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No. 52 (September 1965)
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Te Ao Hou
THE MAORI MAGAZINE

The Department of Maori Affairs September 1965

In the tracery of this carved canoe-prow there are two stylised figures. The upper one may be distinguished by its paua-shell eyes. while the one beneath it is upside down.

Each has the fingers of its hand in its mouth, in a conventional gesture the meaning of which is unknown. The lower figure has also a second hand.

Theo Schoon's photograph shows a detail of the prow of Toki a Tapiri. the war canoe in the Auckland Museum.

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published quarterly by the Department of Maori Affairs and sponsored by the Maori Purposes Fund Board.

printed by Pegasus Press Ltd.

n.z. subscriptions: One year 7/6 (four issues), three years £1. Rate for schools: 4/- per year (minimum five subscriptions). From all offices of the Maori Affairs Department and from the editor.

editorial address: Box 2390, Wellington, New Zealand.

overseas subscriptions: England and other countries with sterling currency: one year 10s. three years £1 5s. Australia: one year A13s 6d, three years £A1 11s 6d. U.S.A., Hawaii and Canada: one year $1.50, three years $3.50. Other countries: the local equivalent of sterling rates.

back issues (N.Z. rates). Issue nos. 18–23, 25, and 27–49 are available at 2/6 each. A very few copies of issue nos. 10, 13, 16 and 24 are still available at 5/- each. Other issues are now out of print. (Overseas rates for back issues are available on request).

contributions in maori: Ko tetahi o nga whakaaro nui o Te Ao Hou he pupuri kia mau te reo Maori. Otira ko te nuinga o nga korero kei te tukua mai kei te reo Pakeha anake. Mehemea hoki ka nui mai nga korero i tuhia ki te reo Maori ka whakanuia ake te wahanga o te tatou pukapuka mo nga korero Maori.

Statements in signed articles in Te Ao Hou are the responsibility only of the writers concerned.

the minister of maori affairs: The Hon. J. R. Hanan.

the secretary for maori affairs: J. M. McEwen.

editor: Margaret Orbell.

associate editor (Maori text): E. B. Ranapia.

Te Ao Hou
THE MAORI MAGAZINE

Contents September, 1965

STORIES
A Home Away From Home, Katarina Mataira 8
POETRY
Poem. Paul Nicolle 20
Hine-mokemoke, Susi Robinson Collins 25
A Fairy's Love Song 41
ARTICLES
Dr Manahi Nitama Paewai. Harry Dansey 5
Recipes for Preparing Kina 3
What Can Be Done About Prejudice? Kenneth C. Gartner 13
The Gods of The Ancient Maori World 16
Helping Our Own. Eddie McLeod 21
Te Whare Wananga o Waikato Me Te Iwi Maori 23
How to Make a Tipare, Catherine Brown 29
The Sculpture of Arnold Wilson 32
Portrait Gallery of Famous Men and Women 34
Transcriptions of Authentic Maori Chants: part five Mervyn McLean 38
A Little Boy Meets Captain Cook 43
History of a Great River, Nick Karaitiana 50
Introducing Ken Eru, Earle Spencer 54
FEATURES
People and Places 26
Book Reviews 57
Record Reviews 59
Crossword Puzzle 61
Haere Ki o Koutou Tipuna 63

COVER: Mr Peter Papuni, first winner of the Sir Bernard Fergusson Cup awarded annually to the best apprentice at the Auckland Technical Institute.

Aged 23, Mr Papuni was born in Opotiki, where he was educated and gained his school certificate He came to Auckland under the Maori Affairs Department carpentry training scheme, and has been attending the institute for five years. Now a fully qualified tradesman, he also teaches part-time at the Institute. (Photo by courtesy of the ‘Auckland Star’.)

Illustrations: Page 59 and back cover, Roger Hart. Page 18, Gordon Walters.

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LETTERS

Mervyn McLean's Study of Maori Music

The Editor,
Te Ao Hou.

I agree very strongly with Mr Wikiriwhi that Mr Mervyn McLean in his study of Maori music is doing our people a great service. Furthermore it is not only the Maori people who will benefit, for our traditional music is now part of the heritage of all New Zealanders.

