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No. 56 (September 1966)
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Te Ao Hou
THE MAORI MAGAZINE

The Department of Maori Affairs SEPTEMBER 1966

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MAORI FLUTES—These flutes, or putorino, are in the British Museum, London.

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published quarterly by the Department of Maori Affairs and sponsored by Maori Purposes Fund Board.

printed by Pegasus Press Ltd.

n.z. subscriptions: One year 7/6 (four issues), three years £1. Rate for schools: 4/- per year (minimum five subscriptions). From all offices of the Maori Affairs Department and from the editor.

editorial address: Box 2390, Wellington, New Zealand.

overseas subscription: England and other countries with sterling currency: One year 10/-, three years £1/5/-. Australia: one year $1.35, three years $3.15. U.S.A. and Hawaii: one year $1.50, three years $3.50. Canada: one year $1.65, three years $3.75. Other countries: the local equivalent of sterling rates.

back issues (N.Z. rates): Issue nos. 18–23, 25, 27–49 and 51–55 are available at 2/6 each. A very few copies of issues nos. 13, 16, 24 and 50 are still available at 5/- each. Other issues are now out of print. (Overseas rates for back issues are available on request).

contributions in maori: Ko tetahi o nga whakaaro nui o Te Ao Hou he pupuri kia mau te reo Maori. Otira ko te nui-nga o nga korero kei te tukua mai kei te reo Pakeho anake. Mehemea hoki ka nui mai nga korero i tuhia ki te reo Maori ka whakanuia ake te wahanga o te tatou pukapuka mo nga korero Maori.

Statements in signed articles in Te Ao Hour are the responsibility only of the writers concerned.

the minister of maori affairs: The Hon. J. R. Hanan.

the secretary for maori affairs: J. M. McEwen.

editor: Joy Stevenson.

associate editor (Maori text): E. B. Ranapia.

Te Ao Hou
THE MAORI MAGAZINE

PAGE
STORIES
The Homecoming, J. H. Maffatt 7
The Old Marae, Leo Fowler 10
Tuhuru, Warrior Chief and Conqueror of Westland 15
Three Old Stories 18
POETRY
Tangi, Tima Pou 7
Paua Tide, John Hovell 13
Poem, L. S. W. Duncan 51
ARTICLES
King Koroki's Tangi 5, 28
Huhuna, L. A. Lew 8
Mrs Otene Retires 9
N.Z. Soldiers in Malaysia win Awards 25
The Queen Mother Visits New Zealand 26
Geordie Becomes a Chief 34
Transcriptions of Authentic Maori Chant; Part 9 Mervyn McLean 41, 43
Maori Clubs 44
New Hostel Blocks at Christchurch 46
Play Centre News 49
Maori Leaders Receve Queen's Birthday Honours 53
Maori Women's Welfare League 55
Action Song and Poi Tunes Competition 56
FEATURES
Haere Ki o Koutou Tipuna 2
People and Places 36
Books 58
Records, Alan Armstrong 62
Crossword Puzzle 64

CORRECTIONS: In Issue 55 there were a number of mistakes in the Maori text, for which we apologise.

The photo caption on page 28 should finish ‘at Waitangi’ and the second girl in the picture on page 30 is Miss M. Robinson, not Miss Ihaka.

In the fifth line of the third stanza of Wahine-iti's Death Chant, on page 21, ‘flea-infested’ should read ‘lice-infested’.

In the article on page 5, it was incorrectly stated that Nukutaimemeha had been given back to the people of Carterton by the Wellington Diocesan Board of Trustees. In fact, it has been given to the Board by Mrs [ unclear: ] okiri, to be used by the Church and the people of Carterton.

COVER: One of the kuias at Turangawaewae during the tangi for King Koroki.

BACK COVER: This rafter pattern at Te Whatu Manawa O Rehua meeting house in Christchurch is a most unusual one.

Taken from an engraving on a rock at Shepherd's Creek, on the upper side of the Waitaki Gorge, it is a stylised kiwi, possibly represented as being inside the egg. It is considered that the engraving would have been done by Maoris waiting to go down stream after rounding up birds in the McKenzie country, possibly while the river was in flood.

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HAERE KI O
KOUTOU TIPUNA

Mr. T. P. Tawera

Mr Thomas Phillip Tawera died recently in Napier, aged 76, and his body was brought back to the Tanenui-a-Rangi marae in the Nuhaka Valley where a large gathering of friends and relatives met to pay their last respects. Mr Tawera had lived all his life in the district.

During the war years he was in great demand as a musician to raise funds for patriotic purposes. He was employed by the Wairoa County Council for a great number of years until he recently retired at the age of 75 and moved to Napier.

He was twice married. From his former marriage he leaves 11 children and from his later marriage, two. They are: Thomas Robert, Gisborne, Maraea (Mrs Timu), Wairoa, Mary (Mrs Bess), Gisborne, Hine (Mrs Keil), Mahia, Hana (Mrs Deans), Clive, Miriama (Mrs Maaka), Gisborne, Sidney, Wellington, Jacob, Hastings, Martha, Whakatu, Moki (Mrs Akurangi), Whakatu, Molly (Mrs Marsh), Bridge Pa, Kate and Rere, Nuhaka.

The service at the marae was conducted by Bishop G. Pomana and that at the Nuhaka Chapel in the absence of Bishop W. H. Christy overseas was conducted by Mr M. Hapi assisted by Misses P. Edwards of Hastings and D. Smith of Nuhaka. Mr Tawera was buried at the family cemetery in Nuhaka.

Mr. H. S. Ruru

A prominent Maori sportsman in his youth and a former chairman and member of the Wanganui representative Rugby selection panel, Mr Hata Sonny Ruru, of Koromiko Road, Gonville, died suddenly on 25 May, aged 60.

Mr Ruru had made his mark in Wanganui not only as a sportsman but also as a Maori land consultant and interpreter.

In Rugby he represented Hawkes Bay as second five-eighth while still at Te Aute Boys' College. Later as a Maori all Black trialist he was considered in his day to be one of the most brilliant attacking backs in New Zealand.

He was the Maori representative on the Wanganui Rugby Football Union's management committee for five years and served a three-year term as a member of the New Zealand Rugby Union's Maori Advisory Board. He was assistant manager and coach of the Maori All Black team which toured Fiji and Samoa several years ago.

For many years he worked in the Maori land section of the Maori Affairs Department as clerk and interpreter of the Maori Land Court.

He later set up his own business as a land agent in Ridgway Street and was a member of the Real Estate Institute.

Ill-health forced him to retire three years ago.

He is survived by his wife and daughter, Mrs Emma Chote, of Blenheim, and sons. Rangi and Tama-i-Uia, both of Wanganui.

The funeral service was held at St Peter's Anglican Church, Gonville. Mr Ruru was buried in the family burial ground at Taki Pa, Te Karaka, Gisborne.

Mrs M. Bryan

With the death of Mrs Micere Bryan, of Tuapiro, Katikati, the district has lost a respected and admired Maori woman. Her tangi was attended by Maoris and Pakehas from far afield.

Mrs Bryan was born at Bowentown 71 years ago and was the daughter of the late Mr and Mrs W. Witeri. Throughout her life Mrs Bryan was deeply interested in Maori art and culture and became a skilled instructor of arts and crafts. As a member of the Katikati Women's Welfare League, she became a representative in the Maori Labour Party movement, and attended council meetings as a representative of Tauranga and Katikati.

Mrs Bryan married her husband, Mr George Bryan (Maori name Paraeana) at the Judea meeting house, and the couple lived at Katikati. There are 15 children, 60 grandchildren and one great-grandchild.

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Mr. D. Mason

Mr. David Mason, a highly respected Maori elder from Takaka died on 5 July in the Nelson Public Hospital, aged 77.

He was a son of Albert Mason of the N'gatitanua tribe whose members fought their way down the coast from Taranaki before New Zealand was colonised.

He represented Nelson district Maoris at many important national gatherings and up until his death was president of the Takaka Tribal Committee.

Mr Mason was keenly interested in the Golden Bay area and in sport, particularly Rugby. He was a New Zealand Rugby League representative and toured Australia in 1910.

He is survived by his wife Ngara—a great grand-daughter of Henare Tekeha, a leading chief of his day—sons Reginald and David and daughter, Mrs A. Myers.

Mr R. P. Turoa

A direct descendant of one of the chiefs who signed the Treaty of Waitangi, Mr Rangi Bishop of Raetihi died recently.

Mr Bishop was related to Pehi Turoa, who was the paramount chief of the Whanganui River from 1815 to 1845.

Pehi's son was Pakore Turoa and his grandson Topia was one of the several New Zealand chiefs who met Queen Victoria when they visited England.

Mr Bishop whose full name was Rangiapohia Pihopa Turoa, played for the Raetihi Rugby Club and was a keen wrestler. He wrestled with Lofty Blomfield and Dave Scarrow in amateur bouts in Raetihi.

He was also a rough rider of note and broke in wild horses. In his younger days, Mr Bishop owned some of the best show jumpers in the country.

Mr. Hoani Tauwhare

Mr Hoani Whitu Whakamaru Rangi Tauwhare, known to his pakeha friends as Tommy George, died at Rapaki on 10 June, 1966, in his 95th year. He was buried at Rapaki on 13 June after a service at the Church there.

He was a direct descendent of Tuhuru, the Ngaitahu warrior chief, conqueror of Westland.

Mr Tauwhare spent his early years at Hokitika and Tuahiwi, and was educated at Tuahiwi and Canterbury schools. He was a very prominent all-round sportsman and a noted rugby player.

After his marriage to the late Maata Alice Tauwhare, he settled at Rapaki.

Mr Tauwhare leaves seven children, Oliver, Kama, Wi, Mary, Omaha, Beebe and Dawn, and many grandchildren.

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Flowers on Hoani Tauwhare's grave outside historic Rapaki Church

Mr. P. G. McIntosh

Mr. P. G. McIntosh, Tama te Kapua, the pakeha rangatira of the Tohourangi people, died in the Tauranga Hospital on 16 June, 1966, aged 89.

One of the few white people who could claim the distinction of being a Maori chief, Mr McIntosh was associated with Maoris all his life and was in charge of several Maori army units during both world wars, earning their admiration and respect. He had links with Rotorua, Opotiki and Tauranga.

He was given the name of Tama te Kapua—son from above the clouds—when he was installed as a rangatira by the late Mr Tai Mitchell in Rotorua in 1940.

Born in Wellington in 1877, Mr McIntosh was the grandson of the first Scottish settlers in New Zealand, who arrived on the Duchess of Argyle in 1842.

His family moved first to North Auckland and then to Auckland where, as a message

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boy, Mr McIntosh saw Te Kooti.

“He looked a venerable old gentleman, and had a bodyguard of four,” Mr McIntosh later recalled.

Mr McIntosh's long military career started in 1895 when he joined the Victoria Rifles, a company formed in 1855, which is the oldest volunteer rifle corps in the British Commonwealth. He also served in Wellington with the Zealandia Rifles, another volunteer unit.

On returning to Auckland, he rejoined the Victoria Rifles where he gained the rank of colour sergeant. He was later transferred to the Gordon Rifles and resigned in 1902.

He rejoined the permanent staff of the New Zealand military forces early in 1914 and was stationed in the North Auckland district as sub-area sergeant-major, controlling the largest area in New Zealand.

He went to France with the N.Z.E.F. in 1917 and returned to New Zealand in 1919. He did not go into service again till the outbreak of World War II, when he was stationed in Rotorua as sub-area sergeant-major in charge.

Mr McIntosh, a boat builder in Whangarei between the wars, took over a joinery firm in Opotiki on his return from World War II, and later went to Tauranga, where he resumed boat-building.

Mr McIntosh was a strong supporter of the Returned Serviceman's Association and held every office except that of president in both the Tauranga and Opotiki branches. He was elected a life member of the Western Bay of Plenty association in 1938.

He leaves a daughter, Mrs F. Hamilton, and a son, Mr N. McIntosh.

Mr G. H. Mana

Mr George Howard (Uweroa) Mana, Omokoroa, has died as the result of a street accident at Manurewa. He was 58.

He was born at Maungatautari Pa, Cambridge, and attended the Maungatautari No. 1 School, and later the Otumoetai School when his parents came to live in the district.

When he left school he worked at farming and was employed for 14 years by the three brothers Messrs Gordon, George and Frank Vosper in the Cambridge district.

He married Miss Tuhikorae Puturangi and they set up house on the farm. Later they moved to Tokoroa where they were share-milkers.

At the end of the contract they returned to Cambridge and Mr Mana began employment with the Ministry of Works at Karapiro.

After some time he was transferred to Mangakino and finally to Tauranga in 1952.

He left the M.O.W. and worked for some time on forestry work at Tokoroa and Reporoa and then started his own lawn mowing business in the Tauranga district.

He was an elder of the Koroki-Kahukura tribe. He is survived by his wife, nine children and 14 grandchildren.

Mrs T. Tawera

The townspeople of Ruatoki are mourning the recent death of Mrs Taumau Tawera—a woman well respected for the work she did in her lifetime for the Maori people of the district.

Mrs Tawera died in the Whakatane Hospital, and a tangi was held in her honour at Owhakatoro—attended by residents and pupils of both local schools.

The Tawera School is named after Mrs Tawera's family, who donated the land on which it stands. Across the road is the Taumau Hostel for teachers — built on land donated by Mrs Tawera herself.

A resident of Ruatoki said that Mrs Tawera was a ‘real fighter’ for the rights of the Ruatoki people, and that her death was a heavy blow to the community, as there was no-one to replace her.

Mr W. Te P. Kipa

One of the first Maoris in New Zealand to be a top racing cyclist, Mr William Skipper (Wiremu Te Puke Kipa) died in New Plymouth recently. He was 82.

Born in New Plymouth, Mr Skipper was educated at the Fitzroy Primary School. He was a member of the Star Rugby Football Club and at the turn of the century was a regular competitor and the now defunct Star Athletic and Cycling Club meetings. Before he left New Plymouth to live in Wellington he won a lot of cycle races on road and track.

He leaves a daughter, Mrs Eno Owens, Waiwatu.

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He Reo Poroporoaki mo
KOROKI TE RATA MAHUTA
TAWHIAO POTATAU TE WHEROWHERO
Te Taurima o nga Kiingi o te Iwi Maori

I moe i te moenga roa i te ata-po o te Wenerei, i te 18 o Mei, 1966. I nehua ki Taupiri Maunga i te 23 o nga ra. Ona tau e 60.

Haere e te Ki tua o Paerau!

Haere i runga i o Waka! Haere i runga i nga maunga korero a o tupuna e moe nei i te whenua!

Kua rewa atu to waka na roto atu i to awa i Waikato; he wai pounga hoe mai no o matua!

E huri to kanohi ki te Hauauru, ki Whaingaroa, ki Aotea, ki Kawhia: ka ahu mai, e te Ariki, to tira i te ara ma uta ki runga o Maungatautari, ki te hikonga uira i runga o Wharepuhunga, i Rangitoto — nga tohu ra ena a o tupuna.

Takahia e koe te ara ki Rotorua nui a Kahu; kei kona nga wai ariki a o tupuna o runga i a Te Arawa; ko to ara tane mai, e Tama, i a Tamatekapua.

Taiawhio te haere i runga i o Waka i a Mataatua, Horouta me Takitimu kia mihia mai koe e nga uri a o tupuna; a Toroa, a Porourangi, a Kahungunu.

Whakamau mai ma te Upoko o te Ika ki o kawei maha, piki mai ma runga i ena o o Waka i a Kurahaupo, i a Aotea, i a Tokomaru.

Kei Parininihi mau e maianga mai ki Mokau kohu nui, ki Mangatoatoa, ki Tamaki makau rau.

Ahu atu to tira ki te tai ki te muri, ki te Tai-tokerau; ki o tupuna o roto i nga toronga maha mai i a Te Rongopatutaonga.

