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No. 53 (December 1965)
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Te Ao Hou

The Department of Maori Affairs DECEMBER 1965

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This drawing of a decorated gourd in the Dominion Museum collection is by Theo Schoon. In pre-European times gourds like this one were the valued possession of chiefs and persons of rank.

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Te Ao Hou

PUBLISHED QUARTERLY by the Department of Maori Affairs and sponsored by the Maori Purposes Fund Board.

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BACK ISSUES (N.Z. rates). Issue nos. 18–23, 25, and 27–52 are available at 2/6 each. A very few copies of issue nos. 12, 13, 16 and 24 are still available at 5/- each. Other issues are now out of print. (Overseas rates for back issues are available on request).

CONTRIBUTIONS IN MAORI: Ko tetahi o nga whakaaro nui o Te Ao Hou he pupuri kia mau te reo Maori. Otira ko te nui nga o nga korero kei te tukua mai kei te reo Pakeha anake. Mehemea hoki ka nui mai nga korero i tuhia ki te reo Maori ka whakanuia ake te wahanga o ta tatou pukapuka mo nga korero Maori.

Statements in signed articles in Te Ao Hou are the responsibility only of the writers concerned.



EDITOR: Margaret Orbell.

ASSOCIATE EDITOR (Maori text): E. B. Ranapia.

Contents December 1965

The Story of Hihi-o-tote 22
The Legend of Hatupatu and the Bird-Woman 31
A Famous Oriori from Turanga 19
Temperance Songs of the 1880s 25
Bright Birds, Frederick C. Parmée 52
In Memoriam: Hoani Waititi, Harry Dansey 6
Study Centre in Rotorua, Terry Simpson 10
Our World Tour, Kingi Ihaka 13
Planning for Your Children's Future, Vei Puke 17
Transcriptions of Authentic Maori Chant: part six, Mervyn McLean 34
The Story of a King Carnival 42
Some Critical Thoughts on Competitions, Alan Armstrong 45
The Meeting house Porourangi, Henrietta Kaiwai 48
How Ruatoria Got Its Name, Caroline Te Rauna 49
Three Religious Faiths, Bernard Gadd 50
The American Field Service, Keri Kaa 53
People and Places 26
Book Reviews 54
Record Reviews 58
Crossword Puzzle 61
Haere Ki O Koutou Tipuna 63

COVER: The three prize-winners in the national Korimako Trophy oratory contest for Maori fifth and sixth formers held in Wellington last August. First prize went to 16-year-old Donna Awatere (right) of Auckland, who is holding the trophy, second prize to John Barrett, aged 18, of Te Kuiti, and third prize to Miriama Scott, aged 16, of Wellington, (Photograph by Ans Westra).

Sponsored by the Maori Education Foundation and the Post Primary Teachers' Association, the contest is to be held annually. The carved trophy was given by the Governor-General Sir Bernard Fergusson.

Illustrations: Page 13. Roger Hart. Pages 16 and 22. Gordon Walters. Back cover, Theo Schoon.

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Hoani Waititi

The Editor,

Te Ao Hou.

On behalf of those who are now at Mt Crawford, and were formerly members of the Maungawhau Maori Culture Group at Mt Eden Gaol in Auckland, I wish to ask ‘Te Ao Hou’ to convey our deepest sympathy to the relatives and friends of the late Hoani Waititi:

We mourn the loss, and pay homage to the memory of a Brother, Tutor and Rangatira who visited and worked amongst us with our betterment in mind.

Haere e hoa! Haere ki te korekore, haere ki te wahangutanga o te tangata, haere ki te Po tiwhatiwha!


(former secretary,

Maungawhau Group)

The Editor,

Te Ao Hou.

May I express my deepest grief at the death of Mr Hoani Waititi. I had known him for only one year, but have yet to meet another man governed so completely by a burning idealism to help his people. His energy, his forthrightness, his wisdom, his humanity: all these qualities made him the most sincere and memorable of men.

The good he has done Maoridom is beyond estimate. By working towards the future he envisaged, we, the morehu, must make certain that his name, and the ideals for which it stands, are never forgotten.

He pononga nui i te haha Maoritanga. Ka mate ahau i te pouri.

I. K. MITCHELL (Auckland)

A Maori Language Radio Station

The Editor, Te Ao Hou.

Has anyone ever suggested a Maori Language Radio Station?

I have several Welsh relations and I visited them last year. One of them, though a very quietly spoken middle-aged school teacher, is actually, beneath his respectable exterior, a wild Welsh Nationalist.

He told me that when the BBC first started broadcasting to Wales many Welshmen were very worried—they saw in the constant use of English over the air a threat to the Welsh language. English would be in everyone's home all the time and children would grow up never hearing Welsh spoken by anybody except their parents.

But the BBC turned out to be the very opposite. Radio and television were the major cause of the rejuvenation of Welsh.

The BBC was very generous of time and expense to its Welsh Service and gradually less and less needed to be broadcast in English and more and more programmes of all kinds used Welsh. My cousin was the first BBC rugby commentator in Welsh and he had to invent a few new words to make it possible. Now both BBC Television and Independent Television broadcast to Wales in Welsh, and a television studio game first played in Welsh has its English imitation!

Broadcasting rescued the Welsh language from the pulpit and the kitchen. In those places Welsh was a fine and a wonderful language, but it was not used in the rest of modern life; the industrial revolution had left

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it behind. It took radio and television to help it find the words and the ways of talking, so that Welshmen are now able to use it for everything. While I was in Wales I saw and heard on TV alone (but could not understand alas) features on industrial relations and a strike, slum clearance, church architecture, welfare work, politics, teenage problems, and Christmas shopping. I sat through studio games, interviews, listened and looked at Eisteddfod winners, and innumerable advertisements. And of course I could have (if I had understood) kept up with local and world events and learnt about the weather. Never an English word spoken, and only 114 miles from London.

In New Zealand we have a great number of small broadcasting stations and so we have a golden opportunity to make one, say IZC Rotorua, a Maori language station, with everything except the recorded artists using Maori as the spoken word.

Expense? Heavy at first compared to other local stations. The station would need a staff of translators, typists of Maori, Maori announcers, programme producers able to produce in Maori, able to improvise, experiment, develop new ideas and unearth new talent; it would need technicians able to understand Maori or able to put up with everything being done in Maori, and roving reporters out at important occasions, both Maori and national, giving special coverage for Maori listeners. And there is the problem of convincing advertisers that advertisements in Maori are not useless and are worth paying the extra they will at first cost to produce. The quality? Who knows? Surely the talent is there. We know we have the musicians and singers already. The effect? Pride in our other New Zealand language. Assistance to all who are learning Maori. A healthy development of the language, no longer just a language of the marae

and the old people.

I look forward to the day when I tune in to my favourite station and hear the announcer say, ‘Kei te whakarongo koe i nga Pitara e waiata ana i te waiata nei, “A Hard Day's Night”.'


Mervyn McLean's Study of Maori Music

The Editor, Te Ao Hou.

I feel deeply touched at the letters which have appeared on the above subject and I am profoundly grateful to the writers. I think that I should explain to them why I have acted as I have done.

Many people, perhaps even most, will believe as these writers do, that to accept payment for my transcriptions and articles would be no more than fair return for the work have put into them. I am quite sure however that others would say, ‘There you are; just as I thought; he's making money out of our songs.’

Most of us know that this sort of thinking is wrong, but mistaken or not it was, without any doubt at all, the greatest single barrier encountered by me when I began recording Maori songs. Again and again the question was raised and always I gave the unqualified assurance that I would not ‘sell the songs for money’. Nearly all of the singers accepted this and recorded their songs; and posterity will be grateful to them for doing so. I know quite well that payment for the transcriptions would be payment for my own work and not for the songs themselves. But some of the people whose songs I have recorded, and many others whose songs I would like to record, would not see it this way. My own very strong conviction is that mistaken' as these people may be, I must respect their wishes. I believe also that many things in life are more important than money and for me personally it will mean much more to be able to carry on with the work of preserving and studying Maori music, than to accept a few pounds now that might create difficulties later. So to Amy Hill, Hirona Wikiriwhi, Tahi Tait and other well-wishers who may feel as they do. I extend my warmest thanks for their efforts and the hope that they will see now that I could not act otherwise.

MERVYN McLEAN (Invercargill)

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David Merito of Whakatane, a second year student at the School of Physical Education, University of Otago, has been elected president of the Physical Education Students' Society for the coming year. Another Maori, Logan Berghan of Ahipara, was elected as the representative of the third year students on the group's executive.

Two other Maoris are at present attending the School of Physical Education. They are Lewis Maxwell of Auckland, formerly head prefect at St Stephens College, and Douglas Pye of Otorohanga. There are four others who have already completed the course and gained their diplomas in physical education. They are Leslie Williams, a teacher at Avondale College; Rarawa Kohere, a teacher at Mana College; May Paki, a teacher at Queen Victoria School, and Warren Riwai, who is at present studying at Christchurch Teachers' College.

Eighteen-year-old Haare Mete of Kaitaia was a member of a women's gymnastics team which recently visited Vienna to take part in an international gymnastic festival. One of the team's items made use of poi. with Haare leading the group.

As a result of a new law passed in 1963, the annual number of legal adoptions of Maori children has dropped to a little over a quarter of the previous figure.

The law, which was passed to wipe out a legal distinction between Maori and Pakeha, rules that Maori child adoptions must be handled in the Magistrates Court instead of the Maori Land Court.

Though some improvement in the number of adoption cases being handled is now being noticed, the figures are still disturbingly low.

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photo by Harry Dansey

Haere e te Ao Hou!
In Memoriam: Hoani Waititi

The telephone rang. My three-year-old son listened to it and said: ‘I suppose that's John Waititi. Is he coming to see us?’

No, son, not today and not tomorrow or any day, ever again.

John Waititi is dead and the sorrow of it twists the hearts of all who knew and loved him. And those who knew and loved him must literally number thousands of people, of all ages, in every walk of life.

How many homes are there like mine where a little child would run laughing to the door as the red Valiant pulled into the drive? How many homes are there where men and women, young and old alike, would throw open their doors for him with welcome on their faces and in their hearts?

Perhaps there is some consolation in the knowledge that the loss is deeply and so widely felt, that in mourning and in remembering we draw closer one to another.

On the morning of September 30 I sat at my desk and typed the saddest sentence I can remember writing in close on 20 years of work as a newspaperman. It read: ‘Mr Hoani Retimana Waititi, well known Maori education officer, died in Auckland this morning, aged 39.’

Then suddenly the keys blurred and the mind numbed and no more words came.

But there is really no need to seek fine phrases to describe John Waititi's life of service. Merely to list the simple facts is enough.

John was born at Cape Runaway in 1926, the youngest child of a well known family of that district. His father was Te Kuaha (“Dick”) Waititi and his mother Kirimatao Heremia Waititi. Her family name was Kerei.

John's grandfather on his father's side was Te Manihera, a leader of his people in his day and an authority on the learning of other days. He was often consulted by Elsdon Best.

John went to school at Cape Runaway and then was a pupil at St. Stephen's School and Te Aute College. Later he studied at Auckland University where he gained a B.A. degree.

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He was little more than a boy when he joined the Air Force in 1943. He served in New Zealand and then obtained a transfer to the Army, joining the Maori Battalion in Italy. It was there that I first met him. He went on to Japan from Italy with the New Zealand Army unit and I came home and it was some years before we met again.

When John was discharged in 1946 he attended the Auckland Teachers' College for two years. He spent 1949 as a teacher at Te Kaha Maori District High School and at Nuhaka Maori School. From 1949 to 1957 he taught at St. Stephen's School, leaving there to become a specialist teacher in Maori studies, particularly of the Maori language.

This was a period of rewarding activity. He visited many schools and lectured for the Auckland University's adult education centre. In this time he worked on methods of teaching Maori which culminated in the publication of his textbooks, called appropriately ‘Te Rangatahi’.

His association with the schools was very close and extended into spheres other than language teaching. It would seem, indeed, that to many of his pupils—and other staff members too—his relationship was more like that of a brother than simply a teacher. Queen Victoria School and St Stephen's were very close to his heart—as were all the Maori schools—and to them, his loss was as that of a greatly loved brother.

His post with the Education Department after leaving St Stephens was that of Maori language officer. Later he was appointed assistant officer for Maori education. Both these posts carried New Zealand-wide responsibilities and so John became very widely known. His immediate superiors, Mr R. Bradly, now Auckland regional superintendent of education, and Mr D. Jillett, former officer for Maori education, found in him a competent, cheerful and dedicated assistant, immensely hard-working and enthusiastic.

The tragedy of his early death is all the more poignant because it came only several months after that of Mr Jillett, a man of deep understanding of Maori life and educational problems and a person whom John—and all who knew him—held in respect and affection.

John was an enthusiastic sportsman, playing rugby, tennis, table tennis, golf, softball and bowls. He represented Auckland at softball and table tennis. He was a New Zealand tennis umpire and was associated with the administration of Maori rugby in Auckland.

He had a deep interest and considerable knowledge of historical matters, which was reflected in his membership of the Auckland regional committee of the New Zealand Historic Places Trust. His knowledge of the background of Maori life was shown in his membership of the Polynesian Society, the Education Department's Committee on the Maori Language, and the Anthropology and Maori race section of the Auckland Institute and Museum, of which body he served a term as chairman.

He was deeply interested in welfare matters. He was a vice-president of the Auckland Boystown Police and Citizens' Committee and for the past seven years conducted a club for Maori inmates of Auckland prison. Of all his work, the section I admired most was this utterly selfless devotion to these men in prison. There were almost tears of joy in his voice when he rang me one morning not long after the trouble at Auckland prison to say he had received word from “his boys” that none of them had been involved.

Their moving tribute to him was published in the October issue of the New Zealand Maori Council's newsletter.

John was patron of the New Zealand Federation of Maori Students, co-chairman of the Maori Education Foundation's Auckland committee, president of the Mangere Marae Society and an executive member of the Akarana Marae Society.

All worthy Maori causes could claim his support. He was a member of the Anglican committee which organised the celebrations marking the 150th anniversary of Samuel Marsden's first sermon, and also assisted the Auckland Maori Catholic Society in its move to establish a centre in Auckland.

He was associated with and often initiated campaigns to raise funds to assist Maori sportsmen and students. Among those he helped were the tennis champion Ruia Morrison, the golfers Sherill Chapman and Walter Godfrey, the table tennis player Neti Davis, the artist Ralph Hotere and a Rotary scholar Bill Tawhai.

John gave radio broadcasts from time to time and featured in two notable television interviews.

This is a very impressive list of achievements for a man who had not reached the age of 40. But revealing as it is, it gives no more a picture of the John Waititi whom we

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knew and loved than the length, breadth and weight of a rose give of its beauty, colour and fragrance.

He was a man who gave himself entirely to the service of others. In him there was not a touch of self-pride, vanity, selfishness or ambition for position, power or wealth. Every man was his brother and in every place that he went he was at home.

When he died after so short a life, this boy from a small, comparatively remote Maori community had accomplished more than thousands do in their lifetimes.

In trying to analyse his life's work, I found that it might be grouped in this way, not necessarily in order of importance:


The education of Maori children and adults.


The preservation of Maoritanga, in particular the language.


The welfare of his people, particularly those in trouble and need.


The interpretation of the Maori to the Pakeha.


The encouragement of healthy sporting activity.


The application of Christian principles to the work of life.

In the 20 years I have known John, I have been privileged to work with him in some of these activities. I have been with him in many parts of the North Island, as well as in other countries of the world. I have sat on committees with him, spoken at public meetings with him, argued with him at conferences and on panels, driven him hundreds of miles, have been inspired by his dedication, his tolerance, his happiness which welled from a warm heart full of love for his fellows.

I have recently heard him spoken of as a brilliant man. I do not think this is true. Rather he was highly intelligent, well educated and extremely hard working. His greatest gift was not the brilliance of his mind. It was his abilitity to be a friend of high and low, rich and poor, Maori and Pakeha because of his utter sincerity.

He valued the friendship accorded him by great and important people but valued equally the confidence of men serving prison sentences. I have seen him in Government House, I have been with him when he visited Auckland prison. His manner was no different in either

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place. He was in the flesh the Biblical character who was without guile.

At some stage or other after his death, thousands came to pay their respects. The greatest in the land and the most humble mourned for him for all knew that Death had struck the Maori people one of his cruellest blows.

Perhaps it is true that no man is indispensable but it is equally true that no man is ever really replaced. Others rise to do the work but they do it in different ways. We will not see another John Waititi but it is inconceivable that there will not be many, many more men and women fitted to carry on where he laid down his burden.

The lesson of John Waititi's life is simple. It is this. Work for your fellow men. Work for love of them. And work until you die.

He Poroporoaki

I te ora tonu te tangata ka paku ohorere mai te rongo kua hinga tenei totara nui ki te wao a Tane; kua kore tenei whakaruru hau o nga manu o te rangi; kua to tenei whetu marama; kua takitahi nga whetu o te huihui o Matariki; kua hinga te pou tokomanawa o te whare whakairo a kua noho pani te iwi.

Hoani Waititi, e hoa haere ki te iwi, haere ki o tatou tupuna, haere ki te whanau a Tumatauenga. Haere ki te Kainga tuturu mo te tangata.