As Mr Wikiriwhi says, there is no reason at all why Mr McLean should feel that he cannot accept payment for the articles he is publishing in ‘Te Ao Hou’. Mr McLean's profession is music, and he is entitled to receive payment for his labour and skill, as we all do.

TAHI TAIT


(Rotorua)

Cook's Visit to Bay of Islands

The Editor,
‘Te Ao Hou’.

I am one of many readers who are grateful to ‘Te Ao Hou’ for printing unpublished texts of Maori myths and traditions, and for giving us accurate English translations of them. May I therefore ask on behalf of those who are ignorant of the Maori language for a correct translation of Te Rangikaheke's description of the death of Maui which was quoted (in Maori only) by Erik Schwimmer in your March issue?

In the June issue you print an account of Cook's and Marion du Fresne's visits to the Bay of Islands in 1769 and 1772, taken from a manuscript in John White's papers, of which the author is unknown. The account of Cook's arrival is almost identical with that given to C. O. Davis by Patuone, and published in Davis's memoir, ‘The Life and Times of Patuone’. As Patuone and his family are the central figures in White's manuscript, this provides additional ground for supposing that Patuone wrote it, or told the story to White. A further reason is the use of the word ‘maitai’ for the strangers. So far as I am aware, the only other time Pakehas were called ‘maitai’ was when Patuone gave the same account to Davis.

Patuone died in 1872, and because he said he remembered Cook's visit in 1769, Davis estimated that he lived to be 108. In this case he would have been an old man of about 75 when he was baptised in 1840, and on the same reckoning his younger brother Nene must have been about 70 when he led the support for the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi, and over 100 when he died in 1871. These ages seem improbable. It is more likely that as an old man Patuone confused traditions and memory, and mixed up what he had been told of Cook's visit with what he remembered of Marsden's arrival 45 years later. (It was Marsden, not Cook, who was given land at Te Puna.) This confusion also suggests that Patuone gave the account to White in his old age. It was then, while he was living at Takapuna, that he gave the similar account to C. O. Davis.

ORMOND WILSON

(Palmerston North)

The passage telling of Maui's death is as follows:

‘Then he entered, head first. When his head disappeared, the cheeks of the many birds puckered [with suppressed laughter]. His shoulders disappeared, then his chest. At this stage those fantails [unable to restrain themselves any longer], laughed aloud.

‘That woman was startled out of her sleep. Anā! Waking up, she opened her eyes and brought her thighs together. Behold! By this time Maui had disappeared up to his waist. When she closed them over those tattooed hips, behold! One half was broken off inside, the other half was broken off outside. So died this Maui….’

The word anā is defined in William's Dictionary as ‘An interjection calling immediate attention’.—Ed.

Recording Lives of Great Men

The Editor,
‘Te Ao Hou’.

Could I make a plea through your columns for a systematic approach to the compiling of biographies of the great makers of modern Maoridom?

As time passes the links with the past become more tenuous but at the moment there are people alive whose knowledge of the great figures of the past will be lost with their death.

Could not some body—The Maori Council or some other—accept the challenge that the past is worth preserving? I would suggest that a list be compiled of those people who, though among the most influential leaders in the last hundred years, have not yet had their

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lives fully recorded. For example: Wahanui, Te Whiti, Tohu Kakahi, Rewi Maniapoto, Tawhiao, Te Kooti, Te Rangi Hiroa, Te Puea and others.

A biographer working with the authority of an official body, and carrying with him the commendation of the leaders of the appropriate tribal or religious group, would be in a strong position to pursue his enquiries. To assist him, a corresponding committee could be appointed from among those with a special knowledge of the subject.

Is anyone prepared to act now to keep alive the memories of our greatest leaders?

BERNARD GADD


(Pukekohe)

The Editor,
Te Ao Hou.

Recently in a newspaper I read a letter from a Maori asking why there are so very few Maori programmes on television. Frankly, I wondered the same. I am a European and am trying to learn the Maori language, and for this reason listen to every possible Maori session on the radio. But why are there so few of them?