Ka whakangaro atu ai koe, e te Kiingi, ki tua o Morianuku.

Haere te Puhi o Tainui!

Moe mai i runga o Taupiri, i te Urunga o te Kahurangi ka oti atu koutou te rarangi Kiingi ki te Po!

Takina mai ra ngā Huihui o Matariki;
Puanga, Tautoru, ka ngaro Atutahi;
Ma and e whakarewa te tini whetu riki,
Ka rewa kei runga!
Pūhia e te hau ki runga o Moehau.
Ka ngaro ia i te rehutai!
Tēnā, e te iwi, taku kura tangi-whakaingoingo
Te whakaangi atu na!
Waiho kia haere, he toroa awe nui
E topa ana ia ki te muri!
I unuhia noatia taku hou kōtuku
No runga rawa ia
No te pae tauārai kei ōna tūpuna.
E hara i te tangata;
He kuru tonga rerewa kātahi ka unuhia
I roto i te whare o Hoturoa.
I tirohia ano ka hiko te uira
Ki runga o Taupiri!
Ko tou tini ra te taka mai ra
I ngā mānia kei Tangirau
Ko te matamata i torona atu
Mo koutou ko o iwi e moe mai na
E Pa, e!

A Lament by Potatau Te Wherowhero (before he was elected the first King of the Maori people) on the death of his brother, Kati.

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An Eulogy by TE PAKI O MATARIKI on the Passing of King Koroki

A Polynesian dynasty has ended with the passing of King Koroki. The late King was the last of a line of five kings; a line which commenced over one hundred years ago with the election of King Potatau.

King Koroki was a member of the Ngati Mahuta tribe of the mid-reaches of the Waikato River. In his veins flowed the blood of chieftain lines from all the important tribes throughout the Land.

The Tribes have paid tribute to the memory of the late King with all the wealth and imagery and colour the language of the Race possesses. The chiefs have addressed the departed Ariki as if he were still within hailing distance, and they have called on him to travel in spirit to the well-known landmarks throughout the Land.

King Koroki seldom spoke in public, and because of this his undoubted qualities of leadership, kindness and generous hospitality were known only to his people of the Waikato and to those who visited Ngaruawahia regularly for the annual gatherings on Turangawaewae marae.

In his passing the Tainui tribes have lost a well beloved man. He numbered among his lifelong friends Maori and Pakeha in all walks of life. He was the proud boast of the Tainui peoples… The Plume of the Tainui Canoe.

The Arawa tribes were proud to draw him within their warm embrace on account of the important fact that he was descended in an unbroken male line from Tamatekapua, the Commander of the Arawa Canoe of the Great Migration of 1350 A.D.

The King has gone to join his illustrious ancestors in Te Toi-o-nga-rangi (The Top-most Heaven). On his way he will bathe in the healing waters of Tane, ere entering Matangi-reia (The Temple of Fragrant Breezes).

Go onward, O Illustrious One, to the courtyard of Te Rauroha i te rangi (The Limitless Space in the Heavens). Rest you then with Io (The Supreme Being) and his companion gods, Rehua and Puhaorangi, in Whakamoeariki (The Sleeping-place of High Chiefs).

Farewell, Farewell, Haere ra!

This message, received with acclamation by the people at Turangawaewae, sums up the many expressions of sympathy sent to the bereaved.

E te whare mate, te iwi ka mahue matua-kore nei, tena koutou me to tatou aitua nui whakaharahara, te totara taikaka o te wao a Tane. Ta te tini murau, ta te mano wenerau, hoatu ki te wa kainga. Koroki, hoatu ki te putahitanga o Rehua, ki te huihuinga o Te Kahurangi, ma Taupiri koe e taki ki a Puhaorangi, hei waha i a koe ki te toi o nga rangi, ki a Io Matua. Nga wai tapu o te awa o Waikato, waipuke mai, whakaheke ra. Turangawaewae marakerake ana. E Piki, te whare taia o to matua, ona toto, ona parapara tapu, kei te tangi, kei te oha atu ki a koe, ki a koutou. Ma te Runga Rawa koutou e manaaki, e tiaki. Arohanui.

Na Te Kawana Tianara.

The bereaved family, the orphaned people of Waikato, greetings in the loss of the most priceless totara of the forest of Tane. The figurehead of the many, beloved of the multitudes, depart. Koroki, proceed to the assembly point of the guiding star Rehua, to the gathering place of the great. Let your mountain Taupiri direct you to Puhaorangi the heavenly ancestor of the tribes and let Puhaorangi escort you to the top-most heaven into the very presence of Io Matua the Almighty. Let the waters of Waikato overflow in anguish. Turangawaewae stands this day lonely and deserted. Princess Piki, the mainstay of your departed matua and the sacred issue of the royal line, we mourn with you and with your people in this great loss. May God in the Highest keep and protect you all. Arohanui.

The Governor-General.

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The Homecoming

Bob's eyes were downcast as the speeches went quietly on. He was tired and ill at ease. The telegram had disrupted his planned city life; broken the pattern he had become so used to. Now a little bewildered he sat in the old meeting house with the family and the old friends he'd left so long ago. He lifted gaze to the coffin, its gleaming sides covered by the tufted korowai. So, the old man was dead. Bob had never expected him to die. He'd seemed ageless, changeless, with no respect for the passing years.

Occasionally Bob had come up from the city to see the old folks. He'd been swept up in the joyful reunion, then as the days grew heavy with reminiscence and local talk, the quietness, the sameness, and the sharing that seemed to be everything of country life, pressed down on him. As soon as he could, he had escaped to the life he knew, the bright, busy, bustling life of the city.

He glanced round now noticing the elders, listening intently, sometimes nodding their agreement with the speaker on the floor, while the defiant figures round the walls seemed aloof from the sorrow, as if they shared the secrets of death itself. His mother sat silent, grief bowing her shoulders as she listened to the tributes to the man she knew better than anyone. She remembered those little faults she'd often scolded him for, but she could feel in these speeches a genuine love and she felt proud of her husband and grateful too for her people who had seen the goodness in him.

She looked at her son, now a grown man; a stranger almost. She sensed his tenseness. He'd never cared for Maori ways—for things of the past. He was listening to old Tamati. Bob knew no Maori, yet something in that quiet voice, the dignity and sincerity, bade him listen. The old man was talking to him now; he crossed the floor and stood before Bob, his hand outstretched. Clumsily, Bob pressed his nose to the old man's, and the unfamiliar greeting drew from him a response he could not understand.

The people came to him now—men and women, giving their sympathy, reassuring him. In this young man they saw much that they had known in his father. Yes, he'd gone away, left the old life and ways, but did not the world ahead hold the same challenges as it had in the past—even back to the great fleet? Bob had prepared himself well, and prevailed; as the old people had done through the ages.

He had come back to his people ashamed. They had made him feel proud. His sorrow was their sorrow. A new strength and a calmness came into his soul. Looking around the meeting house at the silent people, he said in a voice he could barely control, “Thank you, thank you”. Quietly sobbing he leant against the carved wall panel, his tears dropping from the defiant wooden face into the dust. Robert Pipito Jones had come home.

⋆ ⋆ ⋆

Tangi

The sad cry of old folk …
The wailing of a spiritual being
From out of the darkness of their hearts.
They feel
As a mother feels
For her long-lost child.
They talk to him
As if we were alive
Like you and me.
When the funeral is over
Everything is not forgotten
Because there is always room in the heart
For one more thing …
Even the dead.

Tima Pou

Northland College

Tima Pou, the 16-year-old son of Mr and Mrs S. Pou, comes from the Nga Puhi tribe.

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HUHANA
—Lovely Lady of the Ureweras

From where I sit I can see them, bush-clad and starkly blue against the clear winter sky—that remote, rambling range of mountains known as the Ureweras.

How would it feel, I wonder, to be a young woman, only two years out of Dunedin Training College, riding along a treacherous track in the bush on those most lonely mountains? Riding to an isolated village called Maunga-pohatu to occupy a position as teacher there. Not many of us today would wish to change places with Miss Irene Doris Paulger as she travelled 25 miles on horseback after leaving her previous post at Nuhaka, near Napier.

Little did she, or anyone else at that time, guess that she would spend 25 years of her life in devoted service to the people of the village.

It all began with a typhoid epidemic which was “on the rampage” when she arrived. She was drawn immediately into the life of the community, not only as teacher, but more urgently as a nurse. Later she extended her teaching to the sphere of religion, taking church services and teaching the children in Sunday School. Eventually she undertook all the work of the Presbyterian Mission, even conducting burial services and sometimes making the coffins.

In this lonely village, home of the prophet Rua, Miss Paulger ran the Post Office and to add to the fullness of her life, she brought up as her own, four children; Te Riini, a grand-daughter of Te Heu Heu, and Hiki, Meri, and Mare Kahukura. Miss Paulger saw to it that they each received a good secondary education.

Te Riini is now Mrs T. van Biene and a Kindergarten teacher in Birkenhead. Hiki became a nurse and is now married to a Northland farmer, Mr A. Pou. Meri became a Presbyterian Deaconess and is married to the Rev. B. Tucker. Together they carry on the Missionary tradition of their “adoptive” mother. Mare is married and works in Auckland.

The dedication and splendid work of his young woman was not lost upon the villagers. In time they recognised her as a chieftainess and gave her the name “Huhana”. A wife of Rua made her a cloak of kiwi and pigeon feathers. These were high honours indeed for a Pakeha lady.

This morning, a young Maori boy, himself a descendant of Rua, remarked to me that Miss Paulger used to teach his father and his mother when they were children.

There was pride in his voice—the pride of one who has heard about and understands the value and importance of the work of the lovely lady of the Ureweras.

L. A. Lew

– 9 –

Mrs Otene Retires

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Mrs Otene Hawkes Bay Herald Tribune

After almost 20 years as a Welfare Officer with the Department of Maori Affairs in Hastings, Mrs Ema Otene, M.B.E., retired on 17 June. Appointed in 1947, she was one of the first welfare officers in New Zealand. Mrs Otene was brought up in Turakina, and educated at the Turakina Maori Girls' College, going to Hawkes Bay after her marriage in 1927.

Although she was diffident about applying for the job and did so only at the insistence of friends, Mrs Otene found she slipped into the work easily. She now looks back with pleasure at her experiences, and retires with the satisfaction of never having had a rebuff in all her years of service.

Giving the reason for her success, Mrs Otene says, ‘If you take on job this you have to like it. Otherwise it is no good trying to do it. You must mix with people and understand them. I think that is why I have got on with the Maori people—I have made them understand me and what I have been trying to do. I went among the Maori people and told them I was the welfare officer and that I was there to help them. They thought it was a wonderful thing.’

Mrs Otene says that in many aspects the work today is very different from what it was 20 years ago. Then she used to deal with problems indirectly, but in recent years had found that she had to be more direct, and speak her mind. At first many older Maori people had to be persuaded to enter hospitals for treatment, but now they did not object. She found too that nowadays she was dealing with more young people and more young parents.

One of her duties was helping Maoris to find employment. Another was to help find accommodation. The most important task was to encourage parents to keep their children at Secondary School. Both children and parents were realising the value of good education.

Tributes were paid to Mrs Otene by both Maori and Pakeha speakers at a farewell evening at the Waipatu Hall, attended by nearly 300 people. Mr Taanga Toimoana and Mr J. M. Bennett spoke on behalf of the Heretaunga Executive Committee. Other speakers were Mr E. J. Hamlin, Mr W. Rainbow and Mr R. Timms.

During the evening, Mrs Otene was presented with many gifts, and a musical programme was given by a local choir and 25 members of the Karainu High School Maori Club.

Mrs Otene will continue to live in Hastings at her home in Ruahapia Road. She will be kept busy with her work for the Plunket Society and the Save the Children Fund.

– 10 –

The Old Marae

The marae is empty, for its people have gone to the city. All the young ones and their lusty young families are there. That is where the jobs are, and the big money, and the pakeha education, to say nothing of the pubs and the clubs and the T.A.B. They have a State House in a tight street way out in the suburbs, or the Department has built them one, handy to shops and the station, as part of Jack Hunn's planned, pepperpot integration.

Even the old ones have gone, out of a hunger to be with their mokopunas, or, stealing away from the emptiness and the loneliness and the sense of desolation, they have turned their faces to the wall and to eternity, following the lost glories of their Maoritanga along the last path, to Reinga.

When I go back, to sad, occasional tangi and follow some withered remnant of mortality to the burial grounds of the tupunas I feel, as I wet my hands, that I'm washing away old age glories which are mouldering, like the tenants of these neglected graves, into the oblivion of a people. I weep, less for old Kura or old Ropata, or for the mouldering bones that tenant this graveyard, than for the rich and vanishing tradition that is buried with them.

My thoughts are echoed by some middle-aged mourner.

“Poor old Kura, she's gone eh. We'll all be the poorer. I wish I'd listened to her, when I was younger. I remember, when I was a boy and we sat round at nights in the wharepuni, she and the old folks would keep going all night. Whakapapa and waiata, and the old, old stories, right back to the canoes. Oh, well. Think I'll sell the old place, no-one to live in it now. Get a new car I think, the old one's a bit small for all our kids.” Well, its an epitaph, of a sort.

So, the old marae is empty, and weed-grown. The old meeting house is shut, with a chain on the door and a padlock that doesn't fasten; deader, in its way, than the tupunas up in the graveyard. It has no life except in the life of its people, and its people are scattered. It does not exist even in their thoughts for they never think of it, specially the young ones, the rising ones, who have never seen it and are never likely to, now.

The roof is rusting and the porch could do with a paint. The window, shattered by young Hori's delinquent stone three years ago, is closed with a bit of old cardboard. Sheep have been on the porch. Cobwebs festoon it. The Manaia on the end of the maihi is cracked and broken. A hammer and nails, even a bit of fencing wire would have fixed it, if any one had been interested, but there isn't anyone to be interested. I might do it, from sheer resentment at the vandalism, the daunting, inevitable, unforgiving vandalism of time.

In the cities and towns to which it young people have followed the bright beckoning of te ao hou there will grow a new Maoritanga. It will be a progressively diffused and diluted Maoritanga. It will take a long time, I hope, for all their Maori values to leach out but then time is long, and patient and all victorious.

The language will go first. Language is a means to communicate and they will communicate more easily in English with their Pakeha neighbours, and workmates. They will communicate more easily, in English, with their children. Something of the language will linger on while the older generation lingers on. In a generation, or perhaps a decade, the odd Maori words and phrases will be hung on their speech as the old taiaha, the tattered kiwi mat or the old photos of the tupunas are hung on the wall, less for what they intrinsically are than for what they nostalgically recall.

They do not listen to the few stories of the fewer old folk for it is less effort, and more entertaining, to look and listen to the TV.

But on the old marae the old stories will linger as long as the old wharepuni lingers. The old stories are there, lovingly graven into the carvings. The carvings are the richest surviving repositories of the old lore, but the lore that reposes in them will become increasingly locked away because fewer and fewer will come with the keys of knowledge and understanding to unlock those riches. Who will know, or care, that the tekoteko is the eponymous ancestor of this hapu? Who will know, or care, that this figure may be identified by

– 11 –

its carved feather and basket as Porangahua, who returned to Hawaiiki to fetch kumara tubers and who returned to Ao-te-a-roa on the back of the great bird of Ruakapanga? Possibly a descendant of this marae will learn the old chant ‘popo’, but it will be a meaningless euphony of sounds, not understood and never even remotely to be associated with this carving into which some ancestor lovingly graved that proud story.

Who will know or care that this effigy, by its chaplet of carved leaves, is marked as the bearer of the ultimate mana of these parts; or that one, by the hei poria carved on his breast, was master of the forests and the birds they contained. The forests themselves are not more utterly gone than is the fame of him, here depicted in forgotten effigy, who once ruled them.

