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No. 55 (June 1966)
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Te Ao Hou

The Department of Maori Affairs JUNE 1966

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Te Ao Hou

The Dream, Patricia Grace 14
Kahukura and the Fishing Nets of the Fairies 56
For an Old Man Dying, Frederick C. Parmee 58
Church Gives Back Nukutaimemeha 5
Hail and Farewell 6
Young Maoris Become Skilled Tradesmen 7
New Schools for Old Crafts 9
Haere Mai Year Recording 13
Transcriptions of Authentic Maori Chant: part 8 Mervyn McLean 16
He Maemae Mo Wahini-iti, Pei Te Hurinui 19
Travel Award Winners 23
28th Battalion Reunion 24
New Headmaster at Te Aute College 25
Te Aute Garden Party 26
Waitangi 1966 28
Regatta at Ngaruawahia 32
Meet the People 34
Tuini Ngawai Memorial Hui 36
Rescue in the Rimutukas 38
The Duries of Feilding 39
Guide Rangi Retires 40
Pre-employment Courses for Young Maoris, N. Harrison 42
Welfare League Activities 46
Mr W. Herewini Visits New Zealand Servicemen 48
Innovation, Ian Mitchell 50
Princess Piki Opens Moana Kahakora 54
Ruatoki Celebrates 70th Jubilee 55
Play Centres and Maori Education, L. A. Loeffen 59
Answer to Homework Problem 62
Waititi Memorial 64
Haere Ki o Koutou Tipuna 2
People and Places 10
Record Review, Alan Armstrong 52
Crossword Puzzle 61
Book Reviews 62

correction: The winner of the sheep and cattle section of the Ahuwhenua Trophy, Mr J. W. Thompson, comes from Oputia, Waikato, and not from Rotorua as shown on p. 49 of the March issue.

cover: This year is the 45th Anniversary of Bishop Panapa's ordination into the Anglican clergy. After education at St. Stephen's School, Bombay, Auckland, Te Rau Theological College, Gisborne, and St. John's College, Auckland, he was ordained Deacon in 1921 and Priest in 1923. He was consecrated Lord Bishop Suffragen to the Bishop of Waiapu at St. John's pro-Cathedral, Napier, in 1951.

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Dr Ronald Lawrence Whatu

The death occurred recently at Seattle, Washington, of Dr Ronald Lawrence Whatu, formerly of Hamilton. He was 34.

Dr Whatu was the son of the late Mrs Elizabeth Whatu, a prominent leader in the Hamilton Maori community who was awarded the Queen's Coronation Medal for her work.

Born in 1932, he was educated at Frankton Primary School and Hamilton Boys' High School before attending Victoria University of Wellington. At Victoria University he distinguished himself by becoming the first Maori to win a Hugh Jenkins Memorial Scholarship. This entitled him to study at the Palmer School of Chiropractic in Davenport, Iowa, U.S.A.

Dr Whatu graduated from the four-year course after three years of intensive study and in 1959 married Miss S. Shindledecker.

After teaching for some time at the school from which he graduated, Dr Whatu began to practise three months ago in Seattle, Washington.

Dr Whatu is survived by his wife and two young daughters and by four brothers and five sisters.

Mr Rufus Gilbert Oxley

The death occurred recently at a private hospital in Palmerston North, of Mr Rufus Gilbert Oxley. He was 59.

Mr Oxley, who was born in Christchurch, was a well known Wanganui River Maori elder. He was of the Ngati Pamoana subtribe of the Te Ati-Haunui-a-paparangi tribe, better known as the Wainui-a-Rui.

For many years Mr Oxley was employed by the Ministry of Works, first as an overseer on the Wanganui River road and later at Taupo, where he lived. He was educated at Te Aute College.

Mr Oxley won distinction on the rugby field in earlier years both as a Wanganui and as a Maori representative.

He was a Justice of the Peace, a member of the Taupo Lions Club and the Taupo Prisoners' Aid Society, and a prominent international stamp dealer.

Mr Oxley is survived by his wife, who is a member of the Tuwharetoa Tribe, and by three daughters.

The Rev. Henare Tipiwhenua Kaa

The Rev. Henare Tipiwhenua Kaa, vicar of the Waiapu pastorate of the Anglican Church, died in Te Puia on 18 April 1966.

Mr Kaa who was in his 63rd year had been in poor health for the past 12 months.

A member of a prominent Rangitukia family, Mr Kaa was educated at St. Stephen's School and Te Aute College, and returned to Rangitukia to take up farming there.

Always a leader in church affairs, Tipi Kaa as he was known, was a lay reader in the Waiapu district for many years before taking the cloth in 1958.

He was appointed to the Te Kaba pastorate in that year as a deacon, being elevated to the priesthood in 1959.

In 1963, Mr Kaa was appointed vicar of the Waiapu pastorate, where he remained until his death.

Mr Kaa is survived by his wife, the former Miss Hohi Whaanga, and an adult family of 13, one of whom, John, is deacon to the Taupo pastorate.

Mr Alan Te Pohe Powell

A former member of the R.N.Z.A.F., Mr Alan Te Pohe Powell, of Maungapohatu, Urewera, was accidentally killed on 16 March.

Mr Powell was a logging contractor, who had played a big part in the road construction in the area. Later he logged timber from the Maungapohatu forests for the companies working there.

Mr Powell is survived by his wife and six children. Mrs Powell is the daughter of the late Mr Hemi Tawa, a well-known Tuhoe

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elder, whose inspiration led to the negotiations for the timber road which Mr Powell helped construct over the Huiarau Range. He was the grandson of the late Wiri Toka, a leader of the Ngatiwhatua tribe.

Mrs Te Keehi Kati

Mrs Te Keehi Kati died at her home in Oruaiwi, Taringamotu Valley, on 3 February. She was 95.

Mrs Kati, widow of Maraku Kati, was a granddaughter of the Maori poetess Puhiwahine and Johann Wolfgang Goethe. He is said to be a descendant of the German poet-playwright-philosopher.

Mrs Kati settled with her first husband, Meihana, chief of the Parekawa, sub-tribe of the Tuwharetoas, on the western side of Lake Taupo, and lived there after his death.

Subsequently she married Maraku Kati and after his death, nearly 10 years ago, she settled in Oruaiwi near Taumarunui. She was an elder of the Hinemihi sub-tribe and a member of the Tuwharetoa tribe.


Captain Albert Mokomoko, one of the very few Maoris to become master of a merchant ship, died at sea on 12 March, aged 49.

Master of Holm and Co.'s Holmlea, Captain Mokomoko collapsed and died when his ship was in Cook Strait on its way from Lyttelton to Onehunga.

Captain Mokomoko, a member of the Whakatohea tribe, was born in Opotiki of a family well known for its knowledge of the sea. His father was pilot at the port of Opotiki and his five brothers all looked to the sea for their livelihood, one of them becoming a chief engineer.

Starting his career in 1935, Captain Mokomoko spent two years before the mast in inter-colonial vessels. He then spent six years in ships of A. G. Frankham's coastal fleet and obtained his mate's ticket in 1942. He next joined the Northern Steamship Company and obtained his master's ticket in 1946.

Mr Maaka Tauranga

Mr Maaka Tauranga died recently in Gisborne, aged 81.

Distinguished for his fine record of service in the First World War, Mr Tauranga was an original member of the Maori Contingent and survived two woundings in action.

He was wounded in action on the Gallipoli Peninsula and after treatment in Middle East Hospitals was invalided home to New Zealand, where he made a good recovery and volunteered a second time to serve in France. Mr Tauranga is thought to be one of only two Maori servicemen who left New Zealand twice for the 1914–18 war.

In France Mr Tauranga was wounded again while working under enemy fire, but he was not disabled for long.

Returning to New Zealand he took up his former occupation as a shepherd and drover, in which capacity he was highly regarded.

Mr Tauranga was a widower. He is survived by two sons and two daughters.

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Taranaki Herald photo
Captain Albert Mokomoko

Three years later he was given his first command and was master of several ships of the Northern Company's fleet before transferring to the Holm Co.

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Speaking of Captain Mokomoko, the managing director of the Holm Co., Captain J. F. Holm, said, “He was both highly regarded and well-liked.” His skill as master was recognised by the fact that he had won pilotage exemptions from every port in New Zealand.

Captain Mokomoko's home was in Auckland, where he was buried. He leaves a wife and children.


Mrs Puhi-O-Aotea Ratahi, president of the Ratana Church, and spiritual leader of more than 23,000 Maoris, died suddenly at Ratana Pa on 17 April. She was the last sister of the founder of the church Tahu Potiki Wiremu Ratana, and had been its president for 16 years. She succeeded her nephews, Matiu Ratana and Tokorua Haami Ratana in 1950.

Her work for the church was linked with a close interest in the welfare and development of the Maori people, and this work will be remembered by the whole of the Ratana movement and the Maori people in general.

With massed bands, choirs and almost 4000 mourners present Mrs Ratahi was buried at Ratana Pa on 23 April as both Maori and Pakeha paid tribute. Three separate services were held—on the marae, inside the Ratana temple, and at the graveside in the Piki Te Ora cemetery. As a special mark of respect, the coffin was carried inside the temple, whereas for more than 20 years all others have remained outside.

The funeral began with a tape recording of Mrs Ratahi's last public speech, made at the Tauranga Easter convention of the Ratana Youth Movement. Ratana leaders led the service on the marae, which was marked by a eulogy from a representative of the National Council of Churches, the Rev. G. Laurenson.

The cortege moved from the marae to the temple, which was filled to capacity with more than 2000 people, while the rest of the mourners remained outside.

At the graveside, the Rev. H. C. Edmonds, vice-president of the Church, officiated, assisted by the Rev. Kingi Thaka, of Wellington, representing the Church of England.

Many speakers paid tribute to the memory of Mrs Ratahi and her work. Among them were a large number of dignitaries, including the Mayor of Wanganui, Mr R. P. Andrews, representatives of the Government, the Labour Party, and local bodies.

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The cortege leaves the temple Wanganui Chronicle Photo

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Mrs Patihana Kokiri Times-Age photo

Nukutaimemeha, an elaborately carved meeting house, has been given back to the Maori people of Carterton by the Wellington Diocesan Board of the Anglican Church.

The meeting house was built for the esteemed late Major Paraone Tunuiorangi and was given to the church by his only living child, Mrs Patihana Kokiri. The gift was made in memory of Mrs Kokiri's late husband, the Rev. Patihana Kokiri, who spent 17 years working amongst his parishioners in the Wairarapa.

Born in Gladstone as Mihipa Te Inuwai, Mrs Kokiri now lives at Tengae Junction, Rotorua, where she retired with her husband.

During his military career her father, Major Paraone Tunuiorangi, visited England, where he was given charge of the New Zealand Regiment at Queen Victoria's diamond jubilee celebrations. He was presented at Court and received from the Queen a jubilee medal and a valuable ceremonial sword.

Built between 1912 and 1916, the meeting house is in good condition. Some of the carvings were done by Tehuruhuru, a Maori carver, with the help of a younger brother Taimona, and they were completed by the late Hepi Te Heuheu, son of the late Heuheu Tukino, of Taupo, who was a member of the Legislative Council.

The pou toko manawa of Nukutaimemeha, which is named after Maui's canoe, is appropriately carved to depict Maui hauling the North Island from the sea while an angry sea-god holds it by the tail.

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Times-Age Masterton photo

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Joy Stevenson

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Margaret Orbell


The new editor of Te Ao Hou is Joy Stevenson, who comes from the teaching profession. For the last six years she has been teaching primer classes at the Department of Education's Correspondence School, where she assisted in the writing of a new two year primer course, wrote many radio scripts, and was for the last two years, co-editor of the school's magazine, The Postman.

Several times she acted as one of the school's visiting teachers, meeting many Maori and Pakeha pupils in their homes.

Miss Stevenson's main interests are in music and young people. She is keen to accept the suggestion made by many subscribers, and establish a section especially for Te Ao Hou's younger readers.


Miss Margaret Orbell recently resigned from the position of editor of Te Ao Hou, which she had held for the past four years.

Miss Orbell's interest in traditional Maori literature has been reflected in the translations that have appeared in the magazine. She also continued Te Ao Hou's policy of encouraging the work of contemporary Maori short-story writers and poets. Her other special interest is in the field of Maori art, and many of the photographs of carvings and paintings which appeared in the magazine were her own work.

Margaret Orbell is now teaching Maori at the Correspondence School in Wellington.

He porporoaki poto noa tenei ki te Etita o Te Ao Hou.

Tena koe, e hine, i to kaha ki te kohikohi ki te whakatikatika i ta tatou pukapuka. Kei te mohio atu hoki, i whakapaua e koe to kaha kia tika ai a Te Ao Hou. Na reira, tena koe.

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Seven years ago the Department of Maori Affairs launched the first of a number of special training schemes in a new drive to encourage more young Maoris into skilled trades. These special measures have since been greatly expanded and in the intervening period, encouraging, and in some cases, outstanding results have been achieved.

From the modest start in 1959, when ten Maori boys were recruited for training at Auckland in one trade — carpentry — the schemes have grown rapidly and now encompass an intake of 144 boys each year, with seven different apprenticeship trades operating at training centres in Auckland, Lower Hutt and Christchurch.

The special trade courses are operated by the Department in conjunction with the technical institutions at Auckland. Petone and Christchurch and have the full approval of the educational and apprenticeship authorities.

Major Help to Industry

Maori apprentices from the special training schemes have a high reputation with employers, because of their better than average pass rate in the preliminary trade examinations, and a comparatively small drop-out rate. The training schemes have obviously become acceptable to the Maori people and are now attracting applications from more than double the number of boys who can be catered for.

Many Advantages

These courses offer many advantages, not the least of which is that in many cases they provide the only real opportunity for Maori boys in country areas to take up skilled trades. Besides giving intensive theoretical and practical instruction in each trade, the courses are specially designed to give the Maori boys extra help in essential academic subjects, such as English and mathematics. The trainees are placed in accommodation at suitable hostels, mostly operated by church organisations, and special emphasis is placed on helping them to adapt themselves to the often bewildering complexity of city life.

Boys taken into the schemes become employees of the Department of Maori Affairs and receive normal apprentices' wages. At the end of the course they are placed with private employers to complete their apprenticeships in the usual way. Time spent in the courses run by the Department count towards the apprenticeship term.

Country Boys Given Preference

Entry is normally confined to boys from country areas, between 15 and 18 years of age, with not less than two years secondary education. Many of the boys actually possess much better educational qualifications than the minimum apprenticeship requirement, and an increasing number have passed School Certificate.

Selections are made at Wellington by a committee comprising representatives of the Department of Maori Affairs, the Department of Education, the New Zealand Apprenticeship Committees, and the particular technical institutes conducting the courses.

Variety of Trades

Maori boys wishing to take up apprenticeship training under this scheme now have a range of seven different trades to choose from. At first, only carpentry was available, the first course being at Auckland in 1959. A second carpentry centre was opened at Gracefield, Lower Hutt, in 1961, followed by a third centre at Weedons, Christchurch, in 1962. These are all two-year courses. An interesting feature is that the carpentry trainees spend twelve months on actual house building under normal field conditions, supervised by experienced building instructors. The boys are split into gangs of six, each gang building three different types of house, which on completion, are sold to Maori families. Since the carpentry scheme started in 1959 the trainees have built nearly 150 houses, as well as completing a number of other building jobs.

One-year courses in plumbing and electrical wiring were started at the technical institutes in 1962, and a motor mechanics course was introduced in Auckland in 1963. The follow-

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ing year, courses in painting and panel beating were started at Christchurch, and in 1965, plastering was introduced at Lower Hutt.