Surely more could be done on radio and television to help the many students of Maori language and culture.

Mrs S. L. PHILLIPS


(Ngatea)

Recipes for
Preparing Kina
Or Sea Eggs

‘Ma wai te kai ka whanga ki tua o Tokararangi.’

‘Who will wait for the food beyond the breakers of Tokararangi.’

The meaning of this proverb is that sea foods require appropriate days and seasons, calm seas and fine weather.

Kina, which are more popularly known as sea-eggs, are a much loved summer food of the Maori, being found at low tide in rock crevices and under ledges of rock.

Harvested in Summer Months

When the kowhai is in bloom the kina tongues are yellow and full, but sour; when the pohutukawa is in bloom, they are red, full and sweet. Kina may be harvested during the months of October, November, December, January and February. The best times to harvest them are at low tide on the first, second and third days after the full moon.

There are two better known varieties: Kina ariki, a long-spiked variety, and Kina korako, a short-spiked variety.

A screwdriver with a long wooden handle, tied to the wrist with a piece of string, is the ideal implement to use in prising the kina from the crevices and rock ledges.

To Prepare Freshly Harvested Kina

Crack the shell open by piercing the centre or navel of the kina with a butcher's knife. Hold the kina steady with the left hand and press the knife down firmly with the right hand, at the same time levering the knife to the right then to the left. Since the shell is brittle, it should then open in two.

Inside you will find a cone-shaped mass of fine teethlike shell, a colourless salty fluid, Five tongues, a membranous substance purplish in colour, and a quantity of what appears to be fine particles of grit.

Use a teaspoon to scoop the tongues from the shell, being careful not to include the membrane or grit. Place the tongues in a jar, and discard the shells and remaining contents.

Half a sugarbag of average-sized kina will fill approximately a one quart jar.

Kina prepared as above is called kina poha and will keep in the refrigerator from three to four days. Kina poha may be eaten uncooked, and is often spread on slices of buttered bread.

Maoris in the early days used a large hollowed-out kina shell as a container for poha, and also sometimes cooked it in this container. They did this by placing the shell on the burning embers of an open fire, and leaving it until the contents were thoroughly heated through. The kinaki or complement to this dish was boiled or steamed kumara.

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Another Method

The following method of preparation is very popular. One must however acquire a taste for kina prepared in this way, for not only the tongues but the entire contents are eaten. As kina are usually harvested in kit or sugarbag lots, fortunate indeed is the town dweller who owns a large copper.

Pour the kina into the copper, completely cover with clean cold water, and leave to soak for two days. (Some prefer three days; the time of soaking differs according to taste.) The kina will have lost a lot of its saltiness and strong flavour after two days, and the tongues become plump and much sweeter.

For those who live in the country, the nearest creek is of course the answer. The kina are left in the bag and the neck of the bag is tied up with one end of a long rope. Then the bag is thrown into deep water, the other end of the rope is fastened to the nearest tree or post, and the bag and its contents are left submerged for two days.

After this time open the shells as instructed, and scoop out the contents with a spoon. No cooking is required. It is eaten with boiled kumara or buttered slices of homemade bread.

Kina Pie

2

cups prepared fresh kina tongues (poha)

1

cup breadcrumbs

2

rashers lean bacon

Place alternate layers of kina and breadcrumbs into a buttered pie dish, finishing with a layer of breadcrumbs. Cover with chopped bacon. Bake in a moderate oven 350' F. until the crumbs and bacon are crisp and the tongues cooked. About half an hour.

Kina Fritters

1

cup fresh kina tongues (poha)

4

ozs. flour

1

teaspoon baking powder

1

egg

½

cup milk salt and pepper

Mix together the dry ingredients, add beaten egg and milk to make a smooth batter. Stir in the kina tongues and leave to stand for half an hour. Fry dessertspoonfuls in hot fat. Drain on absorbent paper. Serve hot, garnished with wedges of lemon and sprigs of parsley.