‘Stone, steel, dominions pass’, and little enough is left of the glory that was Greece and the grandeur that was Rome. I am a pakeha and why should I grieve that a dozen or so carved slabs gaze into a fading past with their paua eyes. I have no papakainga here other than that which love and understanding of these old, forgotten, far-off things gives me.

The marae is empty, for its people have gone to the city. But perhaps some ghosts remain, and perhaps I shall return, when I am able to, giving them back, in a momentary at one-ment with them, a fugitive, flickering segment of eternity.

Mr Fowler, I wonder what has happened to your ancestral halls, ancestral burial grounds and villages.

Have they succumbed to industrial cities? Are your ancestors bones being daily pounded by vehicles and machines?

When did your ancestors lose their ancient skill of snaring birds?

Why did your people leave their villages to start afresh in this land?

Are you afraid that what has happened to you is happening to us?

You have written a thought provoking article. What you say is true but what you have left unsaid is that this sort of thing is not peculiar to Maoridom, but is the fate of all people. It is the price that is paid for progress. It respects neither race nor creed. It is inevitable.

I suppose the truth hurts.

To return to the point of discussion. Maoridom is undergoing a dramatic transformation from an agricultural into an industrial society. The old social structure is disintegrating but the new one is yet amorphous.

The agricultural Maori family in a rural setting was a group organised for community production and living. It was also the primary unit of social life in which the rearing and education of the individual was the responsibility of the tribe as a whole. Brought up and nurtured in the traditions of his tribe, the individual developed a pattern of personality which fitted neatly into the social pattern.

Now that Maori society is being industrialized, population is more and more concentrated in cities, commercial and industrial influence is spreading to the countryside, the old social pattern is breaking up and the tribal system is disintegrating. Living in such an age, the youngster, and in some cases the parent, has no idea of the behaviour patterns of his grandparents' generation and may be unable to comprehend them at all; neither can he accept all the rules of conduct of his parents' generation and may be unable to appreciate their full significance. I again reiterate that this is not confined to Maoridom.

Obviously your article has raised my defensive mechanism. It has also made me think of a problem that I have often thought about and left hanging on a sky hook.

The Old Marae poses a question… ‘What are we going to do about it and how?’

The answer may parallel this story.

A doctor said to his patient, “Hone, do you ever have trouble in making up your mind?”

Hone replied, ‘Well … Yes and No.” Enough.

N. P. K. Puriri

– 12 –
– 13 –

PAUA TIDE

John Hovell, a teacher at Coromandel D.H.S., is part-Maori, of mixed Ngapuhi and Ngati Whanaunga extraction.

I remember I remember
At the Paua tide,
How we went down from the road
To the flax bound beach.
The women sat on the high white rocks
Sat and talked together;
And over their knees their dresses stretched
Dark and smooth in the empty air,
Sat on the sun warmed rocks
Watching the men.

Once or twice in the year
Only, does this reluctant tide
Uncover in this way
Her last, secret fringe,
Watches the capture of her store,
The feeling, wrenching, and bearing away;
In this single hour, least hidden
And seldom exposed;
Men grab at her
Making the most of their time.

Reach out you artful fingers
That trouble the edge of the rock,
Like the anemone's soft threads
Feeling, feeling. Can you find
the curved shape, the hiding place
Of the humping prey that clings and waits
Blue in the shade of the boulder?
Wedge the sharp knife. Twist the point.
Lift to the light and the sun
The rivelling mouth.

The imperceptible afternoon slide
Off our backs, as we
Worked the rocks between us;
And behind us the sea weeds closed,
The anemone put out her stamens,
The starfish uncurled, and the water
Stilled again in a perfect pool.
Then suddenly the sea breathed in.
The women, rising, shook out their dresses,
And the men came together up the beach.

I remember I remember
How folds of talk and laughter
Flagged down to the squatting bay.
Look back now, over your shoulder;
Sometimes we sense the sea's keenness
Reckoning each item of depredation.
Only, in the smile of the women is the threat
Forgotten. And the wind
And stone and water sing
An idle warning in the ears,
To homeward company.

– 14 –

Turakina College Expansion
Planned

The Presbyterian Church of New Zealand has plans to expand the Turakina Maori Girls' College at Marton, and is making a Dominion-wide appeal for £70,000.

When the project is completed, Turakina will cater for 200 girls, compared with 58 as at present.

The College does not exist merely as another Church boarding school. It is considered to be the greatest missionary work ever undertaken by the Presbyterian Church, and the girls there are still trained to fit themselves to become Christian mothers and good housekeepers.

As one spokesman said:

“Turakina has given, and will continue to give the Maori girl a shelter where she can develop herself, grow confident in what she is, give her a pride in her own culture and language and most important equip her to meet the world on a more equal footing than would otherwise have been the case. This is true racial integration.”

Fellowship Awarded

Mervyn McLean, whose musical transcriptions of Maori chant have been appearing in Te Ao Hou since September 1964, graduated Doctor of Philisophy from Otago University last December, and since that time has been studying in the United States as a Visiting Scholar at Indiana University. At the April meeting of the University Grants Committee he was awarded a Post-doctoral Fellowship which will allow him to study overseas for up to two years.

From February to June 1967 he will be lecturing in the Anthropology Department at Indiana University, where he has been appointed Visiting Assistant Professor. After this he plans to return to New Zealand.

– 15 –

TUHURU, WARRIOR CHIEF AND
CONQUEROR OF WESTLAND

The recent death of Hoani Tauwhare brings to mind the story of his famous ancestor Tuhuru, of the Ngaitahu tribe.

Ngati Wairangi was a tribe living on the West Coast of the South Island. Ngaitahu lived on the East Coast, their hunting grounds being the Canterbury plains and the foothills of the Southern Alps.

The head wife of one of the Ngati Wairangi chiefs became jealous of a younger wife, and in her anger ran away and wandered into the Alps. By the time her anger had abated she had travelled many miles and found herself at the headwaters of the Arahura River.

She followed another river down towards the Canterbury plains, and was found by the Ngaitahu hunters, who took her to their chief at Kaiapohia pa. She settled there, becoming betrothed to the chief, and taught the Ngaitahu all the welcoming ceremonies and the etiquette of the Ngati Wairangi. She told them too of the rich greenstone banks along the Arahura river.

The Ngaitahu were keen to see the greenstone and obtain some for themselves, so some of the chiefs made themselves ready. The tohunga strongly advised that the young chiefs should not make the trip, but against his advice a group of young and old chiefs made the journey to Arahura.

There the Ngati Wairangi were most impressed with their cultured visitors and were glad to welcome people whom they thought were paramount chiefs.

After a large feast, the Ngati Wairangi invited their guests to see their greatest treasure—the banks of jade. The group moved up the river and when the rich green stones came in sight the young Ngaitahu chiefs were unable to restrain themselves and in their excitement and greed stretched out their hands towards the jade.

When they saw the actions of the young men the Ngati Wairangi people immediately thought that all the politeness and friendliness shown by the Ngaitahu was merely a trick, and that their main interest was in stealing the greenstone. They set upon the Ngaitahu and made a great slaughter. However, the Ngaitahu slaves, who were slim and wiry and had not partaken of the feast, were able to escape. As they fled, they cut off and took with them the head of one of their high chiefs. When they returned to the East they showed the evidence and told the story of the slaughter.

The Ngaitahu had been insulted.

Not everyone was told the story, but the young chief Tuhuru, a seven foot giant and a clever fighter, hearing the wails and chants of the old women mourning the dead chiefs, insisted on being told what had happened. He was determined to avenge this insult to his people, so gathered together a picked band of warriors and travelled to the West Coast.

There they attacked the Ngati Wairangi, completely annihilated them, and took over all the West Coast land.

Tuhuru kept for himself the rich greenstone bank on the Arahura river and divided the rest of the land between his warriors and their families.

Hoani Tauwhare, a direct descendant, was among the largest shareholders in the Greymouth Reserve. His father, Tauwhare, came south during the gold rush of the 1860's, married a Rapaki girl—Tiriaki, the grand-daughter of Tuhuru—and settled in Rapaki.

– 16 –

Tapu in North

Following the tragic loss of the coaster Kaitawa in May, elders of the Aupouri tribe imposed a tapu on part of the northern coastline. The tapu ran north from the Mangonui bluff on the Ninety Mile beach round Cape Reinga to Waikuku Beach near the Parengarenga Harbour entrance. It covered fishing and gathering shellfish and edible seaweed.

Mr J. Murray who had been deputed to announce the tapu said it would apply to all Maoris and Pakehas who respected the traditions of the Maori race.

The tapu was lifted on 7 July by Mr H. Manuera, with ancient ceremonial and on the ebbing tide.

Ki a Kuini Te Ata-i-rangi-kaahu

Kei te mihi atu Te Ao Hou ki a koe me te Kahui Ariki katoa i roto i te Whare o Apakura mo te wehenga atu o to koutou matua me te ariki nui, o Kingi Koriki:—

Hoki mai, e pa, ki te waka ka tukoki:
Waiho ki muri nei ka ru te whenua,
Ka timu nga tai i roto o Waikato.
Taku koara te uira i te rangi,
Whakahoki rua ana i runga o Hakari
Ko te tohu o te mate na, i.

From Song 54 in Nga

Moteaka Part I (1959) Line

16 to line 21.

– 17 –

Oxford Degree

Miss Ngapere (Polly) Hopa has been appointed extension lecturer in Maori studies at the University of Auckland. She has recently been granted her B. Lit. degree at Oxford University, where two years ago she obtained her diploma of anthropology.

Miss Hopa spent her early years at Gordonton, and received her secondary education at Queen Victoria College and Epsom Grammar School. After two years full-time study at the University of Auckland she attended the Auckland Teachers' College. She taught at Lynfield College, then spent a year in Maori Welfare work. During this time Miss Hopa continued her studies as a part-time student and completed her B.A. degree while teaching at Auckland Girls' Grammar School.

Picture icon

Polly Hopa

The Mataora Myth

The Spiral Tattoo, Mrs Adele Schafer's play based on he legend of Mataora and Niwareka, was to have been broadcast from all YA, YZ and YW stations on Monday 15 August at 7.30 p.m.

Readers will no doubt recall Mrs Schafer's articles in Issue 51, the first comparing the Mataora and Hutu myths with stories from agricultural societies all over the world, and the second examining the relationship between the Maori and Sanskrit languages.

– 18 –

Three Old Stories

These stories were taken from a manuscript in the Alexander Turnbull Library which was written about the year 1876 by Mohi Ruatapu and Henare Potae of the East Coast.

A note on the history of the manuscript appears on page 22.

He kōrero nō1 te riringa a Tuere, a Tangihaere, ki a Te Awariki. Nāua no [a] ia te take o te riri, nā Te Awariki ki a Tangihaere rāua ko Tuere. Te ingoa o taua riringa nei, ko Te Manu, ko Te Manu Tukutuku.

Ka kangā e Te Awariki ngā tamariki a Tuere rāua [ko] Tangihaere, he kakenga nō ngā aho o ā rātou manu i runga i tā Te Awariki. Nā reira i kangā ai e Te Awariki. Ka karanga atu a Tuere ki anā tamariki. ‘Karanga atu, “Tō waewae nā!” ‘2

Ka riri rātou; na, ka mate rātou i a Te Awariki te patu. Na, ka whakatika mai anō a Te Awariki ki te riri ki a rātou, hopukia atu e rātou, ka mate. Te ingoa o te parekura, ko Te Uirarapa. Ka mate te iwi o Te Awariki i kōnei.

Ko Tuere i mate ki Waitōtara; kei roto i te puraku3 e tanu ana. Ko te ingoa o te puraku, ko Kania[w]hea.

Ka noho rātou i tō rātoa kāinga. Ka huakina tō rātou pāpā e rātou, a Tuere, ka tāia ngā iwi hei matau.4 Ka oti, ka kawea ki te maona, ka mate te kai nei a te ika i a rātou, ka hoe rātou ki uta. Kāore i mauria ngā ika ki uta, ngā [a]ho, ngā matau, ngā hoe, ngā pātai me ngā ika. Ka haere ko rātou kiri kai tahanga anake ki te kāinga.

Kāore koa, nā tō rātou pāpā te kupu ki a rātou, kia mate anō ngā ika i runga waka; te kaha hoki tā rātou.

Pērātia ana, toro ana kia haere te waka rā i te moana haere ai, kia ū atu he kāinga kē atu; mā rātou e kai ngā ika o runga o taua waka. Mā ngā iwi katoa e kai, kia mate ai ngā iwi katoa, kei ngā iwi o Tuere te mana, te atua.

Ka hinga te parekura a Tuere rātou ko āna tamariki. Ka haere ngā tamariki a Tuere, ka heke haere, tau rawa atu Meketū, Tauranga;

 

This is the story of the quarrel between Tuere and Tangihaere, and Te Awariki. It was Te Awariki alone who was the cause of this strife with Tuere and Tangihaere; the quarrel was known as the Kite, the Flying Kite.

Te Awariki cursed the children of Tuere and Tangihaere because the lines of their kites mounted up over the line of his kite; it was for this reason that he cursed them. So Tuere called to his children, ‘Say to him, “That is your leg!” ‘2

Then they fought, and were defeated by Te Awariki. But when Te Awariki again went forth to attack them, they took him prisoner and killed him. The name of the battle was the Flash of Lightning. Te Awariki's followers were defeated there.

Tuere died at Waitotara, and was buried in a small wood.3 The name of that wood was Kaniawhea.

They continued to live there at their home, and when they disinterred the bones of their father Tuere, they shaped the bones into fishhooks.4 When they had done this they took the fishhoods out to sea, and with them they caught a great quantity of fish. Then they paddled back to the shore. They did not take the fish on shore, or the lines, the fishhooks the paddles or the bailers, but returned quite naked to the village.

But indeed, it was their father who had told them to catch the fish in the canoe in this way: they were only carrying out his instructions.

After this they pushed the canoe out to sea so that it would travel to some other place and land at another village; the fish in the canoe were intended for the people of this other village. [ unclear: ] They would all eat the fish, and all of them would die, slain by the supernatural power of the bones of Tuere.

Thus were slain those who fell in the battle of Tuere and his children. Afterwards the descendants of Tuere left that place and migrated to Meketu (Maketu) at Tauranga;

 
– 19 –
 

e noho mai nei anō i reira a Hori Tupaea, ngā uri o Te Rangihouw[h]iri.

Ka mutu i kōnei te kōrero o taua riringa, o te hekenga o Te Rangihou[wh]iri. Ka mutu tērā.

 

Hori Tupaea and his people, the offspring of Te Rangihouwhiri, are living there still.

This is the end of the story of the battle and migration of Te Rangihouwhiri.

Ngarara are monsters or dragons, often described as being similar in appearance to huge lizards. Different versions of this folktale were known throughout the country.

In a note above the story in the manuscript, the writer gives the names of the two women as being Hine-te-piripiri and Hine-te-kakara.

Ka noho ngā wāhine nei, ka haere ki te uru tarata1; ka piki rāua ki runga ki taua tarata, rā, tiro rawa iho rāua ko te ngārara rā e piki ake ana. Tā rāua kitenga iho e piki ake ana, kua oma tētahi, ka mau tētahi i taua ngārara, ka mauria ki tōna kāinga.

Ka haere tētahi, ka tae ki te kāinga, ka kōrero atu ki ngā tāngata o te kāinga, ‘Kua mau at kuhoa i te ngārara.’

‘He ngārara pēhea?’

Tana kinga atu, ‘Ko Te Mata-o-te-rangi ko taua ngārara, he kumi.2 Kāti, mauria tonutia e taua ngārara hei wahine māna, moe ana rāua.’

Ro rawa rāua e moe ana, ka puta he whakaaro mō te wahine rā kia haere mai ia ki ōna tungāne. Kātahi ia ka kī tōnā tāne, ‘E koro e, ka haere au ki aku tungāne.’

