepared to take the consequences. My parents, like the other 79 cadets' parents, were I think a little worried over my welfare and well-being while living away from home and their control. I fear that our instructors had the same sentiments because we never seemed to have enough time to ourselves or enough time to become bored or to play up.

Our meals were eaten at the Immigration Hostel at Trentham, which also houses and feeds the apprentices under the Maori Affairs apprenticeship scheme. The food was plain and wholesome, but we never seemed to get enough for our growing bodies. However, in the 19 months I was at the training school I put on three stone and grew two inches. Apart from messing facilities, the training school is self-contained and consists of a gymnasium, barracks, classrooms, administrative block, canteen, laundry, Police library, Police museum and of course a parade ground.

On my first day at the training school I was very shocked and surprised to find that I was the only Maori among the 80 cadets. My fears were short lived, for I was accepted as just another person who simply wanted to be a Policeman.

On my graduation from Trentham I was posted to Wellington, moving into Holland House, the Wellington Police Barracks. Here at long last was single accommodation for 147 single men. It has a gymnasium and games rooms for darts, table tennis, etc. and a TV lounge. The food is excellent.

I was first stationed at Taranaki Street Police Station, spending two months doing beat work and eight months doing patrol car work. I enjoyed my relatively short time on beat work because most of my training had been in

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theory and now I welcomed the opportunity to put theory into practice and also acquire confidence. When I went on to patrol car work I found this most varied and interesting with fresh problems requiring attention. Coming from a small place, my idea of a Policeman's duties was attending the odd motor accident or clearing the local hotel, but now I was finding, as I had been taught, what a wide field Police duties cover. From motor accidents to fights, traffic offences, husband and wife disputes, thefts, false pretences, attending to all sudden deaths or deaths in suspicious circumstances, burglaries, drawing of raffles, cash escorts, escorting persons sentenced to prison terms and even visits to the person who is quite sure the next door neighbour is trying to poison her favourite cat or dog.

In the very short time I have now been out of the training school it seems that an increasing number of young Maori people are coming to the notice of the Police. The prospect of good jobs with good money quite naturally brings them to the city, but unfortunately, being too far away for parental control, some younger people seem to be easily led and drift in with bad company. I feel that not enough effort is made to accommodate these young people and so they move into flats or boarding houses where there are just not enough facilities for them to enjoy their spare time. They drift into a rut of first pictures and then TV, but these soon become boring to a person who is not doing something constructive with his free time. From there it spreads to drinking heavily at an early age, getting into trouble, and of course coming under the notice of the Police. The unfortunate part of this is that a large proportion of them are not very worried, and even take pride in the fact that they have had a fight in the street, hit a taxi driver because the fare was too high or kicked in a shop window. This type of behaviour is not committed by Maori alone but as I have said there seems to be an increasing proportion of Maoris coming under our notice. Some seem to think that because I am a Maori I should treat them more lightly than another Policeman would, but I cannot do this.

As well as patrol car and beat work there are many career opportunities for cadets, including photography, fingerprinting, administration, and work with dogs. I can recommend Police training, and the interesting and active life which follows.

—Terence McConnell

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KOIA ANO (Here we are again)

Kiwi LC-38 331/3 L.P.

This is a very pleasant record featuring some of the best loved songs of Te Arawa Concert Party of Rotorua. This durable group was for many years under the leadership of Guide Rangi. Now the leadership has passed to her protégé Guide Huhana Mihinui, better known in some circles as ‘Bubbles’. Men's leader is Hapi Winiata.

This concert party has recorded previously for another label and I can recall giving the record a somewhat rough passage in Te Ao Hou. The group more than make amends in Koia Ano. Te Arawa Party is one of the few which gives regular public performances of Maori items, and their weekly concerts in the Regent theatre in Rotorua do much to create a favourable image of the Maori people amongst the thousands of overseas visitors who pass through this popular tourist area.