Kua hoki koe ki Tawhitinui, ki Tawhitipamamao, ki te Hono-i-wairua. Kua maunu koe i runga i te waka o tenei tangata kaha o Aitua. He mea waihanga i roto i nga pouritanga maha o tenei ao. Kua whiti koe i nga moana tuauriuri ki te po.

He tokotoko toa, kotahi he turanga; he tokotoko rangi, ka ngaro te kai a ka mate te tangata. Aue! te pouri, te tangi e!

Haere, haere, haere!

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photo by Daily Post, Rotorua
At the Study Centre in the St. Faith's parish hall at Ohinemutu, students do their homework in quiet study conditions away from home distractions. Each session is attended by a parent who looks after the arrangements in the hall, and by a qualified person who can assist in his or her own particular field.

Study Centres in Rotorua

In May 1965 a Study Centre opened at Ohinemutu, Rotorua, for secondary school children of the Ohinemutu, Koutu and Tarewa Road areas. There are three secondary schools represented on the roll of 95 students. The head teachers of these schools all supported the establishment of a Study Centre which would provide quiet study conditions away from the distractions of the home.

Parents' Desire to Help their Children

To trace the development of the Study Centre is to study the devotion of a few parents who were ready to initiate a contribution which would improve the school performance of the local Maori children. The idea evolved through the concern of Mrs M. Te Hau. The notion of extra classes and individual tuition in bothersome subjects became secondary to the advice of the head teachers, who declared that a Homework Centre would meet an outstanding need.

A meeting of 30 parents and interested people decided that a Study Centre would be worthwhile. Te Ao Marama, the St. Faith's parish hall, was offered and accepted for the use of the Centre four evenings a week, Monday through to Thursday, between 5.30 and 7.30 p.m.

The hall was a happy choice as the large tables provided for workable groups of students. The early rolls were over the 70 mark. Each session is attended by a qualified person who puts his knowledge at the disposal of the students. A parent also attends to the arrangements in the hall and takes the roll.

The Centre immediately aroused local interest—not because it was some grand ex-

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periment, but rather because it was a positive step which reflected the thought and care of the Maori parent. The press printed and the radio broadcast the news of this project. Television filmed the students at work.

Another Centre at Whakarewarewa

The news spread and the Whakarewarewa, Ngapuna and Waipa parents recognised that a similar Centre would be helpful in their area. They met on a Sunday and their Centre opened the next day with an attendance of 60 students. The Whakarewarewa Primary School was the venue and the records show a complete roll of 85 students. The organisers have divided the Centre into three divisions: the intermediate schoolchildren who arrived unexpectedly, but fired with enthusiasm; the third and fourth forms; and the fifths and sixths.

Now that a few months' experience has been gained it is possible to assess the need for, and the value of the Study Centre. Supervised study conditions give the students an opportunity to get away from home distractions. It provides a quieter place. The demands of household chores are reduced.

If those who attend are being provided with better study conditions, then the effects should be reflected in the students' school work. We have reports of a better attitude and more settled school work among those who attend.

Students Respond to Parents' Interest

An extremely significant result was that in several instances a student responded to the presence of his parent at the Centre as a parent-supervisor by showing an increased interest in his school work. Many parents do not come up to the expectations of their children because they are unable to assist with homework. What actually is a lack of confidence is interpreted by the child as a lack of interest. Consequently the child's interest in school wanes. By an occasional attendance at the Study Centre the parent reassures his child of his practical interest.

The students themselves are aware of the benefits they derive from attending the study sessions. The qualified supervisors are prepared to assist in their own particular field and over the week a good coverage of school subjects is obtained. The students also find assistance from amongst themselves by discussing their work.

One cannot overlook the social atmosphere inherent in these study sessions. The students obviously enjoy sitting down together to do their homework.

Although the rolls of both Centres are large, attendances are not always of the same order. Research reveals that distance often influences attendance. It has been particularly apparent at Ohinemutu that Koutu children have difficulty in getting to the Centre. The fall-off in attendance of Koutu students is disconcerting.

The initial interest shown suggests that if transport were to be provided a high rate of attendance would be maintained. Hired transport (preferably a bus) could service both Study Centres, and the full benefits of the facilities provided could be utilised. Finance, of course, is the problem.

Homework study centres where children can work in the evenings are now operating in a number of Maori communities. Study centres with small libraries attached to them are functioning at Orakei, Auckland, and at Putiki, Wanganui, and a study centre based on those at Rotorua has recently been established at Kawerau.

Mr S. M. Mead, well known as an educationist and a writer of books on Maori culture, recently left New Zealand to spend three years in the United States. He is to study primitive art for a doctorate of philosophy at the University of South Illinois.

Mrs Mead and their two daughters accompanied him.

A member of Ngati Manawa of Murupara and of Ngati Pahipoto and Ngati Rangiheua of Te Teko, Mr Mead was formerly headmaster at Whatawhata School. Later he became a lecturer in Maori studies in Auckland University's anthropology department.

Pukekohe's Maori welfare officer, Miss Ngahinaturae (Ina) Te Uira, recently spent three months in the United States studying social welfare under a grant given by the American government.

Ina Te Uira comes from the small community of Taharoa, south of Kawhia Harbour. She went to Queen Victoria School, and joined the Maori Affairs Department in 1951. Before going to Pukekohe she spent several years as a welfare officer in Te Kuiti, and also graduated with a diploma of social science at Victoria University.

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He Haere
Taiawhio te Ao

E rima nga ropu Maori i whiriwhiringia mo tenei haere; a tau ana, ko matou—tekau-marima, e haere. He ropu matou no te Haahi Mihinare, no Poneke, a ko ahau te kaiwhaka-haere. E toru marama, e toru wiki matou e ngaro atu ana ki tawahi, a, i te roa o ta matou haere, ko nga wahi i tae matou, ko nga mea whakamiharo i mahingia, i kite ranei matou, ko enei anake e taea te tuhi i te mea ko te tono mai ki ahau, me whakarapopoto nga korero.

No te 13 a nga ra o Hune, tau 1965, ka rere atu matou i Poneke. Tau atu matou ki Akarana, i reira ka manaakingia, ka mihingia matou e o matou matua, whanaunga maha, me te mea nei, he tino rangatira matou. No taua po ano, ka rere atu matou i Whenua-pai, tau atu ki Nandi, a atu i reira ki Hawaii. Tau atu ana matou, e tu mai ana he kapa haka no te ropu Mori o reira. Tae mai ana te aroha ki a matou i te rironga ma nga Maori ano e powhiri e manaaki matou. Mutu atu ana nga mihi, ka riro matou i te Haahi Mihinare ki te kai, te karakia ata me a ratou manaaki ano hoki i a matou. No te ahiahi ka taka te hakari nui, e 800 nga tangata i reira


World Tour

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The Rev. Kingi Ihaka, leader of the Wellington Anglican Maori Club, describes the recent highly successful world tour made by a group of club members.

Of the five Maori groups nominated for the tour, our group of fifteen members was fortunate to be the one selected. We are members of the Wellington Anglican Maori Club; the writer is leader of the group. We were overseas for a period of three months and three weeks, and in view of the length of time we were overseas and the number of places we visited, I have been asked to write a brief account of the wonderful things we saw, and of the group's accomplishments during the tour.

We left Wellington on the 13 June, 1965. We arrived at Auckland and were welcomed and royally feted by our many friends and relations there. That same night we left by plane from Whenuapai, landing at Nandi and then going on to Hawaii. We were most moved to discover that a Maori group was the first to welcome us on our arrival at Hawaii. After an exchange of greetings members of the Episcopal Church of America, who acted as our hosts took us for a meal and to a broadcast service. In the evening a luau—a Hawaiian feast, at which 800 guests were present—was held in our honour; the food at this feast was

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a ko nga kai katoa he mea tao ki te hangi—nga hangi ano e tera kainga. E rua ra matou ki Hawaii, ka rere atu matou ki San Francisco. Kotahi noa te po ki reira, ka rere atu matou ki Vancouver, a i reira ki Winnipeg.

Tekau nga ra matou ki Winnipeg, a i roto i enei ra, i whakahonoretia matou e taua taone nui, ara i meinga matou hei tangata ake mo taua taone e ki ana te reo Pakeha, he ‘honorary citizens’. He honore nui rawa atu tenei. Ko tetahi honore ano i riro mai i a matou, mo nga mahi e karangatia nei, he ‘float parade’. Kahore matou i mohio nawai pu i mahi to matou ‘float’—he taraka, whaka-paingia, me nga rakau e tu ana i runga, nga aha ake. He kaha pea no aku tamariki ki te haka, te waiata me te poi, ka riro mai i a matou te kapu mo taua mahi.

Ko nga tangata tuatahi i haere mai ki te tutaki i a matou i to matou taenga atu ki Winnipeg, he Red Indians. He tokomaha ratou, e mau katoa ana o ratou ake kakahu, a, ko to ratou rangatira, he minita ano. Mai i to matou taenga atu ki Winnipeg, i whakahoahoa ai tenei iwi ki a matou. He iwi pai, manaaki i te tangata, a, he panipani noa te ahua o etahi.

Ka mutu atu i Winnipeg, ka haere matou ki Brandon, he taone nui ano. I reira matou mo te wiki kotahi, a ko tetahi mea whaka-miharo i kite matou i reira e karangatia ana he ‘Indian Reservation’. Ko tenei he rahui motuhake mo nga Red Indians, e hia ke nei rau eka te nui, hei kainga noho, mahi mo ratou. Ahua rite tonu tenei iwi ki a tatou ki te iwi Maori, a ratou tikanga, me a ratou waiata, aha ake.

I Brandon, ka haere matou ki Edmonton, he taone nui ano tenei. E rua wiki matou ki


cooked in a hangi. We were in Hawaii for two days, then departed for San Francisco. From there we left for Vancouver, then travelled on to Winnipeg.

During the ten days we were at Winnipeg we were made honorary citizens of that city. This is indeed a great honour. At a float parade we were again honoured, in that we were awarded the first prize for the best decorated float. We were not advised who was responsible for preparing our float, but it was in the form of an elaborately decorated truck with palm trees and other attractive flora. Perhaps it was through the splendid efforts of my young people in performing the haka, poi dances and so on, that we were awarded the first prize.

The first people to meet us on our arrival at Winnipeg were Red Indians. There was quite a large party of them; all of them wore their native dress, and their leader was also an Anglican clergyman. From the first moment we arrived at Winnipeg, the Red Indians became our firm friends. They are an excellent people, and most hospitable, though it seemed to us that a number of them appeared to be lacking in drive.

From Winnipeg we travelled to Brandon, which is a fairly large city. We were there for a week, and one of the fascinating things we saw was an Indian reservation. This is a reservation set aside purely for Red Indians, and comprised some hundreds of acres on which they live and work. These people are very similar to the Maori people in some of their customs, their songs and so on.

From Brandon we travelled to Edmonton, another major city. We were there for two weeks, then went on to Regina. We discovered that a number of our World War II airmen, both Maori and Pakeha, were trained at Regina; some of the residents still remember a number of our boys.

From Regina we travelled to Port Arthur, then to Ottawa, the capital city of Canada. At Ottawa a reception was held for us by the New Zealand High Commissioner in Canada, Sir Leon Gotz, together with Lady Gotz. We were in Ottawa for three days, then travelled to New York. This is indeed a frightening city. We visited Harlem, the area in which the Negro predominates; it is a terrifying place. From New York we travelled to Chicago, then to Salt Lake City, Utah, and then to Los Angeles. We were in Los Angeles during the period of racial strife, and a number of people

– 15 –

reira, ka nuku matou ki Regina. I konei, ka rongo matou, ko tenei te kainga i whaka-akongia ai a tatou tamariki—Maori, Pakeha—i nga ra o te Pakanga Tuarua, ki te rere manurere, a, kei te mau mahara tonu ratou ki etahi o aua tamariki.

I Regina, ka haere matou ki Port Arthur. Atu i reira, ki Ottawa, koia nei te taone tumuaki o Kanata. Na te mangai o Niu Tireni ki Kanata, na Sir Leon raua ko Lady Gotz matou i whakamanuhiri, i manaaki.

E toru nga ra ki Ottawa, ka nuku atu matou ki New York. Ka mutu pea te taone weriweri i tenei. I kite matou i te wahi e karangatia nei ko ‘Harlem’—he wahi noho no nga iwi mangumangu, he wahi mataku, kino, aha ake. I New York, ka haere matou ki Chicago, atu i reira ki Salt Lake City, Utah, a ki Los Angeles. Tae atu matou ki Los Angeles, e pakanga ana nga iwi mangumangu o taua taone nui, ki nga Pakeha. He tokomaha nga tangata i mate i kohurutia. Tae mai ana te mataku ki a matou.

E wha ra matou ki reira, ka rere atu matou ki Las Vegas, te kainga rongonui o te ao mo te purei moni. Ka mutu pea te kainga ataahua i tenei. Ka kite matou i te moni e rere ana ano he wai te kaha o te rere! Kotahi noa te ra o matou i reira, he mataku no matou, kei pau a matou moni ruarua nei i nga mihiini purei moni!

Ko te taone nui i muri mai i noho ai matou mo nga wiki e rua, ko Vancouver; he taone ataahua, he taone hoki he tokomaha nga tangata o Aotearoa nei kei reira e noho ana. Atu i reira, ka hoki ano matou ki Winnipeg, he tono mai na nga rangatira o taua taone me hoki pera atu matou kia whakanuia ano matou i mua atu to matou wehenga mai i Kanata. Tino nui a ratou manaaki i a matou. Ko te hotera i noho ai matou i reira, kahore he utu; nga kai, nga manaaki maha me nga tikanga katoa, kahore he utu.

I Winnipeg, ka rere matou ki Toronto; atu i reira, ki London, Ontario. E wha ra matou ki reira, a, no te ra tuarua, ka tae mai te New Zealand National Band ki reira. Tino tangi matou i to matou tutakinga ki o matou whanaunga hoa hoki i roto i tenei ropu nui, ara, ki a Don Manunui me ana tuahine.

No te atatu ka haere atu matou ma te pahi i London, ki Toronto; atu i Toronto ma te manurere ki New York; atu i reira, ki Ran-ana, Ingarangi. E wha o matou ra i reira. I haerengia e matou nga wahi nunui katoa. I kite matou i nga whare rongonui o te ao. I


were murdered while we were there. We were terrified.

After four days in Los Angeles we left by plane for Las Vegas, the world-famous gambling city. It is a beautiful city, however. There we saw money flowing as smoothly as if it had been water! We were there for only a day, as we were rather scared that what little funds we had would be eaten up by the gambling machines!

Our next major city was Vancouver, where we stayed for two weeks. This is indeed a beautiful city, and we found a number of New Zealanders living there. From there we returned to Winnipeg, in response to an invitation from the people of Winnipeg, who had asked us to return there before our departure from Canada. They treated us most royally. The hotel in which we stayed was free of charge; the food, the hospitality, and everything done for us there was complimentary.

From Winnipeg we travelled by plane to Toronto and from there to London, Ontario. We were there four days, and on the second day the New Zealand National Band arrived. We shed tears of joy when we met our relations and friends, especially Don Manunui and his group.

Early one morning we travelled from London to Toronto by bus, then flew to New York, and from there to London, England. We were there for four days. We visited many distinguished and historic places, and saw world-famous buildings. We performed there, singing and dancing before an extremely large audience in Trafalgar Square.

We left London on a plane on which Princess Alexandra and her husband were also travelling. Because of the war between India and Pakistan, our plane criss-crossed to Germany, Egypt, Teheran, Colombo and Bangkok, then finally landed at Hong Kong. What a great place Hong Kong is! It must be seen to be believed. There are nearly four million people living in Hong Kong, most of them Chinese. Extreme poverty is to be seen there, and also extreme wealth. In fact in such a brief account, one cannot convey an adequate impression of such an extraordinary place.

After ten days there we flew home to New Zealand, arriving on 29 September.

During our tour overseas we travelled over 40,000 miles, 10,000 miles by bus and 30,000 miles by plane. Often we would travel two days on a bus—night and day, night and day—before we arrived at our destination.

– 16 –

tu matou ki reira, haka ai, waiata ai i mua i te whakaminenga nui whakaharahara.

Ka rere mai matou i Ingarangi, ko Princess Alexandra raua ko tana hoa tane i runga i to matou manurere. Na nga pakanga i Inia i aua ra, ka tipi haere to matou manurere i te ao—ki Tiamana, ki Ihipa, ki Teheran, ki Colombo, ki Bangkok, a tau rawa atu matou ki Hong Kong.

Ka mutu pea te kainga aroha ki Hong Kong. Ko Hong Kong tetahi kainga ma te kite ra ano o te tangata, ka whakapono ia. E tata ana ki te wha mirione nga tangata e noho ana ki reira, ko te nuinga he Hainamana. Kei reira ka kitea te rawakore me te rangatira o te tangata. E kore a taea te korero nga korero e tika ana mo tenei kainga. Tekau ra matou ki reira, ka rere mai matou ki te kainga, u mai ana i te 29 o nga ra o Hepetema.

I a matou i haere nei, i nuku atu i te 40 mano maero te mamao o ta matou haere—10 mano maero i haerengia e matou i runga i te pahi, e 30 mano i runga i nga manurere o te ao. I etahi taima, e pau ano te rua ra matou ki runga i nga pahi e haere ana—po, ao, po

Ko atu kei wharangi 52

Let me enumerate some of the things we did:

Reporters from newspapers interviewed me on 38 occasions, asking in particular about race relations in New Zealand.