The annual intake of boys at each of the three carpentry centres is 24. The six one-year courses each cater for classes of 12 boys.

Holiday Work

During the May and September secondary school holidays, when the technical institutes are closed, the Maori trainees are temporarily attached to private employers. This gives the employers an excellent chance to assess the value of the scheme and the capabilities of the trainees.

Good Trade Examination Results

The trade examination results of boys trained under the schemes are generally better than the national average for all apprentices. Some outstanding examination results have been obtained, not only by individual trainees but also by whole groups. Last year all the boys in a class of 21 first-year carpentry trainees at Gracefield passed both papers of the First Qualifying Examination. Fourteen of the boys obtained marks ranging from 70% to 94% in one examination paper, and 11 trainees had marks between 70% and 83% in the other paper. In the Second Qualifying Examination in carpentry, 19 trainees sat Paper A, and 18 passed.

At Auckland, a former electrical trainee, Eric Beazley from Northland, won a gold medal for gaining the highest marks (96 per cent) as the top electrical apprentice in New Zealand. The previous year, another former Auckland trainee, Peter Papanui, a carpenter, won the Governor-General's Gold Cup as the best apprentice in all trades at the Auckland Technical Institute.

At Christchurch, two boys from the painting and paper-hanging course, Pari Hunt from Ahititi, and John Ngaire from Putaruru, won the Taubman's Travel Award.

Special Apprentices' Hostels

The success of the schemes is due in no small measure to placing the trainees in suitable hostels where they receive the benefit of close but friendly supervision and helpful advice and guidance.

Four hostels of about 180 beds are now being used at Auckland. Of these, two are owned by the Department. Owens Road Hostel, a new property, was purchased by the Department last year and has accommodation for 50 boys. It is leased to the United Maori Mission. Domett Avenue Hostel was taken over from the Department of Labour in 1965 and a new 30-bed wing has since been built by the carpentry trainees. This hostel is leased to the Presbyterian Church. A third hostel, Gillies Avenue, is owned by the Maori Trustee. This is also leased to the United Maori Mission. The fourth hostel is at Dominion Road, and is owned and operated by the Presbyterian Church.

The Lower Hutt trainees are all provided with accommodation at the Trentham Immigration Hostel, owned and operated by the Department of Labour.

At Christchurch two hostels are used. One, Rehua Hostel, is owned by Central Methodist Mission and the Department of Maori Affairs is financing the erection of a new three-storied, 33-bed wing, which will be completed before the end of the year. Hanson's Lane Hostel, at Riccarton, was earlier taken over from the Department of Labour and leased to the Social Service Council, Diocese of Christchurch. Major extensions to this property are also under way by the Department to provide a further 30 beds. This new work is also being carried out by Maori trainees and will be completed before the end of the year.

Rapidly Increasing Numbers

To date 673 boys have been taken into the training schemes. Of these, 423 have completed their training and have been placed with employers. So far, 114 former trainees, all carpenters, have completed their apprenticeships. The number of drop-outs after apprenticeship to employers has been low. At the moment, more than 200 boys are receiving training and at the present rate of intake, some 1,100 boys will have been taken into the trade training scheme by 1970.

National Interests Being Served

The skilled worker and technologist is in greater demand today than ever before. The Department of Maori Affairs is well aware of the large number of Maoris in unskilled employment, and has taken positive steps to change the situation. It is evident that these trade training schemes are now making a significant and important contribution to the industrial development of the nation, and to the Maori's place in modern society. Although much more still remains to be done, it can be said that, as the first step in closing the gap

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between the unskilled and higher professions, the present progress in the apprenticeship field is a vitally important one in the occupational development of the Maori people. Although it is obvious that largely as a result of these special measures, the annual intake of Maori apprentices has been doubled in recent years, it is clear that the scheme will have to be accelerated if the movement of Maoris into skilled trades is to be fostered and extended.


A force in preserving traditional Maori skills is the noted Maori carver Pine Taiapa.

In January Mr Taiapa was invited to launch the first Maori arts course to be included in the National Arts Council's annual school of music held at Ardmore. Centred on carving, its evolution and significance, the course was attended by 18 pupils.

“The most outstanding pupil was a Maori girl from Tuakau, who became the first Maori woman to attempt the carving course,” said Mr Taiapa.

“Although it was often assumed that women were not permitted to undertake carving,” he said, “this was not so. Maori tradition clearly indicated that where women were responsible for an oustanding achievement generally attributed to men, they were permitted to undertake such men's work as carving.”

Two groups attended the course at Ardmore in order to complete, on their return home, carving projects begun earlier. A Tauranga party wanted to finish their marae and meeting house at Bethlehem, while a group from Orakei wanted to complete the interior of their church on the Orakei Domain.

The Orakei project was begun after a school of Maori art held by Mr Taiapa last year in Tikitiki. The school was attended by 86 pupils and was so successful that it is to be followed by a second, between 27 August and 3 September of this year.

The formation of this second school is also due to the encouragement of the Minister of Education, Mr A. E. Kinsella. Speaking at the opening of the first, Mr Kinsella said that it would be ideal if Tikitiki were to become the venue for future courses to perpetuate Maori arts and crafts.

Mr S. R. Morrison, director of the Auckland University's Extension Department, said recently that the school would have to be restricted to about 100, as even this number would double the population of Tikitiki. Although the course would be open to all New Zealanders keen to learn and perpetuate Maori art, Mr Morrison said that priority would be given to people actually engaged in weaving and carving for meeting houses.

Under the over-all guidance of Mr Taiapa, seven tutors will teach all facets of Maori art, including carving, matting, painting and song.

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Mr Pine Taiapa's brother, John, first master carver to be appointed by the Rotorua Maori Arts and Crafts Institute

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Mrs Maria Totara


Still Enjoys Gardening

Mrs Maria Totara, 102 last March, was recently given a new light spade by her daughter and son-in-law, Mr and Mrs Duke Waipouri, with whom she lives, at Kaihu, 16 miles north of Dargaville. Mrs Totara loves gardening and would insist on using her old heavy spade.

Mrs Totara is the pride of her family and of the district. Fit and well, she rises near dawn each day to work in her garden. She loves television and is usually last to bed as well as first to rise.

She likes to travel and on 5 March insisted on going to see the new Catholic Maori Centre in Manukau Road which was opened by the Governor - General, Sir Bernard Fergusson.

An Exciting Invitation

The Waioeka Youth Club from near Opotiki was invited to Australia last March by the Mayor of Toowoomba to entertain at the city's 17th annual Carnival of the Flowers.

When the invitation was issued the young, brightly costumed East Coast group were entertaining 140 Australian tourists at the Tamatekapua meeting house. Ohinemutu, Normally, this would have been done by a Rotorua concert party, but the Waioeka Club

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Members of the Waioeka Youth Club performing at Ohinemutu Rotorua Post photo

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were testing themselves out in front of a large audience before performing for the Queen Mother on 30 April.

Ngarimu Scholarships

Nine scholarships were awarded this year by the Ngarimu VC and 28th (Maori) Battalion Memorial Scholarship Fund Board.

Secondary school scholarships were awarded to Mary Hovell, of Gisborne Girls' High School, and to Frank Walker, of Gisborne Boys' High School. A scholarship awarded last year to Ronald James Lockwood was renewed.

The three new university scholarships awarded this year went to Rhys Michael Barlow (Victoria University of Wellington), Paul Samuel Ngata Howe (University of Waikato) and Deanne Betty Marina Wihongi (Massey University of Manawatu).

Scholarships were continued this year for Susan Lee Brown (Victoria University of Wellington), Eric Woodbine Pomare (University of Otago) and Paratene Ngata (University of Otago).

Representation Essential

The Board of Governors of Taupo nui a Tia College have set up a sub-committee to consult Maori members of the community about Maori representation on the Board.

The chairman of the board, Mr C. S. Currie, said he thought it essential that the Maori people should have a representative on the board to present their viewpoint.

The new sub-committee will seek nominations for the position from members of the Taupo Maori community.

Sculptures for Assembly Hall

Artist Mr Para Matchitt has recently completed work on the new assembly hall of Sacred Heart Girls' College, Hamilton, for which he designed a mural and carved four 18 ft wooden sculptures.

The sculptures have been set in concrete below floor level on either side of the stage. Two of them represent a man and a woman, and the other two, the going out into the world and the division between heaven and earth. They have been left in natural totara colour and blend well with the wood panelled walls and bronze stage curtains.

Speaking of his choice of Maori myth themes, Mr Matchitt said, “It is a subject I have studied deeply and this is a personal interpretation. As such the work has ceased to be straight Maori carving.”

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Mr Para Matchitt with two of the sculptures

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Y.W.C.A. Charm Course

About 50 Maori girls attended Auckland's first all-Maori charm course last March. The course was held by the Y.W.C.A. and was designed mainly for the young girl from the country who had begun to work in Auckland.

Topics in the course included, Eat and be Beautiful, Grooming and Poise, Budgeting in the Big City, What to Wear and When, and Maori Arts, Singing and Dancing.

The tutors were all well known in their fields and included a former Miss New Zealand, Mrs Leonie Yarwood.

Home Again

Maori middleweight boxer, P. Savage, returned to New Zealand in February after spending eight years in Britain.

While in Britain he had only four losses in 36 bouts. He also competed in many wrestling bouts.

For most of the time he worked with the British Railways at Rhondda, a coal mining district in Wales. He intends to settle permanently in New Zealand with his Welsh wife and four children.

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Mr P. Savage with his wife and family Evening Post photo

Tombstone Unveiled

The Rev. Anaru Ngawaka, a chief and spiritual leader of the Rarawa tribe, was honoured on Sunday, 6 March, when his tombstone was unveiled at a ceremony in the Anglican churchyard.

The ceremony was held on the peninsula that the Rev. Joseph Matthews called ‘Mesopotamia’, which lies between the two rivers which form the harbour, the Awaroa and the Rotokakahi.

About 200 people crossed the several hundred yards of water to the graveside in open boats. The Rev. W. N. Patuawa conducted morning service and later Holy Communion, worshippers kneeling at the old-fashioned circular altar rail.

Besides the memorial to Mr Ngawaka, two tombstones commemorating other members of the family were also unveiled.

When the tombstone was revealed from under its glittering pall and feather cloak it displayed an epitaph in classic Maori by the Rev. J. Hadfield. It spoke of the wisdom and chiefly attributes of the leader who was unquestioned chief of the Rarawa tribe.

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Miss Haere-mai, 22-year-old Carol Cunningham of Auckland, is shown presenting the first pressing of a special “Haere-mai Year” recording to Mr R. S. Odell, General Manager of the Tourist and Publicity Department (left) and Mr J. L. Chapman, President of the New Zealand Travel and Holidays Association. Watching is factory foreman Mr D. Grylls.

Called Haere-mai, the H.M.V. recording has been released in support of New Zealand's biggest single tourist promotion campaign, “Haere-mai Year”, which is under way in Australia and New Zealand.

New Zealand's celebrated Maori soprano, Kiri Te Kanawa, sings the title song on the record as her personal contribution to the success of “Haere-mai Year”. Each item on the recording is introduced by Miss Haeremai, and Maori groups from all over the country have contributed to make the recording interesting and enjoyable.

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It was still dark when Raniera awoke from a disturbed sleep. In the night the dream had come to him. Carefully he groped back through the fuzz of his awakening, pushing his thoughts back into the dark moments of oblivion. The dream … What was it now? He had seen himself in his dream. Alone—standing on the soft bank of a deep muddy creek. Stooping, peering into the murky water, and something in his hand … a rope.

Yes, a rope. Now it all came to him … the hinaki. His hinaki, sucked deep into the soft grey mud, and himself pulling on the rope knowing that the hinaki would be full of eels, because pulling took all his strength.

Slowly the wire cage had surfaced and he had seen then that it was full, not with several cels as he had thought, but with one big eel … a tremendous eel—thick, black, coiled round in the hinaki like an inflated inner tube.

And in his dream he had dragged his hinaki with the eel in it up the bank, and tipped the eel out onto the grass … the biggest eel he had ever seen. He had seen himself stoop over the eel, put a hand under each gill, and push his fingers around its slimy girth until his fingers touched under the belly. Then he had pointed his thumbs together over the eel's back and his thumbs had just touched.

… There the dream had ended—with him stooping over the eel and measuring its girth with his hands. A hand on each side, thumbs touching, fingers touching.

This, he felt, was the important part of his dream. What did it mean? He felt under the pillow for his Best Bets, then reached out to light the candle which was on a chair by the bed.

Best Bets was open at the ‘second leg’. Slowly he read down the list of names, turning each carefully in his mind—looking for a connection with his dream:

‘Gay Ring,
Gold Stripe
Fair Fellow' …

Nothing about eels there.

… ‘Lonely Boy’—lonely? Alone? He had been alone in his dream.

… ‘Black Knight’—the eel was black, the creek dark … ‘Black Knight’.

… ‘Prophecy’—hadn't he tried to prophesy what was in the hinaki? But he had been wrong, and that mean ‘Prophecy’ wouldn't come in. He scratched a line through ‘Prophecy’ with the burnt match head.

… ‘Blue Smoke
Dark Beauty
Royal Sun
Lucky Touch
Foxwood' …

He went over the dream again in his mind, then he put the book down, tipped his fingers together, tipped thumbs. A big eel. As big as that. There must be a winner there somewhere. He'd better get to town early to see Ben and the others, and they could all talk about the dream. Work it out. Must be a winner there somewhere.

“E Hika. He aha te moemoea?” called Ben as Raniera stepped from the taxi and waved to the driver.

“What's the dream?”
“E tama, he tuna.”
“Ei! Kia tika ra!”

“Yeh! A big one this eel. Ka nui te kaita!” He showed Ben with his hands the size of the eel of his dream. And there under the white verandah of the T.A.B. his friends gathered to listen. Ben, Lucy, Monty, Hone, Ritimana, Haua.

Raniera told them how he had been stooping, looking into the mud. They watched him carefully as he showed them how he had pulled the hinaki in, pulled it up the bank, tipped the eel onto the grass.

‘Wii!” he said. “A big eel—that size.” And he showed them how he had measured it with his hands … fingers touching under the belly, thumbs touching over the back.

“Pai. Good dream ne?” said Haua.
“E champion.”

– 15 –

They nodded, smiled, and turned the pages of Best Bets; studied the second leg.

“One eel,” said Lucy. “Number one, ‘Gay Ring’. One eel. Number one.”

“ ‘Dark Beauty’,” said Ben. “A beauty eel. Dark. ‘Dark Beauty’.”

One by one they gave their opinions and advice.

At last it was eleven o'clock, time to place bets for the double. Into the pastel-painted room they went, and had a final look at the printed lists on the wall. Up to the window, bets placed.

Raniera gave his numbers. “Twelve,” he said. No trouble there. His daughter Rose had turned twelve two days ago. Number twelve ‘Sunset Rose’. But the second?

“Aue,” he sighed. One eel in the hinaki, and the eel coiled in a ring. Number one. ‘Gay Ring’. Must be. “Twelve and one,” he said.

There was a hush in the bar as the race began. “This ti-ime,” called the commentator. “Off to a good start … Fair Fellow, Guardian, Gay Ring” …

Raniera, Ben, Monty, Hone, Ritimana and Haua drummed their fists on the bar.

“Na, ‘Gay Ring’.”

“Ho! A good start. Ka pai ne?”

Earlier that day they had heard ‘Sunset Rose’ come in, and now they listened eagerly, certain that this was to be Raniera's lucky day.

“E champion, this dream,” they said.

As the race progressed they all pressed closely together at the bar, feet tapping, bodies rocking.

“Kia kaha! ‘Gay Ring’,” they called as ‘Gay Ring’ went through to challenge the leading horse.