Whakaae ana mai te ngārara rā, ‘Ae, me haere koe kia kite i ō tungāne.’

Ka haere ia, ka tae ki kāinga, ka tangihia ia e ōna mātua, e ōna tungāne. Ka mutu te tangi, kātahi ia ka kōrero, ‘I hara mai au ki [te] tiki mai i a koutou, kia haere ki taku tāne.’

Whakaae ana rātou, ‘Ae, me tiki tō tāne kia haere mai ki kōnei.’

 

There were once two women who went to a grove of tarata1 trees. When they were up in the trees they looked down and saw a ngarara climbing up towards them. When they saw him, one ran away; the other was caught by the ngarara and taken to his home.

The woman who had escaped ran back to the village and said to the people there, ‘My friend has been taken prisoner by a ngarara!’

‘What sort of ngarara?’

She said, ‘He is a Te Mata-o-te-rangi; he is sixty feet long.2 Well, she has been taken away by this ngarara to be a wife for him; they are living together.’

After they had been together for a long time, the woman thought that she would go to see her brothers. So she said to her husband, ‘I should like to vist my brothers.’

The ngarara agreed to this. ‘Yes, go and see your brothers.’

So she set out, and reached the village. There she was greeted and wept over by her parents and brothers. When the weeping was finished she said, ‘I came to fetch you to take you to my husband.’

They agreed to this. ‘Yes, but bring your husband here.’

 

1The word ‘no’ is used in this sense elsewhere in the manuscript also.

2Apparently the meaning is that each kite-line is to be identified with its owner, and since Te Awariki's line (or leg) is below that of the children of Tuere and Tangihaere, he is of less consequence than they. The remark would thus be a deliberate insult.

3Colenso translates puraku as ‘a small wood’. Williams' Dictionary gives its meaning as ‘coffin or wrap’, but as evidence quotes only this sentence. Colenso's translation seems more likely. Perhaps the word is related to the expression pū rākau, ‘a grove of trees’.

4Normally, of course, it was a great insult to make fishhooks from the bones of a dead man, and only his enemies would do this.

– 20 –
 

Kātahi taua wahine ka kī atu ki a rātou, ‘E haere au; me ā he peka ki tētahi taha, ki tētahi taha o te whare, ki te tuarongo, ki [te] roro.’

Kātahi te wahine rā haere tonu; taenga atu, ka uwi3 mai te tāne ki a ia, ‘I tae koe ki ō mātua?’

‘Ae, i tae anō ahau.’

‘I pēhea mai rātou ki tō kōrero?’

Tana kīinga atu, ‘E whakaae ana mai rātou kia haere tāua.’

Kua rekareka rawa taua nanakia rā. H[e]o [ unclear: ] anō, ka haere mai rāua. Te taenga mai, ka karangatia, ‘Haere mai, e te ika nei! Haere mai, e te ngārara nei!’

Ka karanga te ngārara, ‘He riri pea tāu, e te taokete, ki “te iki nei”, pea?’

Ka tomo te ngārara ki roto ki te w[h]are rā. Ko taua ngārara he kumi, ko te whare he kumi anō te roa o te whare; tana totorohanga, rite tonu ki te roa o te whare.

Ka hoatu te kai māna; 1,000 ngā kōpae4 kai, kotahi anō kainga, pau katoa i te kainga kotahi. Kua ki tōna puku, kātahi ia ka moe.

Tō rātou kitenga atu kua moe, ka karanga tētahi, ‘Ka moe te ngārara nei!’

Kātahi anō ka tahuna taua whare ki te ahi. Na, kua wera taua ngārara rā, kātahi ka tinei ia i taua ahi; tinei noa tōna waha, Kāore i m[at]e te ahi rā; tinei noa te hiku, Kāore hoki e mate te ahi rā; ko tōna weranga i wera ai.

 

Then the woman said to them, ‘I will come. You must pile up firewood on each side of the house, and at the back and the front.’

After this she returned to her husband. When she arived he asked, ‘Did you go to your parents?’

‘Yes, I went to them.’

‘How did they treat your suggestion?’

‘They argue that we should go.’

The vile creature was delighted at this. And so they set off, and when they were approaching the village the call went out, ‘Welcome, fish! Welcome, ngarara!’

The ngarara said, ‘Perhaps you are trying to start a fight with me, my brothers-in-law, with this word “fish”?’

Then the ngarara entered the house. He was sixty feet long, and so was the house; when he stretched out, he was exactly the same length as the house.

They gave him food to eat; there were a thousand basketsful of food, and he gobbled them all up in the one meal. Then when his belly was full he went to sleep. When they saw this, someone called out. ‘The ngarara is asleep!’

Then they set fire to the house. Now when the ngarara felt the heat he tried to stop the fire; he lashed around with his head, but the fire did not go out. Then he tried with his tail, but he could not put it out. And so he was burnt to death.

The late Mr Pahau Milner of Ruatoria, in a similar version of the story which he told me in 1961, explained that the weaker of the two peoples was a vassal tribe, bound to perform such tasks as catching fish for their masters; hence the other tribe's anger when they refused to do so.

1In former times the fragrant leaves and flowers of the tarata tree, and the gum obtained by wounding the trunk, were gathered by the Maori and used to scent oils with which they anointed their bodies.

2Williams' Dictionary defines the word kumi as (1) a measure of ten fathoms, (2) a huge fabulous reptile. When the woman is asked what kind of a ngarara (or dragon) the creature is, she answers that he is a kumi. Later we learn that this ngarara, or kumi, fits exactly inside a house which is a kumi in length (i.e. 10 fathoms or 60 feet; though if the word had this meaning in pre-European times, it could not have corresponded exactly to the European measure). So in this case at any rate, the word kumi apparently means ‘a huge fabulous reptile some 60 feet in length’.

3Among Ngati Porou ‘uwi’ is an alternative form of the word ‘ui’.

4In the East Coast and Bay of Plenty the small baskets from which food is eaten are termed kōpae.

– 21 –

As a consequence of their disobedience many of them were killed, and those who remained decided that their only hope was to sail back to Hawaiki, the homeland of the Maori. So they took their masters' precious seed kumara and secretly made them into kao, a preparation of dried kumara which they could eat on their journey. They concealed what they had done by replacing the kumara in the storehouses with the young shoots of the tutu shrub.

In Pahau Milner's story the vassal tribe was named Te Wahineiti; he did not mention any other names. He said that the events in the story took place near Reporua, on the East Coast a few miles from Ruatoria.

Ka noho te wahine nei, tōna ingoa, ko Taupe-ngarangi; te ingoa o ngā tamariki rā, ko Ngakonui tētahi, ko Te Hakiri-o-te-rangi tētahi.

Ka whāngaia e te kuia rā ngā tamariki rā; whāngai noa, Kāore he miraka o tōnā ū, ka tonoa e ia he tāngata kia haere ki Te Aramoa ki [te] tiki moho hei waiū mō ana tamariki.

Ka kī mai ngāti Pakura, ‘He aha kōrua?’

‘He tiki moho mai māua hei waiū mō ngā tamariki a Taupengarangi.’

Ka kī mai te iwi rā, ‘Kāore i kitea e te werewere pangopango, nā te pohiwatanga o tōna whero i runga i kuha werehia.’1

Ka hoki mai taua tangata rā, ka tae mai ki te kāinga. Ka ui atu te wahine rā, ‘Kāore he moho i hōmai ki a kōrua?’

Ka kī atu rāua, ‘Kāore; e kī ana mai rātou, Kāore i kitea e te werewere pangopango, nā te pohiwatanga o tōna whero i runga i kuha werehia.’

Ka rongo te kuia rā, ka whakahaua e ia ngā tāngata kia haere kia patu [i] te iwi rā. Haere katoa ki te patu i ngāti Pakura; tahuri ake ngā pā kotahi tekau.

Ka mate taua iwi, ka tangi Apahiko, ka whakahau ia kia waruhia ngā rua kūmara hei kai mā rātou ki te moana. Ka ha [e] re hoki rātou ki te tope rākau; te ingoa o taua rākau, he houwi, hei rama ki te maona. Ko ētahi he rewarewa o aua rākau rā. Ka tae mai ngā rākau rā, ka whakahaua ki te kō i te māra; ka koiriti[a] te māra rā, ka onokia ki te pītau tutu.

Ka oti ngā māra, ka tukua tōna atua kia haere ki te mātaki i te huarahi mō rātou; ka kitea te kāinga, hoki mai te atua rā, he kūmara te maunga mai a taua atua rā.3 Kātahi rātou ka rekareka, ka kitea hoki he kāinga mō rātou. Ko te ingoa o taua atua ko Tāne. Kātahi anō rātou ka haere, ka tikina te waka

 

There once lived a woman named Taupenga rangi who had two small children named Ngakonui and Te Hakiri-o-te-rangi.

She fed her babies at her breast, but after a time she had no more milk to give them. So she told two of her followers to go to Te Aramoa to fetch some fish for her to eat, so that she might be able to feed her children.

Then men of Ngati Pakura said to the messengers, ‘Why are you here?’

They said, ‘To fetch some fish for Taupe-ngarangi, so that she can feed her children.’

Then the people answered them with curses, and refused to give them any fish.1

The men returned to the village and the woman said to them, ‘Did they not give you any fish?’

They said, ‘They gave us nothing.’ And they repeated the curses that the people had uttered.

When Taupengarangi heard this she ordered her men to attack the people of Ngati Pakura. All of her warriors descended upon Ngati Pakura, and ten forts were destroyed.

Many of Ngati Pakura were killed, and their tribal strength was gone. Apahiko wept, lamenting their dead, then he told his followers to take the kumaras from the storehouses and to prepare them by scraping2 so that they could eat them while they were at sea. As well as this they felled some trees, a lacebark and a rewarewa, so that they would have torches while they were on the ocean. After the trees were felled they were ordered to dig the gardens; they did so, planting them with the young shoots of the tutu shrub.

When the gardens were planted they sent their god to spy out a path for them; the god found their home, and returned bearing a kumara. Then they were exceedingly glad knowing that a home had been found for them. The name of that god was Tane.

 
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a Taupe hei waka mō rātou; ko ētahi o rātou kei te mātakitaki haka, moe tonu atu ki reira. I te pō haere ana rātou, mahue tonu ētahi o rātou. Ao ra[wa] ake te rā, aue! Ka riri ia, ka hoe i te moana.

U rawa atu ki Hawaiki, ko te hunga i mahue iho. Tā rātou mahi, he tangi no[a] iho i te roro o [ō] rātou whare. Kāti, ko taua iwi kei Hawaiki rānei, kei hea rānei?

Kāti, e hoa, e Raka4, maū e rapa atu taua iwi. Ka huri tēnei kōrero.

 

Then they set out, taking as their canoe the canoe which belonged to Taupengarangi. Some of them were watching a haka performance and afterwards remained sleeping where they were. That night Ngati Pakura departed, leaving behind those who had been watching the haka. When the sun rose next day, what consternation! The members of the other tribe were furious, for Ngati Pakura were voyaging across the ocean.

They arrived at Hawaiki, and there they found those who had been left behind. Their one activity there was greeting each other, weeping, in the porches of their houses.

And so, are those people at Hawaiki, or where are they? Well my friend Locke4, you should search for them. This is the end of the story.

A Note on the Manuscripts
Of Mohi Ruatapu and Henare Potae

In the Alexander Turnbull Library in Wellington there are two manuscript books, each of 160 pages, entitled ‘Maori Manuscripts of Mohi Ruatapu and Henare Potae’. These books were among some papers of Elsdon Best's which the library acquired in 1952. They contain the text of myths, legends, ritual chants and songs.

In 1928 and 1929 Elsdon Best published in the Journal of the Polynesian Society four texts from these manuscripts, with translations; they are the Story of Rua and Tangaroa (vol. 37, p. 257), the Story of Ngae and Tutununui (vol. 37, p. 261), the Story of Tawhaki (vol. 37, p. 359) and the Maui Myths (vol. 38, p. 1). In one of these articles Best tells us that the stories were written by ‘Mohi Ruatapu and Henare Potae of the East Coast’; in another place he says that the stories are ‘as narrated by the natives of Tolago Bay’, and elsewhere that they are ‘written by Henare Potae of Uawa, and Mohi Ruatapu, for Samuel Locke’. A note in Best's writing on the manuscript identifies as Samuel Locke an individual named Raka who is several times addressed in the text, for example in the story of Ngati Pakura published above. Samuel Locke was a well-known Maori scholar of the last century who collected much East Coast material.

On one page of the manuscript there occurs the date June 4, 1876.

In 1880 and 1881 William Colenso published in the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute (vols. XIII and XIV) two articles giving translations of Maori manuscripts which, he implies, he had himself collected. However his translations are of stories in the manuscript books in question, and he must have borrowed them from Samuel Locke, who was also living in Napier about this time. Later John White reprinted some of Colenso's translations in his ‘Ancient History of the Maori’.

A note at the end of the manuscript reads. ‘Na Mohi Ruatapu kei Ouawiwa tona kainga. Na H. Potae te puka whaki, o Tokomaru’ (By Mohi Ruatapu of Ouawiwi. H. Potae of Tokomaru wrote it down). I have no been able to discover the whereabout of Ouawiwi; perhaps it was a small settlement. Henare Potae of Tokomaru Bay was at this time a well-known figure on the East Coast.

It seems likely that this Mohi Ruatapu was the author of a similar manuscript, dated 1871, a copy of which is among the papers of the Maori Purposes Fund Board in the Alexander Turnbull Library. In an introductory note to this manuscript W. L. Williams writes, ‘This book was given to me by the late Major Ropata Wahawaha … the authorit ybeing Mohi Ruatapu of Tokomaru, an old tohung’. W. E. Gudgeon, a contemporary expert on Maori history, speaks of a Mohi Ruatapu as being ‘the most learned of all the Ngati Porou tohungas’ (J.P.S. vol. 4, p. 17).

In the original text the stories have no titles. The story of the quarrel between Tuere and Tangihaere, and Te Awariki, is in vol. 1, pp. 91–93. The story of the woman and the ngarara is in vol. 2, pp. 145–148, and the story of Ngati Pakura is in vol. 2, pp. 154–158.

1The exact meaning of Ngati Pakura's answer is uncertain, but apparently it takes the form of a curse directed at Taupengarangi.

2Kao, a preparation of kumara made by grating and cooking it then drying it in the sun, kept for a considerable time.

3This word is difficult to read in the manuscript. It seems to be ‘ra’, but may possibly be ‘ara’.

4This is Samuel Locke, the European friend for whom Mohi Ruatapu and Henare Potae wrote down these stories.

– 23 –

Auckland Lecture

Mr H. D. B. Dansey spoke to the Tree Society in Auckland recently on “The Maori as a Bushman”.

Mr Dansey told how the bush life developed character and ingenuity in the people. Observation was important to the way of life. The fatness of the pigeons would indicate a plentiful supply of berries. Lean birds would indicated a need to declare a closed season.

Mr Dansey has spoken previously to the Society, on legends and other subjects. His friendly, interesting and informative talks are enjoyed by members, who come from as far as Hamilton to hear him.

Visitors are always welcome at the Tree Society meetings, which are held on the third Wednesday evening of the month at Horticultural Headquarters, 57 Symonds St.

The Society has some 400 members throughout New Zealand. Its motto is “the right tree in the right place”. Members have given hundreds of trees to schools, churches and local bodies.

Course on Maori Life

Over 25 teachers from Mokau to Opunake attended a week-long course on Maori life conducted at the Taranaki Museum.

Wood carving, stick and string games, action songs and poi-making were some of the topics covered, and several field trips were made to Maori pas in the area.

Mr Rigby Allan, the museum director, said that the course had been so successful it was hoped it could be continued next year.