There were 20 television interviews and appearances, 29 radio broadcasts, 95 performances, and 56 receptions in our honour.

We stayed at 14 hotels and at two church hostels. We were honoured as honorary citizens on two occasions, at Winnipeg and at Brandon.

It was indeed a wonderful tour! We circumnavigated the world, singing and performing the songs and hakas of our people. Although there were some requests for us to mimic the style of Hollywood actors and actresses, this did not eventuate. We were representatives of the Maori people, and we performed only authentic Maori items. I would not agree to treat in a cheap manner that which has been handed down to us by our ancestors; had they not agreed to my proposals, I was determined that we would would return home rather than

Continued on page 52

– 17 –

Planning for Your Children's

Mr Vel Puke, who comes from Waitara and is Senior Vocational Guidance Officer in Christchurch, describes this free service which offers parents and their children advice on careers.

‘What do you want to be when you leave school, Hemi?’

‘Aw I dunno. Something will turn up.’

I have heard this too often to think that it is an isolated incident. Many young people today do not worry much about careers, and this is particularly noticeable amongst Maoris. The reasons for this attitude are not altogether clear, but it was not so long ago that these decisions were made by the elders, and the younger folk did what was decided for them. With the breakdown of the old way of life it is sometimes difficult for the old people to see that the world of yesterday is gone, and that it is becoming necessary for the younger people to plan the future for themselves. This is what the Pakeha youth has to do, and the Maori youth must do likewise.

Often Less Able to Help

The main difference I have noticed between the Pakeha approach and the Maori approach is that Pakeha parents are more involved in their children's future. Because of this they make enquiries, and find out everything they can about possible careers. Maori parents tend to let their children battle this out for themselves, and are not able to help in discussions and offer encouragement because they do not know about the careers that their children are interested in. Of course these are generalities, but they are true enough.

As I see it, the main problem is that Maori parents often do not know about the facilities and services which are available to advise them on this question of careers. The Vocational Guidance Service is there to help you; it is a free service, and is available throughout the country.

A branch of the Education Department, the Vocational Guidance Service helps young people to prepare for and enter a suitable career. Vocational Guidance Officers are trained to give skilled advice by relating the children's background and abilities to the careres which are open to them. In order to assess these abilities and potentials, they may use psychological tests (not so frightening as it may sound), and interview parents, teachers, social workers, and past employers. The object is to build up as complete a picture of the individual as possible.

Several Possibilities Discussed

After this the boy or girl is ‘matched’ with several career possibilities. All aspects of these are fully discussed—details of the work performed, training, prospects and pay, etc.—and the individual decides for himself which he considers to be most suitable. Since this process takes some time, boys and girls should, ideally, interview a Vocational Guidance Officer early in their last year at school.

After the decision is made, Officers help to find a suitable vacancy, and later make follow-up enquiries during the first year of work.

Assistance in Country Districts Also

Vocational Guidance Centres are located in Auckland, Hamilton, Napier, Lower Hutt, Wellington, Christchurch and Dunedin. Assistance is always available at these centres. Also, most secondary schools in the country are visited by Vocational Guidance Officers at least twice each year. In the country schools they follow the same procedure as that discussed above, but there is less time to spend with each individual. To help offset this, certain teachers in these schools are designated as Careers Advisers. When a Vocational Guidance Officer has interviewed a child, he passes his advice and information on to the Careers Adviser, who gives the boy or girl further guidance.

The important thing is that in this way country children can get information about careers which are not available in their own district.

This is glossing over the details quite

– 18 –

severely, but the basic principles are clear. Clear enough, I hope, to start Maori parents thinking about careers for their children. And doing something about it. If you live in a city with a Vocational Guidance Centre and you need careers advice for your child, ring up and make an appointment for an interview. If you live in a country area, make sure your child puts his name down to be seen by a Vocational Guidance Officer on his or her next visit. If possible, arrange a time and go along yourself. It is a free service, and the facilities at your disposal are considerable.

Best Applicant Will Get the Job

Why should you worry about this? The answer is that more and more Maori youths must go to the cities to find suitable employment, and it is in the cities that they have to compete for jobs. It is at this stage that their abilities and school record receive a close look—and it is here that sound planning shows up. The world is becoming more and more technically inclined, and to get such jobs youths must prepare themselves adequately. Maoris must qualify like Pakehas so that they can compete with the Pakehas. Quality of performance is what employers are looking for, and the best applicant, Maori or Pakeha, will get the job.

This is why you should worry!

There are several other Maoris who, like the author of this article, have positions as Vocational Guidance Officers. They are Miss Maria Mako in Auckland, Mrs C. E. Papesch and Mr Bob Koroheke in Hamilton, and Miss Pani Witana in Napier.

A Maori school-teacher in Rotorua, 35-year-old Mr Peter Anaru, has been named by the New Zealand Jaycee organisation as one of the three most outstanding young men in the country.

Mr Anaru, whose selection was announced at the National Jaycee Convention last October, was nominated by the Rotorua and District Head Teachers' Association.

He is first assistant master at the Rotorua Intermediate School and is a major in the Hauraki Regiment of the Territorial Army. He served for three years in Malaya, and was mentioned in dispatches.

Mr Anaru is vice-president of the Rotorua Management Committee of the Educational Institute, and is active in many other aspects of educational and community service.

A young printing apprentice, Mr Horowai (Bubs) Pomana, has shown courage and determination of a high order in overcoming in his work the handicap of having disabled hands and being confined to a wheelchair.

After six years' training, he is now the head of the printing shop at the Pukeora Home for the Disabled, Hastings, and recently received from the Master Printers' Association a special award of merit for his high marks in the printers' theory examinations.

In presenting the award, the president of the Hawkes Bay Master Printers' Association Mr N. Wilson, said that few printing apprentices who had trained and studied under ideal conditions could have equalled Mr Pomana's examination results.

⋆ ⋆ ⋆

A Maori resident of Palmerston North, who wishes to remain anonymous, has transferred to the Maori Education Foundation her interests in two blocks of land in the Wanganui area. The annual rents earned by this land will now accrue to the Foundation.

The land interests are valued at a total of £219 and produce approximately £11 a year in rent. Judge Smith of the Maori Land Court who granted the transfer order expressed the hope that other Maori people would follow the example of the donor.

The Foundation feels that this is a most generous gift which will provide a continuing income.

⋆ ⋆ ⋆

When Kiri Te Kanawa won the Melbourne Sun Aria Contest a few months ago, the pianist was Miss Barbara Connolly, who is also of part Maori descent. The daughter of Mr Harry Connolly of Ruatoria, Barbara has been Kiri's accompanist during many of her other competition successes also.

⋆ ⋆ ⋆

An American university student aged 22, Mr Gerald Kirk, asks if there is a Maori, perhaps about his own age, who would like to correspond with him. Mr Kirk is a student of traditional Polynesian culture. His address is 2722 Broadway East, Seattle, Washington 98102. U.S.A.

– 19 –

A Famous Oriori from Tauranga

Mr Mervyn McLean's transcription of the music of this song is published on pages 3640.

A famous song belonging to the Turanga (Gisborne) district, ‘Po! Po!’ is said to have been composed by Enoka Te Pakaru of Te Aitanga-a-Mahaki tribe. Its main theme is the mythical origin of the kumara.

‘Po! Po!’ is an oriori. Oriori are chants, composed for children of noble birth, which contain many complex references to history and mythology.

The text is published here with acknowledgment to ‘Nga Moteatea’ Part Two, edited by Apirana Ngata and Pei Te Hurinui, where it appears as song no. 145. The translation given here, and the notes which follow the song, are also based on those in ‘Nga Moteatea’. But because of the complexity and difficulty of the material, our brief notes can serve only as an in introduction to the song. Readers interested in the mythological allusions should consult the valuable notes provided by Apirana Ngata and Pei te Hurinui in ‘Nga Moteatea’ Part Two.

There are a few small differences between this text and the one recorded in Mr McLean's transcription.

Po! Po!

Pō! Pō!
E tangi ana tama ki te kai māna!
Waiho, me tiki ake ki te Pou-a-hao-kai,
Hei ā mai te pakake ki uta rā,
Hei waiū mō tama;
Kia hōmai e tō tupuna e Uenuku.
Whakarongo! Ko te kūmara ko Pari-nui-te-ra.
Ka hikimata te tapuae o Tangaroa,
Ka whaimata te tapuae o Tangaroa,
Tangaroa! Ka haruru!

Ka noho Uru ka noho i a Ngangana;
Puta mai ki waho rā ko Te Aotu,
Ko Te Aohore, ko Hinetuahoanga
Ko Tangaroa! Ko te Whatu o Poutini, e!

Kei te Kukunetanga mai
I Hawaiki ko te āhua ia,
Ko Māui-wharekino ka noho i a Pani,
Ka kawea ki te wai o Monariki
Mā Onehunga, mā Onerere,
Mā te piere, mā te matata
Te pia tangi wharau, ka hoake
Ki runga rā, te Pīpī-wharauroa,
Nā Whena koe, e Waho e!
Tuatahi, e Waho e!

Tuarua, ka topea i reira
Ko te Whatanui, ko te Whataroa, ko te tī


Po! Po!

Po! Po!
My son is crying for food!
Wait until it is brought from the pillars-of-netted-seafood,
And the whale is driven to the shore
To give you milk, my son.
It will be given by your ancestor Uenuku.
Listen! The kumara is from the Great Cliffs of the Sun.
Tangaroa is striding there,
Tangaroa is striding there,
Tangaroa! Listen to the roar!

It was Uru who dwelt with Ngangana;
Their offspring were Te Aotu,
Te Aohore, Hinetuahoanga,
Tangaroa, and the Stone of Poutini.

The beginning, the primal pregnancy,
Was at Hawaiki,
When Maui-whare-kino was married to Pani,
She who was taken to the waters of Monariki
For Onehunga, for Onerere,
For the piere, for the matata,
The ‘first whimper from the shelter’.
Giving birth to Pipiwharauroa.
You are of Whena, O Waho!
Thus the first part, O Waho!

– 20 –

Nā Kohuru, nā Paeaki,
Nā Turiwhatu, nā Rakaiora.
Ko Waiho anake te tangata i rere noa
I te ahi rūrā a Rongomaracroa,
Ko te kākahu nō Tū, ko te Rangikaupapa,
Ko te tātua i riro mai
I a Kanoa, i a Matuatonga.
Tēnei te manawa ka puritia,
Tēnei te manawa ka tāwhia;
Kia haramai tona hokowhitu i te ara.
Ka kīia Ruatapu e Uenuku ki te tama meamea,
Ka tahuri i te Huripureiata,
Ka whakakau tama i a ia.
Whakarere iho ana te kakau o te hoe,
Ko Maninitua, ko Maniniaro.
Ka tangi te kura, ka tangi wiwini!
Ka tangi te kura, ka tangi wawana!
Ko Hakirirangi ka ū kei uta
Te kōwhai ka ngaora ka ringitia te kete
Ko Manawaru, ko Araiteuru,
Ka kitea e te tini, e te mano.
Ko Makauri anake i mahue atu
I waho i Toka-ahuru;
Ko te peka i rere mai ki uta rā
Hei kura mō Māhaki;
Ko Mangamoteo, ko Uetanguru,
Ko te kōiwi ko Rongorapua,
Waiho me tiki ake
Ki te kūmara i a Rangi.
Ko Pekehāwani ka noho i a Rehua;
Ko Ruhiterangi ka tau kei raro,
Te ngahuru tikotikoiere,
Ko Poutūterangi te mātahi o te tau,
Te putunga o te hinu, e tama!


Of the second part is the felling there
Of the timbers for the posts at the sacred place, and the perch of bird snares,
For Kohuru, for Paeaki,
For Turiwhatu, for Rakaiora.
Waiho was the only one who fled
From the scattered fires of Rongo-maraeroa.
The garment of Tu, Te Rangikaupapa,
The belt which was brought hither
By Kanoa and Matuatonga.
Hence men's hearts are apprehensive,
Hence men's hearts are fearful,
Lest his band of warriors appear on the road.
Ruatapu was called a bastard by Uenuku,
And [in revenge] overturned the canoe [with his brothers,] Huri-pureiata,
When that son swam away.
Hurriedly he put aside the handle of the paddle,
Maninitua and Maniniaro.
The noble one cries, cries in fear!
The noble one cries, cries in terror!
It was Hakirirangi who reached the shore
And at the time of the flowering of the kowhai, emptied her kumara - planting basket
At the kumara plantations Manawaru and Araiteuru,
To be seen by the myriads, by the thousands.
Only the tree Makauri was left behind
Out at the reef Toka-ahuru,
The branch of which was cast ashore
As a treasure for Mahaki.
The rivers Mangamoteo and Uetanguru [nurture]
The contents of Rongorapua.
Wait until there is brought
The kumara from the heavens.
The stars Pekehawani and Rehua married;
Their child was Ruhiterangi, alighting here below.
Hence the bounteous harvest-time
When the star Poututerangi signals the season of the first-fruits,
And the calabashes overflow with fat, my son!

Notes on the Song

Po! Po! is probably a shortened form of ‘Potiki! Potiki!’ Oriori were often composed for the potiki (youngest child) in the family. In the second line the words ‘my son’ refer to the child for whom the oriori was composed.

Pillar-of-netted-seafood (Pou-a-hao-kai) is a figure of speech used of seafoods being collected for a feast.

– 21 –

Milk: Elsdon Best notes that the expression waiu is sometimes used with reference to food which when eaten by the mother, was believed to help her feed her child.

Uru, Ngangana and their children Te Aotu and Te Aohore are mythical personages.

Tangaroa is the god of the sea and of fish.

The Stone of Poutini is an expression for greenstone, which in traditional accounts is often referred to as a fish. Hine-tuahoanga is the personification of the kinds of stones used as grindstone, for example in working greenstone.

The mythical personage Maui-whare-kino was married to Pani; he stole the kumara from Whanui in the heavens and mated it with his wife, who then gave birth to the kumara in the waters of Monariki. In the next few lines there appear to be references to ritual matters concerned with the kumara and its origin, but the exact meaning of these expressions is uncertain.

The posts mentioned in the second line of the next verse were the two posts erected at the tuaahu, the sacred place or altar where many religious rituals took place.

Rongo is a mythical personage, the god of the cultivation of food and other peacetime pursuits. Rongo-maraeroa, one form of the name, is also a sacred name for the kumara. The significance of the lines in which the word occurs is uncertain.

Tu is a shortened form of Tu-mata-uenga, god of war. Matuatonga is sometimes said to have arrived on board the Takitimu canoe. According to other accounts, Matuatonga is the name of the belt in which the kumara was brought to Aotearoa.

Ruatapu and Uenuku (who is also mentioned in the sixth line of the song) are personages who according to a famous myth, lived in Hawaiki, one of the homelands of the Maori. Insulted by his father Uenuku, Ruatapu sought revenge by overturning at sea the canoe which carried his many noble kinsmen. One of them, Paikea, escaped to Aotearoa in the form of a whale (in other accounts, riding on a whale) and landed on the East Coast.

Maninitua and Maniniaro occur in the myth of Pourangahua as the kumara digging-sticks which he brought back from Hawaiki, together with the kumara itself, in his journey on the back of the Great Bird of Ruakapanga.

Hakirirangi is said to have arrived on the Horouta canoe, and to have brought the kumara with her. She was expert in kumara lore and knew well how to plant it at the time of the flowering of the kowhai.

Manawaru and Araiteuru were names of kumara plantations at Turanga (Gisborne).

Makauri is the name of a kahika tree (white pine) said to have grown at the bottom of the sea from the feathers which Pourangahua plucked from his bird when he was flying home with the kumara. A branch of the tree became the property of Mahaki, ancestor of Te Aitanga-a-Mahaki tribe. Toka-ahuru is a reef out from the shore at Turanga.

Mangamoteo and Uetanguru are rivers at Turanga. According to some accounts Rongo-rapua is the name of a belt in which the kumara reached this country.

The last line refers to the fact that autumn is also the time when birds and rats are fat.

A Fairy's Love Song

In the last issue of ‘Te Ao Hou’ there was published the music and text of a love song said to have been sung by a fairy chief named Te Rangipouri. The text has been recorded in several places, notably in Apirana Ngata's ‘Nga Moteatea’ (song no. 38), but despite the notes given in this collection and elsewhere, there are some obscure references in the song.

Since Te Ao Hou's translation was published we have found a story in which this song occurs. Published only in English, it is a translation of one of the Maori manuscripts collected by Edward Shortland in the middle years of the last century, and it appears in his book ‘Maori Religion and Mythology’ pp. 47–50.

This story, which tells how the humans won back the woman and through their command of magic defeated the fairies' attempt to recapture her, explains most of the obscurities in the song.


– 22 –

The Story of Hihi-o-tote

This Ngapuhi folk tale is recorded in one of John White's papers in the Alexander Turnbull Library; the reference is MS 75, ‘Ancient History of the Maori’ vol. X (Maori) pp. 26–29.

These pages are not in White's own handwriting, and may have been taken from one of the manuscript books in which White's Maori friends and informants recorded much material for him, or they may perhaps have been taken from Land Court records. John White was unfortunately a careless editor, and left little information as to the origin of his material. (In fact, as a rule he did not keep the original material on which his records were based; nearly all of his surviving papers are in his own handwriting.)

The story's expressiveness and rapidity of style is largely lost in translation.