“My horse that one. My dream,” shouted Raniera.

But' Gay Ring', after going into the lead and holding it for a short while began to tire.

…“ ‘Gay Ring’ dropping well back now,” … called the commentator.


“Kei whea ‘Gay Ring’?”

Shoulders drooped, elbows pressed onto the bar, heads shook slowly.

… “And as they pass the post it's ‘Lucky Touch’, half a length from ‘Gold Stripe’, two lengths to ‘Lonely Boy’ …”

“E tama. Kei whea to moemoea? What happened to the dream?”

“Aue! No good.”

Once again out came Best Bets. Fingers down the list—‘Lucky Touch’. Number ten, ‘Lucky Touch’.

“Aue!” said Ben, and he flicked his arms above his head—“Number ten.” And as the others nodded, sighed, he explained.

“Five fingers on this hand. And five fingers on this hand.”

He showed them his hands. “E Ra,” he turned to Raniera. “You put your hands around the tuna like this. Na? Five and five are ten—Number ten. The fingers touched—‘Lucky Touch,’ the fingers touched.”

“Aee,” they agreed.

“Ko tera taku! I'll say!”

Raniera shook his head, “Aue! Waste a good dream.”

“No dough for the Maori today,” said Monty. “Ka hinga ta tatau crate.”

They all laughed.

“E ta, ko haunga to tuna,” said Ritimana slicing the air with his hand. “Your eel stinks.”

“Na! Ka puta mai te piro,” called Haua, as the laughter rose.

Then Raniera spread his fingers wide, raised both arms above his head. “Whio!” he yelled. Down came his arms with a full arm sweep. “Haunga!”

Haunga!” they echoed, and their laughter swelled, burst and filled the bar.

Plan Approved

The Ngati Tawhaki people have obtained approval to build a £2,500 Maori meeting house at Okauia. The plan was approved by the Matamata County Council in March and funds are now being raised. The site is a good one with water laid on.

Study Award For M.P.

The American Embassy announced recently that a United States Department of State grant had been awarded to Mr Matiu Rata, Labour M.P. for Northern Maori.

Mr Rata will meet Federal and State legislators and will observe the operation of congressional committees if they are in session.

He also plans to visit welfare organisations dealing with the American Indian and to meet Negro leaders to study the work of civil rights organisations.

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Part 8

To avoid any appearance of commercialising the songs, Dr McLean has declined to accept payment for his work in preparing this series.

The song transcribed in this issue belongs to a song type less well known that most others, called maimai (sometimes maemae).

This type of song is a haka or ngeri for the dead and is still performed at tangi ceremonies.

In Taranaki, a different type of maimai is traditionally sung while the singers, waving pieces of greenery, precede the corpse. This form of maimai is not recited like a ngeri but is sung in a manner reminiscent of a slowed-down poi. Elsewhere, the maimai is performed in the same way as the ngeri, in recited style with footstamping and haka actions.

The maimai transcribed in this issue is a very well known one which has been recorded by the writer from Pei Te Hurinui, who also supplied the text (Item 101) Turau and Marata Te Tomo (Items 134 and 423) and Hakopa Mohi Moke (Items 793–794). It also appears on Folkways L.P. recording F E 4433, Side 2, Band 1. In the Folkways recording the verses are sung in a different order (2, 4, 3, 1) and the verse beginning katahuri is slightly variant. Otherwise the versions listed above are virtually identical.

Since the song is a recited one, pitch variations in the transcription have shown in a general way only, by means of arrows.

Rhythmically, the song is full of interest and can be taken as typical of the haka or ngeri. Unlike most of the songs earlier transcribed, haka metres are not additive, but divisive like those of western music. Undoubtedly this happens because the haka is a dance form with regular footstamping which imposes its beat upon the music. In musical terms, haka can be said to be in compound time with beats in groups of three throughout and a footstamp on the first beat of every three. Additive rhythms are sometimes introduced, but they have the effect of syncopation since the underlying pulse (>) of the footstamping is not disturbed.

Examples in the maimai transcribed are:

Another good example is the following excerpt from the Wairangi Haka in Part One:

A comparison of the two songs in fact shows many similarities. In particular, there is a great fondness for inverted rhythms such as:

These occur more than five times as frequently as their uninverted counterparts, and together with the syncopations earlier mentioned, are largely responsible for the great musical vitality of these songs.

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He Maimai mo Wahine-iti

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Ko wahine-iti he rangatira nui no Ngāti Kauwhata, hapū o Ngāti Raukawa, o te wā ano e noho ana a Ngāti Kauwhata i te takiwa ki Maunga-tautari, i mua atu i te heke o Ngāti Raukawa i raro i a Te Whatanui i roto hoki i ngā ope a Te Rauparaha i heke ai ki te takiwa ki Kapiti. Na Ngāti Kauwhata tēnei maemae mo Wahine-iti i tōna matenga.

I haere a Wahine-iti rāua ko Hape i roto i te ope-taua a Ngāti Maru o te takiwa ki Ohinemuri. Itaua wā he rangatira toa-taua a Wahine-iti rāua ko Hape no Ngāti Raukawa. He tungāne a Hape no Pare-kōhatu, te whaea o Te Rauparaha. I moe a Pare-kōhatu i a Werawera o Ngāti Toa ka puta; ko Rangi-katukua, ko Wai-tohi, ko Te Kiri-pae-ahi, me te whakapākanga, ko Te Rauparaha. He taitamariki te nuinga o te ope a Ngāti Maru, a ko ta rātou haere e ahu ana ki ngā whenua ki te tonga ki te rapu me te muru taonga mo rātou i roto i ngā poka me ngā ana tūpapaku.

Kāore i whakaae a Ngāti Kauwhata kia haere a Wahine-iti, kaati kāore a ia i whaka-rongo ki te pupuri a tana iwi i a ia; ka kī a ia kāore ia e pai me mate tara-a-whare a ia, ēngari me hinga ki te pakanga; ma te rau o te patu ma te taoroa rānei.

I ngā waahi i haere ai te ope-taua a Ngāti Maru he tō wāhine ētehi o a rātou mahi. I te taenga ki te wā i hoki mai ai ki te wā kāinga i ahu mai rātou ma Roto-a-ira, ka piki mai ma Te Ponanga a ka tae mai ai ki Te Rapa, ki a Te Heuheu 11. He whanaunga a Te Heuheu ki a Hape, a nāna i hoatu ngā i hoatu ngā waka hei whakawhitinga i te Moana o Taupo. I mua i te hoenga o ngā waka ka kī atu a Te Heuheu ki a Hape, “E Hape, kia mau te ihu o te waka ki Tōhine-o-tu.” He kūrae a Tōhine-o-tu kei te taha hauauru o te


Wahine-iti was a high chief of the Ngāti Kauwhata, a sub-tribe of the Ngāti Raukawa, of the time when the Ngāti Kauwhata were living in the Maunga-tautari district, and before the Ngāti Raukawa migrated under Te Whatanui as part of the migration under Te Rauparaha to the Kapiti district. This death chant was composed by Ngāti Kauwhata on the death of Wahine-iti.

Wahine-iti and Hape accompanied a war-party of the Ngāti Maru of the Ohinemuri district. Wahine-iti and Hape were warrior chieftains of the Ngāti Raukawa. Hape was a brother of Pare-kōhatu, the mother of Te Rauparaha. Pare-kōhatu married Werawera of Ngāti Toa and had: Rangi-ka-tukua, Wai-tohi, Te Kiri-pae-ahi and Te Rauparaha, the lastborn. Most of the Ngati Maru war-party were young men, and their expedition was to southern lands to seek and plunder for treasures for themselves in the graves and burial caves of the dead.

The Ngāti Kauwhata were not in favour of Wahine-iti going, but he took no heed of his people's pleas to detain him; saying that he did not want to die in his own house, but that he would rather die in battle; laid low by the blade of the war club or by the long spear.

In the various places raided by the Ngati Maru war-party they sometimes committed outrages against the womenfolk. When they turned back on the homeward journey they proceeded by way of the lake of Roto-a-ira, ascended by way of Te Ponanga and arrived at Te Rapa, to the presence of Te Heuheu 11. Te Heuheu was related to Hape and he lent the canoes for the crossing of Lake Taupo. Before the canoes set off Te Heuheu spoke to Hape and said, “O Hape, keep the bow of the

– 20 –

moana, e tata ana ki te waahi i huaina ai ko Te Pae ki a Raukawa. Kei tērā waahi ngā hapū o Ngāti Tūwharetoa e whanaunga ana ki a Ngāti Raukawa.

No te hoenga o ngā waka ka peka ngā waka o Ngāti Maru ki Pūkawa, i te taha hauauru o te moana, kātahi ka whakawhiti ki Motutaiko ki te hahu i ngā wheua o Te Rangi-tua-matotoru, he rangatira nui no Ngāti Tūwharetoa i ōna ra, he koroua hoki no ngā wāhine punarua a Te Heuheu 11; no Nohopapa rāua ko Te Mare. Na te hahunga i ngā wheua o Te Rangi-tua-mattotoru ka ara ngā tahatika o te moana, a ka whāia te ope a Ngāti Maru e ngā ope—taua a Ngāti Tūwharetoa. I waho i te pa o Omaunu ka mau atu i te ope a Te Heuheu ka pakangatia a ka hinga a Ngāti Maru. Ki ngā kōrero a Ngāti Tūwharetoa i mate ki reira a Wahine-iti, me ngā rangatira tokorua, me Pātaua rāua ko Te Hau o Taranaki. (J. Te H. Grace Tūwharetoa whārangi 250.) Kāore e whakaae ana a Ngāti Raukawa i mate a Wahine-iti ki taua pakanga.

I wehe a Hape rāua ko Wahine-iti i te ope—taua a Ngāti maru, ka arahina e ētehi o Ngāti Te Kohera (e whanaunga ana ki a Ngāti Raukawa), ki te takiwa mai ki Orākei Kōrako, e whakamau ana mai ki ngā huarahi ki Wharepūhunga me Maunga-tautari. No te huarahi ka pāngia a Wahine-iti e te mate ohorere a ka hemo. I te paanga mai o te mate ki a Wahine-iti ka whakarērea atu e Hape ki te kāinga o tētehi o ngā hapū o Ngāti Tūwharetoa e whanaunga ana ki a Te Arawa, e whanaunga ana hoki a Wahine-iti ki tērā hapū. Na taua hapū hoki i hari a Wahine-iti ki te marae i Orākei Kōrako tanigia ai.

I roto i ngā whakatupuranga o muri nei e whakaarahia ana tēnei maemae i ngā tangihanga tūpapaku mo ngā tāngata nunui o roto i ngā iwi i puta mai i roto i ngā kāwei maha o tērā tupuna o Raukawa. Otirā he maemae tēnei e whānui ana te whakaarahia i roto i ngā iwi o Tainui, i ngā ra o muri nei.

Ka tahuri! Ka tahuri!
Ngātoro', i te whenua, ka ngatoro!
He po tataka mai i runga o ‘Tautari,
Ka hora te kura a Rongo takaawhio!
Ka maroke te puhi
O Mōtai-tangata-rau,
E Hape, e!

Kauwhata! Raukawa!
E ora ana ki te aha?


canoe towards Tōhine-o-tu.” Tōhine-o-tu is a headland on the western side of the lake, in the vicinity of the locality known as Te Pae ki Raukawa (The Frontiers of Raukawa). In that district live the sub-tribes of the Ngāti Tūwharetoa who are related to the Ngāti Raukawa.

On the way the canoes of Ngāti Maru turned in to Pūkawa on the western shores of the lake, and then crossed over to the island of Motu-taiko to disinter the bones of Te Rangi-tua- matotoru, a former high chief of the Ngāti Tūwharetoa, and who was also the grandfather of the two wives of Te Heuheu II; Nohopapa and Te Mare. The desecration of the remains of Te Rangi-tua-matotoru roused the peoples of the shores of the lake, and the war-party of Ngāti Maru were pursued by war-parties of Ngāti Tuwharetoa. Outside the fortified place of Omaunu the war-parties of Ngāti Tūwharetoa caught up with and defeated the Ngāti Maru war-party. According to Ngāti Tūwharetoa accounts Wahine-iti was killed there, together with two other chiefs, Pātaua and Te Hau o Taranaki. (See J. Te H. Grace, Tuwharetoa page 250). The Ngāti Raukawa do not agree that Wahine-iti was killed during this fighting.

Hape and Wahine-iti separated from the war-party of Ngāti Maru and were led away by some of the Ngāti Te Kohera, who were related to Ngāti Raukawa, in the direction of Orākei-Korako and on pathways that would eventually lead to Wharepūhunga and Maunga-tautari. On the way Wahine-iti was stricken by a sudden illness and died. When Wahine-iti was stricken Hape left him at the home of one of the sub-tribes of the Ngāti Tūwharetoa who were related to Te Arawa tribes, and to whom Wahine-iti was also related. It was this sub-tribe who took the body of Wahine-iti to the village of Orākei-Kōrako for the mourning ceremonies.

In the succeeding generations this death chant has been chanted at the tangihanga, or mourning ceremonies, of notable men of the tribes who are descended from the ancestor, Raukawa. Indeed this death chant is widely used in these latter days.

Overwhelmed! Overwhelmed!
O Ngatoro', now beneath the soil, list to the roar!
Now that night has come upon ‘Tautari.

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Tē mate ai,
I te unuhanga o mangamanga-i-atua!
Te tara o te marama!
Ka whati koe i te aha?
E te hika pounamu!
Kei whea to pāpā?
Kei te hinga, kei te mate,
Kei te whakapikinga o Taurarua,
I horahia ki te takapau o Te Arawa,
I whiua reretia e Hape ki te tahora,
Tau! Takoto ana!

He aha, he aha te taonga
I haere ai koutou ki te mate?
He tara, tara, tara i teke!
Pa tehe, tehe, tehe!
He huruhuru whare riha!
E te tiki pounamu!
Kia māwhiti te karu e!

Wahine-iti, o runga i te rangi!
Tuku iho ki raro ra,
Ka hē o kōrero!
Kīhai koe i werohia ki te taoroa,
I ākina ki te paraoa;
Kia whakatauki ake te mamae,
Aue! Taukiri, e!

Ngā Whakamārama


And spread round about is the mantle of Rongo!
Dried up is the plume
Of Mōtai-of-a-hundred-progeny
O Hape, alas!

O Kauwhata! O Raukawa!
Why live on?
Better to die,
Now a demi-god has been withdrawn!
O horned moon!
What was it that broke you in two?
O beloved wearer of the greenstone heirloom!
Where is your father?
He fell, he died
At the ascent of Taurarua.
Spread out was the sleeping mat of Te Arawa
When the fleeing Hape left him by the wayside,
Prone! There he did lie!

What were the treasures
That lured you all to death?
They were wanton deeds of tara and teke
Pa, tehe, tehe, tehe!
Feathered places, and flea-infested houses!
O wearer of the greenstone tiki!
Your eyes, indeed, should stare in wonder!

Wahine-iti, now in the heavens!
Come down here below,
The words you spoke were wrong!
You were not pierced by the long spear,
Nor were you struck with the whale-bone club:
Wherefore let me exclaim with this pain within,
Aue! Alas, ah me!


2Ngatoro' Te roanga ko Ngatoro-i-rangi ko te tohunga nui o runga i a Te Arawa waka. Te tikanga he haere mai a ia i runga i a Tainui, kātahi ka tahaetia e Tama-te-kapua i Raro-tonga, i te wā e hoe mai ana ki Aotea-roa nei.

3‘Tautari Te roanga ko Maunga-tautari, he maunga kei nga tahatika o te awa o Waikato, e tata ana ki Kēmureti me Arapuni. I tēnei takiwa ngā kāinga o Ngāti Raukawa i mua.