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Col. B. M. Poananga, C.O. of the Ist Battalion R.N.Z.I.R. in Malaysia introduces Lt. Brown to H.R.H. The Duke of Gloucester. From left, Lt. Brown, Col. Poananga, the Duke, Brig. McKeekan, Commander of the Battalion, and the Duke's aid [ unclear: ] , Lt. J. J. Walker from Taranaki.

N.Z. Soldiers in Malaysia Win Valour Awards

Lieutenant James Wairata Brown

Lieutenant Brown of Waimana, Bay of Plenty, was one of six recipients of awards for gallant and distinguished service in Malaysia recently announced by the Governor General, Sir Bernard Fergusson. He received the Military Cross.

The citation says that while he was commanding a platoon on operations one of his sentries fired on and wounded an Indonesian Scout. Lieutenant Brown quickly organised a patrol which captured the men who subsequently gave much valuable information.

A few weeks later Lieutenant Brown's platoon came under heavy fire. Calling for covering fire, Lieutenant Brown moved forward to within hand grenade range of the enemy and inflicted heavy casualties before returning to supervise the withdrawal of his men.

Only two Military Crosses have been awarded in the New Zealand Army in the past nine years. The other recipient was Lieutenant Eru Manuera (Te Ao Hou Issue No. 54).

Amongst the other five recipients of awards announced by the Governor Gneeral at the same time were two other Maoris, Private Tahu Ashby of Pakaraka, Bay of Islands, who gained the Military Medal, and Sergeant Winiwini Ahitapi McGee of Whangarei, who was mentioned in despatches.

The citation for Private Ashby's Military Medal tells of three engagements in which he figured. On 30 June 1965. Ashby was fired on by two Indonesian infiltrators from close quarters. Firing from the hip with his Bren gun he killed one and wounded the other. On 1 July his platoon was covering a withdrawal when it came under enemy fire. He maintained his position during the attack and enabled the withdrawing troops to move safely. On 28 July when Private Ashby's company was ambushed, he managed to locate one of the enemy machine guns and silence it. This action turned what could have been a successful Indonesian attack into a failure.

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National Publicity Studios
With the Queen Mother as she inspects the Royal Guard of Honour on her arrival at Bluff is Guard Commander Major A. T. A. Mataira, M.B.E., R.N.Z.I.R.

The Queen Mother
Visits New Zealand

This year were again privileged to welcome Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother to our country.

In the 19 days from her arrival at Bluff to her departure from Auckland on 4 May, the smiling Queen brought joy to the hearts of

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After an Anzac Day service at the National War Memorial in Wellington, Her Majesty talks to Captain P. Tahiwi, a Gallipoli veteran. With them is Mr A. A. Gerrie, president of the Wellington R.S.A.
Evening Post Photo

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Mrs Ringa Kapo Mariu, on behalf of the Tuwharetoa people, presents the Queen Mother with a Kiwi cloak, a greenstone tiki and a huia feather, as reaffirmation of Her Majesty's institution as a princess of the Ngati-Tuwharetoa during her first visit to New Zealand in 1927.

old and young, with the genuine personal interest she took in everyone she met.

She had a friendly word for all; for the veterans she met on Anzac Day; for the children all over the country who shouted their welcome; for the old, the sick and the blind, to whom she went with a special greeting; for those who entertained her; for people in all walks of life whose duties brought them into contact with her.

In reply to the welcome given by the people of Rotorua, the Queen Mother said. ‘All of us, European and Maori alike, are one people linked by similar ideals and interests and by a common loyalty to the Crown. I rejoice in the phrase “tatau, tatau,” a sentiment in which I believe with all my heart.’

May the gifts given in glad acknowledgement of our love and loyalty ever remind her of this visit to our shores.

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Her Majesty meets singers and members of the orchestra after the Wellington Youth Concert. In Maori costume are Donna Awatere and Laurette Gibb, the soloists in Ashley Heenan's Maori Suite.
National Publicity Studios

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N.Z. Herald photo

Throughout the sunny weekend hundreds came to pay homage to the dead chief of the Tainui people, Kingi Koroki.

They came to be greeted with a chant of welcome and lament from black-dressed women, their heads wreathed in green.

They came from every major tribe, Te Arawa, Te Taitokerau, Ngati Porou, Tuwharetoa, Ngati Kahungunu, from Wanganui and Taranaki, bringing with them their gifts and songs of grief.

They came, Maori and pakeha, noble and humble, old and young, in large groups and small, from every part of the country.

They came representing churches, governments, universities, schools, cities, boroughs, and other organisations.

They came bearing messages of sympathy from many races, notable among them being Prince John Ulu valu, son of the Premier of Tonga, Prince Tui'pelehaka, with his party of men and women dressed in black with plaited mats about their waists — their own traditional sign of mourning.

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N.Z. Herald photo
Among the first mourners to arrive were these two Ngapuhi women. Mrs S. Maiota and Mrs Hoki Hui, M.B.E., both of Russell.

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Before leaving the marae, members of the Tongan royal party bow low in their final tribute to King Koroki.

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Grieving as they come, hundreds of Arawa people advance down the marae.

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Ma te roimata ma te hupe ka ea te mate

The people come …

What a moving sight as such throngs came to share the sorrow of the Turangawaewae people.

What sad cries of grief as the visitors greeted the bereaved family.

What glad cries of recognition as relatives and friends were reunited in their coming to farewell a beloved Ariki.

What murmurs of appreciation as messages from absent friends were read to the people.

What beautiful floral tributes were brought to the marae. Among them was this silver canoe sent from the Six Nations Indians of Canada.

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On the wampum waters of waning day,
Your White Canoe will move,
Gliding, soaring into the setting Sun,
To the land beyond tomorrow.
Ass-e-ma! Amen!

– 30 –

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Weekly News photo
Solemn moments during the raising-up ceremony while Ariki Tapairu Piki sits in the carved throne first used during the crowning of the third Maori King, Mahuta. Matuakore Whauwhau and Winara Hamiora of Ngati Haua stand beside the casket. Henare Tuwhainga, an elder of Waikato, recites an ancient karakia.

A Queen is raised …

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The Bible used when Potatau was made the first Maori King is placed on the new Queen's head by Te Waharoa Tarapipipi, a direct descendant of Wiremu Tamehana, the King Maker.
N.Z. Herald photo

The Revd Canon Wi Te Hau Huata and Revd Pura Panapa moved forward, while a choir sang ‘Ka mahue Ihipa’, and with a blessing given Kuini Te Ata-i-Rangikaahu by Canon Huata, the simple ceremony came to an end.

– 31 –

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While the flag of the King Movement lies still in the driving rain, the beautiful wreath given by the late King's family is borne along during the Ceremony of the Flowers.

And a King is laid to rest

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Kingi Koroki leaves the marae on his last journey … to Taupiri mountain.

In a new but solemn ceremony, ‘The Ceremony of the Flowers’, black-dressed girls gathered the wreaths and carried them in slow procession while the Morehu Silver Band played well-known hymns.

During the service Canon Hamiora Rangiihu led the singing of ‘Piko nei te matenga’, the Psalm was recited by the Revd Hemi Potatau, a passage from John's Gospel was read by the local Roman Catholic priest, and Revd Kingi Ihaka gave the address and blessing before the cortege left for Taupiri, the sacred mountain of the Waikato tribe where all their paramount chiefs are buried.

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– 34 –

GEORDIE BECOMES A CHIEF

On Sunday 22 May, after a service at Rangiatea, the historic Maori Church, where his father read the lesson in Maori, 10-year-old Geordie Fergusson was inducted as a chief of the Ngati Raukawa tribe and given the name Raukawa.

It is only the second time that a Pakeha has been given such a position. Before 1892. Huia Onslow, son of Lord Onslow, New Zealand's Governor, was similarly honoured.

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Mr Rene places the cloak round Geordie's shoulders

Geordie was taken from his parents by Canon Hohepa Taepa soon after the family arrived at the Raukawa marae. To the accompaniment of ancient incantations. Geordie walked towards Mr Te Ouenuku Rene, the incantations becoming louder as he drew near.

After slipping a kakahu over Geordie's shoulders. Mr Rene led him to a model of the Tainui canoe. There the young chief plucked a hair from his head and placed it in the canoe. He gave greetings in Maori to the Ngati Raukawa elders, telling them that they had bestowed a great honour on him. Later in the ceremony, the Governor-General, Sir Bernard Fergusson, told the 400 people around the marae that he and Lady Fergusson were more touched than he could express for what the Ngati Raukawa had done. He hoped that his son would do his fair share of the rowing and not be merely a passenger in the canoe.

Referring to Geordie's induction as being important to racial unity. Sir Bernard said, ‘I have never been more sure of anything in my life than that the blessing of Almighty God lies upon what you have done today.’

He said that his family's friendship with the Maoris dated back to 1873 and he hoped that Geordie would never forget he belonged to two people.

Maori elders who spoke said they appreciated the interest Sir Bernard had shown in the Maori people since he arrived in New Zealand, and the Mayor of Otaki, Mr O. H. E. Yates said that no other Governor-General had illustrated so well that Maori and Pakeha were one race.

– 35 –

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During his speech the Governor-General refers to the greenstone pendant worn by his son Geordie. It was given to Sir Bernard 25 years ago by Sir Maui Pomare.
Dominion photographs

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In front of the group outside Raukawa are members of Upper Hutt's Mawai-Hakona Club who performed at the ceremony.

– 36 –

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Mrs Magee presents her painting

PEOPLE AND PLACES

Pleasant Duty

Thoroughly enjoying their task of cutting the cake at the recent Ruatoki School 70th Jubilee celebrations are Mrs U. Timeha and Mrs N. Black. They were two of four old pupils present at the celebrations who had attended the first classes at the school when it was opened in 1896.

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Bay of Plenty Beōcon photo
Mrs Tihema and Mrs Black cut the cake.

Artist's Trip Overseas

Mrs Eve Magee, of the Ngati Kahungunu tribe, presents her painting of Florence Nightingale's home in London to Mrs William Mason Smith, Jr. of New York City, a member of the National Board of the Young Women's Christian Association, and vice-chairman of its International Division. The kiwi cloak Mrs Magee is wearing was loaned by the New Zealand Consulate in New York.

An old pupil of Hukarere College, Mrs Magee (Eve White) had two exhibitions in Palmerston North to help realise her ambition to go to Italy to study the language, the history of art, and to attend the Academy of Art at Perugia. It was a very rewarding experience, and she hopes that as a result she will have a deeper feeling for the spiritual significance of her own work in depicting a way of life as lived in New Zealand by her Maori people.

Mrs Magee visited well known galleries in Germany, and also saw the Mona Lisa at the Louvre in Paris. She held successful exhibitions in Rome, and at New Zealand House, London, where her painting of Ngaruawahia Pa will be hung in the gallery room.

The Pan Pacific South East Asian Association sponsored her exhibition at Lexington Avenue, New York. It also was a success.

– 37 –

Hangi in Malaysia

Privates T. Honatana, from Bay of Plenty, M. P. Gerrard, of Gisborne, and Lance-Corporal P. Paul of Rotorua, agree that hangi-cooked pork is as near a national dish as any Kiwi could get—or even want.

The First Battalion, Royal New Zealand Infantry Regiment, stationed at Camp Terendak, near Malacca, decided to repay the Malaysian hospitality they have enjoyed since their arrival, by a hangi meal and a concert for their friends. Both events were well received.

The soldiers and their wives who had worked long hours preparing for the day kept up the tradition of Kiwi resourcefulness — hangi stones did not come from New Zealand, but the food tasted just as good!

Factory Opened

A new factory, referred to by the Minister of Works, Mr P. B. Allen, as a ‘milestone in Maori history’ was opened at Rotorua on 25 June 1966. It is the Mitchell Clothing Manufacturing Company Limited's new factory in Lake Road, Koutu.

Mr Allen congratulated the three director-shareholders, Mr McKenzie Mitchell, Mr Ariariterangi Mitchell and Mr Peter Bird on their achievement, saying that although there were many Maori land owners and farmers

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Mr Allen congratulates Mr Mitchell

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Malaysian Hangi

throughout New Zealand, Maori owners of factories, plants or businesses were quite rare. These three men were showing others that by using their initiative and ability, by working hard and grasping available opportunities, they could hold their own with any member of any race.

The photograph shows Mr M. Mitchell, the Manager, being congratulated by Mr Allen immediately after the official opening.

– 38 –

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Henare Pipeta National Publicity Studios

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Mr Tamati receives the trophy.
Taranaki Daily News photo

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Wayne Day polishes his money box.
National Publicity Studios

Oldest Rapaki Resident

Seen here on the road high above the pa is Henare Rangi Tawhiao Pipeta, Te-whekehapu of the Ngaitahu people. Aged 86, he is the oldest man at Rapaki.

He served in World War I, and has led an active life, retiring from work as a roadsman only two years ago.

With Mr Pipeta is a dog belonging to Mr Arthur Couch, his nephew. Mr Couch is overseas visiting his son Donald, who graduated M.A., Dip.Ed. from Canterbury University, and is now lecturing in Geography at the University of British Colombia.

Ahuwhenua Trophy

Receiving the Ahuwhenua trophy from the Member of Parliament for Western Maori, Mrs J. Ratana, is Mr E. R. Tamati, a Bell Block farmer. Mr Tamati won the award for the best Maori farmer in the dairy section of this New Zealand-wide competition. Mr Tamati was the first farmer in Taranaki to win the trophy.

‘It is a credit to Mr Tamati and his people that he is not a farmer under the supervision of the Department of Maori Affairs. This has demonstrated what young farmers can do on their own initiative to achieve a high standard of farming,’ said Mrs Ratana.

The Muru Raupata concert party, which is usually led by Mr Tamati, presented a special action song dedicated to his success and the success of his people.

Another young Maori farmer Mr T. P. Manu, received the third prize in the contest's dairy section from Mrs Ratana.

Money for Home Trip

Wayne Day of Opotiki, a first year panel-beating apprentice at Christchurch, puts the final polish on his money box.

These money boxes, made from a flat piece of metal, are the first articles made by the apprentices. There is only one opening and it is just the right size for florins.

The plan is that over the year the boxes will be filled and that just before they leave for their Christmas holiday, the boys will break open their boxes and have pocket money for the boat trip home.

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The Te Pataka group in Sydney.

Entertaining in Australia

At the end of June the Te Pataka entertainers commenced a three month season at Sydney's Kings Cross-Rex Hotel, and danced in the street outside the new Tiki Bar. The first in Australia with an exclusively Maori decor, the bar was constructed to cater for the large number of New Zealand visitors and residents in the Kings Cross area. It is decorated with replicas of traditional Maori weapons and carvings, large photo murals of Maori community life and colour reproduction of New

Scholarship Holder

Paratene Ngata of Tolaga Bay is the recipient of one of the scholarships awarded by the Ngarimu V.C. and 28th (Maori) Battalion Memorial Scholarship Fund Board.

He is now studying medicine at the University of Otago after receiving his secondary education at St. Stephen's School.

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Georgina Manunui National Publicity Studios

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Paratene Ngata National Publicity Studios

Paratene is a son of Paraone Waahu Ngata and a great-grandson of Hoani Ngata, half-brother of Sir Apirana Ngata.

First Turakina Graduate

Miss Georgina Manunui who completed her degree studies last year and has now graduated B.A. from Victoria University of Wellington is the first old girl of Turakina Maori Girls' College to do so.

After boarding at Turakina from 1956 to 1959, Georgina attended Auckland Girls' Grammar School in 1960 and 1961. She has spent the last three years at Victoria majoring in English.

Georgina belongs to the Ngati Tuwharetoa and Arawa tribes, and her father is George Manunui of Waitahanui.

– 40 –

HE PAO as sung by Para Iwakau on August 21, 1962.