Ko te kōrero tēnei o Hihi-o-tote. Ko tōna kāinga kei Otaua, ko tana mahi he patu tangata; e kore te tangata e haere noa i a Hihi-o-tote i namata. Ko tāna mea whakamate tangata he maire, he mea whakakoi nāna, me te koinga oka nā te Pākeha.

Ka noho ia i tana kāinga; ka rongo ia i te reo tangata, ka mau ia ki tāna oka, ka haerea e ia ki mua o te ara noho ai. Ka puta atu aua tāngata haere, kua karanga atu a Hihi-o-tote, ‘Haere mai, haere mai’, āno e karanga atu ana i runga i te ngākau rangimārire, me tērā hunga hoki e haere mai rā, hua noa e karanga mai ana i runga i te aroha.

Kua hongi, ū kau anō te ihu, kātahi ka werohia ake ki te korokoro. Ko tāna oka he mea titi ake i roto i te whiri o tāna komeke. Ka mate, ka mauria e ia ki tana kāinga. Ka mahia e ia, ka huahuaina hei kai māna.

Pēnā tonu tāna mahi, tae noa ki te ngaronga o te tamahine a Mahia.

Ka mātau anō a Mahia kua mate tāna kōtiro i a Hihi-o-tote, ka hanga a Mahia i tāna pūtara, he kauri. Ka oti, kātahi ka haere rāua ko tāna tamaiti, ko Orokewa; i haere atu rāua i tō rāua kāinga, i Awarua. Ka ahu tā rāua haere ki Matarāua, puta noa ki Otaua, ka eke raua ki Puke Kaka. Ka noho rāua ki reira, kātahi ka whakatangi a Mahia i tāna pūtara. Ko tāna tamaiti, ko Orokewa, peka ana ki tahaki noho ai.

Rongo kau anō a Hihi-o-tote i te tangi o te pūtātara a Mahia, tēnā rawa tō tangata te rere ake nā; mau atu ki tana kahu kōwhiri, kōtuia mai te koikoi. Ka tika ake pāpā i


This is the story of Hihi-o-tote. He lived at Otaua, and was a murderer; in ancient times men were not able to travel freely abroad for fear of Hihi-o-tote.

He killed his victims with a dagger made from the wood of the maire tree, which he had sharpened until it was as sharp as the knives of the Pakeha.

He would wait at his home until he heard men's voices, then take his dagger and go and sit beside the path. When the travellers appeared, Hihi-o-tote would call out, ‘Welcome, welcome!’—as if he were greeting them with peaceful intentions.

And the company of travellers would approach him readily, believing that he was welcoming them in all kindness.

Then Hihi-o-tote would greet one of them with a hongi, and while their noses were together, he would stab him in the throat. His dagger had been concealed in the plaited hem of the heavy cloak that he wore. And so the man died; his body was taken by Hihi-o-tote to his home, cut up and cooked, and preserved as food.

Hihi-o-tote continued to act in this way until the time of the disappearance of the daughter of Mahia.

When Mahia knew that it was Hihi-o-tote who had killed his daughter, he made himself a trumpet of kauri wood. When it was finished he set out with his son, Orokewa; they left their home, Awarua, and travelled to Mataraua, then on towards Otaua, climbing

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tāna whakatika, ka hari hoki ki tāna kai e whakatangi mai rā i te pūtātara, haere tonu ake.

Kua puta ake, kua kite iho a Mahia, kātahi ka karanga iho a Mahia, ‘Haere mai!’ Ka tara ake hoki ngā waewae o Hihi-o-tote ki te haere māna; kua tata mai, kua tuku mai i tana ihu ki te hongi. Ka kitea atu e Mahia i te koinga o te oka a Hihi-o-tote ka puta ake i te whiri o tana komeke, kātahi ka patua e Mahia ki tāna pūtātara. Tukua mai anō e Hihi-o-tote, ka hemo, kātahi rāua ka mamau.

Ka pekea mai e Orokewa, ka hinga a Hihi-o-tote ki raro. Ka puta tāna pepeha, he mea kī ake i raro: ‘I tokoruatia Hihi-o-tote i mate ai.’


to the top of Kaka Hill. They sat down there, and Mahia blew a blast on his trumpet. His son Orokewa waited some distance away.

When Hihi-o-tote heard the sound of Mahia's trumpet he made for him at once, seizing his cloak with the dagger fastened in it. He set out straight away, rejoicing very much to hear his food [that is, Mahia] sounding the trumpet.

As he drew near to them, Mahia saw him and called out ‘Welcome!’ Hihi-o-tote approached at a smart pace; he came up to him, and offered his nose in a hongi. Mahia saw the sharpness of Hihi-o-tote's dagger as it was drawn from the cloak, and he struck him with his trumpet. Hihi-o-tote dodged the blow, it

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Tukitukia ana ka mate Hihi-o-tote i a Mahia rāua ko Orokewa; ka ora te tangata i aua rā, nō te matenga o Hihi-o-tote.

Ko te mutunga tēnei o ngā kōrero o Hihi-o-tote.


missed its mark, and the two men struggled together.

Orokewa leapt on to him, and Hihi-o-tote was thrown to the ground. As he lay there he uttered this saying: ‘It took two men to kill Hihi-o-tote.’

And so Hihi-o-tote died, battered to death by Mahia and Orokewa; after his death, the men of those days once more lived in peace and happiness.

This is the end of the story of Hihi-o-tote.

A recently published book, ‘The Maori and New Zealand Politics’, provides an interesting and informative survey of this subject, with articles contributed by a number of writers.

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Temperance Songs
of the 1880s

These songs are taken from C. O. Davis's ‘Te Honae: Sacred and Blue Ribbon Songs’, published in 1885. At that time strong drink was a severe threat to the well-being of the Maori people.

Davis rhymed his verses, though rhyme was unknown in Maori poetry. He also used the metres of English poetry, setting the song to popular English tunes of the day.

Te Rawakore o te Waipiro

Air: ‘Mother Kissed Me In My Dream’
Taku rapu puta noa,
I nga riri motu, e!
Kia rere mai he hoa
Wehi tonu, a, tu ke—
Ae, i wehi, no te mea,
Kua titiro he ki au,
Kua tu—tu parahea,
Whakarorirori kau.
Aha! Aha!
Aha! Whakaturia au.

Kaha rawa tenei kai,
Ki te whakahinga noa,
I nga uri o te pai,
I nga uri takahoa;
Ha! te utu o te he,
Ko te mate, — mate kau;
E te hunga whanoke,
Whakamutua hoki tau.
Aha! aha!
Aha! Whakamutua tau.

He Manaaki mo te Wai

Air: ‘Home Sweet Home’
Ka haere i uta, ka haere i tai,
Kaore he taonga e tae ki te wai;
Te Pia, te Waina, te Waipiro noa,
He mate i roto, he pahoahoa.
Re! wai, wai, he wai,
Kaore he taonga e tae ki te wai.

Nga Tangata o te Karaipiture i whakahe ki te Waipiro

Air: ‘Pembroke’
Ko Hamahona, e pa ma,
Kaore kau i pai kia pa
Nga ngutu ki nga wai—
Wai kaha; waina, ngongi ke,
Kei whakatari i te he,
Kei ngohe ko te pai.

Ko Raniera hoki, e!
Kaore kau i rere ke,
I taua tu o mua—
Ko ta te kingi reo pu,
Mo aua wai; kihai i tu,
I taua kaumatua.

Ko Hoani Karere o
Te Ariki, i tu ano,
Hei tino whakahe;
Mo aua waina whakarau—
Aue! ka ata inu kau,
Nga mano aro ke!

Te roa ko te tau, i te ao, i te po,
Te rerenga kai, i te wa o te ko;
Te kahanga hoki, te ngohenga ai,
Kaore he taonga e tae ki te wai;
Re! wai, wai, he wai,
Kaore he taonga e tae ki te wai.

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photo by Evening Post, Wellington

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photo by Daily Post, Rototua

People and Places

Two of the mayors elected in the recent local body elections are Maoris.

Petone's new mayor and mayoress are Mr and Mrs Ralph Love (see photo above).

Both Mr Love and his wife Flora belong to the section of Te Ati Awa which migrated from Waitara to the Wellington district in about 1810; among Mr Love's ancestors are Wi Tako, Wharepouri and Te Puni, all famous figures in their day.

Earlier this year Ralph Love retired from an administrative career which began in 1925, when he became one of the few Maori cadets in the Native Trust Office. Later he was in charge of the rents section in Wanganui, and spent some years as a development officer. Graded out of overseas service, he spent most of the war years as a liaison officer with the Maori War Effort Organisation. Subsequently he spent two periods as private secretary to Sir Eruera Tirikatene, M.P., was Deputy Registrar of the Maori Land Court, and in 1960 was secretary of a delegation to an F.A.O. conference in New Delhi. Later he was engaged in land title and industrial integration work in the Maori Affairs Department.

Known throughout the country for his services to Maori rugby, Ralph Love has since 1947 been a member of the New Zealand Rugby Union, representing Maoris in rugby.

He and his wife have a daughter, Marienui, who before her marriage was a secondary school teacher of home science, and a son, Ralph, who is an accountant with a Petone firm, and has been elected a Petone Borough Councillor.

Mr Percy Murphy (see photo above), a company director aged 41, is the new mayor of Murupara. Married with six children, Mr

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Murphy has lived all his life in Murupara and has a long record of service to the community.

He has played a part in the administration of the town from its first development, and was previously a borough councillor. Among the posts he has held are those of secretary of the Murupara R.S.A., president of the Tawhiuau School P.T.A., vice-president of the Chamber of Commerce, and chairman of the Fire Authority and the Businessmen's Association. He is chairman of the council's library committee, a member of the Bay of Plenty Hospital Board, a trustee of the Ngati Hui Marae Committee, and a member of the Rangitahi College Board of Governors.

As well as all this, Percy Murphy still finds time to attend the night classes at Rangitahi College at which Maori adults are studying for the school certificate examination. Members of the college staff describe Mr Murphy as ‘our top supporter, and a really hard

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photo by The Times, Hamilton

worker. He's an inspiration to the others.'

In Kawerau the Board of Commissioners has unanimously elected a Maori woman, Mrs Monica Lanham, to the position of deputy mayor. Mrs Lanham, a member of the well-known Savage family, has lived for most of her life in the district. For several years a member of the Kawerau Board of Commissioners, she has done much for the welfare of the community.

In the last few years a steadily increasing number of Maoris have been elected to positions as borough and city councillors. This year more than ever were elected, several of them in districts which previously had never had a Maori councillor.

In the photograph below, the chancellor of Waikato University, Dr Denis Rogers, receives the gift of £1000, a donation presented to the

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Waikato University halls of residence campaign by King Koroki and members of his family.

The presentation took place during this year's celebration at Turangawaewae marking the anniversary of the coronation of King Koroki. At the invitation of King Koroki and his people, members of the staff of Waikato University paid a formal visit to Turangawaewae, accompanied by 20 Maori university graduates, all wearing full academic dress. Their visit demonstrated the regard of the University for the Maori people, and the Maori recognition of the value and the role of the university.

Dr Rogers was also presented with a carved pouwhenua which will be the official mace at university ceremonies.

Miss Marama Koea (see photo, right), is the second Maori to become a television announcer, and the first to be seen in Wellington (Miss Tui Uru, of Christchurch was the first in New Zealand).

Miss Koea is a daughter of Mr and Mrs George Koea of New Plymouth, members of Te Ati Awa. She first trained as a teacher, and taught in many parts of the North Island and in England. About seven years ago, Miss Koea started part-time announcing with the N.Z.B.C. in New Plymouth, and a couple of years later she decided to become a full-time announcer. She says that she very much enjoys television announcing—‘It was terrifying the first night, but I'm used to it now, and I love it.’

Marama Koea has a sister, Moana, who is a physiotherapist, and a brother, George, who is assistant to the editor of the ‘Taranaki Daily News’, and who a few years ago studied journalism and broadcasting in England on an Imperial Relations Trust Bursary.

A nineteen-year-old apprentice electrician, Eric Beazley (right), of Rawene, Bay of Islands, gained top marks (96 per cent) in the practical section of the Electricians' Registration Board examinations in May. This outstanding achievement won him a gold medal award by the British Cable Manufacturers' Association.

Eric is the son of Mr Hirini (Syd) Beazley and Mrs Parani Beazley, of the Nga Puhi tribe. He attended the Rawene District High School for four years, then in 1963 became an electrical trainee at the Auckland Technical

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photo by Evening Post, Wellington

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photo by the Auckland Star

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Institute, under the trade training scheme conducted by the Department of Maori Affairs. Now an apprentice at James Hardy Pty Ltd, he has so far passed all his examinations in the minimum time, and at his present rate of progress, is likely to reduce his apprenticeship period by up to six months.

Lieut-Colonel Brian M. Poananga (see photo below) last November took up an appointment as commander of the First Battalion of the Royal New Zealand Infantry Regiment, at present on active service in Malaysia.

Lieut.-Colonel Poananga comes from Palmerston North and was educated at Palmerston North Boys' High School and at Victoria University. He graduated from the Royal Military College of Duntroon in 1946, and for the next two years served in Japan. In 1952 and 1953 he was in Korea, where he was mentioned in dispatches while serving with the 1st Commonwealth Division.

He has had considerable experience of jungle operations in Malaysia. From 1959 to 1961 he served as a company commander in 2nd Battalion, the New Zealand Regiment, and took part in anti-terrorist operations in North Malaya. He was awarded the M.B.E. for his outstanding service during this period.

Lieut.-Colonel Poananga has a fine sporting record, including the heavyweight boxing championship, 2nd N.Z.E.F. (Japan) in 1946. He also captained the 2nd N.Z.E.F. (Japan) cricket team during the same period.

A rugby player of some note, he has represented the New Zealand Army at home and overseas, and Manawatu, Wanganui, and Rangitikei.

Lieut.-Colonel Poanganga will be accompanied to Malaya by his wife Doreen. Their three children will remain in New Zealand to complete their education.

His brother, Major Bruce Poananga, is at present a United Nations truce observer in Israel.

In the photograph below, Mr J. E. Marsh of Ngapuna, Rotorua, presents his son John, aged 22, with a carved officer's baton at a celebration to mark his graduation from Portsea Military Academy, Australia. John, who is a sub-lieutenant, is one of the few Maoris who have passed through the military academy.

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photo by Daily Post, Rotorua

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The Legend of
Hatupatu and the Bird-woman

When Hatupatu was hunting one day for birds in the forest, he met a woman who was spearing birds for herself. This woman had wings on her arms, and claws instead of fingers. Her lips were long and hard and pointed, like a bird's beak, and she was using them as a spear.

Now the woman speared a bird with her lips, but just at the same moment Hatupatu threw his spear at the bird, so that the spear stuck in her lips instead. When he saw this he ran away in terror. But the bird-woman soon caught him, for with her wings she could travel much faster than Hatupatu.

Then the woman, whose name was Kurangaituku, took Hatupatu home to her cave, and kept him prisoner there.

He found that this woman never ate anything but raw food, and she gave him only raw birds to eat. He pretended to eat these but hid them instead.

At dawn each day Kurangaituku went out to spear birds, but Hatupatu stayed at home. When she had gone he roasted the meat he had hidden, and looked at all the possessions in her cave. There were pet birds and lizards, a taiaha, and piles of precious cloaks: flaxen cloaks, cloaks of dogs' fur, and cloaks of red feathers. Every day Hatupatu admired these treasures, wishing very much that he could escape and take them with him.

One morning he said to Kurangaituku, ‘When you go hunting today you had better go a long way, and travel over a thousand hills. When you get there, you will find birds for us.’

Kurungaituku agreed to this, and she went.

Hatupatu stayed behind as usual, roasting birds for himself and thinking, ‘I wonder how far she's got by now.’

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When he thought that she was far enough away, he began to gather up her flaxen cloaks, her cloaks of dogs' fur, her cloaks of red feathers, and her taiaha.

He thought to himself, ‘How magnificent I shall look when the feathers on these cloaks are stirred by the wind.’ And he brandished the taiaha, and attacked the lizards; soon they were all killed. Then he struck at the perch where the little pet birds sat, and he killed them all but one.

One little bird escaped, and flew away to fetch back Kurangaituku. And as the little bird flew along he sang, ‘Kurangaituku, our home is ruined, our things are all destroyed’; he kept singing this and flew on and on.

At last Kurangaituku heard him, and said, ‘By whom is all this done?’

And the little bird answered. ‘By Hatupatu—everything is gone.’

Then Kurangaituku hurried back to her home, and as she went she kept calling out, ‘Step along, stretch along, step along, stretch along. There you are Hatupatu, not far from me now.

She had made only three strides when she reached the cave, and found nobody there. But the little bird showed her where Hatupatu had gone, and she ran on, still calling out, ‘Step along, stretch along, step along, stretch along. There you are Hatupatu, not far from me now.’

Hatupatu heard her behind him, and he thought, ‘I'm done for now.’ So he repeated a magic charm he knew; ‘O rock, open for me, open.’

Then the rock opened, and he hid inside it.

Kurangaituku came running past the rock, but she could not see him, and she ran on, still calling out, ‘There you are Hatupatu, not far from me now.’

After her voice had died away in the distance, Hatupatu came out of the rock and ran on again. When he came to Rotorua, Kurangaituku saw him once more and pursued him, throwing stones at him as she went. But then Hatupatu came to the boiling springs at Whakarewarewa. He jumped over the springs, but Kurungaituku tried to wade through them, and so she was burnt to death.