4Rongo Te atua o te maungārongo.

5Mōtai He tupuna rongonui no nga iwi o Tainui.

7Hape Kuawhakamāramatia i te whakaupoko.

8Kauwhata Kuawhakamāramatiai te whakaupoko. Raukawa Kuawakamāramatiai te whakaupoko.

11Mangamangaiatua He kupu whakarite mo Wahine-iti.

12Takapau o te Arawa He reo whakamihi mo te tangihanga mo Wahine-iti ki te marae i Orākei-kōrako.

21–25 He aha te taonga, etc. Kei roto i te whakaupoko nga korero mo ngā mahi a te ope taua a Ngāti Maru.

28–34 Wahine-iti, o runga i te rangi, etc. Kei te whakaupoko ngā whakamārama mo ngā mea e whakahuatia nei i roto i ēnei rārangi.

2 Ngatoro' In full, Ngatoro-i-rangi, high priest of Te Arawa canoe. He was to have come on the Tainui but was stolen by Tama-te-kapua at Raro-tonga, en route to Aotea-roa (New Zealand).

3 ‘Tautari In full, Maunga-tautari, a mountain on the banks of the Waikato River, near Cambridge and Arapuni. The homes of Ngati Raukawa were in this district in former times.

4 Rongo The god of peace.

5 Mōtai A famous ancestor of the Tainui tribes.

7 Hape Already explained in the head-note.

8 Kauwhata Already explained in the head-note.

Raukawa Already explained in the head-note.

11 Demi-god Figurative for Wahine-iti.

12 Sleeping mat of Te Arawa A complimentary reference to the lying in state of Wahine-iti on the courtyard at Orākei-Kōrako.

21–25 What were the treasures etc. The head-note gives an account of the deeds of the war-party of Ngāti Maru.

28–34 Wahine-iti, now in the heavens etc. The head-note explains the various references in these lines.

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Visitors at Huirau

Huirau Maori School, Ruatahuna, last March played host to 40 Standard 4 pupils from Sunset Road Primary School. The visitors stayed in one of the school class-rooms and spent five days studying Maori life in the community and surrounding area.

Mr D. Morrison, the master in charge of the party, said that the trip had proved successful. It had enabled the children to see how country folk lived and were employed.


One of New Zealand's foremost traditional Maori weavers is Mrs Rangimarie Hetet, of Te Kuiti.

Her weaving has been admired at exhibitions throughout the country and has been a feature of successive Waikato shows. Below Mrs Hetet (right) and her daughter Mrs E. Barton are photographed alongside some of the exquisite work she exhibited at a recent flower show in Te Kuiti. The items displayed included a mat, belt, and a beautiful ceremonial chief's cloak, decorated with kiwi and kaka feathers.

Mrs Hetet uses only the old tree bark dyes, and fixes them in the traditional method with wood ash. She has done much to teach younger people the traditional skills of Maori weaving, which she also employed in making Miss Kiri Te Kanawa's Maori costumes.

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King Country Chronicle photo

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From left; Mr Ian Lander, advertising manager, Taubman's, presents John Ngaire and Pari Hunt with engraved putty knives, while chief technical engineer, Mr Orton Moon stands by


Two first year painting apprentices from the Christchurch Technical Institute recently spent three days in Wellington as winners of Taubmans' travel award. They were John Ngaire of Putaruru and Pari Hunt, who comes from Ahititi in the Taranaki district.

During their visit to the capital they toured Taubmans' factory, seeing paint in the making—from raw materials through milling, tinting, quality control, filling and warehousing. They showed a keen interest in everything they saw and the many questions they asked indicated their desire to learn all they could.

Building projects and a wallpaper factory were among other places visited, and the boys were most impressed with the ‘exposure station’ on the top of Mount Crawford, where paints are tested for quality and maintenance.

They also met some interesting personalities, among whom were Mr J. Roberts, national President of the New Zealand Guild of Painters and Decorators, and Mr W. Lyons, a member of the local Apprenticeship Committee. Both these men gave the boys good advice, impressing on them the need to increase their knowledge by keeping up with new ideas and techniques and thus make steady progress in their trade.

Pari and John were taken on a sightseeing trip, calling at the House of Representatives, the Botanical Gardens, Victoria University and the Museum. A ride on the cable car was a new experience for both boys and they also enjoyed the view of city and harbour from the Mount Victoria Lookout.

The three day trip ended with the presentation of engraved putty knives to the two boys as a lasting reminder of their reward. It had been won because Pari and John, by their consistent hard work, had come top of their class.

Competent tradesmen are becoming increasingly scarce, and it is hoped that many more boys of the calibre of John Ngaire and Pari Hunt will accept apprenticeships and so become first-class tradesmen.

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One of the biggest army reunions held in awke's Bay took place at Waipatu Pa, near the Tomoana showgrounds, when some 2,000 members of the 28th Battalion gathered there from 25 to 27 March.


Scores of willing workers spent almost 12 months preparing for the 5th reunion, which was organised like a military operation. All parts of its administration were delegated to sub-committees carrying military titles.

Commanding Officer of the whole occasion was former Major, Mr T. M. R. Tomoana.

Another former Battalion Major, Mr Ossia Huata, was Regimental Quartermaster, and Mr Bill Toroa, of Gisborne, was Regimental Sergeant-Major.

Mr Anzac Pearse, of Haumona, was Transport Officer, Mr Riki Smith was Provost-Marshal, Mr Henry Matthews was Orderly room Sergeant, Dr L. W. Broughton was Medical Officer and the Rev. K. Te Paenga was Chaplain.

The NCO's were Messrs George Henderson and George Tawhai, Mess Sergeant was Mr John Pene, and Sergeant Cooks were Messrs S. Pineaha and T. Cooper.

To reduce traffic, guests were asked to leave their cars at home. They were transported to and from reunion functions in buses hired by the committee.

Mr Tomoana, the reunion's Commanding Officer, said that the people of Hawke's Bay had been very generous in their donations of money and food for the occasion. The organising committee had received money totalling £1,400 as well as many gifts of food, including 18 bullocks, 29 pigs and tons of vegetables.

In addition, local people had given hundreds of man-hours of free labour to build a cook-house and an ablutions block on the Waipatu marae. Mr Tomoana said this was a permanent asset, valued at something like £5,000.

The Welcome

The reunion began in the afternoon, when Battalion members were welcomed to the marae. With only about 200 there for the start, the ranks filled steadily throughout the afternoon as men and their wives arrived at Waipatu from all parts of New Zealand.

Proceedings began with a challenge by Mr Sam Paenga, who laid the baton at the feet of Brigadier G. D. Dittmer, first Commander of the Battalion. The baton accepted, the visitors were received in peace.

Many speakers then extended a welcome. They extolled the courage of the Maori Battalion and paid tribute to those who had died. By the time the last of the representatives of the visitors had returned thanks for the welcome, the afternoon was drawing in.

Action songs were performed by groups from the Waipatu Club, Hukarere Maori Girls' College, Napier, and St. Joseph's Maori Girls' College, Greenmeadows.

March Through Hastings

In one of the most moving ceremonies Hastings has seen, former members marched through Hastings on Sunday 27 March. Led by a combined Ratana and Hamuera brass band, the men marched to cheers and applause from onlookers.

In front of the Hall of Memories and the Memorial Library they were met by a guard of honour from Hawke's Bay Maori schools. As devotions began, members snapped to attention, and together with many from the large crowd they joined the girls of St. Joseph's Convent in singing Kia Tata Mai Koe — Nearer My God to Thee.

After addresses from Rev. K. Te Paenga and Father N. Denning. Brigadier Dittmer laid the Battalion wreath in front of a plaque to the fallen.

The hamn Abide with Me was sung and then survivors from A Company. Brigadiers D. McIntyre and Dittmer, and the Mavor of Hastings. Mr R. V. Giorgi, led the Battalion slowly through the Hall of Memories beneath Peter McIntyre's mural of the fighting men of New Zealand in the desert.

The men then slowly marched to the Cenotaph, where they were addressed by the Rt Rev. J. T. Holland, Bishop of Waikato, who asked that the bereaved, the wounded and the dead be remembered and spoke of the fine

– 25 –

spirit of the Battalion. He said that he believed the Battalion had a greater task to perform today than it had during the war: it had to use its enthusiasm and dedication to fight the real war of today, which was not between men and nations, but between good and evil.

Bishop Holland's address was followed by the hymn the Battalion sang before battle, Au, e Ihu tirotea.

Wreaths were laid on the Cenotaph and the Last Post and Reveille were sounded. They were followed by the final farewell to the dead, which was sung with great emotion.

The ceremony over, some of the solemnity was dispelled. Led by the Hawke's Bay Scottish Pipe Band, men of the 28th Maori Battalion marched light-heartedly back through the streets.

The Feast

After the march more than 2,000 people gathered on the Waipatu marae for the regimental dinner. Under two vast marquees they dined on such fare as steamed chicken, pork, beef, fish, puha, watercress and other vegetables. In the cookhouse, about 30 women prepared food at speed after first having cooked it in the huge pressure cookers. On the marae children played unconcernedly among the tents.

During the dinner 26 toasts and replies were made. The Waipatu marae, seat of the first Maori Parliament, rang once more with the voices of Maori orators.

The speeches recalled old battles, and paid tribute after tribute to the warriors of the Battalion and those associated with them.


Mr N. O. Vickridge, m.a., dip. ed., has recently been appointed headmaster of Te Aute College. An old boy of Nelson and King's Colleges, Mr Vickridge attended University and Training College in Auckland from 1945 to 1949.

He was interested in drama and debating and was president of the Training College Student Christian Movement. His first teaching post was at Opotiki District High School. While in Opotiki he met his wife, Iwingaro Rewharewha, youngest daughter of Wareparoa Rewharewha, J.P., of Torere, who is an old boy of Te Aute.

Mr and Mrs Vickridge have two sons, Henare, aged 12, and Tere, aged 9.

Mr Vickridge later taught in Hastings, Hawera and Te Aroha before being appointed first assistant of Ngaruawahia High School in 1963.

Both Mr and Mrs Vickridge are keen tennis players as well as having an interest in many other sports. Mr Vickridge was president of the Lower Waikato Rugby Referees' Association and vice-president of the Lower Waikato Tennis Association. He is also an Army Officer of many years' experience.

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Mr N. O. Vickridge Daily Telegraph photo

Mrs Vickridge was president of the Ngaruawahia Young Wives' Club and an elected member of the Bernard Fergusson School Committee.

Mr and Mrs Vickridge took up their new position in February.

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Daily Telegraph photo
Hoani Karaka gives the challenge


As a way of thanking many friends who have supported Te Aute College over the years and to welcome the new principal, Mr N. O. Vickridge and his wife, a garden party was held at the college on Saturday 2 April. Amongst the principal guests invited were the members of the Te Aute Trust Board and their wives, Bishop E. T. Hill, of Melanesia, Sir Turi Carroll, Mr E. G. Loten, ex-headmaster, and his wife, and members of the Hastings chapter of Jaycees. Also invited were the principals of associated secondary schools and the mayors of the chief towns in the area. Over 200 guests assembled on the lawn behind the flagpole on Saturday.

Hoani Karaka, of Te Araroa, gave the challenge to the guest of honour, Mr E. G. Loten. The college haka party gave a vigorous welcome and the official party and other guests moved into the assembly hall.

Archbishop N. Lesser, chairman of the Te Aute Trust Board, explained the reason for the gathering. He spoke of the founder of Te Aute College, Archdeacon Samuel Williams, and of the great help given by the Williams family over the years. He mentioned other headmasters, especially Mr Loten, during whose years of service the college had passed through so many vicissitudes—fire, earthquake and war—and Mr R. G. Webb, whose untimely death occurred at the end of last year. Finally he welcomed Mr and Mrs Vickridge and wished them many years of happy and fruitful service to the college.

In thanking all present for their attendance he spoke of the needs of the college and in particular of the need for a swimming pool. It is planned to make an appeal and build a pool in the near future.

Other speakers included Sir Turi Carroll, Mr N. O. Vickridge, the new principal, who greeted those present in Maori, Robin Kora, head prefect, who spoke for the school, Mr J. Broughton, of Hastings Jaycees, and finally Canon J. Tamahori, who lectured briefly on the significance of the carvings in the college hall.

Sir Turi Carroll spoke of his years at the college and of the long struggle to succeed. He urged the boys to uphold the traditions of the past and follow the example of such distinguished old boys as Sir Apirana Ngata, Sir Maui Pomare and Sir Peter Buck. He said there were modern examples. He mentioned particularly Mason Durie, an old boy senior to Sir Turi himself, whose grandson Mason had recently completed his medical degree.

In honour of the occasion and to commemorate Mr Loten's years at the college, Neuton Lambert, Vernon Kape and Bruce Stone assisted Mr Loten to plant a giant tulip tree on the slope leading up to the chapel.

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Mr E. H. Waitai (centre) opens the hangi at the garden party Daily Telegraph photo

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Daily Telegraph Photo
First assistant Mr E. Dwyer (left) with ex-headmaster Mr E. G. Loten

Maori Art For Stuttgart

From amongst the best work of New Zealand craftsmen and women, 20 pieces have been selected to go to Stuttgart, West Germany, where they will be displayed at the International Handicrafts and Applied Arts Exhibition.

New Zealand's exhibit will include a taniko belt by Miss Miria Simpson of Wellington and a dressed flax kit by Mrs Rona Lawson of Whakatane.

Study Course Starts Well

A Maori language study group has started well in Otematata with 45 members meeting every week in a room made available by the District High School.

The feature of the course will be 12 lectures in the third term which will be delivered by Mr N. Skinner of the University of Otago Department of Extension Studies. Earlier lessons are being guided by class volunteers using tape recordings, records and written material. It is hoped that Mr Skinner will be able to visit the class occasionally before the third term.

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E.M.2 H. G. Tane, of Te Kuiti, a member of the R.N.Z.N. performed at Wanganui


Each year the ceremonies observed on the Waitangi Treaty Grounds seem to attract more people. Mostly they come from the Taitokerau district but a surprising number are visitors from other parts of the country. This year there was a noticeable increase in the number of young people present.

For the first time the occasion was marked with an inter-denominational church service. It was conducted by the Rev. Rua Rakena, assistant superintendent of the Methodist Church's Home and Maori Mission School Prayers were read by Father T. Wanders of Panguru, and the Bishop of Aotearoa, the Rt. Rev. W. N. Panapa.

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From right, the Rt Rev. W. N. Panapa, Father T. Wanders, and the Rev. Rua Rakena, conduct the ecumenical service

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From left, Paul and Robert Takimoana, Ata Adelaide and Richard Takimoana

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Ena Paewai, daughter of Dr M. N. Paewai, Kaikohe

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Mrs W. Eruera of Northland and her son

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Able Seaman R. Tuheke of Gisborne and O/S L. P. Smith enjoying the sun

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Mr Peter Brown, clerk, Department of Maori Affairs, Whangarei

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Miss N. Mills, Miss Ihaka and Mrs M. Ihaka of the Wellington Anglican Maori Club

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Delegates at the Taitokerau District Council Meeting at Waitangi 1966
Back, from left: Mr Pat Whiu (Kaikohe), Mr Hira Rogers (Otaua), Mr Charlie Wynard (Russell), Mr George Greares, Mr Walter Ashby (Waitangi). Front; Mr Henry Leaf (Hokianga), Mr Jimmy Martin (Whangaruru), Mr Charles Hauraki, Mr Munro (Onerahi), Mr Keith Davies

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Mr and Mrs Te O Rene of French Pass, D'Urville Island

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Mr T. Pere of Rongowhakaata, Gisborne

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Men's Canoe hurdle race Weekly News Photo


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Perfect timing in war-canoe event Weekly News photo

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More than 14,000 people thronged the banks of the Waikato River last March to watch the 70th annual river carnival organised by the Ngaruawahia Regatta Association.