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DR M. N. PAEWAI

A Leader with High Ideals And Astonishing Energy

There are people in New Zealand whose records of service to the community at large and to the Maori race in particular equal that of Dr Manahi Nitama Paewai. There have been people in the past whose service exceeds that which he has up until now given. But of the first, there can be no more than a dozen or so. And of the second, even less—and they are looked at in the light of the accomplishments of lifetimes.

For Dr Paewai is just 45, and who can know what he will build in the years to come on the foundations of experience and ideals now so firmly laid?

Let's not attempt to analyse until we've examined the record. And what a record ! Would that there were more such !

He is known to many simply as “the Doc”, to others as Nahi—a contraction of his first Christian name—while some members of his family choose to call him Nitama. But whatever name is used, it is with affection and respect.

Born at Dannevirke

Nahi Paewai was born at Dannevirke on June 8, 1920, son of Nireaha Paewai, leading member of that very well known and widely respected Maori family. He was educated at Dannevirke High School and at Otago University from which he graduated M.B., Ch.B.

While he was at Otago he became widely known as a Rugby player of exceptional talent, tough, courageous, intelligent. Many claim him as being in the first half-dozen half-backs New Zealand has ever produced, a few say he was the best of them all. The record of his representative Rugby career shows also his movements round the country. He represented Otago, New Zealand Universities, the South Island, Auckland, the North Island, Wellington, New Zealand Army and New Zealand Maoris.

Later he moved into Rugby administration, serving on the Maori Advisory Board from

Picture icon

Nahi Paewai and his wife Hineapa. ‘Northlander’ photo

1945–1956 and on the Northland Rugby Union from 1953 to 1956. He was co-selector for the New Zealand Maori team in 1955 and 1956. Since 1958 he has been a member of the Bay of Islands Rugby Union's judicial committee.

Service With Many Organizations

That's sport. Let's turn to community service in the sense of the wider community, the people with whom he lives and works, regardless of race.

Interest in health is an obvious one for a man of his profession. Thus we find that he was divisional surgeon of the St John Ambulance Brigade at Kaikohe from 1947 to 1961. The case of the intellectually handicapped child has always been close to his heart, and he is vice-president of the Northland Branch of the Intellectually Handicapped Children Parents' Association and vice-president too of the Kaikohe branch. From 1960 to 1962 he was a member of a Northland special school committee for intellectually handicapped children.

Community service more often than not calls for work through statutory organizations, and Dr Paewai has accepted his full share of this. He has been a member of the Kaikohe Borough Council since 1962. His interest in education has led to membership of another local institution, the board of governors of Northland College. He is deeply interested in education at all levels, not only at secondary school. Thus it is not surprising to see that he is a strong supporter of the Kaikohe Free Kindergarten, being its vice-president from 1952 to 1955.

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This same interest overlaps into the realm of the church of which he is so active a member, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latterday Saints. He serves on the New Zealand Advisory Board of Church College, the splendid educational institution established near Hamilton.

Dr Paewai stands high in the councils of his church, serving on many of its constitutent bodies and carrying its precepts into his daily life. He was the moving spirit in the erection of the church's fine new building at Kaikohe.

Kaikohe knows him as a leading member of the town's Rotary Club, of which in turn he has been a director, vice-president and president.

Let's move into the field of Maori affairs, particularly welfare. With Dr Paewai this is not a mere interest, this is a crusade.

Advice and Guidance Society

An obvious avenue of service is through his profession. One expression of this is his membership of the New Zealand Maori Health Committee. But his concern for the well-being of his people stretches far beyond his doctor's work. Perhaps his most significant contribution to Maori advancement has been the Kaikohe Advice and Guidance Society which he founded in 1960.

This remarkable organisation does exactly what its name implies, it advises and guides. In particular its attention is directed to establishing sound economic principles in the home. Indeed it has meant for many the actual establishment of the home itself.

Those who belong to the society are shown how to budget, how to keep the pay packet ahead of the bills. For many it has meant the gradual lifting, after years in some cases, of crippling burdens of debt.

In this Dr Paewai has been assisted by public-spirited friends who have acted as sponsors for families which have come to the society to find a way out of their financial troubles. Characteristically, he acts as sponsor himself for quite a number of people.