Then Hatupatu came to the shores of Lake Rotorua. His home was on Mokoia Island in the middle of the lake. He dived in and swam under the water to the island, and there he was united with his parents, who had thought for a long time that he was dead.

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The carving illustrated above depicts Hatupatu swimming back to his home on Mokoia Island. The one on page 30 shows Kurangaituku the Bird-Woman chasing him; her pet birds and lizards are also depicted. Both photographs are by Theo Schoon.

The carving of Kurangaituku was on the door of the meeting-house Nuku-te-apiapi which formerly stood outside the entrance to Whakarewarewa at Rotorua, and the carving of Hatupatu was on the shutter of the window. This meeting-house, now demolished, was carved by Tene Waitere and Neke Kapua, and erected in 1905. The photograph on the back cover shows the raparapa (lower end) of one of the maihi (bargeboards) of the house.

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N.M. 145 As sung by Turau and Marata Te Tomo

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To avoid any appearance of commercialising the songs, Mr McLean has declined to accept payment for his work in preparing this series.

The song transcribed in this issue is the famous Te Aitanga-a-Mahaki oriori ‘Po po e tangi ana tama ki te kai mana’.

It was recorded for the writer by Turau and Marata Te Tomo of Ngati Tuwharetoa tribe at Mokai on 9 September 1962 (item 124), and this is the version followed in the transcription. It has also been recorded by Turanga Mauparaoa of Ngati Manawa tribe (item 44), and another recording is available on Folkways L.P. disc FE 4433 ‘Maori Songs of New Zealand’ side one, band one. No details about the singers are given with this recording.

The word oriori (also popo, whakaoriori and whakatakiri) is usually translated ‘lullaby’, but this is an oversimplification as these songs had the very serious purpose of teaching history to the child. In his book ‘Games and Pastimes of the Maori’ (1925: p. 121) Elsdon Best quotes an example upon which he comments, ‘Here is a composition that differs widely from what we would deem a suitable song to sing to an infant. The matters referred to in it could not be learned by the subject for many years and would not be understood by her until she was well grown. We must conclude that this was a method employed in the preservation of tribal lore; also it would familiarise a child with names mentioned in traditions, and myths which such a child would be required to learn in later years’. To this it might be added that the tunes of oriori are usually uncomplicated and this would aid learning and retention. For discussion of the oriori as a literary form, the reader is referred to the prefaces of Parts One and Two of ‘Nga Moteatea’ by Apirana Ngata and to the article ‘The Oral Literature of the Polynesians’ by Bruce Biggs in ‘Te Ao Hou’ No. 49.

Like most oriori, the song in this issue is melodically very simple and gains most of its musical interest from the rhythms. It is chanted almost entirely on the intoning note with only occasional excursions one note up or two notes down. When pitch changes do occur it is usually to act as marker devices as in the oriori ‘Pinepine te Kura’ that was transcribed in part two of this series. The entire structure is in fact very similar to Pine-pine te Kura' though less consistent. Readers may remember that ‘Pinepine te Kura’ had two regular musical phrases to each line of the melody with ‘markers’ to distinguish them, and there were a variable number of notes between these two patterns. The oriori in this issue follows the same system.

There is a fairly regular pattern beginning each line, usually: though sometimes with additional notes, depending on the number of words to be fitted in. The end of this phrase is signalled by the descent to B.

The last four notes of this pattern also occur at the end of each line where they act in the same way as the drag figures in waiata to signal the end of one line and the beginning of the next. As in ‘Pinepine te Kura’ there are a variable number of notes between these two phrases.

The amount of extra material sandwiched between the two regular phrases seems to follow no fixed rule and appears to be determined solely by the number of words that have to be fitted in. The length of the notes seems to follow vowel lengths fairly exactly—mostly there are only two durational values, long and short—and the rhythmic grouping of the notes, though largely duple, is often modified by word division. Descents to B are usually either fairly straightforward repetitions of the first marker figure, or occur after long notes. Nearly always, they are on unstressed notes.

As in waiata, performance of the song is continuous with no pauses or breaks for breathing between lines.

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Both Turanga Mauparaoa's recording and the Folkways version are almost identical with the version transcribed, except that the opening pattern is seldom sung, the descent to B at the end of each line is not always observed, and other pitch changes are left out altogether. Thus these recordings are sung on one note virtually throughout the song. Rhythmically however, all three recordings are nearly the same except at the ends of verses where the sustained notes tend to be of different lengths.

The text of the song has been published in the Journal of the Polynesian Society vol. 15, p 184 and is Song 145 in Part Two of ‘Nga Moteatea’ by Apirana Ngata and Pei Te Hurinui.


Here is news of some more Maori clubs. We would be glad to hear from secretaries of Maori Clubs not so far included in this series of articles; please send details to ‘Te Ao Hou’ at Box 2390, Wellington.

The Tamaki Maori Culture Group
Tamaki, Auckland

This lively group started two years ago after a Maori Women's Welfare League conference. Established largely by the energies of Mrs Pare Harris, it began in the Church of England Hall, Glen Innes, with about a dozen children and a few mothers.

When the larger Point England hall became available, the growing movement transferred there. Several groups, including the Tamaki Ratana Youth Organisation and the Rito Group, decided to work within it. Members are of many tribes, and their religious denominations include Methodist, Anglican, Catholic, Mormon and Ratana.

The club has flourished to such an extent that every Sunday some 120 people—children, youths, mothers and a scattering of men—gather to practise action songs, haka and poi. The emphasis in the club is on the passing on of Maori cultural knowledge to the children, many of whom in their urban environment might otherwise have little opportunity for contact with this.

Everyone, including the children, learn to make their own tipare (head band), piupiu (skirt), rapaki (kilt), tapeka (sash) and bodice.

Membership is open to people of all races and religious denominations. Tutors include Mr Albert Pirini, Mrs M. Robson and Mrs R. McDowell. Officers include Mrs Harris, president; Mrs C. Hoani, vice-president; Mrs J. Hita, secretary; and Mrs M. Harris, treasurer. Mrs Hoani also helps in the tutoring.

One of the most notable things about the group is that it has sprung up from the community without outside sponsorship. It is a movement by themselves and for themselves.

Marlborough Maori Community Club

Founded in 1961, this group has 40 financial members. Membership is open to Maoris and Pakehas, and there are a number of active Pakeha members.

The club is concerned with Maori culture and with welfare activities. Members undertake regular hospital visiting, donations are made to charitable organisations, and assistance is given to Maori families in need of this.

The group has acted as host to many North Island groups travelling through Blenheim, the most recent being a party from St. Stephen's College, and the Whakarewarewa Concert Party.

Meetings, social evenings and Maori language classes are each held monthly, tutors for the language classes being Messrs F. Skinner, R. Nehemia and L. MacDonald. The president is Mr Hugh MacDonald, the secretary Mrs Kate Mason, and the treasurer Mr Hugh Roberts.

It is hoped eventually to build a Maori community centre building near Blenheim.

Wairarapa Anglican Maori Club

This club, founded by the Rev. Hui Vercoe in 1956, was originally formed so that members could take part in the cultural competitions at the annual Anglican Hui Arohas. As well as this, they now take part in a great many local activities, accepting invitations from organisations to provide entertainment and to assist in fund-raising activities.

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The club performs at the ‘Golden Shears’ competition held annually in Masterton, and for the last couple of years has also provided hangi meals for hundreds of visitors on this occasion. In 1963 it performed during the Queen's visit to the Fraser Park Shearing display.

The main aims of the club are to encourage its members to retain their Maoritanga, and to welcome any visitors to the community Maori or Pakeha.

There are 25 active members in the senior group, and 16 in a junior group started three years ago. Membership is open to people of all races and denominations.

Practice nights are held weekly. President: The Rev. J. H. Smith, the Wairarapa Maori Pastor. Vice-president and club captain: Mrs D. Savage. Senior club leader: S. Tahana. Junior club leader: Miss Reo Walker. Secretary: Mr C. Rowlands.

Catholic Academy of Maori Culture

The aims of this group are to promote the Christian faith among the Maori people, to teach and preserve Maori culture, to assist young Maoris coming to the city to find accommodation, work and healthy recreations, and to help promote closer social relations between Maori and Pakeha.

Memberships is open to all Maoris and Pakehas interested in the aims of the club.

Meetings are held on two Sundays a month, at St. Patrick's Hall, Barbadoes Street. There are lessons in the Maori language, action song and haka classes, and general social activities, with indoor games such as table tennis.

The concert party, named Te Whitu Ariki o Kahukura, is led by Hori Brennan and his wife Ramari.

The club's president is Mr Tom Dunn, and the secretary is Mrs Huna Jackson.

Waikare Sports Club
Bay of Islands

Waikare is a fairly isolated Maori community in the Bay of Islands.

The Waikare Sports Club was organised 18 months ago as a youth club, but its scope was soon extended to cater for the adults in the community also.

The only local source of entertainment apart from church and school activities, the club has four main activities which are held in rotation throughout the year: indoor games, indoor bowls, table tennis and darts, and Maori culture. There are also seasonal sports such as football and baseball. Community projects are also undertaken.

Club evenings are held every Friday, and every second Wednesday and Saturday. At the moment the club is preparing for a New Year's Maori Concert to be held in the Russell Town Hall.

President: Rev. Brian Olsen. Deputy-president: Mr Wes Toi. Secretary-treasurer: Mr Hiwa King. Assistant secretary: Mrs G. Heriora. Committee: Mrs G. George, Mrs W. Williams, Mrs F. King, Mr T. Williams, Rev. B. Olsen.

Principal of Te Aute College
Retires This Year

The Principal of Te Aute College, Mr R. G. Webb M.A., Dip.Ed., is to retire at the end of this year.

Mr Webb has been principal of the college since 1951. Before this he taught for many years at Rotorua High School.

He has a distinguished record of service in World War II, being made commander of the 24th Battalion in 1942. Subsequently he spent three years as a prisoner of war in Germany.

For many years Mr Webb was active in sporting administration, and he has also given much service to the Returned Servicemen's Association.

Full and Rewarding Years

Mr Webb's 14 years at Te Aute have, he says, been ‘very full and rewarding ones.’

‘I see Maoris going into wider fields today and there is a growing awareness among them of the importance of education,’ he says. ‘If we are ever going to have anything in the nature of a so-called colour bar in New Zealand it won't be based on colour but on social and economic grounds. It will be based on the principle that the young Maori has not been prepared to fit himself for the better classes of occupations and so has committed himself to a second class existence.’

About five years ago the roll of Te Aute College had dropped to 74 pupils, and the future of this historic school seemed uncertain. But the tide has now turned and this year the roll has reached 115. This includes 17 Pakeha pupils.

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The Story of a King Carnival

A Fund-Raising Campaign, its Successes and Failures

Some time ago the school committee in the district where I live decided to hold a King Carnival as a means of raising £4000 for the provision of swimming baths, a filtration plant and a library for the school. There were to be four candidates, each with his own committee, and the candidate who raised the most money was to be crowned king. The carnival was to start in the middle of September and to end a month later. The first three candidates were to represent different areas in the district and the fourth candidate, a Maori, was to represent the Maori people. This was a gesture on the committee's part which would give the Maori people, for the first time, an opportunity of playing an important part in this community.

A Variety of Motives

The Maori King committee consisted of a European chairman, a Maori secretary and treasurer, approximately fifteen Maori women, four Europeans (two men and two women), and the Maori candidate. This number fluctuated from time to time, and on an average there were about ten people on the committee. Apart from racial differences, it was interesting to note the members' quite diverse walks of life. Most were labourers or the wives of labourers; among the others were the wife of an architect, an insurance representative and a school-teacher.

I had though that all the members had joined the committee to raise money for the school, but I soon found that this was not the case, and in fact there were three groups, each with a different attitude.

There were some who simply wanted to help raise as much money for the school as possible, and who were concerned not so much with who won the campaign, as with doing their best for a common goal. Many of these people would have served just as willingly on any other committee.

Then there were the ‘moderate’ Maoris, who had agreed to help the committee because the candidate was a Maori, a friend or a relative, and because they were at the same time going to help to raise money for their school.

The last group, and fortunately the smallest, contained the Maori ‘extremists’, who were helping the candidate for the sole reason that he was a Maori. In fact, though a few of these people had children going to the school, their interest in the real objectives of the carnival was negligible. Among these people I sensed an almost desperate feeling of win or bust, a determination to give the Pakeha a fight for his money.

Determined to Win

The Maori committee held its first meeting about two months before the official starting-time, and the surge of opinion was to get started immediately. This they did, brushing aside the official starting-time of the Pakeha, which they regarded as meaningless. The school committee, of course, heard of this at once, and lacking understanding of the Maori, they ordered them to cease their activities forthwith. The Maori reaction to this was to threaten to withdraw completely. Many of them expressed the sentiment: if the Pakeha doesn't like our way of raising money and tries to tell us what to do, let him do it by himself. Faced with this situation, the school committee decided to compromise by allowing all the committees to start unofficially. At this stage many of the Pakehas seemed to be becoming suspicious, even apprehensive, of the Maoris. Seeing their determination to win and their premature enthusiasm, they weren't quite sure what the Maoris were going to do next. One thing they were convinced of—some people would be doing battle very seriously indeed.

I confess that I was inclined to forget the basic objectives of the whole thing myself at first. I knew that nothing better could have happened than to see the Maori candidate win the carnival, for this would almost certainly have boosted the morale and standing of the Maoris in the community.

Now I shall pass on to the actual events

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of the campaign.

In the early weeks four series of activities were organised: there were social evenings with hangi meals every Friday, card evenings on Tuesdays and Thursdays, and ‘housie’ evenings on Wednesdays. The social evenings especially were most enjoyable and were financially successful.

The four ventures alone involved a lot of work and organisation for those concerned. The net total profit was about £15.

Successful Gala Day

The official opening the carnival was marked by a gala day for which each committee provided tents and stalls. The Maori committee's tent was very popular, selling such things as flax baskets, Maori bread, pois and leis, as well as European goods. They also ran a coconut shy, ice-cream stalls and a hangi, which proved equally attractive to both races. But probably one of the most popular attractions of the day was a series of performances given by the school concert party, which had been organised only about four weeks previously among the local Maori children. In this time they had made astonishing progress, and despite a nervousness which commonly accompanies first performances, they acquitted themselves most creditably.

A jamboree was next on the schedule; translated, this meant a dance on a big scale held in a large woolshed. This had the promise of being a roaring success, but on the advice of a Maori welfare officer, it blew itself out rather early; certain sections of the crowd were becoming uncontrollable.

The last major undertaking was a talent quest, with performances by the children's concert party as well. This was originally to have been a local affair, held on a Wednesday evening, but it was changed to a Friday night and held in a nearby town. The attendance was quite small, however; this was due, I think, to poor advertising and to the fact that it was not held on the most convenient night.

Numerous weekly raffles brought in a steady income. Two last-minute dances were financial failures.

Last by a Wide Margin

When the final figures were counted at the end of the carnival, it was revealed that the Maori committee had lost the race financially by a very wide margin. In fact, the winners had earned almost three times as much as the Maoris while the second to last committee had collected twice as much.

Can we then interpret the Maori effort as a failure, and how can this failure be accounted for? And can other Maori money-raising committees benefit from this committee's experiences? I believe that they can, for in many spheres they did fail, and my hope is that others should recognise these pitfalls and try to avoid them—a task which would be by no means easy, and which would require all the determination of the controlling committee. It has been argued that the Maori committee did extremely well to raise as much as they did, and I agree. But I am convinced that they could have done much better had they directed their efforts towards more fruitful resources.

Lack of Effective Organisation

Within the committee there was a lack of firm and effective organisation. Many things were proposed but few were followed through, and I attribute this to a lack of firmness on the part of the committee's controllers. Their explanation—a quite valid one—for allowing themselves to be carried along with popular opinion, was that if they disagreed, they were afraid that the Maoris would be offended and would withdraw from the organisation—in other words, the only way to win their confidence was to agree with their suggestions! There was no strict adherence to the minute book, formal correspondence was ignored, and many agreements and arrangements were made orally and not through the proper channels, with the result that many promises of help did not materialise.

What probably deprived the Maori committee of that little extra efficiency was a lack of sound economics. With many of their ventures the nett profit did not justify the expenditure and the amount of labour which were put into them. Far too much time and work was invested in trivial evenings which earned literally only a couple of pounds. It would have been much easier and more profitable to have worked hard and done a good job of organizing one or two functions a week, rather than four or five.

No-one had any real control over expenditure and thus too many unnecessary expenses were incurred. Instead of the treasurer's authorising money matters—purchasing goods and paying accounts—any member could go out and buy what they thought was needed. And of course the payment of these unexpected accounts meant a further dwindling of profits

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from functions. This uninhibited spending may to some extent have been a reflection of the liberal mode of spending in some of the members' homes.

In the schemes for making money it seemed to me that there was an excessive reliance on liquor. Apart from the talent quest, every venture involved liquor in some way. It must be conceded that the other committees also relied on liquor to an extent, but they balanced this with other more ‘respectable’ and interesting functions. I heard this said quite frequently: ‘the only way we can make money is through booze and gambling’. I need hardly elaborate on the implications of this casual statement.