The recording is made during an actual concert but it seems remarkably free of the coughs, sneezes and snufflings which are the usual accompaniment to live recordings. In fact, by and large, this disc has captured faithfully the air of happy informality which is the hallmark of most Maori concerts. Pretty Maori Girl, for example, is performed with great good humour and at the end one can easily visualise the discomforted husband being led off by the ear!

In parts the singing is ragged, mainly in the poi items, where it is a common fault for many groups to concentrate on actions at the expense of words. The rather tinny ukelele accompaniment becomes obtrusive after a time. There are several good solos—Hohepa Mutu in Hine e Hine, unfortunately somewhat marred by an uninspired accompaniment, and Haare Hurihanginui in Pakia Kia Rite. The track featuring hand games is too long for an item which has essentially visual appeal. It is a pity that Putiputi Pai is marred by incorrect words (‘Kuarongo i nga ra’).

The record concludes with the inevitable Po Atarau. In contrast to the usual manner of

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presentation which consists of belting the song out like a quickstep (Goodbye, let's get to h—out of here), the Arawa Concert Party sings the song with the appropriate touch of sadness which makes it what it should be—one of the world's most moving songs of farewell.

The cover is attractive and there are adequate notes on each of the items. Our review copy was mono.

Inia Te Wiata's Festival of Maori Song—

Kiwi SLC 004 12in LP 331/3 rpm

I must say that I placed this record on my turntable with more than a normal feeling of anticipation. It semed to have everything—musical direction by Inia te Wiata, the soloists and cast of Porgy and Bess and some of our best loved Maori songs. It has received some rave reviews in the daily press. Harry Dansey was almost lyrical about it in the Auckland Star. The result is certainly remarkable but I would be less than honest if I did not admit straight away that it is definitely not this critic's cup of tea.

What is Inia trying to do? To make a Maori record with a difference? He has succeeded. To make a record which is faithful to the conception of the music on it and to the musical spirit and traditions of his race? He has failed. To use a trite phrase, the record is just not Maori. The group appears to have been completely brain-washed by performing in Porgy and Bess. Anyone hearing this record out of the blue would be excused for thinking that it featured the Black and White Minstrels.

There is an overall impression of artificiality and striving for effect which contrasts strongly with the usual easy naturalness of Maori singing. Much use is made of controlled dissonance—particularly marked in Karu. If this were used sparingly it could be effective but it is used constantly and before the record finishes it jars and irritates. Part of the trouble also is an almost complete absence of light and shade in the singing. There seems to be little feeling for the mood of the words and many of our most cherished love songs are belted out in the strict tempo. The female singers screech stridently in the upper registers like a chorus of celestial parrots. Isobel Cowan sounds like Ima Sumac in Hokihoki, Sophie Tucker in Tahi Nei Taru Kino and as if she were being slowly strangled in Te Arawa E. There are some regrettable lapses in the versions of the words which are sung, notably E Pari Ra and Hine e Hine (‘Kua ngenge ana koe’).

The guitar-uke accompaniment is extremely obtrusive in many of the numbers. The recording engineers are partly to blame (it was dubbed in Sydney I hasten to add in fairness to local people) for the instruments are far too close to the microphones. The result is that the accompaniment is magnified to the point where it sounds like a banjo band down on the ole plantation. In his singing of the verse of E Te Iwi E Inia takes it real slow as the saying goes, but all along we are aware of a latent strumming in the background. When the chorus is reached, singers and accompaniment combine in a veritable frenzy of sound.

It is sad that for only one fleeting moment on the whole record do we glimpse the tremendous potential of this talented group. In several parts of Aue. E Te Iwi E, there is no guitar and the singing is disciplined and restrained yet full of plaintive harmonies. Alas it is all too short. The guitar lurks in the background and the celestial parrots are ready. We reach the chorus and WHAM! Oh well, back to the plantation.

P.S. It has an attractive cover.


Viking V.P. 137 33⅓ L.P.