Two outstanding features of this year's regatta were the sudden, heartening revival of interest in the Maori canoe events and the high standard of performance reached in the exhibition haka.

Over the past 10 years interest in the canoe racing and hurdling seemed to have dwindled among local people and regatta organisers were afraid these traditional events might have to be dropped from the programme. But this year Mr B. Paki, an official in the Maori events section, said there were more competitors in these events than there had been for 20 years. “Why,” he said, “we didn't have enough paddles for all the competitors.”

One factor in the revival has been the interest shown in recent regattas by the Latter Day Saints' College, Tuhikaramea. This year the college team won the major event, the war canoe race, in Te Arohanui, an old craft, which for some years had been in a state of disrepair. The college borrowed it from the Regatta Association, repaired it, trained their crew in it, and then won the race.

The fine haka was also the result of college interest. Performing on a barge in mid-stream, the pupils put on a thrilling display, which officials praised and which the regatta secretary, Mr H. D. Sampson, described as the finest he had seen in 50 years.

Besides the Maori events, the large crowd saw speedboat races, national dancing and piping, sawing and chopping, water-skiing and rowing.

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Exhibition haka Weekly News photo

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Mr J. Bailey, one of the cooks, at Waitara

Maori Council Meeting

Manukorihi marae at Waitara was host for the annual ‘Meet the People’ meeting of the New Zealand Maori Council, from 18–20 March. Perfect weather, first-class sleeping accommodation and excellent meals made the hui a memorable one for the delegates and visitors.

The visitors started to arrive on Friday 18 March, the first delegates coming from the Tairawhiti (East Coast).

The first major session was on Saturday, when the afternoon was devoted to a discussion on Education. Principal speakers were Dr K. J. Sheen, who has subsequently been appointed Director-General of Education, and Mr Harre, newly appointed Officer for Maori Education.

During the discussions points which the people thought would help Maori education were made as follows:

Encouragement of pre-school work, with more assistance for the Maori Education Foundation's pre-school officer.

Teachers better trained to recognise and meet the needs of Maori children.

Week-day hostels at secondary schools in country districts.

Rapid increase in student counselling, and in the number of visiting teachers, reading and other specialist teachers.

A better-paid vocational guidance service.

Priority in class reduction to schools with big Maori enrolments.

Extra library facilities.

More attractive conditions of service in country schools.

Curriculum changes.

A higher school-leaving age.

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From left Mrs Meri Kupe, Mrs Hiringipare Pirikahu, and Mrs Ngati Watene, of Waitara

Discussions on Saturday night were on the Prichard-Waetford report on Maori land and the Maori Land Court. The meeting confirmed a council decision for a conference in Auckland to discuss the report. An attempt would be made to reach conclusions or make alternative suggestions, if required, for the Government's consideration.

Another important topic discussed was the position of wardens. It had been appreciated for a long time that the work they did, especially at huis and meetings, warranted their receiving some extra assistance. Speakers pointed out that many wardens devoted considerable time to their voluntary work and often incurred expenses in travel and on clothing. The council agreed to look into ways to assist them.

The service on Sunday was conducted by the Rev. T. Flavell and the address was given by the Bishop of Aotearoa, the Rt. Rev. W. N. Panapa.

In the farewells, special thanks were given to the Aotea District Council, the Waitara Maori Committee, the Taranaki Trust Board, the Maori women's Welfare League and other organisations and people who joined in this great ‘Meet the People’ venture.

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Maori wardens present at the conference

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Women pay their last respects. Right, Mrs Ngoi Pewhairangi


The foremost Maori action song composer and teacher of recent times—the late Miss Tuini Ngawai—was paid appropriate honour at Easter, when a national Maori hui and memorial services were held at Tokomaru Bay.

The ceremonies marked the unveiling of a memorial to Miss Tuini Ngawai and commemorated the thirtieth anniversary of the celebrated Hokowhitu Atu Maori Cultural Club, which she formed in 1936.

Miss Ngawai died on August 20 last.

The official party at the celebrations was led by the Minister of Maori Affairs, the Hon. J. R. Hanan, who had come specially from Invercargill because of the importance of the occasion. Mr Hanan was accompanied by his wife and daughter. Also in the party were the Bishop of Aotearoa, the Rt. Rev. W. N. Panapa, and the M.P.'s for Eastern Maori, Mr P. T. Watene, and for Gisborne, Mrs Esme Tombleson.

Friends and admirers of Miss Tuini Ngawai and Hokowhitu Atu came from many

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parts of New Zealand, with particularly strong contingents from Auckland and Wellington.

The dominant theme of the sentiments expressed was that Miss Ngawai was a genius, unique, and that her like would never be seen again. Other brilliant composers and teachers there would be, but they would be of another generation and of another time. Tuini's great contribution as a composer of war-time songs, classics of language and style, and of folk-music peculiar to the rural East Coast of her generation would live forever.

Mr Hanan promised that he would recommend to the Maori Purposes Fund Board a proposal to grant £500 if necessary to assist in publishing a volume of Tuini's collected works, which Mrs Ngoi Pewhairangi, the present leader of Hokowhitu Atu, has been compiling.

Mrs Pewhairangi was secretary of the committee which organised the hui, and extremely well organised it was too, in the best tradition of the great East Coast festivals.

It was a time of nostalgia and humour as the marae meeting house and concert hall again rang out with Hokowhitu Atu in full cry, giving forth Tuinui's famous Maori songs of World War II and her sometimes robust, sometimes mellow, sometimes tragic and sometimes humorous folk songs.

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Mr Hanan takes the first child into the new children's playground

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Asleep in the meeting house

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Hokowhitu Atu shared the stage for the Sunday night concert at the local theatre with another renowned club, Waihirere of Gisborne, who also were in good form in paying their tribute to Tuini.

Miss Ngawai has composed some 300 songs, many of them classics, and the stories behind them were retold and relived during the hui. Her compositions comprise action songs and songs of lament, love, war and comedy.

Memories and stories of Hokowhitu Atu were also relived, particularly its patriotic work during World War II. Its forerunner the Ruataupare Club was founded in 1936. During World War II its name was changed to Hokowhitu Atu.

The weekend programme began on Good Friday afternoon with the tangi and powhiri to guests.

Saturday afternoon was given over to sports, highlighted by a rugby match between Brooklyn, of Wellington, and United, of Tokomaru Bay, which was won handsomely by United.

On Saturday night the anniversary ball, regarded as the social event of the year in the district, was held. It was attended by the Minister and his party and was well patronised locally. Hokowhitu Atu entertained and gave an exciting foretaste of the entertainment to come during the weekend and a wistful reminder of the mood-creating magic of Tuini's songs. The fact that the young people of Tokomaru Bay, as well as the old, still know how to present a formal ball was remarked on by the visitors.

On Sunday morning, following the church service, at which the preacher was Bishop Panapa, Mr Hanan unveiled a memorial stone to Tuini and also opened the Moetu children's play park, a further memorial.

This was followed by the anniversary dinner, an unforgettable banquet.

The climax of the events was the Sunday night concert by a variety of artists and the Hokowhitu Atu and Waihirere Clubs.

A quiet sense of occasion and dignity transcended the entire hui. Tuini was paid appropriate honour. As her memorial stone says:

A woman of dignity and true faith,
A genius, author and composer.

The special place which she has in the heart of the Maori people—particularly Ngati Porou and Te Whanau a Ruataupare of Ngati Porou was never more evident than at Tokomaru Bay at Easter and never more assured than it is today.

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Sister W. Meijer Evening Post photo

Rescue in the Rimutakas

A fortunate coincidence led Mr G. Wyeth to the home of Sister W. Meijer, a registered nurse, when he was seeking help for an injured companion, Mr L. Robinson of Te Marua, in the Rimutakas last February.

After the Hutt Police and the Free Ambulance had been notified Sister Meijer returned with Mr Wyeth through rugged hill country to dress the wounds of the injured man, who had been hit by a ricocheting bullet. She then walked out of the bush to her home, a distance of about 2 miles, for food and coffee for the two men.

Meanwhile ambulance men arrived on the scene, after cutting a ¼-mile track through the bush for their Landrover and then having to follow the bed of a stream on foot for about 2 miles. All the necessary first aid had been administered by Sister Meijer, but they had the task of getting the man out.

Mr B. Lahman, an ambulance man, said, “We could carry him only about 10 ft at a time. Then we had to stop and carve out a track. We all took turns, but progress was very slow and our patient was in terrible pain at that stage.”

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Sister Meijer, returning with food, met the party coming down a ravine. She administered morphine to the patient. About a mile from the road the first of the Hutt Tramping Club members arrived and by the time the road was reached about 20 men were assisting. The patient was taken to the Hutt Hospital, where he was operated on.

Mr Lahman said that he couldn't pay too high a tribute to Mrs Meijer, “She was simply terrific.”

Sister Meijer, described by the Hutt Police as a ‘Flōrence Nightingale’, later said that although she had attended people injured in Rimutaka road accidents this was her “first real big bush job”.


The three sons of Mr and Mrs E. M. Durie, of Feilding, are all University graduates; the eldest, Rawiri, has a Diploma of Agriculture, Mason is a doctor at the Levin hospital, and Eddie is a barrister and solicitor with a B.A. and L.L.B.

Their grandfather is Mason Durie, O.B.E., who is a son of Hoani Meihana Te Rangiotu, a prominent Rangitane chief.

Mason, earlier this year, was awarded the Ngarimu V.C. post-graduate scholarship and with his wife and family will go to Canada to study at McGill University, Montreal, specialising in psychiatry. The course is for four

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Mr M. Durie at home with his wife and child

years, and leads to a Diploma in Psychological Medicine (D.P.M.). His wife was Arohia Kohere, a granddaughter of the late Rev. Rewiti Kohere, of East Cape and she is also a university graduate, with a Diploma of Home Science. They have one child, Awerangi, aged six months.

Eddie was recently selected as a representative of the National Council of Churches to visit Korea and other parts of Asia later this year.

The three brothers were educated in Feilding and at Te Aute College.

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Mr E. Durie B.A., L.L.B. with the head of the law firm for which he works

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Guide Rangi—Mrs Rangitiaria Dennan

Mrs Rangitiaria Dennan—known to most people as Guide Rangi—has retired after 40 years spent escorting visitors through the thermal area at Whakarewarewa, Rotorua. She is well-known throughout the world, having met Royalty, leaders of many countries, church dignitaries, famous visitors, sports teams, thousand of tourists and of course, countless New Zealanders—adults and school children.

Her success as a guide is the direct result of a good education. She learnt Maori lore from her mother and grandfather and was educated at Hukarere Maori Girls' College. In her last year at Hukarere, she was dux and head prefect. Rangi taught at the old Whaka-

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rewarewa Maori School, then at Ruatoki and at Torere—on the East Coast near Opotiki—and took up nursing for a short time before becoming a full-time guide in 1922. She travelled over the whole of New Zealand, and so was able to talk knowledgeably about our country to her many visitors.

Some of those she met were the Duke and Duchess of York, later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, who visited Rotorua in 1927, the Duke of Gloucester who came in 1934, the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh, who toured Whakarewarewa in 1954, the late Queen Salote of Tonga and the late Mrs Eleanor Roosevelt.

Her home at Whakarewarewa is beautifully decorated with carvings done by her grandfather, Tene Waitere. Inside are the carved bed and treasure boxes, and outside is the monument to Rangi's mother, whose family had lived for many years at Te Wairoa. In the house is a large and valuable collection … letters of thanks, mementos, photographs and autographs. There are also many footballs, cricket, softball and tennis balls autographed by members of touring teams.

There is a treasured photograph of the establishment of the first Anglican Church at the Buried Village, Te Wairoa. Rangi is proud of her long association with the Anglican Church, which began during her years at Hukarere.

One of her proudest possessions is the insignia of the M.B.E. awarded by the Queen in 1957 and presented to her by the then Governor-General, Sir Willoughby Norrie. She also received a medallion and citation appointing her a serving sister of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. This was given in recognition of her service to the Order at many hockey games in Rotorua.

Guide Rangi went several times to Australia where her concert party became famous. More recent visits were to the Phillipine Islands in 1960, and to Fiji in 1961. There, as in every other place she has been, she met people whom she had led through Whakarewarewa.

Not many people have made a bigger contribution to New Zealand's tourist industry than Guide Rangi, and with her retirement the industry has lost one of its most colourful personalities. But she won't be forgotten. Almost certainly the first question from many tourists arriving at Whakarewarewa will be … “Where is Guide Rangi?”

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Wellington Polytechnic is one of the six technical institutes in New Zealand catering for vocational and professional training of people who have left secondary school and who are either doing full time training for some skills, who are actively engaged in industry, commerce, or working in Government departments.

Last January, 60 teenage Maori boys and girls arrived in Wellington to pioneer a project aimed at helping young Maoris adjust to city life.

They had all just left secondary schools, their average age was 16, hardly any had School Certificate, and all needed jobs. Most of them came from relatively small country areas as far away as Hokianga Harbour and Ruatoria.

Few had clear ideas of the five-week course ahead of them at the Wellington Polytechnic, or of precisely what was going to happen to them at the end of it. All they knew for certain was that it was called a pre-employment course, it was being run in conjunction with the Department of Maori Affairs, and they were going to be helped to find jobs.

The course was, in fact, the result of discussions between the Polytechnic and the Department during the preceding two years. Equally conscious of the problems facing young country boys and girls coming to the cities for work, the Polytechnic and the Department designed the course to ease this transition as much as possible and so give the youngsters a better start in their new life.

Hostel accommodation was provided for 34 boys at Trentham and for 26 girls in Thorndon, Wellington, at Pikimai Hostel.

Two welfare workers were assigned to the groups by the Maori Affairs Department, and during the course they lived at the hostels with the students. When the course finished the students were given permission to stay on in their hostels for the remainder of the year.

Because it was the first of its type, the course was run on a distinctly experimental basis. While there was general understanding of the main difficulties involved, there were no guides to show teachers and Department officers just how much could be done in a short five-week period, or to give any idea of how fast the young people would assimilate their new experiences.

The course was divided into two parts. Each morning, for three hours, the groups were split into small classes of about 12 and were given a specially-arranged programme of English, Mathematics and Civics. Afternoon visits were organised to various places of possible employment, to the Town Hall, the public library and the courts.

Speakers from the Health Department, the Police Force, from sporting and social bodies were invited, and physical recreation periods were held with the help of the Physical Education Branch of the Education Department.

Vocational Guidance officers gave specialised tests to the groups, and then personally interviewed each student. Results of these tests and interviews were discussed with Polytechnic teachers and Maori Affairs Department officers, to aid job placement.

The formal subjects—English, Mathematics and Civics—were not taken in formal secondary school manner. The basic idea of the course was to give the young people material which was directly related to the problems they were soon going to meet. Therefore, class topics covered such practical points as letter-writing, hire purchase agreements, trade unions and industrial awards, decimals and dollar currency, health and hygiene.

Most of the eight teachers involved had previously worked in Maori schools, or with Maori pupils, and also had experience of jobs other than teaching. They therefore under-

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stood the problems facing the youngsters and knew the demands and opportunities of the commercial and industrial world.

During the last week of the course, in mid-February, virtually all the students were placed in jobs which gave chances of training in specialised skills, and which allowed for promotion and advancement. Most boys were apprenticed as motor mechanics, carpenters, panel-beaters, plasterers, painters and decorators and fitters and turners. Most girls found office jobs, either as clerks or shorthand typists.