– 41 –

HE PAO

Awangawanga ai ki aku tau e rua ei
Ko tewhea e pine mai ki te uma i ara ei

Kia inu ake au inu tahi te aroha ei
Kaore he rangi tamututia i ara ei

Piki ake ai au ka eke ki nga hiwi ei
Me te hau te aroha te piki ake i raro ei

E hoki, e Hira, ki te tau tuturu ei
Waiho ko Kingi ki nga kuru reiri ara ei.

– 42 –

Music at Next Year's Festival of the Pines

The Maori Suite, composed by Ashley Heenan and presented at a concert for Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother in Wellington earlier this year, is to be performed at New Plymouth's ‘Festival of the Pines’ next February.

The work, which requires a large chorus, two soloists and an orchestra, will be conducted at the Bowl of Brooklands by Mr Heenan. The choir of 50 or 60 wil be chosen and trained by Mr Frank Robinson of Hawera, who took a major singing role in Hinemoa and Tutanekai at the Bowl earlier this year.

A nucleus of singers from Hinemoa and Tutanekai will be used in the choir, and all members will wear traditional costumes.

The N.Z.B.C.'s Little Symphony Orchestra —35 players from the Symphony Orchestra will be featured in the one-night production.

Kiri Te Kanawa, now training at the London Opera Centre, will sing at the Festival on 11 and 13 February, during her two weeks' stay in New Zealand. She will leave on 17 February to continue her studies overseas. Her return fare will be paid by the Bowl of Brooklands Trust.

National Headquarters for League

With the acquisition of a property in Burnell Avenue, Wellington, the Maori Women's Welfare League has taken an essential step towards independence, and a dream of foundation members has come true.

The new headquarters is a neat two-storeyed weatherboard house set in a beautiful garden. There is also a brick garage and a storage shed.

It is an investment that will continue to increase in value, and when it has been made freehold will still be earning money for the League.

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TRANSCRIPTIONS OF
AUTHENTIC MAORI CHANT
Part 9

To avoid any appearance of commercialising the songs, Dr McLean has declined to accept payment for his work in preparing this series.

Earlier writers have generally described pao as ‘ditties’, probably meaning to imply by this that the purpose of such songs was less serious than that of waiata, oriori and other song types. Some support for this view comes from the fact that the term pao is today often applied to non-traditional songs with European type melodies. The term ‘ditty’ however means simply a song or words to be sung and so could be applied equally well to all songs. Probably there is no single English term that will fit all pao, though ‘entertainment song’ or ‘topical song’ come closest.

It might be noted that the term paopao means gossip, and many pao are in fact gossip songs whose texts treat the love life of their subjects in very direct and often slanderous terms. Pao of this kind are mostly sung simply for entertainment, buy there are other kinds which, like waiata, can be sub-classified according to subject or according to purpose. The pao whaiaipo concern love, the pao poroporoaki are songs of farewell sung typically at the tangi ceremony on the last night before the burial, and the pao whakautu is an answer to a taunt.

As with waiata, pao are often used as an aid to speech making. One Taranaki man known to the writer, for example, never sings pao in isolation, but only to illustrate points of historyx.

Unlike waiata, pao were, and are still, composed in extempore fashion. At least five examples of pao amongst the writer's recordings are known to have been composed in this way and three were composed spontaneously at the time of recording. Other examples of spontaneous composition were recorded that involved waiata rather than pao, but these occurred because the singers forgot their words and made up the rest rather than break the song. Karanga and pao are the only song types known to the writer which are typically composed in this way.

In contrast with the long verses of waiata, the verses of pao are only two lines long. Each verse is first sung solo by the composer and is then supposed to be repeated by the chorus while the soloist thinks of the next couplet. Even when a pao is later performed without chorus, the verses are generally each sung twice.

Pao differ in musical style according to area. The transcription with this article should not therefore be taken as characteristic of pao style generally, but only of pao from the Ngati Tuwharetoa area. Waikato pao resemble it, but those from Taranaki, for example, differ markedly.

Very great differences in musical style exist between pao and other song types such as waiata but these are mostly too technical to be considered here. Generally it may be said that the range of pao from lowest not to highest is greater than other song types, there are more notes, and the overall melodic movement descends towards the final note instead of moving more or less equally above and below a central intoning note.

One important characteristic of pao style, at least in the Ngati Tuwharetoa area, is that it is very difficult to perform. Consequently, capable singers are now very few. One reason for this is the abundance of rapid ornament in pao. This ornament is shown in the accompanying transcription by means of small notes which take their time from the large note to which they are tied.

The singer of the transcribed pao was Para Iwikau of Tokorangi who recorded for the writer on 21st August 1962. She belongs to Ngati Whititama sub of Ngati Tuwharetoa tribe.

Mervyn McLean's transcription of this song is on pages 4041.

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MAORI CLUBS

Whakatane

At the Annual General Meeting of the Whakatane Maori Youth Club, held at the Wairoka Meeting house last March, the following Officers were elected.

President: Mr C. C. Taylor.

Vice-President: Mr T. Riini.

Secretary-Treasurer: Mr T. Kirk.

Culture Leaders: Mrs Mate Harawira and Mr B. Keepa.

Putiki Club
to visit Fiji

Twenty-eight members of the Putiki Maori Club plan to visit Fiji this year, following an invitation made three years ago in Wanganui by Ratu (chief) Edward Cakobau of Fiji.

The Club members were due to fly by chartered plane on 20 August for a two-week tour of the island as guests of the Fijian Chief, who was educated in Wanganui.

They hope to give one or two concerts, but the main purpose of the tour is for an exchange of cultures.

Awataha
Christchurch

A most unusual group is Te Ropu Maori o te Kura Awataha, the 60-strong Maori Club at Avonside Girls' High School, Christchurch. Its leaders are Mrs Gladys Stiles and Miss Marguerite Foxon.

The club was formed at the beginning of the 1964 school year, with 30 members. The girls were completely new to Maori Culture, but were so keen that meetings had to be held

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Picture icon

Awataha girls in action, led by Elaine Tuuta of the Chatham Islands.

twice weekly. The senior members were taken away for a weekend houseparty by Mrs Stiles and Mrs Timutimu (then Kiwi Kaa) when the whole time was devoted to waiata, haka, chant, hymn, stick games, whai and weaving (He rourou). Marguerite Foxon, then a schoolgirl, showed such aptitude that she became the club's first Concert Party Leader.

In 1965 the number grew to 40, and now the girls are so keen, membership has had to be restricted to 5th and 6th Form pakeha girls. Maori pupils may join at any age. Several girls from Te Wai Pounamu belong to the club, and there is a bond of friendship between the two groups.

The girls have performed in public on many occasions, and are usually invited to participate in functions organised by the local Maori Community. They have pare and tipare for 35 girls, but so far only 12 piupiu. Twenty five more are ordered.

This year the Concert Party Leader is Evelyn Tuuta of the Chatham Islands, an ex-Te Wai Pounamu girl, who is now a day pupil at Avonside. Miss Foxon and a Canadian 6th Form girl. Anne Fowler, provide guitar accompaniment when necessary.

After a visit to Christchurch by girls of Queen Victoria School, when several of the visitors were billeted by Avonside pupils, tape recordings have been exchanged between the two clubs.

It is hoped that some members of the club will be able to visit East Coast maraes during the first week of the Christmas School holidays.

The leaders acknowledge their indebtedness to the late Canon Kaa and his family, and to Henare and Mere Toka, who have given richly of their support.

We would be glad to hear from secretaries of Maori Clubs not so far included in this series of articles. Please send details to Te Ao Hou at Box 2390, Wellington.

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Picture icon

Under the watchful eye of their instructor Mr E. V. Hill, second-year carpentry apprentices pour concrete for a path alongside their recreation hall to join the new block to the old.
National Publicity Studios

New Hostel Blocks
At Christchurch

Rehua and Hanson's Lane Hostels, catering for Maori apprentices in Christchurch, are having extensions built.

Picture icon

The new hostel block at Rehua. Work on it is due to be completed in October.
National Publicity Studios

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Picture icon

Tommy Reihana of Hawera, a second year carpentry apprentice working on the Hanson's Lane Hostel, who gained extremely high marks in his First Qualifying Exam last year.
National Publicity Studios

Picture icon

Lunchtime on the Hanson's Lane job for another second-year apprentice, K. S. Andrews of Manaia.
National Publicity Studios

At Rehua, a large three-story concrete block is under construction a few yards from the present hostel, and boys now living in huts on the property are looking forward to occupying the new quarters later in the year. Private contractors are erecting this building, but among their employees is at least one Maori tradesman, now a qualified carpenter, who lived at Rehua during his apprenticeship.

The Hanson's Lane extension is quite different, being a single story wooden structure. It is different too in that instead of private contractors being employed, it is being built by young second-year carpentry apprentices, under the supervision of their instructors. Usually these boys work on private houses, but most are enjoying building something for themselves, and hope that they will live in the new quarters before their time at the hostel is up.

Already a recreation room adjacent to the old hostel building is finished and ready for use. When construction is complete, the three buildings will be joined by a covered way.

The boys are responding well to the friendly instruction given, and take a pride in their work.

It is hoped that the Minister of Maori Affairs, Mr Hanan, will be able to open both new blocks in October.

Bequest to Maori Education

A retired carpenter, Mr John Kenneth Chubbin Mitchell, who died on 24 April, has left nearly £12,000 to the Maori Education Foundation.

An experienced tradesman, he had high esteem for the craftmanship of Maoris and was interested in the welfare of young Maoris.

He also left his house in Wadestown to be used as a hostel for young Maoris studying in Wellington or undertaking a course of training for any trade or profession.

At present the house is being renovated, and it is hoped that it will be available at the beginning of next year as a hostel for Maori boys.

The new hostel will be under the control of the present Master and Matron of Piki Mai hostel.

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– 49 –

Play Centre News

Glendale

This Play Centre was established to provide pre-school education for a number of children in this new and fast-growing area of Wainuiomata. At the first meeting held in December 1964, the interest shown by parents was so great that in a very short time a Committee was formed, fund-raising got under way, and, thanks to the initial donation of £100 from the Maori Club of the Wellington Training College, the Centre was able to start in February 1965.

At the original meeting it was agreed that the Union Church Hall would be used; that initially two play sessions would be held each week; that the roll would have equal numbers of Maori and Pakeha children; and that the Supervisor would be Mrs Eleanor Hetet.

Interested parents then spent a very busy few weeks purchasing necessary equipment, erecting a fence around the play area, and building a sandpit. Their efforts were well rewarded because from its first day, the Centre has been a tremendous success. The play sessions have increased to three a week—on Monday, Tuesday, and Thursday mornings—and these have now become a social outlet for many mothers who come along to the Centre for coffee and a chat in the Mothers' Corner, and to stay to play with the children till the session is over.

Mothers are encouraged to visit the Centre and it is quite common to find one or two prams with infants, a few strollers with toddlers, a toddler in the high chair of playpen, and Maori and Pakeha mothers cosily settled in the Mothers' Corner while the children carry on with their various activities. It is most interesting and encouraging to find that although all the mothers take their turn at ‘mother-helping’, they also find pleasure in visiting the Centre on other days. This warm friendly atmosphere has been created largely by the Supervisor who has encouraged all parents to take an interest in the Centre. Fathers take an active part, particularly on Fathers' Day, and on ‘working bees’ when the equipment is repaired.

An enthusiastic Committee has been elected, and this includes several Maori mothers—Mrs Ann Andrews, who with her husband, is the Equipment Officer, Mrs Wilma Wild, Secretary, and Mrs Cissy Paea, Social Officer. One Maori mother, Mrs Marie Cribb, has almost, completed her Supervisor-training course and several other mothers have now started a similar course, thus ensuring that the Supervisor will have a trained staff of helpers to call on.

From the opening day the roll has been maintained at the maximum of thirty children, and there is a large waiting list of both Maori and Pakeha children.

Fund-raising schemes have included raffles, stalls, rag drives, dances; and a children's film show held on a rainy Saturday made £30. Several outings have been made, and one of the most popular was a visit to the Maori Meeting House at Waiwhetu.

The official opening of Glendale Play Centre was held in September 1965. Mrs E. Jacobson of the Hutt-Wairarapa Association congratulated the Centre on becoming so firmly established in such a short time and made particular mention of the excellent participation of mothers in the play sessions—their willingness to work with the children and to listen and talk to them. She also congratulated the Centre on the very good parent education work that is being done—frequent discussions, talks by qualified speakers, and film evenings. Mrs Hetet, the supervisor, was warmly thanked for the tremendous amount of time and effort she had put in to make the first year of the Centre such a success.

Otaua

The opening the Otaua Play Centre in early April by Mr A. Grey, of the Maori Edu-

The opening of the Otaua Play Centre in early April by Mr A. Grey, of the Maori Education Foundation, was the culmination of a year's work by a few families in a small community. At this settlement in East Hokianga, both children and parents are benefiting from the establishment of the Play Centre, all agreeing that the work involved has enriched their lives immeasurably.

Only a year has elapsed since 17 people attended the inaugural meeting held at the

– 50 –

marae. The headmaster of the local school, Mr M. Whaanga, who with his wife Moana (a former Miss New Zealand) has since left New Zealand to attend the University of Hawaii, explained the aims and objects of play centres, offering to assist in evry way.

Mrs M. Rata was elected Patroness, the President was Mr T. Waetford, who later resigned and was replaced by Mr G. Hiku, and Mrs Whaanga became Secretary. A committee of managements and four Supervisors were also elected. A light luncheon was sold, and with a donation from Mr and Mrs W. Kopu, funds were established at £6.

Some members later heard addresses by Mr Ball and Mr Grey at a Maori Education Foundation meeting at Kaikohe, and a Play Centre meeting at Whirinaki gave further ideas to the new committee.

Each home was asked to donate £5 towards the establishment of the Otaua Centre. The old school manual block, which had been purchased by the Maori Committee, was leased to the Play Centre, and ‘working bees’ soon had the building neat and tidy.

Mother-helpers attended a training course Mrs M. Tane received their certificates at a at Te Ahu Ahu, and later Mrs M. Rogers and Play Centre convention at the Otiria marae. The mid-Northland area convention at Kaikohe provided the Otaua families with further inspiration.

As a result of a visit from Mrs R. Ruhe, an all-out effort was made to equip the Otaua Centre with toys, and the fund-raising campaign continued.

When Mr and Mrs Whaanga announced their impending departure, the committee accepted their resignation with regret, as the coupled had worked very hard for the Centre. Wr Whaanga stressed that as the parents were all so keen on their new venture, it was sure to succeed. Mrs M. Tane replaced Mrs Whaanga as Secretary, and the new headmaster and his wife, Mr and Mrs L. McMillan, expressed their desire to continue the good work of the Whaangas. In February this year, the committee had almost £77 on hand, a very commendable effort by a small community.

– 51 –

Guests at the opening ceremony included Mrs A. Grey, Officers from the Department of Maori Affairs, and Play Centre Officials. There was great admiration for the Play Centre building with its new lino and its business-like arrangements of toys and books. Perhaps the most outstanding feature is a ‘slide-through from one room to another, a special delight for the children. A real electric stove, although no longer functional, is the joy of the girls.

Picture icon

Otaua parents watch their children at play.

The ladies say they have learnt a great deal about motherhood from their association with the play centre and feel that they understand their children much better. The children too are developing a pleasing air of confidnce as they learn to mix and play together. The school, which together with the marae has been the centre of the community, now shares pride of place with the Play Centre.

IN ISSUE 55, it was incorrectly stated that the Maori Education Foundation could, through the Play Centre Federation, make grants available to enable Maori parents to attend Play Centre Training Courses.

Grants are available, but are made by the Department of Maori Affairs, not the Maori Education Foundation.