Little Use Made of Maori Culture

It was a pity that the Maori people did not display and exploit more of their Maori culture. To the critics of commercialised and superficial forms of Maori culture, I would point out the three virtues of this form of entertainment: (1) it displays a different and positive side of Maori life to the European; (2) the Maori participants learn and therefore help to revive their Maoritanga while simultaneously employing harmless European melodies; (3) in the process, money can be made for a specific cause. The Maori people's reluctance and indifference to the suggestion that they form a concert party was indicative of the gradual decline of their culture in this utilitarian world. Once the children's concert party was formed the parents gave it their full support, but the children were still not shown off to full advantage.

Despite what many people would assume, not all Maoris supported their candidate. Though they had in theory more manpower (they could call on many Maoris from outlying districts), in fact the actual percentage which helped the committee was quite small, especially towards the end of the carnival when their numbers fell drastically.

Personal differences between various Maoris, a failing found in all societies, accounted for some people's refusal to take part: A wouldn't join because B was there, whom A disliked for such-and-such a reason. Many were too shy to offer their services, while many on the committee were too shy to go out and ask them. Some Maoris were not interested in a campaign to raise money for the school (just as many Europeans were not) while there were a very few who would have nothing to do with the ‘Pakeha’ campaign. The scattered population caused difficulties too; many of the people who would otherwise have given valuable support lived in areas some distance away. Finally, there were some people in these scattered areas who because of grudges of various kinds, regarded the Maoris in the central area as a ‘dead-loss’ crowd and refused to help them.

And so one sees that the common concept of all Maoris pulling together when the occasion demands it is not really correct—or that this is, at any rate, fast disappearing.

Probably the most disturbing note was struck by the absence of Maori men on the committee. All other committees enjoyed a full quota of men, but on the Maori committee there were only two Maori males who made a brief appearance, and one or two others who worked behind the scenes preparing hangis and pitching tents. Some of the men might have been too self-conscious in gatherings such as these, preferring to work away from the public eye. The excuse was offered that many of them worked overtime, but I knew of numerous men who habitually frequented the pub and then spent the evening at home. It seemed that the main reason for the scarcity of men was that to them, fund-raising and committee work were something for the women. There was a feeling that anything to do with school was not their affair.

The Credit Side

On the credit side, and I consider this to be just as important as the unsuccessful aspects, there were spheres in which the Maoris did have successes. There were many instances in which Maoris formed new or closer friendships with Europeans, and in which Europeans who worked with the Maori committee gained a better knowledge and understanding of Maoris. Most Europeans who were asked or assistance or donations in any form gave it willingly, thus illustrating the readiness of both races to co-operate for the benefit of their children. And one must mention the amount of time and energy which the Maori committee members gave. Of all the committees, none worked harder than the Maori one.

I believe their greatest success lay in the fact that they showed an interest in the campaign, and that by contributing to it, accepting responsibilities and carrying them out as fully as they could, they helped to establish the Maori people as an integral and substantial part of the community.


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Some Critical Thoughts
On Competitions

Scarcely a month passes without a sizeable Maori cultural competition being held in some part of the country, and there are probably very few major Maori entertainment groups which do not participate, at least once annually, in these competitive events.

Competitions are very important occasions, and provide a new dimension in Maori cultural experience for many groups. There are an opportunity for parties from a large area to meet together and to combine fellowship with friendly rivalry—a rivalry which produces a sort of cross-pollination. By measuring its standards against those of other groups, each party enriches its experience, improves its quality and get new ideas in presentation and composition. Because they provide an entertaining and colourful spectacle, the competion concerts enable Maoritanga to reach out to a much wider audience (which often includes many Pakehas) than would be the case on a purely tribal occasion.

Some Less Desirable Features

These, then, are the worthwhile aspects of competitions. There must be many readers, however, who have been concerned to note less desirable features. This article seeks to discuss the causes and effects of these, and to make a few suggestions for improvement.

Among the most consistent features of many competitions today are poor organisation, unsatisfactory judging and sometimes a very poor attitude amongst some of the competitors. These first two are particularly important because they can cause frustration and ill-will amongst even the most well-meaning.

Let us discuss organisation first. A clear and detailed set of rules is essential, otherwise competitors begin without knowing clearly what is expected of them. Groups that are situated away from the competition centre begin with a disadvantage, since they are seldom able to confer with the organisers until it is too late. These rules must define such points as what each team is expected to perform in the way of items before it can qualify for an aggregate prize (in any), whether original compositions are required, the system of marking, whether any conventions of dress such as moko are mandatory, and whether there is a requirement for any particular type and direction of entrance.

Vague Criteria for Judging Items

Bad organisation is often the cause of unsatisfactory judging. The writer judged at a competition recently where he and his fellow judges were expected to judge all items—from whaikorero through poi, choir, action song and haka taparahi—against the same set of headings. These headings were ‘appearance’, ‘suitability of item’, ‘performance’, ‘leadership’, ‘communication’ (whatever that might be) and ‘overall impression’. Not only were these headings vague, but how could the same marking criteria be used for oratory as for poi? Each aspect of Maori culture has its own set of criteria. It is up to the judges and organisers to thrash these out beforehand and then to let the competitors know what they want. This is particularly necessary for the less-experienced groups.

Variation in Judging Standards

Organisers of big competitions should consider the use of a judging panel. No judge can mark carefully, or criticise accurately, a series of different items following one after the other. It is best to have one judge who looks at the action song performed by each group, another who does haka, a third who does poi, and so on. This makes for more careful and less hurried judging, and helps dispel allegations of favouritism since no one judge marks all the items performed by each group.

This brings us to the actual quality of the judging, and this is probably the most contentious point of all. At the moment there is considerable variation in standards and much displaying of personal preference. In one competition (where there were two judges for each

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item—a bad arrangement), one group was given 70 points for an action song by one judge, and 30 points by the other. This is ridiculous. One of those judges simply could not have known his business. In another competition a group was marked down heavily because a single action in their version of ‘Ruaumoko’ was contrary to what the judge thought it should be. Yet the group has learned the haka from an acknowledged expert.

Not an Exercise in Intuition

Judging is not an exercise in intuition. Judges must be objective. Anyone who argues that there is no place for specifics in competition judging has just not thought out what the whole business is about. On the concert stage the idea is to entertain the audience. Spontaneity, mistakes, the happy idiot in the back row who does not know the actions but who is good at face-pulling—all these often help to make a show more enjoyable. A good laugh and comic relief are not the least bit out of place. But competitions are to test the knowledge and competence of a group. Therefore technique becomes important, and points

must be ruthlessly deducted for bad actions, poor footwork, mistakes, etc. The best group may not be that which brings a lump to the throat and raises a laugh. The judge must be fair to those who have practised long and hard, and not let careless groups cash in merely because they make more noise and get the audience laughing with them and cheering for them.

The necessity for marking against specifics goes further. If teams are to get the full benefit from a competition, it is not sufficient merely to be told that they were not placed first. They have a right to be told where they went wrong and where their technique requires improvement. Then they can go away and work on their faults and perhaps comes back next time and win the competition.

I should like to give a suggested mark sheet for haka taparahi, just to illustrate how many things there are which go to make up a good performance and which must be scrutinised if the judging is to be objective and truly to avaluate the group.

Stance: Are feet well apart? Is stance one of relaxed readiness? Check for sagging waists and hunching shoulders. (10 points)

Expression: Deduct for performers grinning. Expression must be fierce and vigilant. Check use of pukana, pikari, whatero, whakapi. (10 points)

Eyes and Head: Eyes must watch enemy (audience) but may follow hands for significant actions. Deduct for performers who look around or at the ground. (10 points)

Actions: Crisp? Strong? Decisive? Check hands do not flap, have controlled vibration. (10 points)

Co-ordination: Everyone working as a team? Watch back rows! (10 points)

Start and Stop: Must be crisp and together. All performers must ‘hit’ words together when they start. Note position of hands on hips. (10 points)

Rhythm: Is it appropriate to the haka? Make sure tempo of words and actions fit. (10 points)

Words: Every member of group must say them (watch lips). Check for clarity. Do they have sufficient volume, considering the number in the group? (10 points)

Leadership: Has leader good control and presence? Are his words clear and correct? Deduct

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points if he crosses in front of group. (10 points)

Grouping: Arrangements on stage. Have they given themselves plenty of room? (10 points)

In the above, teams are judged against ten important points and these are defined. Similarly, other sets of important points should be used in considering action song, poi, dress, etc. It is no use using vague terms like ‘communication’ which mean all things to all men. If judges mark against specific headings they are in a much better position to show a group where it is going wrong, and their judging is less likely to be influenced towards giving the highest points to the group with the nicest tune or the most colourful dress, or the one that they heard last.

Attitude of Competitors

The final point concerns the attitude of competitors towards competitions. Too often the results are treated as tests of personal prestige by those who lead and teach, and this causes some distressing examples of bad sportsmanship by those who lose. Some competitions, which provide valuable monetary prizes, engender a do-or-die, far from friendly attitude on the part of some competitors. One wonders if there is not good reason to cut out these monetary prizes and instead to divide up the money amongst all the teams in proportion to the distance they have had to travel. This would remove any element of greed and would provide an incentive for teams to travel to competitions even though their chances of winning might be slim.

I have tried to be provocative and I hope that other judges and prospective competitors might write to ‘Te Ao Hou’ with their thoughts on this most important aspect of modern Maori culture. If we are to use competitions as a method of raising our level of performance, we should perhaps try and establish some sort of standard competition procedure. Many interested people feel that it would fulfil a long-felt want if Adult Education or some similar body could sponsor a weekend seminar to discuss and give guidance on judging standards, and to air views on such controversial matters as stage approach, costuming, individual or group chants after whaikorero. Judges, teachers, leaders and competitors would benefit greatly from such a meeting of minds.

Alan Armstrong is Te Ao Hou's record critic, and the author of ‘Maori Games and Hakas’ and (with Reupena Ngata) ‘Maori Action Songs’. He is club captain of the Ngati Poneke Young Maori Club.

At Hawera and Patea there have recently been established Maori Educational Advancement Committees similar in organisation and aims to the group which for some years has most successfully operated in Wanganui.

The artist Buck L. Nin, who is of half Maori and half Chinese descent, recently held a very interesting exhibition of his work in Wellington.

Aged 24, Mr Nin comes from Kaikohe. He was educated at Northland College and at the Schools of Art in Auckland and Christchurch. He is at present working as an artist in Christchurch, and next January will go to Brigham Young University in Utah, U.S.A., to complete a B.A. degree.

His paintings, abstracts and near-abstracts that show a lively colour-sense and a vigorous grasp of form, are most promising.

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Picture icon

During their visit to Wellington, essay winners Caroline Te Rauna and Henrietta Kaiwai visited Parliament Buildings. From left to right, Mr W. T. Ngata, private secretary to the Minister of Maori Affairs; Mr H. M. Jennings, principal of the Ngata Memorial College; Mr I. G. MacFarlane, New Zealand Travel and Holidays Association; Caroline Te Rauna; the Hon. J. R. Hanan, Minister of Maori Affairs, and Henrietta Kaiwai.

These two essays were the winning entries in a competition held recently at Ngata Memorial College, Ruatoria, for essays on a local historical or legendary theme.

The contest was sponsored by the New Zealand Travel and Holidays Association, the prize being a three day visit to Wellington.

The Meeting-house

Porourangi is the name given to the historic meeting-house of the Ngati Porou people which stands majestically at the foot of Puputa Hill. To reach Porourangi you have to travel seven miles north-east of Ruatoria over roads of good quality.

The timber for this meeting-house was fetched from the Mangaoporo Valley and had to be brought down the Waiapu River. When the logs reached a place where they could be brought ashore easily, the many helpers would sledge them up to the meeting-house site.

It took twelve years, from 1852 to 1864, to build the house. When it was completed it was truly a work of art. Each part of it is designed not only to display Maori skills, arts and crafts, but also to represent ancestral figures, elders and warriors who performed great deeds for their people. All these ancestors lived within the Ngati Porou tribal area.

The carvings were done by Tamati Ngakaho, an elder who lived at Whakawhitira.

The tukutuku patterns are very unusual. Along each wall traditional Maori patterns, such as poutama, roimata, patikitiki and purapurawhetu, alternate with images of different ancestors and warriors, each one with his name included in the tukutuku work.

Two figures on the poutokomanawa, the posts in the middle of the meeting-house, represent Hamo and Rongomaianiwaniwa, the

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wife and daughter of Porourangi, the chief of the Ngati Porou tribe. The tekoteko, the figure on top of the meeting-house, represents Tuterangiwhiuiti, who was a descendant of Porourangi and a great warrior.

At the foot of the amo, or side boards, are the heads of two dogs which represent two brothers, Korohau and Kuku. There were really four brothers, and all were brave warriors. Together with other warriors of the Ngati Porou tribe they went to fight the Whanau-a-Apanui tribe. They fought near Te Araroa at a place called Manairoa. After a long and fierce battle three of the brothers were discovered amongst the dead. The chief of the Whanau-a-Apanui tribe referred to them as dogs, thus giving the carver the idea of carving the heads of dogs to represent the brothers.

The maihi or barge-boards are carved only at their lower ends (raparapa). This carving is to show that no eating, smoking or entertainment should take place in this meeting house. However this rule is not being carried out, and today seems of little importance.

On the carvings above the door and window there are three figures. Two of these represent two sisters, Rutonga and Rongomaitauarau, who were the wives of Tumoana-kotore. The third figure, Tumoana-kotore, is between the two women; hence the saying, ‘How lovingly the wives embrace him’.

After the flood in 1937, Porourangi had to be moved from the creek-side to its present site. This undertaking was supervised by Sir Apirana Ngata. The tukutuku work was all renewed and the scroll work and carvings were re-painted. The most impressive part of the operation was the shifting of the tahu, or the ‘ridge pole. One hundred people were engaged in moving this.

About seventy yards from Porourangi stands the Bungalow, the home of the late Sir Apirana Ngata. It is a beautifully built family home, surrounded by flower gardens, shrubs, a lawn and a tennis court.

On the death of Sir Apirana he was laid to rest beside his father, Paratene Ngata, on Puputa Hill overlooking Porourangi, the Bungalow and the Waiapu Valley.

Also on Puputa Hill is the great warrior chief Ropata Wahawaha. He was in supreme command of the Waiomatatini marae, a dictator and a counsellor to his people. He was also responsible for urging Sir Apirana Ngata to further his education, as he foresaw that in time he would become a great leader. Sir Apirana was in his day supreme leader of Waiomatatini, and his heart and soul were for Porourangi, Ngati Porou and the Maori people.

How Ruatoria
Got Its Name

There was once a Maori woman called Torea who owned a pit in which she kept young kumara plants. Her pit, now vanished, was situated opposite the Ruatoria school bus depot. Her fame as a grower of young plants was known throughout the district and because of the great demand for them, she became cunning and greedy.

One day a chief of high rank came to her and asked for some plants. Thinking that the chief would not pay. Torea gave him only one plant. But when she saw that he was about to give her his weapon in payment, she changed her attitude and told him that there were more if he wanted them.

The chief was wise, however, and he had seen through the woman's wickedness. He told her that he would nurse the one plant that she had given him, and would grow his own shoots for the next season.

When Sir Apirana Ngata, an outstanding Maori politician, heard the story of Torea and the chief, he referred to her pit as a post office, the reason being that when the chief gave her payment, it was like handing money into her pit for safe-keeping. So when the post office was built, Sir Apirana called it ‘Te Rua o Torea’ or ‘The Pit of Torea’.

Later the name was changed to Ruatoria, and as the little township grew and modern facilities were established, this name came to be used to refer to the whole district.

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Three Religious Faiths

This present decade marks the centenary of the emergence of three venerable religious movements which in their early days played an important part in New Zealand's history. That each of these faiths survives into its second hundred years is evidence of its past significance and continuing religious vitality.

The oldest, Pai Marire, was promulgated by Te Ua Haumene of Taranaki in 1862, but it was not until two years later that zealous missionaries spread versions of the faith throughout the central part of the North Island. As the oldest of three faiths, Pai Marire is specially interesting because in it we see the first major attempt to join together elements of the old pagan religion and the new Christian religion to form a fresh, specifically Maori faith independent of the Pakeha churches.

Te Whiti and Tohu

In 1868, after the military defeat and moral decline of Pai Marire, Te Whiti O Rongomai and his brother-in-law Tohu Kakahi proclaimed a new faith of love and peace at a meeting in Parihaka, the village at the foot of Mount Egmont. Within a decade Te Whiti and Tohu had followers throughout the central part of the North Island, in the Wellington and Sounds districts and in the Chatham Islands.

The year 1868 also saw the arrival back in New Zealand from exile of another leader of a new Christian denomination—Te Kooti, founder of Ringatu. This religious movement spread rapidly throughout the East Coast and neighbouring areas and was fostered by its energetic leader after his long years of military

struggle were at an end.

The 1961 religious census has some interesting facts about these historic faiths.

The first point of interest is their very survival, despite declining support, in the greatly changed world of to-day.

The figures are:

Maori Adherents:

1926 19511961
Ringatu 3,8374,9295,275
Hau Hau 569 306 188
Followers of Te Whiti 386 41 28
Total 4,792 5,276 5,491

The adherents of Ringatu constituted 6% of the Maori population in 1926 and 3% in 1961, while for members of the Hau Hau faith the corresponding figures are 0.9% in 1926 and 0.1% in 1961.