Of the 34 boys, only one returned to his home town. He found on arrival in Wellington that he had passed School Certificate, and so at the end of the course went back to school to try for University Entrance with the idea of taking up teaching as a career. Of the 26 girls, five either returned home or found jobs in other centres such as Hamilton or Auckland.

The course was undoubtedly successful, as the boys and girls gained from it knowledge of how to cope with many problems. There is no comparison between the boy who has completed the course and moved into his first job, and a youngster just getting off the train, arriving in Wellington for the first time … not knowing where to get accommodation, the range of jobs available, and whether or not there is an over-supply of labour for one particular trade or skill. Even the geography of Wellington would be baffling for a start.

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Members of the course with their teachers

And just what does such a person feel on arrival? The students on the course answered this question, on paper, just a few days after it began. Here are some of their impressions:

“When I first got off the train, and stepped onto the Wellington railway platform, the things that impressed me were the amount of people walking past, and the amount of noise. Also the different coloured clothing, and people of different races passing by. But the thing I was most worried about was my suitcase…”

“To me, and I think to some of the other country boys too, all this hurrying by the Wellingtonians seemed stupid. This was mainly due to the type of life we had previously led, that is, slow and easygoing. Although soon we too became members of the rat race that takes place in a city…”

“The first question I asked was, ‘Please show me the main street,’ and to my amazement there was more than one…”

“Other things that impressed me were the buildings. As you walk along the street and look up it feels as though you are a dwarf walking down the Grand Canyon. The buildings are huge and tower way above the pedestrians. Some people never seem to see these monstrous buildings because they haven't time to stop and look around…”

“This is the first time I've been to this place and it's eighty times bigger than the

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place I come from … Seems to me I'm in a New World which I've never seen anything like before…”

“The screeching of tyres, the buzzing of the stop and go lights and the smell of rubber with the fast traffic, makes the country boy think twice before stepping off the footpath. The drivers and their vehicles do not give way to pedestrians, just to traffic officers sometimes …”

Students were also asked for their impressions at the end of the course. Some still complained of speed, of rude shop assistants, of pressure to be on time, of hostel rules (such as no smoking in bed), murderous traffic, and of the wind.

But almost all said they were beginning to enjoy city life, because of their chances of a good job, the people they were meeting, the variety of activities, and the excitement.

One girl put it this way:

“I like the way time flies in the city. There is so much to do I can't do it all in one day, so my activities are spread and varied. I also like the kind way people treat us when we are shown around, and when we pay visits and receive visits. I hate all the boys around town who have grown their hair long just to be ‘with it’. They are as irritating as the continuous stream of cars passing the hostel at all hours of the night, and the gale that blows at about 100 miles an hour.”

One boy was much more terse:

“I intend to stay here,” he wrote, “because there is no work for me at home. When I've finished learning a trade I want to move to a smaller city.”

One of the most striking features of the course was its reception by business people. Employers were genuinely interested in the students, and though job placement took many hours, most firms approached were sympathetic, helpful and encouraging. One girl who was placed in a good position in an insurance office went home the weekend before she was to start. Instead of being resentful, the manager assured the Polytechnic teacher who had made the arrangements that his firm was still interested and virtually promised that a job would be available for a student from next year's course.

Though the course was a success, some mistakes were made. Too much was attempted and students were completely exhausted at the end of the first week. Too many new experiences all coming at once left them with the feeling they were seeing the world through blurred glasses made for somebody else.

They found it hard to absorb all the information being fed to them, even though it was related to practical problems. The adjustment to hostel life, to new ways of doing things, to the hardness of the pavements, the slope of the streets, the constant nagging of people about “being on time”—all tended to lead to confusion and tiredness.

This pilot scheme was held to discover whether such a course is feasible and valuable. It is. Now the Department of Maori Affairs is faced with the question of whether it can be extended to other cities. One of the reasons for holding it in Wellington was the interest taken by the Polytechnic, but there is an equal need for the same type of course in Auckland and Christchurch. Christchurch, in particular, could be an excellent centre. Distance from home towns is not of major importance (and may even be an advantage), accommodation is easier, chances of employment are good, and there is a steadily growing Maori population.

No one has argued that such courses are the complete answer to the problems of integration of Maoris into city life, but they certainly help with some of the most pressing difficulties. At present, country education does not match that given in the cities, and the Maori boy or girl is at a marked disadvantage in competition for jobs. In the meantime, until rural education improves, the Polytechnic's course is both necessary and valuable.

Royal Soloists

Two pupils of Sister Mary Leo, of Auckland, took part in the Royal Youth Concert in Wellington last April. They were Donna Awatere and Laurette Gibb.

The girls were soloists in the Maori Suite by New Zealand composer, Ashley Heenan. The suite was commissioned especially for the Queen Mother's visit.

Donna Awatere is still a student at St Mary's College and is the daughter of Mr Peter Awatere, formerly commander of the Maori Battalion and now an Auckland city councillor.

Laurette Gibb has a grant from the Maori Education Foundation Fund to aid her training.

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Wairoa Conference

About 150 visitors attended the annual regional conference of the Maori Women's Welfare League, which was held in Wairoa on 12 and 13 March. They came mainly from the East Coast and represented some 19 branches.

Takitimu, Wairoa's impressive meeting house with its fine carving and panelling, provided a perfect setting for the conference.

Speaking at the conference, Mrs R. Sage, of Hamilton, the Dominion President, said that although the League was now an independent body, it was not progressing as quickly as she would have wished.

As an incentive to greater efforts she stressed the importance of the League and said that it was one of the few Maori organisations whose voices were heeded by the Government.

Saturday 12 March was Progress Day and began with a welcome at the Takitimu marae. The afternoon was given to a stimulating panel discussion at which questions on Maoritanga, Maori health and education and Maori welfare matters were put to an all-male panel.

Panel members were Canon Rangiihu, Dr

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League members photographed at Waitangi with Bishop Panapa are Mrs W. Karena (Te Kao), Mrs Pare Shelford (Whangarei), Mrs R. Sage (Hamilton), Bishop Panapa, and Mrs J. Witana (Te Kao)

L. Riddell, Mr P. Gordon, of Maori Affairs Department, Wellington, Mr F. Westcott, a member of the Wairoa College Board, and Mr D. Ria, of Gisborne.

Canon Rangiihu gave an interesting answer to the question, “What is a Maori?” It was not, he said, simply a matter of blood, language or tradition, but was mainly a matter of emotional attitude. He himself felt that he was a Maori. Some people with only a small percentage of pakeha blood considered themselves pakehas, while others with a larger percentage of pakeha blood considered themselves still to be Maori.

Some interesting work was exhibited at the Taihoa marae, where many visitors were accommodated overnight. Various competition sections testified to the high standards of craftsmanship attained by League members. In the Maori art and craft section, taniko coin purses and kiekie hats were judged by experts Meneana Wairea and Here Mete, and the autumn suit or ensemble section, in which the makers modelled their own entries, was judged by Mrs Enid Harker.

Mr R. H. Adsett judged the water-colour paintings, and knitted articles and artificial shoulder sprays were judged by Mrs P. Mayo.

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The Dominion President, Mrs Sage, was also present at the Tainui Regional Council's annual conference, which was held in Huntly last March.

Delegates from as far as Tauranga, Paeroa and Pokeno joined those from surrounding districts on the marae, where they were welcomed by centenarian Mr Hori Paki. Mrs E. Paki presided.

The conference was opened by Mrs Carter wife of the M.P. for Raglan, Mr D. J. Carter, who later spoke at the ceremony. He paid tribute to the great part Maori women were playing in retaining the traditions of their race as well as assisting in the progress of the Maori people.

Particular interest was shown at the conference in the Report of the Committee of Inquiry into Laws Affecting Maori Land and Powers of the Maori Land Court, especially in the clause relating to the rights of inheritance. This clause recommends that the law on Maori inheritance be brought into line with European law. As it now stands the Maori widow has no right of inheritance and can be left destitute if her husband dies without leaving a will. The child inherits everything and theoretically the widow can then be turned out of her home.

Mrs S. Murray, area representative, spoke of her work. She reported visits to Wellington and to outlying branches and the formation of new branches in Tuakau, Pokeno, and Mercer. She urged members to a greater understanding of the aims and objectives of the league and its constitution.

The conference congratulated the regional president, Mrs Paki, on her appointment as a Justice of the Peace.


Mrs Sage spoke to members of the Turanganui, Kaiti and Te Hapara branches of the League. She pointed out that the League had been fostered and financed by the Department of Maori Affairs on the understanding that it would eventually become self-supporting. While in its 13 years of existence the League had won considerable status and was recognised by the Government, it was still financially dependent on the support of the Department.

Over past years, said Mrs Sage, income from the branches had been low, but so far

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Mrs E. Taylor and Mrs M. Taylor at the Waitara ‘Maori Council’ conference

this year £2,500 from a possible income of £3,000 had been collected. It was hoped that the full amount would be collected to show that members honoured their responsibilities.

“The strength of our organisation must come from each one of you,” said Mrs Sage, “and we must work as one big family.”

Mrs Sage appealed for an increase in membership and said that from the probable 52,000 Maori women in the country only 3,000 were members of the League.

She emphasised that financial independence from the Department of Maori Affairs would not mean an abandoning of the advice and guidance of Departmental officers.

Whetu Pa

The first meeting of the Tauranga East District Council for this year was held at Whetu Pa, Waitao.

The ‘Mauao Cup’, donated two years ago for branch quarterly reports by Mrs R. A. Harris, Mayoress of Mt. Maunganui, was presented to its latest winner, the Waitao branch. The presentation was made by Mrs H. Te Kani on behalf of the previous holders, the Tukairangi branch.

After the presentation the election of officers took place. Mrs Mabel Gear was re-elected as president, Mesdames H. Te Kani and M. Karauria were elected 1st and 2nd vice-presidents, Mrs G. Walker was elected secretary and Mrs W. E. Paraire treasurer.

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At the March meeting, presided over by Mrs P. Pitmans, Poutaka members decided to foster the learning of Maori arts and crafts. The first lesson is to be on the boiling and preparation of flax to be used in making mats and baskets.


Mrs Myra Berghan was hostess for the first meeting of the Awanui branch last February.

Discussion was based mainly on the subject of artificial resuscitation and it was decided to hold a demonstration of techniques the following month.


During a three-week tour of South-East Asia, Mr W. Herewini, a member of the Dominion Executive Committee of the New Zealand Returned Services Association, had frank discussions with New Zealand servicemen, many of whom were Maoris.

He wanted to find out how the R.S.A. could help them with their problems.

Mr Herewini arrived at Changi, Singapore, on February 11 and then went to Kuching, Sarawak. New Zealand Air Force personnel at Kuching, after expressing appreciation for Christmas parcels, told him they were dissatisfied with the new rates of pay; they complained that any increase appeared to be

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Lt. G. W. Kereama, Major J. L. Smith, Mr Herewini and Warrant Officer D. N. Rawiri at Terendak Camp

cancelled out by the rise in living costs. On the question of settlement after leaving the service, they all agreed that housing loans at special rates of interest, together with interest-free furniture loans and assistance for trade training and education would be an incentive for others to join the service.

On February 14 Mr Herewini visited the headquarters of the New Zealand Far East Land Forces at Singapore, where he met the Commanding Officer, Colonel P. H. G. Hamilton. He later interviewed ten New Zealand seamen on board H.M.S. Mull of Kintyre, the supply ship for minesweepers at the Singapore naval base.

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Mr W. Herewini presents General Westmoreland with The Coming of the Maori by Sir Peter Buck.

“Again the new rates of pay and the increased living costs were criticised,” said Mr Herewini. “But the real bone of contention was the fact that married personnel on base supply were not allowed by regulation to have their wives and families accompany them.

“The term of service is apparently nine months, but they felt that consideration could be given to allowing their wives and families to live with them at the naval base. This could be an encouragement for naval personnel to remain in the service longer and thus avoid the drain of trained men who, in their present mood, appeared to have no wish to continue for a further term.”

Mr Herewini inspected the headquarters of 41 Squadron of the R.N.Z.A.F. at Changi. Aware that the squadron had a high reputation for reliability and the excellent maintenance of its Bristol aircraft, he learnt that the ground crews worked far more than normal duty hours to ensure the aircraft were always ready for operational service.

Visiting Malacca on February 16, Mr Herewini was met by Lt Colonel B. Poananga, the Commander of the 1st Battalion of the New

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Zealand Infantry Regiment, and Lt George Kereama. He inspected Terendak Camp and found that the Battalion was being moulded into an efficient fighting unit. The men were fit and full of confidence.

When he arrived at Bien Hoa on February 18 in an R.N.Z.A.F. Hercules aircraft, Mr Herewini saw the massive build-up of American planes, munitions, transport and other war equipment in South Vietnam. On February 22 he visited General Westmoreland, Commander of the U.S. Military Assistance Command, Vietnam, who praised the New Zealand artillery battery, but said he wished the force could have more guns.

Mr Herewini said that New Zealand gunners in South Vietnam wanted, among other things, a shorter period of service for single men. It had been pointed out that it was hard for single men to watch the married men leave after 12 months or less while the former had to stay for up to 20 months.

There was bitterness about the inequality of the basic rate of pay for gunners under 20 years of age. Two 19-year-old gunners got about £4 a day less than gunners aged 20 or over, yet all were exposed to the same dangers.

“The gunners also thought the new pay rates were unsatisfactory and benefited only a few. They said an increase was given with one hand and, because of the increased living costs, taken away with the other.”

Servicemen expressed appreciation to Mr Herewini for the Christmas gifts and consignment of cigarette tobacco sent by the R.S.A. He noted that at the base camp at Bien Hoa beer could be bought at 20 to 25 cents a can as well as canned drinks. Cigarettes (1 dollar 40 cents a carton), transistors, cameras and some other things were duty free.

“A wide screen, open-air movie was available, but otherwise there was little else to do but watch television,” he said. “The transmitting station was on a large American aircraft which flew a box course to give uninterrupted reception to viewers.”

FOOTNOTE: Mr Herewini brought back a request from soldiers, sailors and airmen for muttonbirds. As a result the Minister of Maori Affairs, Mr Hanan, made £250 available to buy them.

“I am doing this only once, and I hope that in future other organisations will undertake to send these and other special New Zealand foods to all servicemen serving New Zealand so well overseas,” said Mr Hanan.


This year Northland College, a school with a large Maori roll, has made history by becoming the first secondary school to be represented at the conference of the New Zealand Federation of Maori Students.

The senior Maori students at the college decided to form a Federation branch and attend the conference, in an attempt to overcome the huge gap which exists between secondary school and University or Teachers' College, and they were not disappointed. All gained a tremendous amount of real experience from meeting more advanced students, and discussing the problems which young Maoris face at ‘Varsity and Teachers’ College.

It was refreshing to accompany these young people on their trip: refreshing, because usually we hear too much theory about ‘The Problems of Maori Education’, and here was a group earnestly and enthusiastically doing something practical to overcome their difficulties.

These students are hoping that other schools with large Maori rolls will follow their example in the near future. If Maori students are familiar with just a few aspects of ‘Varsity or College life before they actually begin these courses, we feel their success will be greater.

Northland College Maori students are also keen to see a conference for senior Maori secondary students begin next year. They would be interested to hear other young people's ideas on this topic.

Those who attended the conference were: Hone Sadler, Hemi Heremaia, Nancy Witihira, Hera Tapsell, Mervyn Tatana, Kevin Douglas, Ben Pitman, Bill Hamilton, Mose Panama, Terai Matapo and Kiriau Turepu. The latter three are Pacific Islanders who are studying at Northland College.