For the most part the record represents a welcome attempt to get away from some of the old chestnuts such as Pokarekare and Po Atarau without which it seems few records can be issued nowadays. The artists are the Ohinemutu Maori Cultural Group, a small troupe of eight under the leadership of Hamuera (Sambo) Mitchell. The recording was made on 26 June 1964 in the famous Tama-te-Kapua Meeting House, Ohinemutu. The material is well assembled and presented and the recording quality is good. Unfortunately with such a small group there tends to be an occasional lack of balance and the material is so interesting that it merits the attention of a larger team. However, it must be admitted that quantity often does not spell quality and Mitchell has obviously chosen a team which he feels will do justice to much of the traditional material presented.

There are some most interesting chants including a splendid chanted lead-in to Pakete Whero. On both sides the inclusion of women singing a love song in modern style to guitar accompaniment is somewhat incongruous but the items themselves are pleasant enough. It is interesting to this critic to listen to recordings from different tribal areas and to note

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that even with modern material there are marked differences in the styles of singing and performance. The characteristic stamp of Te Arawa in general and Ngati Whakaue in particular is obvious on much of this disc.

It is unfortunate that the cover notes give little except the titles of the songs, a eulogy on Sam Mitchell (which the group ‘boasts as its musical director’) and the somewhat cosmic statement that he has composed or arranged everything on the entire record. The space could well have been devoted to notes by Mitchell himself on much of the interesting material which is featured on this disc.


H.M.V. M.C.L.P. 6204 12 in. 331/3 L.P.

There is only a single track featuring Maori music on this record. It consists of what are described as ‘traditional’ poi tunes—Haere ra e Hine ki Rotorua, Haere haere ra e Hine and Poi Waka to be specific—sung to band accompaniment by the Aotearoa Maori Group which performed with the band on its tour of U.S.A. and Canada in 1965. With the band accompaniment the songs sound like revivalist hymns roared out at a street corner meeting rather than ‘traditional’ Maori anything. Six strong Maoris are no match for a 60-strong band and the xylophone and the B flat bass win the unequal contest hands down. All that can be heard from the singers are a few high-pitched yelps as they struggle gamely but unsuccessfully for a hearing. It symbolises rather pathetically the engulfment of Maori culture by that of the Pakeha. Alas! ‘He kapara miti hinu.’

Also Received

Kiwi have sent us their latest catalogue of records 1966/67. Leafing through its pages makes one aware of how much this firm has done to bring quality recordings of Maori music before the public. Some thirty titles of Maori records are listed. There are also a considerable number of recordings and record-cum-books of New Zealand souvenir interest. Kiwi gives tremendous encouragement to local artists in the serious music field and in doing so performs a great service to New Zealand music.

The catalogue is extremely well produced on high quality art paper. It includes photographs of the record cover of each listing, a brief description of the record and sometimes a list of the contents. In many cases critics' opinions of records are quoted.

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E hoa e Eric,

Tena koe me to hoa rangatira e noho mai na i tawahi. Kaati.

I have just finished your book. Don't start stuttering or stammering, I am not going to attack it. Mind you I must confess that was my original intention. Anyway, it wouldn't be me if I hadn't thought about it. For the life of me, I don't know how you did it. You have covered a fantastic field. If you had made serious omissions, I would have forgiven you, because I well remember 10 years ago, when you stayed with me and my family in Auckland. Remember, on the third night of your stay you didn't turn up until the next evening because you had forgotten our address and I suspect you had even forgotten my name.

The publication of your book is timely, like the pipiwharauroa from across the oceans, the harbinger of spring heralding the season of warmth and plenty. It's easy to read. Your technique in using short snappy and to the point chapters, has to be read to be believed. They are informative and factual, and your facility for compressing your material into a succinct statement is truly magnificent. Other writers would have written tomes whereas you cover the subject in one page. Fantastic. It is the kind of book that once you start reading you don't want to put down. I go so far as to say that even if your mokopunas or relatives arrived on your front doorstep, you would be, to put it mildly, a little annoyed at the interruption. Your introduction, in my opinion, is an understatement.