The relative strength of Ringatu is striking. The census figures help to explain this.

Same Districts as a Century Ago

The census reveals clearly the local character of each of these faiths, and that these localities are much the same as they were 100 years ago.

Of the 5,275 Ringatus, fully 3,871 (73%) are found in the Whakatane County and Borough and in the adjacent Counties of Opotiki, Waikohu, Cook and Wairoa. In addition, a small sect the Church of Te Kooti Rikirangi, presumably an offshoot, has 37 of its 39 members in the Whakatane County.

In contrast to this East Coast faith, half the followers of Te Whiti recorded in the census live in the Taranaki province, while about a quarter live in Hawkes Bay. Scattered members live in the East Coast, Wellington and Marlborough areas. This pattern closely conforms to the historical spread of Te Whiti-ism.

The Pai Marire adherents are found in the heart of the old Maori kingdom. Of the 199 recorded Hau Haus (the difference between this and the earlier figure arises from the inclusion here of all Hau Haus, including those of less than half Maori blood) 79% live in the adjoining counties of Franklin (in-

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cluding the towns of Pukekohe and Tuakau), Raglan and Waikato. These counties surround Ngaruawahia, capital of the Maori King, where 56 Hau Haus are recorded.

Clearly the spread of European settlement into the areas where these faiths were strongest has meant their rapid decline. European settlement has been intensive in Taranaki and the Waikato, whereas the greater remoteness of much of the East Coast has provided better conditions for the Ringatu communities to remain together, united in the practice of their faith.

What of the Future?

Will these faiths survive? No man can prophesy, but plainly the answer must be ‘yes’ for a long time to come. The statistics show that since 1936 Ringatu has dropped steadily in proportion to Maori population, that Pai Marire and Te Whiti-ism have been declining rapidly in numbers as well as in proportion to the population. But two things should be said: firstly, of the larger denominations among Maoris — Anglican, Ratana, Methodist, Catholic and Latter Day Saints—only the last two have grown in proportion to population since 1936. Secondly, many more people accept the teachings of these faiths than have indicated their allegiance in the census. Some belong to the orthodox churches of European origin; others have probably declined to state their religion. (In 1936 5% of Maoris objected to stating their religion, while in 1961 13% objected).

Whatever the future holds for them, let us salute these venerable faiths as their centenaries pass or draw near, for each of them has in the past contributed much to the spirit of the Maori people, and in their ceremonies still they preserve the memory of important events in the history of the New Zealand nation.

Mr R. T. Te Kowhai of Rotorua, mace-bearer to the Mayor of Rotorua, Mr A. M. Linton, is believed to be the only Maori mace-bearer in New Zealand.

An attempt is to be made to bring out a 52ft Maori canoe which has lain in rugged bush country near Lake Rotoiti, Rotorua, for 60 years.

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I timata mai enei korero i wharangi 16

ao, a ka tae ki te kainga e haerengia ra e matou.

Na, me whakararangi nga mahi i mahingia e matou:

E 38 nga nupepa o te ao i haere ki ahau he patapatai mai mo tatou te iwi Maori.

E 20 nga T.V.

E 29 nga reo takiwa (radio).

E 95 nga kapa haka, waiata, i tu i a matou (performances).

E 56 nga huihuinga i manaakingia ai matou (receptions).

E 14 nga hotera i noho ai matou; e rua nga kainga o te Haahi i noho ai matou.

I whakamaungia te honore ‘honorary citizens’ ki runga i a matou ki Winnipeg me Brandon.

Ko ahau e ki ana, ko tenei tetahi haere nui whakaharahara, he haere rangatira ataahua hoki. Taiawhio te ao i a matou, e waiata haere ana, e haka haere ana, e whakaatu haere ana i nga taonga i whakarerengia ake ai e o tatou matua, tupuna. Ahakoa te tono mai a nga tauiwi kia whakarite atu matou ki nga wahine, ki nga tangata o Hollywood, kotahi toni taku whakahoki. He Maori tuturu matou; ko a matou mahi e mahingia e matou, ka tau ano ki ta te Maori. Kahore rawa ahau e whakaae kia whakataurekarekangia nga taonga Maori. Ki te kore koutou e whakaae ki taku, pai ke to matou hoki ki te wa kainga. Haere ana matou, mahi ana, i raro i te mana Maori, me te tutuki pai o nga mahi, me te nui hoki o nga manaakitanga me nga honore i uhingia ki runga i a matou.

Kua hoki mai ra ki te wa kainga. Kua rongo i nga aitua, i nga mate huhua o te motu. Haere e nga mate; haere ki te kainga e au ai ta koutou moe. Haere, takahia nga tapuwae o te tini o te mano, kua huri ki tua o te arai. Haere ki nga rangatiratanga, ki nga mana, nga pukorero o nga hau e wha kua mene ki te po. ‘Toitu he kainga, whatu nga-rongaro he tangata.’ Ko koutou tenei kua haere; ka ngaro koutou, nga kaipupuri o te Maoritanga, nga kaihapai i nga mahi—e rau rangatira ma, haere, e moe i roto i te Ariki.

E nga iwi katoa: e nga hau e wha o te motu: tena koutou katoa mo a koutou manaakitanga maha i a matou i haere atu ai, i hoki mai ai, i runga i te rangimarie me te aroha tetahi ki tetahi.



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accede to their request. I believe that we travelled and performed as valuable ambassadors for the Maori people, with the result that all that we did was well received, and we ourselves were the recipients of many honours and blessings.

We have returned home. We have heard of the many deaths that have occurred throughout the land, and so I pay a tribute to them. Depart, all those who have died, depart to the home where the souls of the fulfilled rest in peace. Farewell, and follow the footsteps of the multitudes who have gone on to higher service. Farewell, and join the exalted ranks of Maoridom—the orators and the leaders of the four winds, who have passed beyond the veil. ‘The homes remain, but the people have disappeared.’ You have departed, you have gone, you the upholders of Maoritanga: depart to the many honoured elders, depart, and rest in the Lord.

I extend to all the tribes, to the four winds, our profound and sincere thanks for the many blessings bestowed upon us from the day we departed to the day we returned.

Bright Birds

I hold them in my captive heart,
these bright caged birds
that sing the story of my people,
these deep-sounding ocean words of my language.
When shall I see them free in flight?

See, they flutter pitifully,
eager to be free. Must I
wait until they can no longer fly?
Until they can no longer make
the great word music of my tribe?

Come, bright birds, sing the old song
that your master the sun may have pity,
and you take flight, rise again
in countless clouds of fluttering wings
from the dark maraes of the city.

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Exchange Scholarships to Foster
International Friendship

The American Field Service is a private organisation, with no religious or political affiliations, which sponsors international scholarships for young people as a means of furthering friendship and understanding among the peoples of the world.

Students from more than 70 countries attend American secondary schools throughout the country for a year of study and first-hand experience, while American teenagers in their turn are able to study and live with families in other countries—a two-way experience of seeing, showing and understanding. Last year for example, American Field Service placed over 2,000 students in American homes, and sent abroad over 1,000 Americans.

‘Adopted’ by New Zealand Families

Every year some 30 American high school students spend a school year living as members of New Zealand families. Students are carefully chosen for their academic ability, personal qualities, social maturity and interest in people, and for their wish to further the aims of the Field Service organisation.

The students enter lower Sixth Forms in New Zealand schools in February and participate fully in school, home and community life. Departure is in August, near the end of the term.

All New Zealand families interested in the idea of ‘adopting’ an American teenager for a period of six months are visited by an American Field Service representative in order to talk over all aspects of the scheme, and in an attempt to match students and families with similar interests.

The families do not receive payment for taking students, this being contrary to A.F.S. policy, as it would change the relationship between student and family. The parents have the same authority over the student as over their own children, and therefore the same responsibility for giving him care and attention. To cover incidental expenses the A.F.S. student brings his own pocket money, approximately £4 per month.

The New Zealand American Field Service organisation would be especially pleased to hear from any Maori family considering ‘adopting’ an American teenager (boy or girl) for six months; any interested families should contact:—

The National Secretary, American Field Service, P.O. Box 3683, WELLINGTON.

Readers may be interested to know that there have been several Maoris among the New Zealanders who have visited America as field scholars. They are:

1956 Tuhingaia Aspell (nee Barclay)
1956 Mervyn Taiaroa
1957 Ngaio Wharekura (nee Te Rito)
1958 Clifford Matthews
1959 Hinekino Brown (nee Wills)
1959 Tungia Sidwell (nee Baker)
1960 Jon Berghan
1961 Keri Kaa
1962 Marama Paewai
1963 Timothy Te Heuheu

From time to time there has been some criticism of the scheme; many people feel that a year overseas at high school level is not beneficial, because some students have found it difficult to settle down and adjust to New Zealand conditions upon their return.

From my own experience I would say that travelling and meeting people is itself an education. As exchange students are a centre of attraction at school and in the community, one must be on one's guard against the danger of being carried away by so much attention from the people one meets. But if one is interested in other people, one can gain a great deal in understanding and appreciating another way of life.

This is of course in keeping with the American Field Service motto, a saying translated from Sanskrit:

‘Walk together, talk together, O ye peoples of the Earth, then and only then shall ye have peace.’

A new dining-hall is planned for the historic Wairaka marae on the Whakatane waterfront. The old one it replaces will continue to be used as a play centre and a scout and cub den.

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An Educational Book
With a Difference

Books to do with educational theory and practice are very often written in a style all of their own, where ordinary words are put together in quite extraordinary combinations with meanings subtly different from those usually given them. This kind of book can be a source of frustration and irritation rather than information for the interested reader, that is if he doesn't drop it like a hot potato after the first couple of pages. This ‘interested reader’ opened ‘In The Early World’ with some reluctance and gloomy expectations, in spite of the bright dust-jacket, knowing that there could be no ‘dropping’ till the end of the book and the beginning of a review. The foreword did nothing to cheer me up (I suggest this be read at the end or not read at all), but the first page proper did. Here was a maze all right, but of real live children doing, not mere words theorising—an educational book with a difference, surely. I read on.

The back of the dust-jacket reveals that Elwyn S. Richardson became a primary school teacher more by accident than by careful planning. His main interest in the 1940s was molluscology, and while he was waiting for a museum position where he could further his studies in this subject, he went teaching in a small school at Oruaiti, Northland, because he was attracted by the molluscs of that area. However children, not molluscs, kept him there twelve years, absorbed in working out new teaching methods aimed at developing the creative activities of his Maori and Pakeha pupils. ‘In the Early World’ is a written and pictorial account of the enormous amount of work done by both teacher and children during these twelve years, and it is not, as one may suppose after glancing quickly through the excellent photos and prints, an account of the art and craft and literary work only. Language Techniques, Social Studies, Nature Study, Mathematics are all dealt with, but not in the usual keep-them-separate-in-watertight-compartments manner.

In 1950 Mr Richardson introduced the children to clay, and his description of how they learned through trial and error to make pots and fire them in their home-made kiln is a joy to read.

‘Flames were roaring up through the pottery by then and the wedges of clay used to block the chimney cracks were shrinking away from the bricks. ‘What that bang, Neville?’ asked Rex anxiously, ‘or was it a stick blowing up?’ ‘Rake the fires quick, rake 'em quickly, it's pots blowing up’ yelled Neville—None of us knew what we had done.’

Pottery was followed by lino cutting, modelling in clay, screen printing using nature designs, oil painting, tile moulding, mask making, wood carving and picture poems. Mr Richardson found that ‘because of the new developments in the arts, especially with Maori children, a strong development was seen in language’.

In the far away distance
I can hear the telephone wires
Singing in churches
Like Pakehas.


Drama came later, as did story telling, movement, chants, scale modelling, map reading and a school magazine.

During the first attempts at thought writing, Mr Richardson concluded that ‘all children had in them a gift of seeing directly and a talent for expressing their vision with truth and power. This talent or gift is a large part of what I mean by creativity. It is there in all children, I feel, but it will not come to the surface unless it is recognised and encouraged’. He went on to discover that the values, attitudes, techniques and disciplines developed by a child working in one medium (clay), were carried over to work in another medium (words), simply because these were developments of the child's own potentials and remained with him whatever new forms of expression he adopted.

Furthermore he realised that a child may have to work in several different media in order to express himself fully about the same topic. This process he calls ‘integration of expression’, and the ‘deep and intense study of

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a topic' proved to be his most effective teaching method and the most important characteristic of their school work. His co-workers (pupils) soon found that a depth study of any topic necessarily involved work in several subjects. Take clay for instance. In order to make pots one had to find the most suitable clay in the district (Nature Study), learn how to work it up (Craft), decorate it (Art), find out what happens to it when fired (Science and Mathematics), compare the finished product with other pots (Art Appreciation and Social Studies), and describe one's reactions to the whole process (written and oral expression). The amount of ‘formal’ work required in this ‘depth’ study should have satisfied any school inspector, though I suspect Mr Richardson was far too busy making his discoveries to worry about the grading mark system.

The book itself could have been improved, I feel, with some pruning, especially in the examples of written work, but the prints and photographs are so good that a certain uniformity hardly palls. However, the very attractiveness of the book may distract the specialist who is primarily concerned with a new and revolutionary theory of education, while the author's contributions towards such a theory, mixed up as they are with examples and descriptions of the children's work, may put off the ordinary reader whose attention was caught in the first place by the pretty pictures. It is extremely difficult to satisfy two quite different readers with the one book, and I'm not sure that Mr Richardson has really succeeded here.

Some of Mr Richardson's ‘discoveries’ seem rather obvious and almost commonsensical (we already know anyone works better if his interest is captured, success is a fine incentive to further effort, real problems are more stimulating than artificial ones), and his ‘method’ applied by the wrong person could create chaos in the classroom and a nervous breakdown in the teacher. However Mr Richardson has proved beyond doubt that his discoveries, integrated into a design for education, and his methods, applied with wisdom and humility, can have an almost magical effect on children. (Perhaps the best way to teach children is to learn with them.) The high quality of the work shown in this book is outstanding. It makes one wonder what undeveloped potentials one's own children may be harbouring, and even what we might have done ourselves under the same treatment.

As an afterthought, where would Mr Richardson lead our children if he had the chance, to a good pass in School Certificate, a safe job, a big pay packet? He says, ‘this is the direction of educational growth, towards better and more abundant life’. I think he is referring to the individual only here, but a generation or two of individuals developed by a creative education might have the strength to shake the foundations of our cut-throat cliche-ridden society. And this would be no tragedy.

Beyond School

This book, written as a guide for young people who are about to leave school, examines the world in which we live and work. It discusses the economic, social and political factors which will influence the school leaver in the adult world, and it also deals with some of the problems and challenges of the future.

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The material is easy to digest, for it is presented in a practical, down-to-earth-manner, and full use is made of diagrams. Much of the information has been condensed from dozens of pamphlets and books.

It is indeed a pity that the authors were not born earlier, so that people like myself would have received some knowledge of the outside world.

Subjects are presented in a way which will encourage discussion and the formation of readers' own ideas. Some people may consider that certain of the subjects are in the controversial field; such topics as citizenship, race relations, the function of government and the responsibilities of developed countries to emerging countries, will undoubtedly provoke thoughtful discussion. Chapter 11 on population is well done, and is a ‘must’ so far as Maori parents and children are concerned.

This book is aimed at the school leaver. May I suggest that it is also a ‘must’ for members of Maori Women's Welfare Leagues, Maori Committees, and last but not least, social workers in the Maori field.

‘Beyond School’ costs 16s 6d, and is cheap at the price.

New Zealand and the World's Books

This small book tells the story of the translation of the Bible into Maori, and also deals more briefly with the work of New Zealanders who have translated the Bible into other languages.

The section dealing with the Maori Bible is written by the late Very Rev. J. G. Laughton, who eloquently describes the labours of the first scholars in the field, and the later work of the Maori Bible Revision Committee responsible for the revised edition of 1950.

Maori Paintings

In the last issue of Te Ao Hou there was an article on the work of Gottfried Lindauer, the artist who painted portraits of so many of the great Maori men and women of the past.

Most of Lindauer's paintings were acquired by his patron H. E. Partridge, who 50 years ago presented them to the people of Auckland. Painted with meticulous accuracy, they are a unique and irreplaceable collection.

This book contains 48 of the 70 paintings in the Patridge collection, all of them reproduced in colour. It is well designed and printed. Though most of the paintings chosen are portraits, several depict traditional Maori activities and customs.

The royalties from the sale of the book are to be paid to the Maori Education Foundation.

The Springing Fern

A novel for young people. ‘The Springing Fern’ covers the period of Maori history from the first arrival of the Pakeha to the 1940s. The episodes in the story first appeared a number of years ago as a series of Primary School Bulletins.

Mr Finlayson's understanding of his subject, and his feeling for it, makes this story a moving as well as an exciting one. Any reader over the age of 10 should enjoy it, and will at the same time learn a considerable amount of unobtrusively presented history.

Stand In the Rain

This short novel, a love story written with deceptive simplicity, is one of the best New Zealand stories I have read.

The characters live most of the time in the country, leading a nomadic sort of existence pig-hunting, rabbit shooting, scrub-cutting and so on. The relationship between the lovers, the people they meet, and the countryside and townships through which they travel, are described with a total lack of sentimentality, a remarkable naturalness and candour, and poetic sensibility.

I am sure that ‘Stand In The Rain” will be widely read. It certainly deserves to be.