Official recognition of the worth of the scheme was shown when its principles and much of its detailed operation were adopted as part of the welfare policy of the Maori Affairs Department. Thus the idea that was tested at Kaikohe spread to Maori communities all over the country.

In his own words: ‘It is a form of practical adult education. We are trying to curtail the expenses of the Maori people, trying to teach them the value of money and the need to stay out of debt.’

Recently Dr Paewai has given much thought to an extension of these principles so that a wider section of the community. Pakeha as well as Maori, can receive some form of economic advice. He has also expressed his ideas on the obligations of trade and professional organizations of assisting those who over-reach themselves financially.

This is by no means a ‘hand-out’ policy. Rather it is enlightened self-help, helping a man to face up to his responsibilities, showing him how to be an economic asset to his community.

Opposition to ‘Hand-outs’

‘Hand-outs’ are anathema to Dr Paewai. Advancement through work and thrift is what he advocates. Paradoxically, because he once sought nomination as a Labour Parliamentary candidate, he is the personification of rugged individualism and is on record with some stinging criticisms of the welfare state.

It was his opposition to what he conceived to be a ‘hand-out’ which led him to become an outspoken critic of the Maori Education Foundation. He saw the foundation as something which cut across his concept of reward and success based on effort and determination.

‘The Maori must be taught as the Pakeha has already learnt, that he has to work for what he gets,’ he told me when I asked him why he was rocking the Education Foundation boat.

It is a measure of the man's essential fairness and honesty that later, after a closer look at the foundation's aims and methods, he modified some of his views and said so very handsomely.

Looking at the controversy after three years, it seems clear to me that his bluntness did much good, if no more than to make the architects of the foundation examine their structure with critical eyes.

‘What I am trying to do is to provoke people who may have misgivings to speak up so that those who are going to administer the foundation will jolly well look carefully at it,’ he said.

And that is exactly what happened.

More recently Dr Paewai has taken a more active part in purely Maori organizations, for instance, he was chairman of the Kaikohe Maori Welfare Committee and secretary of the Taitokerau District Maori Council.

So in the practical field of help to the Maori

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people Dr Paewai could if he chose—and he would probably not choose, being too busy with present needs to worry about past achievements—point to families out of debt, to homes built, to children educated, to bodies healed, to sports administered, to a community served with energy and selflessness in a hundred ways.

Energy and Drive

Dedication to ideals lies at the heart of all he does. Astonishing, punishing, even frightening energy and drive is the secret of how he gets it done. An active, inquiring mind always open to suggestion, particularly when it stems from the United States which he knows well and admires, helps him to decide what to do.

A morning I spent with him, caring for the sick, admonishing the wayward, encouraging the faint-hearted, arguing with the unconvinced, left me worn out. At one house it was pills and advice, at another it was a tin of paint and a direct order to put it on the laundry, at a third it was medicine and gentle, even tender, words of comfort, at the next a pane of glass and finger shaken at a broken window. At another place there was a discussion on educational policy in which his views were put forward with quite devastating bluntness.

Then we climbed over a building project where men were working on a co-operative basis, ‘you help me build my place and I’ll help you with yours'.

He left me to attend two meetings, four patients and a wedding. This is the pattern of all his days.

He is the slave of his own high ideals and he is his own ruthless slave-driver. He charges at problems of economics, housing, education, health and equality with the same bounce and fire that drove him round a scrum in the good old days.

Suspicion of Exclusively Maori Institutions

No analysis of Dr Paewai can omit his ideas on equality and integration. He is the great integrator. It seems to me that he looks with suspicion on every institution which is particularly Maori. Some pass scrutiny but those which do not can expect no mercy from his dissection.

In the past he has expressed his condemnation of separate Maori schools, of separate funds for Maori welfare, even of the word ‘Maori’ in the name of the Maori Education Foundation.

The concept of Maori and European as completely equal partners in all aspects of New Zealand life is very dear indeed to him. If that should mean the loss of some cultural attributes, sacrifices on the altar of complete equality, then I feel that this would trouble him not at all.