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Tapu Lifted

The tapu placed on the Kawakawa reservoir after the drowning there of Mr Tom Tipene was lifted on 6 March by three elders of the Ngati Hine tribe. The Kawakawa Town Council was represented by Mr G. R. Cookson.

Later the tribe chief, Mr W. B. Kawiti, expressed appreciation for the Town Council's co-operation in what had been a difficult situation.

Mr Kawiti also thanked the Pakeha people of the district for their expressions of sympathy.

Northland Boys
Train in Auckland

In January the Auckland Post Office recruited 10 Maori boys from Northland for training as engineering technicians. Aged between 16 and 18 years, the boys were recruited by Mr Bill Puke, senior technician at Kaitaia, who will stay with them in Auckland for about 6 months to assist in their training.

They are being instructed at the Post Office Training School and are living at the United Maori Mission Hostel in Gillies Avenue.

Mr Puke said the boys were adapting themselves well and taking the job in their stride. When their training was completed they would become the first Maori technicians on the Auckland Post Office staff.

Thai Premier Entertained

The Putiki Maori Club entertained the touring Thai Prime Minister and his party last February with a varied selection of Maori cultural items. Soloists were Miss Margaret Wepia and Mrs Paki Martin.

Mr W. R. Mete-Kingi, leader of the group, compered the performance in a sprightly fashion and was later presented with an engraved silver box by the Thai Premier, Field Marshall Thanom Kittikachorn. Several guests left the hall twirling souvenir pois or wearing Maori headbands.

Movie cameramen from Auckland, Wellington and Bangkok shot TV film of the concert. This part of the tour will probably be seen by viewers in Britain, Europe and Thailand.

The club's presentation was the only Maori entertainment the party saw during its six-day State tour of New Zealand.

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Kiwi Stereo SLC 002; Mono LC-27;
12in. 33 1–3 LP

I thoroughly enjoyed this record. It features the combined choirs of St Joseph's Maori Girls' College and Hato Paora (St Paul's) College for Maori Boys. The cover notes say “… their performances will give hours of joy to all those who appreciate the musical gifts of the Maori people.” This, I found, was not an unduly effusive description. There are two versions of the record—one recorded in stereo and the other in monoaural. One does not need stereo to appreciate the excellence of the performance but stereo undoubtedly gives greater depth and richness.

There is plenty of variety. The record features two songs of greeting, a haka, four action songs, a chant, two hymns, two love songs, the St Paul's school song, and concludes with four examples of sacred polyphony sung in Latin.

A few comments on individual items are in order. The haka taparahi Mai Ara … is attacked in rather ragged fashion and yet from the sound viewpoint it is very good. The stereo in particular reproduces well the swish of the piupiu and the crack of hands on body. Kua Hanga is the Hato Paoro school song and was specially composed by one of the Brothers who teach there. I am not a great fan for piano accompaniment to Maori music. However, this does not in any way detract from some very pleasant part singing and a most delightful and catchy tune. The two love songs Te Marama and He Wawata are a little pedestrian in their tempo. There is a very nice duet in the middle of He Wawata. Whakatata and some of the other action songs are marred somewhat by jazzy accompaniments but the singing is good and the tempi brisk. The combined choirs' version of Huai is one of the best I have heard of this oft-abused little chant. It also makes one wish to hear the choirs singing more of this type of Maori music and less of action songs to tunes such as Never On Sunday. I spoke of this matter in a recent review of the St. Stephen's/Queen Victoria record and I would like to make a further plea that these schools—it is not an exaggeration to call them ‘cradles of Maori culture’—relegate items sung to the tunes of recent pop songs to the very bottom of their repertoires.

There is little to say about the polyphonic items except to commend the high standard of the singing. One thought however … action songs are not usually appreciated by many of those who care for polyphony and vice versa, although I am not suggesting that either type of music is subordinate to the other in musical merit. However, I felt that only one plainsong items to illustrate the versatility of these choirs would have been sufficient for this record. The polyphony deserves a record on its own.

Mention is made in the cover notes of the difficulties which were experienced in bringing together these two choirs, for the schools are separated by over a hundred miles. Only two rehearsals were possible before the recording was made. This makes the resultant record even more praiseworthy. Let us hope that at some future time another joint recording venture by these two schools will be possible.

Kiwi EA-120 7in. 45 EP

This is a singing-speaking record featuring Inia Te Wiata. It is subtitled The Hinemoa Legend in Song and Story. Side one features a specially adapted version of the legend of Hinemoa and Tutanekai from A. W. Reed's Myths and Legends of Maoriland. This is easily the best of Kiwi's attempts to feature Maori legends on record. Te Wiata's reading of the legend is rather low-key to begin with but with the arrival of Hinemoa at Mokoia the story is brought vividly to life by lnia's clever imitation of the voices of the various characters.

Side two begins with New Zealand songwriter Willow Macky's plaintive The Maori Flute. Inia Te Wiata's singing is hauntingly evocative. The accompaniment is by the Cheeseman Strings with solo flautist Cyril Haworth. The Maori Flute is followed by Kingi Tahiwi's Tirohia ki Mokoia—which is more usually called The Hinemoa Chant.

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Inia Te Wiata speaks a short introduction and then sings the chant without accompaniment.

Inia Te Wiata is a fine singer and on this record he shows himself to be no mean storyteller.

Kiwi SA-50 7in. 45

Kiri Te Kanawa's fans are legion and most people who have seen the film enjoy the music from Sound of Music. On this record Kiri sings Climb every Mountain and My Favourite Things. Both songs are accompanied by a small ensemble. Kiri's singing is always pleasant to listen to, but somehow she seems to put too little effort into this disc. Yet perhaps it is unfair to blame the singer. The actual quality of the recording seems to be lacking in depth and vibrancy. However, despite this, if you are a fan for both Kiri and The Sound of Music this is a record that you will probably enjoy.

Efforts Rewarded

Tetley Road Pa has a new meeting house, thanks to six months' part-time work by the small community of 14 families.

Mr T. Walters, elder of the Ranginui tribe, said that the success of the project had been achieved through working in unity.

The new meeting house of concrete block, concrete panel and translucent sheet construction, is built on the site of the old meeting house, which was demolished about seven years ago.

Bishop Constitutes Hui

The Bishop of Aotearoa, the Rt Rev. W. N. Panapa, and the Bishop of Auckland, the Rt Rev. E. A. Gowing, attended the Anglican Hui Amorangi at Peria last March. The Hui began at 2 p.m. on Friday, 25 March and finished at mid-day on Sunday. It was constituted on Saturday morning by Bishop Panapa. A feature of the Hui was an address, God is Challenging Us, by the Rev. T. Buttle.

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Couriers (N.Z.) Ltd. photo
Princess Piki with her children at Rakaunui


The opening of a new meeting house coincided with the annual pokai at Rakaunui last March. King Koroki was represented by his daughter Princess Piki, who is photographed here with her two children.

On their arrival Princess Piki and her party were greeted with a powhiri by the older women of the tribe, and escorted to the hall by a brass band from Ngaruawahia. Princess Piki met the elders and then officially opened

the new building and led those present inside for a brief commemorative ceremony by Mr G. Hamlin. Mr Hamlin, a former teacher at Rakaunui, was the originator of the building project.

The hall was constructed by the Rakaunui Tribal Committee under the chairmanship of Mr Larsen Karipa. A fine example of community effort, it was built at weekends over a period of only two months.

The whare nui completed the marae, which is also equipped with dining room, cooking facilities, nursery, toilets and a small room used as a shop.

The building, which measures 24 ft by 54 ft, is decorated at the entrance. This is the work of Mr Bill Karaka, a Mako Mako schoolteacher. It has been named Moana-Kahakora after the home of King Tawhiao, who once lived nearby.

After the official opening, donations of mattresses, sheets and pillows were placed in the new building, where they will remain permanently for use by visitors.

Official guests and the many visitors from distant parts were then feasted by their hosts in the decorated dining room.

Before her visit to Rakaunui, Princess Piki had visited the maraes at Parawera and Orakau. She continued the annual pokai with further visits in the Kawhia area.

Wellingtonians Enjoy Hangi

A hangi organised by one of the teachers, Mr Edward Nepia, ensured that nobody went hungry at the Wellington High School fair.

Seven carcasses of mutton, seven bags of potatoes, a bag of pumpkins and some pork and beef, steamed in baskets above white hot stone, provided enough food for 500 servings.

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Hundreds of ex-pupils and visitors from all parts of New Zealand joined Ruatoki residents to celebrate the 70th jubilee of the Ruatoki Maori District High School last March.

Special guests were four pupils from the first classes held at the school when it was opened in 1896. They were Mrs P. Rangiaho 85, Mrs N. Black 77, and Mrs U. Timeha and Mrs P. Trainor, who were both 80. All four have spent most of their lives in Ruatoki.

When ceremonies began, the official party of four past head teachers and the Member of Parliament for Eastern Maori, Mr S. Watene, were challenged at the gate. Hakas, action songs and waiatas followed.

Mr R. W. Kerr, the present headmaster, officially welcomed the visitors, who then made speeches in Maori and English, giving thanks for the welcome and wishing the school and its pupils well for the future.

After a hangi lunch a roll call was held and photographs were taken. Several sporting events also took place, including a ‘past versus present’ basketball match.

An open-air dance was held in the evening, and the next morning the jubilee celebrations concluded with a church service.

When Ruatoki school opened in 1896, it had a roll of 47 pupils. By 1900 it had a roll of nearly 100 and after a decline in the early 1900s the number reached 200 in 1939.

In 1947 a secondary section was established, and two extra classrooms were built.

Mr Kerr, the present headmaster, is the first Maori to hold this position. He joined the school in 1962.

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Rotorua Post Photo
Original pupils, Mrs U. Tihema. Mrs N. Black, Mrs P. Rangiaho and Mrs P. Trainor

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Taken from Sir George Grey's ‘Polynesian Mythology’

Once upon a time, a man of the name of Kahukura wished to pay a visit to Rangiaowhia, a place lying far to the northward, near the country of the tribe called Te Rarawa. Whilst he lived at his own village, he was continually haunted by a desire to visit that place. At length he started on his journey, and reached Rangiaowhia, and as he was on his road the passed a place where some people had been cleaning mackerel, and he saw the inside of the fish lying all about the sand on the sea-shore: surprised at this, he looked about at the marks, and said to himself, “Oh this must have been done by some of the people of the district.” But when he came to look a little more narrowly at the footmarks, he saw that the people who had been fishing had made them in the night-time, not that morning, nor in the day; and he said to himself, “These are no mortals who have been fishing here—spirits must have done this; had they been men, some of the reeds and grass which they sat on in their canoe would have been lying about.” He felt quite sure from several circumstances, that spirits or fairies had been there; and after observing everything well, he returned to the house where he was stopping. He, however, held fast in his heart what he had seen, as something very striking to tell all his friends in every direction, and as likely to be the means of gaining knowledge which might enable him to find out something new.

So that night he returned to the place where he had observed all these things, and just as he reached the spot, back had come the fairies too, to haul their net for mackerel; and some of them were shouting out, ‘The net here! the net here!” Then a canoe paddled off to fetch the other one in which the net was laid, and as they dropped the net into the water, they began to cry out, “Drop the net in the sea at



He haerenga no Kahukura ki Rangiaowhia—kei raro tenei kaainga kei a te Rarawa. Ka noho taua tangata ra, a ka minamina tona ngakau ki te haereere ki taua wahi. Ka tahi ia ka haere, ka tae ki Rangiaowhia, ka kite ia i te tuakitanga tawatawa, e takoto ana te puku i waenga one; ka matakitaki te tangata nei, hua noa na te tangata maori. Ka tahi ia ka ata titiro i te takahanga—no te po noa atu tenei mahinga, e hara i te ata nei, ara e hara i te mahi awatea—ka ki taua tangata nei ki a ia ano, “E hara i te mahi tangata maori, na te atua tenei mahinga: me he mea na te tangata, e kitea te whariki o te waka.”

Ka tahi ia ka mohio, na te atua, ara na te Patupaiarehe. Matakitaki tonu taua tangata, a hoki ana ki tana kaainga; ko tona ngakau, kihai i wareware ki tana mea i kitea ai hei taonga mona, ara hei whakakite mana ki ia tangata, ki ia tangata, kia wiho ai ia hei tauira. A, i te po ka tahi ia ka, hoki mai ki taua wahi ano i kitea ra e ia: pono tonu mai, kua eke mai a Patupaiarehe ki te hao tawatawa, e karanga ana ki te kupenga, e hoea ana te waka ki te tiki i te waka o te kupenga; ko te kupenga e tukua iho, na, ka pa te karanga, ka mea, “Tukutuku i Rangiaowhia, whakaeaea i te Mamaku.”

Ka karanga ano, “Tututukua i Rangiaowhia, whakaeaea i te Mamaku.”

Ko enei kupu, he whawhapu na Patupaiarehe, he koanga na o ratou ngakau ki te ika ma ratou, e kume ana te Iwi nei i tana kupenga. Ka uru a Kahukura ki roto i a ratou kume ai—ko taua tangata i rite tonu ki a Patupaiarehe te ma o te kiri, na reira i ngaro ai—a ka tata ki uta te kupenga, ka tahi ka karanga, ka mea. “Haere i waho kei mau i Tawatawauia a Teweteweuia”—he kohatu kei waenganui o te one e tu ana. E kume tonu ana te nuinga, ko Kahukura ano kei roto i a ratou—kaore ano i kitea noatia, no te mea i

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Rangiaowhia, and haul it at Mamaku.” These words were sung out by the fairies, as an encouragement in their work, and from the joy of their hearts at their sport in fishing.

As the fairies were dragging the net to the shore Kahukura managed to mix amongst them, and hauled away at the rope; he happened to be a very fair man, so that his skin was almost as white as that of these fairies, and from that cause he was not observed by them. As the net came close into the shore, the fairies began to cheer and shout, “Go out into the sea some of you, in front of the rocks, lest the nets should be entangled in Tawatawauia-Teweteweuia”, for that was the name of a rugged rock standing out from the sandy shore; the main body of the fairies kept hauling at the net, and Kahukura pulled away in the midst of them.

When the first fish reached the shore, thrown up in the ripples driven before the net as they hauled it in, the fairies had not yet remarked Kahukura, for he was almost as fair as they were. It was just at the very first peep of dawn that the fish were all landed, and


rite ki a ratou te kiri te ma.

A ka takiri te ata, ka tahi ano ka tukua mai te ngohi o te huka ki uta; ka tahi ano ka huri te Patupaiarehe ki te tango i nga ngohi ki uta, ka eke hoki te kupenga ki uta. Kaore e peneitia tana ika me ta te tangata maori nei e tuhaina—he mea huri noa iho ki te tui—me te tui, we te karanga, “Tenei po kurua mai, kei whakowatawata te ra,” me te tui ano i te ika. Ko Kahukura e tui ana, ko te pona o te tui a Kahukura, he mea titorea te pona, a ka pau te tui te whakaeke ki te ngohi, ka hapainga te tui, e kore e rokohapainga, ka horo ano nga ngohi ki raro; ka tahuri mai ano tera ki te tui, ka haere mai ano ki te pona i te tui a Kahakura; ka mau te pona pahemo rawa ake te kai pona. Te maunga atu ano a Kahukura wetekina ake ano, titoreatia ake ano te tui; ka tui ano a ka maha, ka hapainga ano e Kahukura; ka warea ano ki te tui, na wai a ka awatea, ka kitea te kanohi o te tangata. Ka kite i a Kahukura, ka tahi ano ka whati, ka mahue nga ika, ka mahue te kupenga, ka mahue nga waka—ko nga waka he korari. He oi ano, ka whati tera te Tahurangi—ko te rua tenei o

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the fairies ran hastily to pick them up from the sand, and to haul the net up on the beach. They did not act with their fish as men do, dividing them into separate loads for each, but every one took up what fish he liked, and ran a twig through their gills, and as they strung the fish, they continued calling out, “Make haste, run here, all of you, and finish the work before the sun rises.”