POEM

Soon
between
the wind flaunted mountains
and mangrove harbour
the cicada
chuckle and chatter
of kids at play
will re-echo
metal graunched
by raucous spades
the surf and clatter
of trundled concrete
poured—
a basis
for the weft and warp
of a plaited culture.
Nail fixed
tin weatherboards
reverberate
intermittent hammering
transposed
to stomp rhythms
of steel guitars
in wild cavorting
at the local dance.
The juxtaposition
of old women weaving
kits —
intricate
patterned
forecasts
the intertwining
of a flax tradition
and steel technology
tools of leadership
inculcated
between
wind flaunted mountains
and mangrove harbour
under a mackerel sky.

written after a week spent working at the Herekino Play Centre.

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– 53 –

Maori Leaders Receive
Queen's Birthday
Honours

A Northlander and two Bay of Plenty Maori leaders have received honours from Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth in recognition of their service to the Maori people.

Mr J. C. Henare

Lt-Col James Clendon Henare, D.S.O., was appointed a Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (C.B.E.).

Descended from a distinguished family, Colonel Henare has European blood from the Clendon family, who were among the earliest settlers in the Bay of Islands. Another of his ancestors was the Ngapuhi chief Kawiti.

Enlisting in the Maori Battalion early in World War II, he gained a commission and rose to command the Battalion and be awarded the D.S.O.

His interests cover a wide field of political, economic and welfare work, and he is a member of 25 organisations, among them the Waitangi National Trust Board, the Board of Maori Affairs, the National Council of Maori Education and the Rehabilitation Board.

Colonel Henare is president of the New Zealand Maori Battalion Association, and is a long standing member of the Kawakawa R.S.A. He is a member of the Kawakawa Church of England Parochial Vestry, and has been closely associated with tribal committees for many years.

Mr R. Te T. Kingi

A chief of the Arawa tribe, Mr Raniera Te Tawhiti Kingi—widely known as Dan King—became an Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (O.B.E.).

At the age of 30, Mr Kingi was appointed Secretary of the Arawa Trust Board when it was inaugurated in 1924. He remained in office for 21 years, until ill health, the result of his service in World War I, forced him to give up the job.

When corporate control of Maori lands was initiated, Mr Kingi became chairman of the Warenga Incorporation. He was also involved in prepatory work for the formation of the Ngati-Whakaue Incorporation, now the biggest incorporation north of Gisborne.

He is at the moment serving as a member of the Arawa Trust Board.

Mr J. F. Boynton

Mr John Frederick Boynton, a member of one of the oldest-established families in the Waimana district, was made a Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (M.B.E.). Mr Boynton is a member of the New Zealand Maori Council and the Waiariki District Land Committee. He is also on the executive of the Waiariki District Council and is deputy chairman of the Tuhoe Trust Board.

He was secretary of the Eastern Tuhoe Maori executive for 14 years and is currently a member of several Maori committees.

A Whakatane Rugby representative in his younger days, Mr Boynton has retained his connection with the sport, and is a life member of the Waimana Rugby Club.

He is a Justice of the Peace.

New Committee Formed

Recently an Educational Advancement Committee was formed at Mangakino under the auspices of the Mangakino-Pouakani Maori Executive. The chairman is Mr B. Whitiwhiti and Mrs Terena Berryman is the secretary.

A similar Committee has also been set up at Hamilton, bringing the number of such groups to seven. Wanganui, Hawera, Patea-Waverley, New Plymouth and Taumarunui all have Educational Advancement Committees.

Receptionist Training

Rotorua Maori girls are to be flown to Surfers' Paradise to be trained as receptionists in the new luxury Beachcomber Tiki Village Hotel.

The first six girls selected were due to fly to Australia in July, for six months' training. When they return, six more girls will take their places.

This scheme will give Rotorua the opportunity of acquiring good trained Maori receptionists for hostels in the city.

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– 55 –

Maori Women's Welfare League

Waharoa Branch

A branch of the Maori Women's Welfare League was formed at Te Raungaiti Pa, Waharoa, on 3 March 1966. Mrs S. Rawiri presided at the first meeting of the newly formed branch, held at 8 p.m. on 8 March 1966. Twenty-six local residents attended.

Mrs Rumatiki Wright, Senior Lady Welfare Officer and Miss S. Williams, Welfare Officer, both of the Department of Maori Affairs, Miss M. Grant, Public Health Nurse of the Department of Health and members of the Ngati-teoro Tribal Committee were present.

Officers elected were:—

President: Mrs Sally Rawiri.

Vice-President: Mrs Alice Wilson.

Secretary: Mrs Mana Wilson.

Treasurer: Mrs Polly Tuhakaraina.

The programme for the year was planned with one particular topic of interest to be studied each month, as follows:—

January: The home.

February: Maori Culture and Craft.

March: Education.

April: Health.

May: Housing.

June: Sick, Aged and Distressed.

July: Conference, School Procedure.

August: Agricultural and Horticultural interests.

September: School leavers.

October: Husbands and families.

November: Friendship.

December: Christianity.

Offers for the position of responsibility for the topic of the month were made and accepted, thus 12 committees were established, each with its own sub-committee within the League branch.

South Island Branches

The Annual Meeting was held in Moran Buildings Lounge, Dunedin on 12 March. Delegates from Rapaki, Christchurch, Picton, Hakatere, Arowhenua, Otakou and Dunedin were welcomed by Mrs E. Grooby who presided.

Branch reports were encouraging, with the recently re-established Arowhenua branch the result of Mrs Sage's visit, showing a membership of 17. They have a 1966 project to make education grants to local children, and aim to raise £50. Already they have donated to the Maori Council a medical kit for Vietnam.

Hakatere, a vital and happy group of 21 members, formed a Maori Youth Club in 1965 which is well supported. Rapaki continues its hospital and prison visiting. Christchurch is experiencing a period of mixed fortunes at the present time but has persisted with its prison visiting. Discussion groups with the boys at Paparua have been successful.

Dunedin is riding on a crest with a membership of 40 and a 1965 programme which was stimulating and enjoyable. The health and education sections of the Hunn Report were discussed by competent panels, and Otago from the Moa-hunter period was discussed. Cook Islanders and Samoans have been encouraged to join the branch.

The guest speaker at the Annual Meeting was Mrs J. K. Baxter of the Poneke Branch.

Sprays were presented to Mrs Baxter, Mrs Grooby, Miss M. Wallscott, the area representative on the executive, and Mrs E. Murchie. Secretary-Treasurer of the South Island branches.

Are YOU on the Parliamentary Electoral Roll?

CHECK NOW, and if not, enrol on the Supplementary Roll.

Enrolment Cards are available at all Post Offices.

– 56 –

Action Songs and Poi Tunes Competition

The idea of running a competition for original action songs and poi dances was suggested some years ago by Mr Leo Fowler, the man in charge of the N.Z.B.C.'s Maori programmes.

The aims are to avoid the use of current “hit tunes” for Maori items, and to discover people with talent for composing tunes or writing words for action songs and poi dances.

The proposal to have such a competition was agreed to by the N.Z.B.C., with the joint sponsorship of the Maori Purposes Fund Board, and a committee decided on rules and prizes.

For both the action song and poi tunes, first prizes will be trophies valued at £20 and £80 cash. Second prizes are £10 trophies with £40 cash, and £10 trophies with £15 cash are the third prizes.

First, second and third prizes for the lyric are £40, £20 and £10, with in each case a £10 trophy.

The competition is open to all New Zealanders, and judging of the tunes will be done only on recorded performance. This means that it is not necessary to write down any music. Entries in the Maori lyric section, however, must be written in both Maori and English. Those entering the competition will need to rehearse well, and have their songs recorded at a convenient radio station. They can be sung by from one to four people, with one instrument as accompaniment. The composer may be one of the performers, or may prefer to have other people sing for him.

The N.Z.B.C. reserves the sole right to re-arrange, broadcast or publish any entry.

The five judges are authorities in the field of Maori music.

Hetekia Te Kani Te Ua, O.B.E., an elder of the Te Aitangamaahaki tribe is recognised as an expert in tribal lore and Maori Culture. He

– 57 –

was educated at Nelson College, and attended the Nelson Conservatorium of Music. He has often judged Maori Cultural Competitions, and is known on almost every marae in New Zealand.

Mrs Witerina Harris, of the Arawa tribe, is at present teaching Maori handcrafts, poi and action song at the Wellington Teachers' Training College. She has been a member of the Ngati Poneke Club since it was founded in 1936, and acted as soloist and as a member of the club's entertainment party during and after the war years.

Rev. Napi Waaka, from Waikato, was a member of the well-known Maori entertainment group. “The Maori”, which toured New Zealand and Australia in 1957 and 1958. He is a noted composer and Maori Cultural Festival judge, and was the founder and leader of Auckland's Ataahua Maori Club.

Wiremu Kerekere founded and trained the Waihirere Maori club 15 years ago, and has been its president ever since. He has composed many songs and lyrics, among them the pois, action songs and powhiri used in the Maori welcome to Her Majesty the Queen and Prince Phillip at Waitangi in 1963.

Ashley Heenan, composer of the Maori Suite recently performed before the Queen Mother at the Royal Youth Concert in Wellington, has done considerable research on traditional Maori music. He has made many arrangements, including the orchestral backgrounds for the Maori Love Duets recorded by Kiri Te Kanawa and Hohepa Mutu.

News from U.S.A.

Writing from Las Vegas in June, Paddy Te Tai, of the Maori Hi-Five group, sends us this news.

‘We have tried to keep in close contact with any Kiwis appearing on the scene over here, and the latest import from home has been Ricky May from Auckland. He arrived here two weeks ago from Chequer's Night Club in Sydney, Australia, and will perform at the Silver Slipper, one of the principal hotels here in Las Vegas.

‘Just finished out here at the Thunderbird Hotel are the Maori Hi-Quinns—Thomas Kini, Gisborne, Kawana Waitere, Putiki, Eddie Nuku, Auckland, and Lynn Alvarey and Neville Turner of Australia. These boys have recently returned from five weeks in Hawaii, are now in Tuscon, Arizona, and leave shortly for Montreal, Canada.

‘I have just heard that the Mauriora Entertainers under the leadership of Dawn Nathan of Ngati-Poneke leave at the end of June for engagements in Alaska.

“As for ourselves, we are quite established in the U.S., and tentative plans are being made for an extensive tour of the Carribean, mainly Nassau in the Bahamas, Freeport, Puerto Rico and the West Indies. Our U.S. circuit, mainly Las Vegas, Reno, Lake Tahoe, Seattle (Washington) and Chicago, has been completed.

‘Te Waari Ward-Holmes, formerly of the Brown Bombers, has now established himself as a prominent entertainment agent, and is enjoying a very successful business in Toronto, Canada.

‘So you see, very slowly the Maori is establishing a reputation for himself overseas, and a fine one too, I might add, and it all reflects on his race and his country, which we think is one of the finest in the world.’

Maori Theatre Trust Formed

A nation-wide appeal to raise funds for the newly-formed Maori Theatre Trust was launched in Gisborne with a recital by the American soprano, Dolores Ivory, and Auckland mezzo-soprano, Hannah Tatana.

The five members of the trust are Mr P. Keiha, Mr D. Selwyn, Mr T. Te Heu Heu, Mr Puoho Katene and Mr T. Taurima.

The trust is soon to present its first production. It will be a mythical folk opera, Uenuku, which was due to go into rehearsal in mid-August, after 40 of the best Maori voices in the country had been found.

The script for Uenuku was written by Pei Te Hurunui Jones from an old Maori myth about the Rainbow gods.

The musical score was written by Paul Katene in collaboration with Thomas Taurima. There is no orchestration, and the programme's only accompaniment will be a few effects from flutes, conch shells and authentic Maori percussion.

It is hoped that the Trust will tour Russia next year with the opera.

– 58 –

BOOKS

The Maori and New Zealand Politics Edited

Blackwood and Janet Paul, 18s

reviewed by John Barrington.

The symposium will prove of great value to all students of Maori Society and Politics. Although the majority of the essays are brief, each has been written by a specialist in his field and the reader consequently receives a great deal of thought provoking information in the symposium's 86 pages. In his introduction, the Editor, Professor J. G. A. Pocock of the Political Science Department at the University of Canterbury, examines some of the similarities and differences between the Maori peoples political and religious reactions to the impact of the West, and the reactions of other ‘non-Western’ peoples. His suggestion that ‘Land Wars’ might well replace ‘Maori Wars’ in school text-books and public usage is an idea which appears to have a great deal to commend it. It stems from a number of factors; realization of the ‘divisive implications’ of the term Maori Wars (i.e. the idea that ‘we’ fought ‘them’), the fact that the Wars were chiefly fought over the land issue, and that the actual fighting was only one phase of the long term confiscation and purchase of Maori lands.

In the first essay Professor Sinclair demonstrates that although most Maoris were effectively excluded from the vote in the 1852 Constitution (because of a land and property qualification), the effect of this exclusion was to increase rather than diminish their interest in political activities, particularly as these had relevance to the issue of land sale and confiscation. The series of political meetings held throughout the North Island during the eighteen-fifties culminated in the election of the first Maori King in 1858 and the formation of a Land League to protect Maori interests. But as well as refusing to sell and going to war as means of preserving their lands and demanding that their voices be heard by the Government, some Maoris also practised ‘gentler’ political arts during the eighteen-sixties. We learn from Professor Sinclair that forms of non-violet protest engaged in included writing letters to ministers of religion, politicians and newspapers; petitioning the Queen; sending delegates to England to protest to the Government; and giving evidence to parliamentary committees.

In the second essay Dr Sorrenson first discusses in greater detail the development of the King Movement prior to 1860, and then shows how the land question and particularly the proceedings of the Land Court continued to be the dominant concern in Maori politics for many years after the end of the Wars… (p 34) ‘for in many ways the purchase of land from individuals through the Land Court posed a greater threat to the Maoris than War and confiscation.’

In R. J. Martin's ‘The Liberal Experiment’, J. A. William's ‘The Foundation of Apirana Ngata's Career', and J. Henderson's ‘The Ratana Movement’ we are shown how Maori political and religious leaders began to make their voices much more strongly heard both inside and outside Parliament after 1890. The dominance of James Carroll as a political figure after his election to represent Eastern Maori in 1887 is emphasized; member of the Executive Council in 1892, member for Waipa between 1893 and 1908, member for Gisborne between 1908 and 1919, Colonial Secretary in 1895, Commissioner of Stamp Duties in 1896. Native Minister and Commissioner of Stamp Duties between 1899 and 1909, acting Prime Minister in 1909 and 1911. But at the same time we see how the sittings of the Maori Parliament and the continued existence of the King Movement ensured that more conservative Maori political opinion continued to be represented during the Liberal era. With the emergence of the Young Maori Party, a further thread is added to the total Maori political scene, and at the beginning of the present century a common revulsion against the loss of Maori land, a desire for reforms in many aspects of Maori society, and for land utilization, began to draw these separate threads much more closely together.

Dr William's essay, based on his Ph.D. thesis, presents a very brief but perceptive account of Sir Apirana Ngata's association with the Young Maori Party and his long parliamentary career of 37 years. Mr Henderson traces the historical development of the Ratana movement, described in the Editor's introduction as ‘the major factor in Maori political life at the present day’. In their respective essays Mr Schwimmer and Professor Ritchie make some interesting comments on aspects of the contemporary scene, the former dealing with the development of local leadership and the

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importance of education, religion and farming in one small Maori community, and the latter with the link between Maori politics at the local and national level.

All of these essays except for the last two are very strongly weighted on the historical side up until 1935 and one has the feeling that an additional section dealing with the dynamic aspects of Maori politics since then would have given the symposium even greater value. The reader is left more or less uninformed about the political developments which have followed Ratana's visit to Prime Minister Savage in 1935, although much of importance has undoubtedly occurred since then, including the growing political significance of the Ratana and Mormon churches; the passing of the 1937 Election Amendment Act which granted Maoris the secret ballot, the introduction for the first time in 1949 of Maori rolls, the extension of compulsory registration to Maoris in 1956 and the continuing debate on separate Maori representation. The symposium however only claims to ‘provide something of the story’ and it achieves this admirably. What we still await is a full history of Maori political development and the Editor himself points out that ‘there is reason to believe that the materials for such a history exist and await their synthesizer.’ In this regard it is interesting to note that Maori scholars are now themselves working in the field of Maori politics, or in closely related fields, and that we might some day have a Maori view of Maori political history.