Favourite Maori Legends

Another title in A. W. Reed's series of modestly priced books on Maori culture, this collection of legends is a simplified re-telling of some of the stories previously published in the same author's comprehensive work. ‘Trea-

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sury of Maori Folklore.'

There are excellent illustrations by Roger Hart.

The New Zealanders in Colour

This handsome book of colour photographs is a lively, realistic portrait of New Zealanders at work and at play, in the country and in the towns.

J. D. McDonald's highly readable text matches the virtues of the photographs.


Very few volumes of poetry published in New Zealand have sold as many copies as Hone Tuwhare's book. ‘No Ordinary Sun’, which was recently re-printed for the second time.

The artist Selwyn Muru has painted two murals depicting Maori rock drawings for Wellington's Overseas Passenger Terminal.

The artist Ralph Hotere, of Hokianga, recently returned to New Zealand after four years in Europe. Born in 1931 and educated at St Peter's College and Auckland University, Hotere was awarded a New Zealand Art Fellowship in 1961.

While in London he had several successful exhibitions of his paintings, including one-man shows at well known galleries.

A one-man show held in Auckland since his return has attracted much interest.

Early this year an Auckland Maori Groups Association was formed with delegates from many of the numerous Maori clubs in the Auckland area. It aims at sponsoring goodwill and unity between clubs and pooling their mutual knowledge on matters of Maori culture.

A reunion of the descendants of Patuone, the famous Ngapuhi chief who lived at Hokianga in the last century will be held early next year. More than 1000 descendants are expected to attend a gathering at Waitangi on February 26 and to assemble in Auckland later to make a pilgrimage to Patuone's grave at Devonport.

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Music of the Maori—
The Waihirere Maori Club

Kiwi LC-21 12in. 33 ⅓ LP.

Recently for the first time, I had the pleasure of seeing this excellent group on the concert stage under their dynamic young leader Ngapo Wehi. This record does not do them justice. I must hasten to add that this is not Kiwi's fault nor that of the NZBC (who recorded the tapes). It is just that much of Waihirere's appeal is visual. Their actions and presentation are crisp and impressive. Their singing is less so. Much of it is thin and there is a lack of substantial and effective harmony. Take, for example, the imaginative arrangement of Waiata Poi on side two. The voices trail off at the end of the lines. Sometimes one can hardly hear the men. The performers seem to be singing at about half steam.

Although five of the items on this disc have been performed on Waihirere's other two records there are also some interesting new songs, including some of Waihirere's specialities which are deservedly gaining in popularity with other concert parties. ‘Kei ia Koe” and ‘Karanga e te Iwi’ are two such songs. They were specially written by Bill Kerekere, a former leader, for the Club's performance before Royalty at Waitangi. On the other hand, Kerekere's choice of tune for his setting of ‘Karanga Mai Koroki’ takes a bit of getting used to. It has a pasa doble type rhythm and a background parrot's chorus called ‘Karanga … karanga….’ However it is unusual, and with Bill Kerekere, Waihirere have had a leader who is not afraid to try something which is different. If Maori music is to appeal to younger people it must move with the times. The same writer has taken a popular hymn ‘Tapu, tapu, tapu’ and boldly adapted it by interweaving it into the fabric of a larger work. An excerpt from this work, the song ‘Tapu, tapu, Anei taku Inoi’, is heard on this record.

Two classic haka taparahi are featured. These are ‘Ruamoko’ (an improved version to that on Waihirere's ‘Treasure Chest of Maori Music’) and ‘Kura Tiwaka’. There is also a peruperu. It is perhaps a little inaccurate to say, as do the notes on the record cover, that ‘the East Coast tribes are not accustomed to the peruperu.’ However, it is true that East Coast parties seldom seem to perform them nowadays. For this reason ‘Tena i Poua’ is welcome on this record. Peruperu, with its precision and call on physical stamina, seems in grave danger of fading away altogether except amongst Te Arawa.

Waihirere are at their best in chant-like numbers with a pre-European flavour such as their powhiri ‘Waitangi’ and their poi-patere ‘Takitimu’. It is good to know that Waihirere are taking modern songs written in this idiom and giving them a prominent place in their repertoire.

Utaina!—The Wellington Anglican Maori Club

Kiwi EA-106 7in. 45 EP.

In the previous issue we reviewed Ngati Poneke's new record. Now we have a recording from their chief (and friendly) rivals in the Wellington area. As many readers will know, a group from the Wellington Anglican Club has just returned from a highly successful three and a half months' overseas tour which included the USA, Canada, Great Britain and Hong Kong. The Club has as its patron (and a very interested patron) His Excellency, the Governor-General. Its teacher, the Rev. Kingi Ihaka, needs no introduction. Its leader on this record is Don Manunui who has just returned as leader of the Maori group which toured with the National Band. His service amongst young Maoris in Wellington is tireless.

‘Utaina’ is a small record but all the items on it are relatively fresh in that they have not been worked to death on numerous other recordings. They range from the World War I favourite ‘E te Iwi, Kia Toa’ to Ihaka's ‘Utaina’ with which the club won the Kingi Tahiwi Cup at the 1963 Wellington Competitions. The group performs with precision and gusto. I would have wished for a little more variety—perhaps one haka and/or a chora piece. Perhaps another recording in the future might rectify this ommission!

Waiata Poi and Other Songs:
Hannah Tatana and the Concert Party
of Queen Victoria School

Kiwi EA-105 45 EP 7in.

It is encouraging when Maori singers of the stature of Hannah Tatana can turn briefly from opera and the classics to enhance the simple songs of their people. I found side one

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of this disc, which features Miss Tatana with the Concert Party, a most delightful listening experience. In a splendid acoustic setting they sing ‘Waiata Poi’ and ‘Hine e Hine’. Their version of ‘Waiata Poi’ is easily the best recording yet of this often-abused song. There is an ethereal effect in their singing of ‘Hine e Hine’. The sound seems to float gently and then dissolve quietly.

Side two features the Concert Party alone. It is more earthy but pleasant enough for all that. The girls give the pop song ‘Tiaho Po’ a touch of the dramatic. Their version of ‘Au e Ihu’ is well sung, but for a Maori hymn it is sung a little too fast for my liking. It is almost as if they were rushing to finish the record!

The Nuns' Chorus — Kiri te Kanawa

Kiwi EA-112 7in. 45 EP.

This is not a recording of Maori music but it features a Maori who is one of the brightest stars on the New Zealand musical scene. Kiri Te Kanawa has just finished a year of contest triumphs in New Zealand and Australia and there is little doubt that she has no reached her peak as yet.

One side one of this record is the Nuns' Chorus from Strauss's ‘Casanova’. Miss Te Kanawa sings it with the St Mary's Choral Group. Side two has ‘Let the Bright Seraphim’ from Handel's ‘Sampson and Delilah’. Unfortunately, this is something less than it might have been for this critic. Leonora Owsley does not use the organ to reproduce the glorious trumpet obligatto which has usually been a notable accompaniment to this aria. I wonder if perhaps she does this to allow the solo to have full prominence. However ‘Let the Bright Seraphim’ is truly a duet of singer and trumpet, and this version does not exploit the aria's full potential.

Maori adults furthering their education by attending special night classes have been given an added incentive.

The Education Department has changed its regulations to allow adults to sit one or more subjects for a certificate of education. Papers will be the same as those for school certificate, and the certificate will be awarded for a 50 per cent pass.

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– 61 –

Crossword Puzzle 50

Picture icon

Solution to No. 49


1. Captain of Te Arawa canoe.
2. Weir, dyke; Napier's port.
3. Rain.
4. No, not.
5. Bark of a dog.
6. Bracken, common fern.
7. Eye.
8. The morning; just after sunrise.
9. Make a formal speech.
13. Cave.
16. Meat.
19. Nephew.
23. For, since, inasmuch as.
26. Place side by side; gorge; supplement.
27. Putrid.
28. Driving force; violence.
29. Bother-in-law.
31. Small.
33. See!
35. Officer.
38. Grumble.
39. Rising up; Easter.
42. Fortified village.
43. Long.
44. Mill.
47. Strength.
50. Your.
51. Water.
52. Shout; soft mud.


1. Slave, scoundrel.
10. I, me.
11. I don't know.
12. Morning
14. Game of draughts.
15. Carved uprights in front of house.
17. Weave, plait.
18. Chief, priest; leader.
20. Dash; strike; breathe.
21. Dry land.
22. Treaty.
24. Those.
25. When? (past time).
29. Spear; cook.
30 Seek.
32. April.
34. Load a man or a canoe.
36. Earth, soil; land.
37. Flattering, deceived by wiles.
40. Oven.
41. Hang.
42. Drown.
45. I, me; bark.
46. Of course; breath.
47. Take fire, burn.
48. Completed, finished.
49. Descendants.
51. Tail.
53. Int. expressing surprise.
54. Plunder.
55. Stage.

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Lady Parehuia Carroll

The death occurred on 1 September of Lady Parehuia Carroll, wife of Sir Turi Carroll, chairman of the New Zealand Maori Council.

A member of the Ngati Kahungunu tribe, she was in her 68th year.

She and her husband married in 1922 and had one child, Mrs Mako Paku.

Widely known and loved, Lady Carroll was a tireless worker for her people.

A gentle woman of unfailing kindness, she constantly supported her husband in his work, though remaining unobtrusively in the background.

Many hundreds of Maori and Pakeha mourners gathered at Taihoa marae for the funeral. Among those present were Mr J. R. Harrison, M.P. for Hawkes Bay, who represented the Prime Minister Mr K. J. Holyoake, the Minister for Maori Affairs, Mr J. R. Hanan, and Sir Eruera Tirakatene, M.P. for Southern Maori.

The Primate of New Zealand, Archbishop N. A. Lesser, presided at the service. The cortege then moved to her home marae at Huramua, and to the family cemetery there.

Mr Turau Te Tomo

Mr Turau Te Tomo of Mokai, one of the leading rangatira of Ngati Tuwharetoa, died suddenly at Turangawaewae on 14 October. He was aged 70.

Mr Te Tomo was a son of the late Mr Taite Te Tomo, a former Member of Parliament for Western Maori. His mother belonged to the Rongomaiwahine sub-tribe of Ngati Kahungunu, and was from the Mahia Peninsula.

From the age of about 40 years, Mr Te Tomo took a keen interest in Maori culture, and he became known throughout the country as an authority on Maori tradition, especially Maori waiata. In recent years much of his knowledge was preserved in writing and on tape.

He was an outstanding figure on the maraes, an orator of the highest standard.

A member of the Ngati Tuwharetoa Trust Board, Mr Te Tomo was keenly interested in Maori land development and was one of the main sponsors of the very successful Tuaropaki scheme at Mokai, and the adjoining Waipapa scheme.

He was a staunch supporter of the Maori King Movement.

His wife Marata belongs to the Turner family of the King Country on her father's side, and on her mother's side to the Paerata family of Ngati Tuwharetoa. Mrs Te Tomo is herself an authority on Maori waiata.

From Turangawaewae the cortege moved to Waihi Pa, Taupo, calling in on the way at Kauriki marae, before proceeding to Mokai and to the ancestral burial ground at Waiwharangi.

Mrs Sarah Thompson (Tamehana)

The death occurred last September of Mrs Sarah Thompson of Morrinsville. The wife of Tumuaki, Wiremu Tarapipipi Tamehana, she had been closely associated with the King Movement since her marriage.

Mr Wiremu Tamehana is the great-grand-son of Wiremu Tamehana The Kingmaker, who was a close friend and advisor of King Potatau and King Tawhiao, and was one of the first high chiefs of the Waikato to embrace Christianity.

Mourners from all parts of the Waikato, Bay of Plenty, King Country, Hauraki and Auckland tribal areas gathered at Rukumoana Pa for the funeral.

Mr Joe Takurua

The death occurred last August of Mr Joe Takarua, eldest son of the late Mr Takurua Tamarau, O.B.E., one of the leading rangatira of the Tuhoe tribe.

Mr Joe Takurua was born in the Ureweras, and spent his youth there. He showed a strong interest in mechanics, and later joined a contracting team. Subsequently he joined the staff of Tasman Paper Company at Kawerau.

People from all parts of the Bay of Plenty attended the funeral at Ruatoki.

Mr Takurua is survived by a widow and seven children. There are several grandchildren.

Mr Noa Akuhata-Brown

The death occurred recently of Mr Noa Akuhata-Brown of Te Araroa.

A member of Te Whanau-a-Tuwhakaiora, Mr Akuhata-Brown gave much service to the community over a period of many years.

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For 35 years he was a member of the Rerekohu District High School Committee, and for 25 years served as chairman. He was keenly interested in the recently-established Play Centre at Te Araroa.

Much of his time was devoted to tribal affairs, and for many years he served in various capacities on the tribal and marae committees of Hinerupe and Tutua. At the time of his death he was chairman of the Kawakawa Maori Committee and local representative on the Horouta No. 1 Maori Executive Council, of which he was also vice-chairman. Several years ago he was made a Justice of the Peace. In 1964 he was appointed one of the Matakaoa representatives on the Waiapu County Council. He was recently the sole nominee for Horoera representation in the forthcoming elections.

In recent years Mr Akuhata-Brown undertook considerable research into local and tribal geanealogy and had become the accepted voice of the people of Te Araroa at tribal gatherings.

He is survived by his wife Hilda and three sons: Messrs Joseph Brown, at present in Western Samoa. Mick Brown, Te Aroha, and Busby Brown, Te Araroa.

Mr Wiremu Hape Taipana

The death occurred last August of Mr Wiremu Hape Taipana, an elder of Arowhenua, Temuka. He was aged 74.

He was the elder son of Hana Kaikoro and Te Hape Taipana of Ngati Rongomai, a sub-tribe of Ngati Mamoe.

During the First World War he served in France as a member of the Pioneer Maori Battalion. For many years he worked in the building trade, working in many different parts of the Island and living for 20 years in Wellington. He returned to Arowhenua in 1953 and interested himself in the affairs of the community.

He is survived by two sisters, Mrs Thompson of Wairoa and Mrs J. Henderson of Tinwald, and by his brother, Mr Charles Taipana of Arowhenua.

Mr Tuki Reihana

The death occurred recently of Mr Tuki Reihana of Arowhenua, Temuka. He was aged 55.

Mr Reihana was the second son of Tekakati Reihana of Arowhenua and Isabella Wakefield of Little River. He was predeceased by a fortnight by his younger sister, Hana Reihana.

Mr Reihana served in the 28th Maori Battalion in World War II.

As the only Maori dairy farmer in the area he put to good use the family lands which he leased. He served for many years on the Arowhenua Pa Runanga, and was an energetic and stalwart worker in communal activities.

He is survived by his wife Hui Tipene and a son, Brian.

Miss Tuini Ngawai

The death occurred on 13 August of Miss Tuinui Ngawai of Tokomaru Bay, the well-known East Coast song composer and entertainer.

Miss Ngawai belonged to Te Whanau-a-Rua-taupere a sub-tribe of Ngati Porou.

Her first song, He Nawe Kei Roto, was written in 1933, and was performed informally at the opening of To o te Tonga meeting house at Tokomaru Bay. It was for this occasion that she organised one of her earliest haka parties.

Her well-known Hokowhitu-a-Tu party was first organised in 1939 to give a final leave farewell to (Ngati-Porou) C Co. boys at Tokomaru Bay. Her song for that occasion was Arohaina Mai, one of her best known compositions.

Miss Ngawai was closely associated with Sir Apirana Ngata, who used her party a great deal for fund raising. One of the greatest tributes he paid to her was when, soon after the war, he arranged for her to teach action songs in the East Coast schools.

Tuini Ngawai's complete works comprise well over 200 songs. Many of them are concerned with the universal themes of poetry—love, death, war the peace of God. Others, such as her shearing songs, are lively and accomplished songs of everyday life. Many others are songs of welcome.

Her songs are strongly individual in character, with language which is pure, economical, forceful and precise. She excelled in the blending of words, music and actions. Sometimes she composed her own music, but usually she based on on a popular tune of which her hearers were already fond.

She wrote her last song, during a period of ill-health, for the Maori reception to the 1965 Springboks at Gisborne.

The funeral was at Tokomaru Bay.

Mr Tamati Hakaraia

The death occurred last October of Mr Tamati (Kehu) Hakaraia of Otako. He was aged about 80.

A member of one of the town's most widely known families, he was a gentle and kindly man, highly regarded in the district.

In earlier years he won high ranking as a Horowhenua representative football and hockey player.

After a tangi at Raukawa there was a funeral service in Rangiatea. The interment took place in the Catholic cemetery.

In an obituary for the late Te Atairangikahu Mahuta, wife of King Koroki, which appeared in the June issue of ‘Te Ao Hou’, it was incorrectly stated that their daughter Princess Piki was adopted.

We apologise for this error.—Ed.

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Ko te whakaaro o nga kai hautu o nga iwi katoa o te Ao kia tohungia nga kararehe me nga manu katoa ahakoa nei kei hea.

I raro i tenei kaupapa he waahi nui e pa ana ki nga tangata o enei motu. Ko enei manu ara te kuaka he manu heke mai, i nga tuawhenua o Alaska me Siberia.

Ko tenei manu kua oti te rahui e te Kawanatanga o Amerika me te Kawanatanga hoki o enei motu no te mea e patua kino ngia ana.

No reira ko te tumanako o te whatu-manawa me tohu tenei manu a e inoi atu ana ki te hunga whaiwhakaaro:


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