Obviously, in your travels you have come across the proverb 1 ‘e kore te kumara e ki te mangaro ia’. However, e hoa, don't be whakama, let me sing your praises now, not when it is too late.

I consider this book to be the best of its kind that has yet been published. It is not only good for the Maori in having a better understanding of himself, but it is also good for the Pakeha to enable him to understand his fellow New Zealander. For me personally, it has helped to fill in the gaps and to have a clearer view of myself.

The chapters on Kinship, Learning to be a Maori, Modern Maori, Maori Revival, and the Conclusion are gems. Mind you this is an unfair statement—I should have said all the chapters were gems. You have made the quest for identity much easier, by covering the past in the way you have, and stressing Maori thought and philosophy of life. The present can be better understood and the future made more coherent.

Your book, or should I say our book, is a ‘must’ for all people who work with and live alongside Maori people, more especially social workers, teachers, employers and students.

Reading the book, it is obvious that you are steeped in things Maori. You are truly a tohunga. The book is perfect but like the master of old, you have purposely made an error and that is at page 143, where you talk about the challenge (wero) and you added an ‘h’ making it whero. This will make many of our friends up the Coast chuckle with glee. I have a faint suspicion that you are having some fun at someone's expense. It must be your Maori sense of humour. It struck me as rather incongruous that Chapter 10 on Law and Order, has a full page reproduction captioned ‘Warrior Chieftains of New Zealand 1846. What you didn't do was to name the chieftains. Possibly you didn't want to show any favouritism but, in case you didn't know I will name them for you, and point out that they were not all chieftains, one was a chieftainess. They are from left to right—Hariata daughter of Hongi Hika (of musket fame) and wife of Hone Heke, Hone Heke (of flagstaff fame) and Kawiti of Ngatihine.

I recall when I was at primary school many years ago the teachers referred to them as ‘rebels’ much to my annoyance, because they are my ‘bones’.

Well, Eric, I should have followed your example by being brief and the review would have read as follows:

2 ‘Ae marika mahi tika ana.’

Let not this be the first nor the last book, but the forerunner of many more.

Ma te rungarawa korua e manaki.

He oi ano
Nu to hoa.

1 The kumara never says it is sweet.

2Tis indeed a magnificent job.

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This attractive booklet of thirty pages is a second edition of a work published in 1940 by the grand old man of New Zealand ethnology, Dr H. D. Skinner. In this edition an additional part has been supplied by D. R. Simmons of the Otago Museum. There are 40 illustrations of tiki, eight of them in colour on the eye-catching covers of the booklet. All those, Maori and Pakeha, who are interested in Maori art should have this work.

A study of the illustrations and the descriptions will show how inaccurate are most of the pictures of tiki that we see nowadays. There are two main types of tiki, one with both hands on the hips, the other with one hand on the chest and one on the hip. The second type is quite often suspended by the arm instead of the head. The two types have distinct characteristics in the shape of the head and other features. One thing to be observed is that the tongue of a tiki very seldom protrudes over the lower jaw and that it is never painted red. The tongue is a narrow strip, sometimes forked, and occasionally extending over the side of the jaw.

Skinner deals with the often repeated myth that a tiki is a fertility charm shaped like an embryo and worn only by women. As he states, there is abundant evidence from the earliest Europeans to visit New Zealand that men wore tiki in olden times. I agree with his view that a tiki acquired much of its mana by virtue of its having been worn by great people. Through such associations it is quite likely that some tiki would gain a reputation as powerful charms. This booklet is recommended to those interested in Maori art.


Unfortunately, I can find nothing to praise in A. H. and A. W. Reed's recently-published series of three Fairy Tales in Maori by John Stinchcombe, excepting perhaps the author's

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enthusiasm and industry. These little books are translations, or rather adaptations, of the traditional fairy tales, Goldilocks and the Three Bears, Little Red Riding-Hood and Jack and the Beanstalk.

There is undoubtedly a need for supplementary reading material in Maori for children, but translated material can never take the place of good, original writing by a native speaker, even when the translator is a master of Maori idiom. English traditional fairy tales would be better left to their proper function of opening the doors to English literature for our children.