Traditional and Modern Music of the Maori

Seven Seas Publishing Co., 18s 6d

reviewed by J. McEwen

This is a fascinating little book of 42 pages which is likely to have a popular appeal. It is no dry-as-dust scientific work, but an interesting discourse on Maori music, both traditional and modern. There is little new material, nor is there any fresh attempt to deal with technical musical matters. It is, however, the first popular book which gives an adequate account of the subject. Dr Barrow is a museum man but unlike many of his colleagues he does not adopt the view that Maori culture ceased to exist when Europeans settled in New Zealand. He brings the subject right up to the present.

The book is particularly well illustrated with a number of beautifully reproduced colour pictures dating from the early nineteenth century and others of more modern times. One or two early illustrations of haka are of great interest. The modern illustrations include a few of the Tahitian tourist type but I suppose that is permissible in a book which, although it will be enjoyed by many people here, has not overlooked the interest of visitors to New Zealand. Dr Barrow's book on Maori art was well done and this one is up to the same standard.

Richard Taylor: Missionary Tramper

reviewed by Kingi Ihaka

This is Mr Mead's second book based on the history of Wanganui. One has to know something of the historical background of the introduction of Christianity to Wanganui and district in order to fully appreciate Mead's latest book, ‘Richard Taylor: Missionary Tramper’.

On 16 December 1839, the Revd Henry

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Williams arrived at Putiki - Wharanui, Wanganui, on his way back to the Bay of Islands, after installing the Revd Octavius Hadfield at Otaki. To the Revd Henry Williams belongs the honour of being the first European missionary to visit Wanganui, but he was by no means the first to disseminate Christian teaching in this region. Christianity had already penetrated to the Wanganui tribes through the work of a Taupo chief, Wiremu Te Tauri I. When Williams visited the various pa kainga of the Wanganui area, an appeal was made to him to send to Wanganui a missionary.

On 20 June 1840, the Revd John Mason, Mrs Mason and a lay catechist, Mr Richard Matthews arrived in Wanganui to establish the Mission. In January 1843, the Revds John Mason and Octavius Hadfield, travelling together south on horseback, reached the Turakina River. Although the river was in flood, the two missionaries, hardened to such dangers, attempted to cross near its mouth, and unfortunately Mason was drowned. This was the first European missionary life to be lost in New Zealand. Shortly after the sad news of Mason's death reached the Mission station in Paihia, the Revd Richard Taylor, M.A. (Camb.) was assigned to the Wanganui Station (Camb.) was assigned to the Wanganui Station and arrived at Wanganui on 30 April 1843, establishing his headquarters at Putiki. He remained there until his death in 1873.

The Revd Richard Taylor left a complete journal of his multifarious interests and doings from the time he was an under-graduate at Cambridge in 1825, until within a few days of his death at Wanganui in 1873, and it is from this journal that Mr Mead has collected the extensive and interesting material for his book.

Taylor's thirty years' connection with Wanganui was broken by two trips to his native land, the first in 1855 when he took with him a Wanganui chief. Hoani Wiremu Hipango. While in England on this occasion, he published the book which has earned him well deserved praise—‘Te Ika a Maui: or New Zealand and its Inhabitants’—a volume which gives an interesting account of the manners, customs, mythology and religious rites of the Maori as well as details of New Zealand geology, natural history, productions and climate.

In 1867, Taylor was again back in England and whilst there published his second book, ‘Past and Present of New Zealand, with Prospects for the Future’. Both books are today out of print and extremely valuable.

But to return to ‘Richard Taylor: Missionary Tramper’. No road, no track, no river, no lake, no forest, no flood—in fact, nothing could prevent Taylor from visiting the vast area allotted to his care. His adventures, however, were not limited to the West Coast of the North Island. It would be more correct to say that his ‘parish’ was boundless, for often he would be in Auckland, or in Wellington, or in some pa in Taranaki or Taupo or somewhere else. Wherever and whenever he was wanted, whether it be to mediate between tribes, or to assist someone ill, and even to persuade a war party not to pursue its cause, Taylor was there. Nothing was too much, too great or too small for him. A truly dedicated man, his many journeys on foot, on horseback, by canoe, took him to practically every marae in the North Island. Greatly loved by the Maori, the Wanganui people called their life-long friend Te Teira.

I am grateful for being asked to review ‘Richard Taylor: Missionary Tramper’ for, 86 years following Taylor's death, I was greatly honoured to be installed and inducted to the Mission at Putiki — the Mission which was established by Taylor, the Missionary Tramper, a faithful servant and steward and a true rangatira of the highest order. To Mr A. D. Mead, by his masterly extraction and editing of Taylor's journals, enabling the publication of this excellent book, New Zealanders owe a debt of gratitude, for through his labours, he has brought to light what sort of stuff the early missionaries were made of.

Race Conflict in New Zealand 1814–1865

Blackwood and Janet Paul, 42s

reviewed by N. P. K. Puriri

In this day and age the difficulty in knowing what to read among the many books on early New Zealand history grows greater every year. The important thing to be said about this book is that is should be on everyone's ‘short list’. I will go further—it should be in every school library, and Government and non-Government agents who deal in any way with Maoris should be thoroughly familiar with its contents.

Mr Miller is a scholar with a remarkably wide range—which indeed he needs for a book which covers the early history of New Zealand and the attitudes of the people, both Maori

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and non-Maori, who were living at the time.

This book tells the story of the birth of a nation, the failures and mistakes of the colonizers. Very few of the early leading Pakeha administrators go unscathed, but on the other hand, missionaries, who usually get a rough time, come out of it with an untarnished image.

Race Conflict in New Zealand is remarkable in that it is crammed full of facts, written in simple language and is as easily digested as a feed of pork bones and puha.

My only complaint about the book is “why wasn't it written fifty years ago?”

In discussing the merits of the book with one of my Ngapuhi kinsmen, he said, “You name it—its go it.” This was a reference to the author's supporting material, which covers approximately 80 pages, on such matters as Tribal War. The Maoris; Physical Condition, British Policy 1839, The Maori and English Law: Maori Attitude, The Maori and the Constitution of 1852, and many other subjects.

As I have mentioned earlier, it is easily digested and it is good for both Maori and Pakeha. In the future, when some New Zealanders are a little paler than they are today and others a little darker, these things that happened so long ago can be a common heritage of all New Zealanders.

This book will be of value to all readers, and the value lies not necessarily in blaming Pakehas for all that happened but in looking back and thus ensuring that such misunderstanding does not happen in our time, nor in the time of our many descendants who are yet unthought of and unborn.

Harold Miller, my wife thanks you, my children thank you, and I thank you, for helping us understand ourselves better and at the same time understand our Pakeha neighbours.

To those who wish to understand and to be understood, beg, borrow or better still, buy a copy. It is worth every penny of its 42 shillings.

English Maori Dictionary 1966 Edition

A. H. & A. W. Reed, 15s

reviewed by P. J. Ruha

Dr Bruē Biggs is to be complimented on this English-Maori dictionary. It is evident that much research, time and effort have gone into the producing of this book and so it deserves high praise and admiration.

The introduction is good and it covers most of the aspects of (1) Grammar (2) Orthography (3) Pronunciation.

Some of Dr Biggs' grammar terms, however, could confuse the non-linguist. The orthography has been explained quite clearly but the fact that some of us prefer the use of the macron, makes me feel that this dictionary could perhaps have been produced in both forms. Dr Biggs points out in his opening sentence on pronunciation—‘that it is not possible to illustrate in writing the exact pronunciation of a language’—etc. The ae combination is difficult at any time to illustrate. Here the author has used igh as in high as an illustration. This to me would be more suited to the ai combination, than the ae.

Some possibly unfamiliar comparisons of sounds are drawn, e.g. how many readers of this dictionary would know the B.B.C. pronunciation for house and the Oxford pronunciation for very?

The main part of this book is excellent. I feel that Dr Biggs has produced a dictionary that is worth adding to the bookshelf at home or at school.

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RECORDS

MAORI
Hannah Tatana, mezzo contralto, with
Dave Tatana, guitar.

Viking VP-173 12in 33½ LP

Pride of place in this review goes to a delightful recording by Viking which features Hannah Tatana singing a selection of popular Maori songs.

Miss Tatana has been somewhat over-shadowed in recent years by the meteoric rise to fame of Kiri Te Kanawa. This is a pity, for Miss Tatana is a fine singer with a notable record of success in national competitions in this country and in Australia. She has also had a number of professional appearances with the NZBC Symphony and Concert Orchestras as well as having made extensive recital tours throughout New Zealand. Her theatrical experience includes chorus work in several productions, understudy and alternate to the principal soloist in the NZ Opera Company's production of Carmen and the principal roles in Vaughan William's The Poisoned Kiss and the Opera Company's recent Porgy and Bess.

In this record Miss Tatana sings with appealing simplicity many of the vintage songs of Maoridom and several Sam Freedman numbers. There is no striving for effect or sophisticated arrangements. Some of the songs have been double recorded so that Miss Tatana sings duets with herself. The purist may deprecate such fakery but the effect is pleasing and the result is a further demonstration of the range and versatility of Hannah Tatana's voice.

The review would not be complete without a few words of commendation for the guitar accompaniments by Miss Tatana's brother. Dave. Each accompaniment is a gem in itself. The record should be required listening for all aspiring players of guitar accompaniments. Dave Tatana's playing produces a wonderful fusion of voice and guitar with each being completely complimentary to the other.

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HAERE MAI

Kiwi LC-29 12 in 33½ LP

Basically the idea of this record is a good one. It is intended as a contribution to the current tourist promotion in connection with Haeremai year—as an attractive souvenir collection by a number of Kiwi recording groups to illustrate the diversity of Maori music and dance. The chants, haka and songs are linked by a short spoken commentary by “Miss Haere-Mai”. This also is a good idea. The tourist can return home and tell of his adventures in the depths of the far-off South Pacific. To prove it he can produce a record of gen-you-eyne May-oree music with a gen-you-eyne Noo Zealand May-oree providing a brief commentary. Unfortunately as soon as “Miss Haere-mai” opens her mouth one realises that this record is going to be less than completely satisfying. As “Miss Haere-mai” sing-songs her way through the script, stalking pure Strine (Kiwi version), one longs for the rolling cadences and pure vowel sounds which are Maori speech at its best.

Apart from this not inconsiderable flaw, the record is a good one. The cover proclaiming it to be “a welcome to New Zealand in Maori song, chant and haka”, is colourful and eye-catching. The selection of items on the disc, beginning with a most attractive little verse in English by Kiri Te Kanawa and entitled Haere Mai, is first class. It features some of the best Maori amateur groups in New Zealand today. A record of Maori music providing such a variety and range of item and artists is most welcome.

KIRI

Kiri Te Kanawa with Orchestra and Chorus directed by Oswald Cheesman.

Kiwi LC-31 12in 33⅓ LP

Kiri's hundreds of fans are probably already snapping up this record which features Miss Te Kanawa singing songs from such shows as West Side Story, Sound of Music, Showboat and Porgy and Bess as well as a song from Carmen and some pop numbers—altogether a very catholic selection.

Her singing in some of the items is a little tame. She is really at her best in songs which offer scope for the dramatic rather than in feather-weight strict tempo stuff. The contrast can be seen on the first two tracks of side one—the first of which is I Feel Pretty (pretty … what? one wonders) and the second is a much more satisfying rendition of Lecuona's Malaguena. However, all-in-all this record features a light-hearted Kiwi full of the joys of life and singing and that is probably how most people will like to remember her during her long sojourn overseas.

DOMINICK GOES CRUISING

Kiwi LC-30 12in 33⅓ LP

When Cliffe (A. W.) Reed went a-cruising around the Pacific several years ago he was so impressed by the Filipino Band on the good shippe Kuala Lumpur that the approached them with an offer to look him up next time they were in New Zealand and make a record for the Kiwi label.

Some time later, like the proverbial bolt from the blue, Kiwi received a cable which said in effect “Arriving tomorrow—set up recording session”. Kiwi rose to the occasion and in a hectic recording schedule during the ship's brief stop-over in Wellington and Auckland recorded the material which is heard on this disc—one of sophisticated dance arrangements from a band which knows its business.

ISLES OF HAPPINESS

The Pohutukawa Performers.

Viking VP-158 12in 33⅓ LP

There is something about this record which you will find appealing if you are an old square like this reviewer. It induces twinges of nostalgia for the old dance hall back home and the Saturday night hop with an orchestra which sets about its job, without any nonsense and plays music which you can sing.

The disc features a combo (drums, trumpet, double bass, lead guitar) playing locally composed melodies with a South Sea Island flavour. Vocal backing is from a folk-singing quartet “The Four Corners” with Buddy Collins and Cynthia d'Ouglas taking the solo spots.

It is all so pleasant and wholesome. In an era in which any self-respecting dance orchestra feels that blaring cacophony is de rigeur and that vocalists are only there to be drowned out, this record is refreshing indeed. The songs are most attractive, even if not startlingly original, and with tunes that you can hum. The rhythm sets your feet going, the singers are in tune and you can actually hear the lyrics. If you want a good party record, to which your guests can dance rather than perform acrobatics, then you should try “Isles of Happiness”. Our version was mono. There is a stereo version on which we cannot comment.

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Picture icon

— Solution to No. 52 —

Crossword Puzzle 53

WHAKARUNGA

1. First time (5)
6. Clothes (6)
9. Great, important, superior (8)
12. Of course! (2)
14. Pet, darling, lover (3)
15. Of, from yesterday (7)
17. For (2)
18. The (2)
19. Fly (5)
20. Tar (2)
22. Fish (3)
24. Dash water out of a canoe by moving paddle briskly from side to side (4)
25. Move; trigger of a gun (3)
26. Tongue (5)
27. Boil (5)
29. Address to an old lady (1, 3)
30. Fault, wrong (2)
31. Deceitful (7)
34. Greet (4)
37. Fry (5)
38. Supreme being (2)
39. Īsaac (5)
40. Dear me! cry (3)
41. Kit (4)
46. His, hers (pl.) (3)
47. Small, insignificant (10)
49. Shake, earthquake (2)
51. Avenged, paid for (2)
52. Shaggy, unkempt (10)

WHAKARARO

1. Cautious, on one's guard (5)
2. Cross (6)
3. Sharpen on a stone; grind (3)
4. Burn (2)
5. Start suddenly (7)
6. Fermented corn (5, 5)
7. Australia (10)
8. Breath, wind (2)
10. For, since (7)
11. Mix; gravy or juice from cooking (4)
13. Overgrow, choke (8)
16. World, day (2)
21. I don't know (3)
23. Ladder or bridge (8)
25. Spirit, ghost (5)
28. Without strength (8)
32. Unoccupied space (3)
33. So that, in order that (3)
35. Land (6)
36. Upwards (3)
37. Fortified village (2)
42. Wet (4)
43. Small shellfish dug out of the sand (4)
44. Cut; island (4)
45. Mutton bird (4)
48. Face in a certain direction; go (3)
50. Land on shore (1)

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TIAKINA NGA MANU MAORI

TE KIWI

Kei te ngaro haere te kiwi, no te mea kei te kore haere ona wahi noho, te ngaherehere, a, kei te patua kinotia e te kuri me etahi atu kararehe. Ka nui hoki kei te mate, mate huhukore noa iho, i roto i nga rore paihama, ara ‘oppossum’.

Kia ora ai te manu mokai, he manu tipua te tohu o Aotearoa tenei te tangi atu

AROHAINA MAI

Na Te Tari

Kaitiaki o nga Manu