Kahukura kept on stringing his fish with the rest of them. He had only a very short string, and, making a slip-knot at the end of it, when he had covered the string with fish, he lifted them up, but had hardly raised them from the ground when the slip-knot gave way from the weight of the fish, and off they fell; then some of the fairies ran good-naturedly to help him to string his fish again, and one of them tied the knot at the end of the string for him, but the fairy had hardly gone after knotting it, before Kahukura had unfastened it, and again tied a slip-knot at the end; then he began stringing his fish again, and when he had got a great many on, up he lifted them, and off they slipped as before. This trick he repeated several times, and delayed the fairies in their work by getting them to knot his string for him, and put his fish on it. At last full daylight broke, so that there was light enough to distinguish a man's face, and the fairies saw that Kahukura was a man; then they dispersed in confusion, leaving their fish and their net, and abandoning their canoes, which were nothing but stems of flax. In a moment the fairies started for their own abodes; in their hurry, as has just been said, they abandoned their net which was made of rushes; and off the good people fled as fast as they could go. Now was first discovered the stitch for netting a net, for they left theirs with Kahukura, and it became a pattern for him. He thus taught his children to make nets, and by them the Maori race were made acquainted with that art, which they have now known from very remote times.


nga ingoa o tera Iwi. Ka tahi ano ka kitea te ta o te kupenga: ka mahue iho te kupenga nei, ka riro mai i a Kahukura hei tauira mana, ka akona e ia ki a ana tamariki; na reira i mohio ai nga tupuna o te tangata maori ki te ta kupenga, a mohoa noa nei.


Go down, old friend,
to warm beaches where the sand
still speaks of your young love;
where the smoke of ancient fires
still stings in the nostrils.

Go down, old friend,
where heaps of long opened shells
glitter in the light of old moons;
where the music of forgotten songs
lingers in the listening ear.

Go down, old friend,
to the circle of familiar faces
which opens to make room for you.
Tell the old tales in their first
flush of fresh and bawdy life;
make music again on broken strings.

Leave us,
for our fires have all burned out
and only their grey smoke drifts
in a shadowy and indefinite dawn.
Leave us as our new canoes
move out from familiar shores
drifting upon inconsequent tides.

Frederick C. Parmée

– 59 –


From a village play centre in a remote area—to Maori scholarships, seems to require a long stretch of the imagination. Yet I feel that the years ahead will prove that an important connection does indeed exist.

Today I visited such a centre for the first time. It is held in a Maori hall, but Pakeha and Maori children attend, and mothers of both races assist in the organisation and control of the children. Herein lies a very important factor.

Because our ‘racial problems’ look minute when compared with those of other countries such as America and South Africa, we tend to minimize or even ignore them. But they exist nevertheless, and although Maori education needs special attention, emphasis, and assistance, one thing which can encourage racial harmony enormously, is for Pakeha and Maori people to co-operate actively—not only at leader level, but among the ordinary men and women of each district.

Today I saw Maori and Pakeha women talking together about their children, freely and without shyness, finding that their problems were for the most part similar. Many of these women would probably never have visited each others homes, and if they had not been brought together through this common interest, would have had only a vague knowledge of how others lived. Through these conversations, the Pakeha women are coming to discover a few of the special difficulties which face a Maori child.

Many people do not realise what a handicap the speaking of two languages in a home can be to a five-year-old just starting school. It has been estimated that the vocabulary of a child in such a situation is sometimes only half that of another who has only one language to contend with. In a play centre, the Maori child has an opportunity to get a good start in English before he begins school. This is an immense help to the teachers and gives the child a better chance in his education.

A small child, whether Maori or Pakeha, will often be shy or nervous for the first few days at school, and play centres help children of both races overcome this shyness. But a Maori child, unless he is attending a strictly ‘native’ school, may have the extra burden of feeling that he is entering an unfamiliar Pakeha world for the first time. At play centre he becomes accustomed to white children and adults, usually with the comforting presence of his mother and other friends alongside him.

There are many small items of school life which puzzle a child, and in play centres the children can be prepared for these. One such instance pointed out by a school-teacher was that for the first few days, some newcomers would refuse to eat their cut lunches at school. It was therefore decided to train them in this during their time at play centres. The value of co-operation between local teachers and their nearest play centre cannot be over-emphasised.

All our lives we are learning. The sooner we are allowed to start, and the earlier we are given the necessary materials to learn with, the faster we are likely to advance. I feel that play centres, with their rich variety of experiences and working materials, will prove to be of great value in giving our children a good start with their education. Not all mothers find it easy to entertain and train their children at home in the pre-school years, and it is always helpful to discover new ideas, and to give the children a chance to mix with others.

So parents, whether you are Maori or Pakeha, if you feel hesitant about taking your child to a play centre, be assured that from small beginnings great things may come; one of the greatest I forsee is the education of Maori and Pakeha parents and children at the same time.

THROUGH THE PLAY CENTRE FEDERATION, the Maori Education Foundation can make grants available to enable Maori parents to attend Play Centre Training Courses.

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– 61 –


Picture icon

Solution to No. 51


1 Give a formal speech.
2 Where the canoes came from
3 Vine.
4 How great.
5 Unoccupied space.
6 Beer.
7 Officer.
8 Forearm.
9 For, since, inasmuch as.
10 Only.
11 Chopping, to chop.
14 Sawdust; green, uncooked.
18 Satisfied with food; well-being.
21 Ragged.
22 Stage.
23 Bark of a dog.
28 Isaac.
29 Swim.
32 Last night.
35 He, she.
37 Way, path.
38 Sea egg.
41 What?
42 Misfortune, accident.
45 Bore, poke; quiver.
46 A god.
48 The parson bird.
51 Bosom, chest.
52 Gourd.
54 Bee.
55 Tar; stamp, print; Sir


1 Utter, disclose, reveal.
10 Morning.
12 Feast.
13 Beg, cadge.
15 Dawn.
16 Bodies of enemies slain in war.
18 Wake up.
19 Upwards, from below; very.
20 See, find.
22 Canoe of Rotorua people.
25 Dagger, butcher knife.
26 Shore; to load.
27 Assembly, meeting.
29 Digging stick.
30 Taken, acquired; gone.
31 Wish, desire.
33 Oven.
34 Roof.
36 Forest tree with red flower.
38 Fill, say.
39 Garment; large bird.
40 Life, health.
41 Obstacle, screen.
43 Father.
44 Loved.
47 Your (pl).
49 Those.
50 We, us.
53 Rain.
54 Gun.
55 Finished, completed.
57 Food to take on a journey.
58 Chairman.
59 Yes.

– 62 –


Homework centres are a distinctive feature of the Maori educational scene. They provide pupils with a place where it is possible to concentrate on study in the evenings.

Activity in Rotorua

In Rotorua the Whakarewarewa Study Centre Committee runs two centres, one which began at Ohinemutu and resumed this year at Tinohopu, and another which started this year at Ngapuna.

At Te Matai Maori School, near Te Puke, a new centre was opened this year, and at Kawerau the classes begun in the third term last year continue to go well. At Wairaka, near Whakatane, another recently opened centre is doing well, although travelling expenses for the qualified supervisors are high.

The Kaingaroa Primary School Parent-Teacher Association is interested in starting a homework centre for secondary pupils in that area also.

Hamilton Plans For Centres

At Hamilton a meeting was called last February to form a committee for the promotion of Maori education in Hamilton.

Organised by the Professor of Psychology at the University of Waikato, Professor J. Ritchie, the meeting was attended by about 60 people, most of them Maori.

A committee of seven was elected to sponsor study facilities for Maori secondary school pupils and tutorial assistance at all levels for Maoris living in Hamilton.

No definite plans were made, but the committee will probably make a central meeting place available to secondary school students three or four nights a week, and organise supervision, perhaps by a team of parents working on a roster system.

Tutorial assistance, mainly for Maori adults attending night classes is also to be initiated as part of the scheme.

Much of the evening's discussion was based on the Maori child's inability to progress at school as quickly as the pakeha because he is not given the same encouragement to study at home.

Some speakers argued that efforts to improve this situation should be concentrated on school children. Professor Ritchie, however, pointed out that there was no better way to provide these incentives than by stimulating an interest in education in Maori adults.

Committee members elected at the meeting were Mrs R. Wright, Miss R. de Loree, Dr D. Sinclair, Messrs. S. Renata, M. Raureti, G. D. Wright and Munroe.


All those interested in Maori history will be glad to know that Tuwharetoa is now available in a second edition. Mr J. Te H. Grace's fine history of Ngati Tuwharetoa of the Taupo district was first published in 1959; the book received a warm welcome from readers, and for some years it has been out of print. This new edition is identical in content and format with the first edition.

Tuwharetoa is a work of very wide scope, for it traces the events of some 600 years, from the coming of the Arawa canoe (regarded as having arrived during the fourteenth century) up to the present day. Since Ngati Tuwharetoa was always a prominent tribe which entered into many alliances with its neighbours, events in these surrounding tribes also enter into the story.

The first of the book's three parts deals with the period up to the end of the seventeenth century. With some of the earliest stories, such as the voyage of the Arawa canoe and the romance of Hinemoa and Tutanekai, the author necessarily covers some rather well-trodden ground, but they are stories which can well stand re-telling.

Mr Grace gives a most interesting account of the powerful tribes which inhabited Taupo and the Bay of Plenty at the time of the ‘fleet’ migration of the fourteenth century:

– 63 –

‘Many writers are of the opinion that these peoples were of a peaceful disposition, not warlike, but almost cringing and servile. The fragments of history and tradition that have been handed down do not support such a reputation. Everywhere the extensive and skilfully constructed fortifications … bear witness to the existence of a spirited people in the generations before the fourteenth century, and … of the menace of war and of the need for defensive measures.’

In the fifteenth century the Taupo area was inhabited by two ancient ‘pre-fleet’ tribes, Ngati Hotu and Ngati Ruakopiri. Despite this early date, and despite the fact that their subsequent defeat made it more difficult to obtain information (for as the author notes, there is very often a reluctance to admit descent from a conquered people), Mr Grace has collected a considerable amount of information concerning these tribes. Here again, we are told, the evidence suggests that Ngati Hotu ‘were a very fierce and warlike people. And that it was only after piecemeal destruction, extending over many generations … that this tribe was conquered.’

Tuwharetoa, the eponymous ancestor of Ngati Tuwharetoa, was a chief of high rank who lived in the Bay of Plenty during the sixteenth century. On his mother's side he traced his descent from the aboriginal tribes of the Bay of Plenty, and on his father's side he was a descendant of Ngatoroirangi, the high priest of the Arawa canoe. The traditions say that he was a man of great physical and intellectual capacities, famous as a warrior and as a man of wise counsel. Mr Grace gives a clear picture of the circumstances which led to Tuwharetoa's sons and their followers moving to the Taupo district, and of the complex series of battles, alliances, feuds and migrations which shaped the history of the tribe.

The second section of the book covers the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth century, and tells us much about Ngati Tuwharetoa's relations with the tribes surrounding it. This information is also valuable in helping the reader to see the events described in a wider perspective: the newcomer to tribal history, who at first may feel somewhat overwhelmed by so many names, is likely to find this especially useful.

The third section of Tuwharetoa begins with the story of the introduction of Christianity to Taupo. Mr J. Te H. Grace is a grandson of the Rev. Thomas Samuel Grace, the Anglican missionary who worked among the people of Taupo from 1855 to 1863 (his mother was Rangiamohia Te Herekieke, last of the senior female ariki line of Ngati Tuwharetoa), and in describing the events of this period he is able to quote from family records. There are also interesting chapters on the work of missionaries of other denominations.

There are most informative and thoughtful chapters on the later events of the century, and especially on the Maori King Movement, the wars of the 1860s, and Te Kooti. Finally, there is a discussion of the present situation of Ngati Tuwharetoa.

The book's index is excellent, and there is a useful map—though one or two more maps, showing something of the earlier history of the tribe, would have been of much assistance. There is also a generous selection of photographs, including portraits of such famous figures as the paramount chief Te Heuheu Tukino II, and those of his descendants who have followed him in the role.

– 64 –

Picture icon

Mr John Waititi


A national campaign for funds is being launched to provide a memorial scholarship as a tribute to the late Maori leader and educationist Mr Hoani Waititi.

By the end of March £1,000 had been contributed by members of Mr Waititi's tribe, the Whanau-a-Apanui from the Omaio district, east of Opotiki. Smaller collections had been made in some North Island centres.

Secretary of the appeal for funds, Mr W. Tawhai, of Omaio, said that the form the scholarship would take would be decided on when it was known how much money had been raised. An administrative committee would then be appointed.

Another group wanting to establish a memorial to Mr Waititi is the St. Stephen's School Old Boys' Association.

The association hopes to establish a ‘John Waititi Memorial Trophy’, which would be presented annually.

Because of Mr Waititi's close association with both Maori and Pakeha, the secretary of the association, Mr W. J. Te Huia, said that people of both races would probably be eligible for the award, although this would have to be discussed with the firm sponsoring the trophy.

Maori Festival Planned

On behalf of the Ngati Hamutana Maori Club the Hamutana Progressive Association is planning a week-long Maori Festival of the Arts. It will be held in Hamilton from 22 to 27 August.

Leader of the organising committee, Mr Moana Raureti, said that the festival would not be confined to Hamilton and district, but artists would be included from all over New Zealand.

Plans for the festival include a field day, an international night, an evening of operatic music, poetry and drama, and a history of the Maori people Sound and Light. There will also be a day of football. Cultural competitions will be held on Saturday, 27 August, and finals will be held in the evening. It is hoped to have a prominent personality to present the prizes. Arts and crafts will be on display every day.

Sponsorship of £350 has come from Waikato Breweries for the cultural evening, but the committee is hard at work raising further funds for the festival. Members of the committee include Mrs A. Hapimana and Miss K. Sargeant.

Tuwharetoa Trust Board

Mr Hepi Te Heuheu, paramount chief of the Tuwharetoa tribe, topped the poll in the recent elections of the Tuwharetoa Maori Trust Board.

The board, of 10 members, is elected every three years to administer Maori affairs within the boundaries of the Tuwharetoa tribe.

The successful candidates were: Hepi Te Heuheu 422, John Takakopiri Asher 353, Te Takinga Arthur Grace 350, Huriwha Maniapoto 344, Pateriki Hura 342, Tongomai Te Heuheu 332, Taxi Aonui Kapu 327. Te Tangi-kamutua Downs 306, Ohiriweteri Mariu 299, and Robert Keepa 290.


The Maori Tribal Committee of Taihape has donated a trampoline to Taihape College. In reporting this to the Board of Governors the College Principal, Mr T. H. Burt, referred to it as a magnificent gift.

BACK COVER: we reproduce on the back cover part of Theo Schoon's 5 × 7 ft mural Bird in the Bush.

– 65 –



Ko tenei manu he morehu no te wao nui a Tane.

Na runga i nga mahi pohehe a te tangata i whakaaturia ai nga tikanga kia kaua e patua tenei manu.

Ko etahi enei o ana ingoa ko te kuku me te kukupa.

He manu huatahi tenei ara kotahi ano tona whanautanga i te tau kahore i penei i etahi manu nei te kaha ki te whanaunau.

He inoi atu tenei kia koutou katoa manaakitia te manu nei kia rite ai tana tupu ki nga ra o mua.

Na Te Tari

Kaitiaki o nga Manu