The author has achieved a fair competence in Maori, but has a long way to go and a great deal yet to learn before he is ready for the task he has undertaken in this series. The Maori he writes is, for native speakers, ludicrous and for learners, dangerous. There are too many serious errors in construction—misuse of verb tenses, words used in quite the wrong sense, too many obsolete words and expressions, and all the other evidence of a too superficial knowledge of a language too quickly gained. Perhaps Mr Stinchcombe's undoubted scholastic ability has been his downfall here.

The major disaster area, however, is in the field of idiom, particularly the unfortunate attempts to translate English idiom directly into Maori, with such results as ‘… ka kanikani tana ngakau i te koa.’ … his heart danced for joy.

The Maori titles given to the stories are Hine-Urukehu (Goldilocks), Ko Potae-Whero raua ko te Wuruhi (Little Red Riding-Hood) and Ko Tamahae me te Rakau Pini (Jack and the Beanstalk). I must confess to feeling rather incensed at the author's temerity in taking the name ‘Tamahae’ for ‘Jack’, in the Beanstalk story.

From, I imagine, a misguided belief that because the stories were being translated into Maori, they should have some Maori flavouring added, the author has given us some incongruous

additions to the originals. Goldilocks picks kowhai blossoms in the pine forest, Red Riding-Hood's grandma is a moko'd kuia and Jack's giant lives above the clouds in a palisaded pa complete with Maori food stores, kits and calabashes.

The illustrations are in keeping with the text.

I hope that both author and publishers will think twice before adding to the series; I hope also that among those reading this review there will be some who have the ability to write original stories in Maori but have not yet done so, who will be prodded into making the effort.

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Picture icon

Solution to No. 53


1. Descend, come down (4)
4. Small, little (8)
11. Clay (3)
12. Bite, chew (4)
13. Officer (5)
14. Yes (2)
15. The (pl.) (3)
16. Comic (6)
18. Looks, shape (4)
19. Current; he (2)
20. Although (6)
23. Morning (3)
26. Turn around (8)
28. Tongue (5)
31. Nose (3)
33. Run (3)
34. A grinding stone for cutting and drilling greenstone (9)
39. Vine (3)
40. Fault (2)
41. Give a sudden start (7)
42. Level or undulating country (5)
44. Horizon, horizontal beam (3)
45. Push, shove; shake (2)
46. Drag (2)
47. Like, as (4)
48. Strike (2)
50. Big (3)
51. Gun (2)
52. Health, well-being (6)
55. Scotsman (8)


1. Road (7)
2. Mount (3)
3. Silent; showery, unsettled weather (2)
4. Force of example; brisk, hearty (6)
5. Splash boards of a canoe (2)
6. Snow, frost, sugar (4)
7. Ancient times (6)
8. Party, force (3)
9. Lift up, raise (4)
10. Where was? (4)
12. Mangrove fish (9)
17. Trouble (8)
21. Foaming, hanging in shreds (6)
22. Say; fill (2)
24. Mind (3)
25. Night (2)
27. Forehead (3)
29. Assembled, gathered together (6)
30. Sun, day (2)
32. Which? (5)
35. Isn't that so? (2)
36. Warrior; champion (3)
37. World (2)
38. If (7)
39. To-morrow (5)
43. Yes (2)
44. Ball on end of string (3)
46. Over the other side of (2)
47. Shake; scatter; earthquake (2)
49. Path (3)
50. Noise; screech; thicket (3)
51. Good, easy (3)
53. Yonder; digging stick (2)
54. White, clean (2)

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Ko Te Tui

He tohu no Aotearoa anake.
Awhina ai i te puawai o nga putiputi o te ngahere.
Rui ai i nga kakano o te ngahere.
Patu ai i nga ngarara kikino.
He tino korokoro roreka.
Tiakina kia nui tonu ai.

Kaitiaki o nga Manu Na Te Tari