Perhaps his ideal state would be a Utopia in which Maori and Pakeha would not only be equal in status but the same in culture.

I have detected in him scarcely a flicker of interest in efforts to make an amalgam of cultures, to incorporate into the New Zealand European pattern aspects springing from the Maori past. Discussions on these lines move him little, if at all.

Just as he is not a good public speaker—words limp along behind the racing thoughts—so he is not a good analyst of the abstract. He is too practical, too convinced of the magnitude of the immediate physical task to be bothered with academic niceties and cultural probabilities.

There are houses to be built, there are jobs to be found or to be created—the estabishment of secondary industry is another of his activities. There are bones to be set and sores to be healed and ills to be cured. There are men to be shaken to a realization of their family responsibilities. There are widows and orphans to be cared for and comforted. There are debts to be paid and children to be educated. There is work enough for a hundred hands, let alone two.

And in all this he is aided and supported by Hineapa his charming wife and their two sons and five daughters. For a household headed by a one-man hurricane it shows no sign whatever of wear and tear.

The Authentic Maori Leader

Many Maori professional men and women cannot be leaders of their people except by example. Their work removes them from close contact with the everyday problems and aspirations of the ordinary man.

Not so Dr Manahi Nitama Paewai. He is the authentic Maori leader.

A man of splendid physique, of bubbling good humour, of strong and compelling features, his work is enobled by the honesty of his motives, the intensity of his convictions and the force of his moral courage.

He is the Happy Warrior and there is no one else quite like him. Our Maori people could do with more cast from the same brave mould.

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A Home Away From Home
He Kainga Atu

E noho ana a Hinerau i roto i tona kihini, e unu ti ana, e kai hikareti ana. Ngenge atu tona ahua. Katahi ano nga tamariki ka riro atu ki te kura, ko te ata hoki tenei o te Mane.

E putu mai ana nga taputapu paru i runga i te tepu, ka huri hoki ona whakaaro ki nga kakahu paru e takoto mai ana i te whare horoikakahu. Me tona whare hoki—aue te paru ano! Ka pau tonu tenei ra i te whakatikatika whare. Ka whakaaro ia, ‘Koenei te mate o te nui rawa o te tangata i te whare.’

E noho tonu ana ia, ka huaki te tatau. Ko Miha e tu mai ana, kei te miri tonu i te moe ki waho o ona whatu. Katahi ano a Miha ka matiki, kua ki mai, ‘He aha te taima?’

‘E hoa, kua riro noa atu to pahi. E kore koutou e tae ki te mahi i tenei ata. I haere mai au ki te whakaoho i a koutou, engari pai rawa te moe. Kore rawa koutou e oreore.’

‘Tino kino te mahi pati nei. Kare koe e taringi wai ki runga i a matau.’

‘Kare tonu koutou e oho i te wai. Hei aha maku te whakamaku moenga.’

Ka tu a Hinerau ki te mahi kai. Engari no tona haerenga atu ki te ‘fridge’ he paunu pata noa iho i reira, me te toenga miti o ta ratau kai o te po. Kua pau katoa nga heki, nga totiti, me te pekena.

Ahakoa, ka timata ia ki te pira riki ki roto i te parai, ka mea atu he hinu me nga toenga kai. Hihi mai ana nga kai i runga i te to, ka puta mai ko Whai raua ko Peta. Haere atu ana enei ki te tepu.

‘Ka mutu tonu nga kai mo ta koutou parakuihi. Kia haere rawa au ki nga toa, katahi ano tatau ka whiwhi kai.’

‘Kei te pai tena. Ka rawe tenei.’ Ko Whai e korero ana.

‘Mehemea kare koe i whangai i o hoa haurangi kua whiwhi heki tatau mo ta tatau parakuihi.’ Ko Peta e korero ana.

Ka ki atu a Hinerau, ‘Hei aha. E kai.’

Ahakoa to ratau moeroa, e katakata ana a Whai raua ko Peta, e whakatoi atu ana ki a hinerau was sitting over a cup of tea and a cigarette in her kitchen. She looked very tired.

It was a Monday morning and the children had just scampered off to school. Hinerau looked unhappily at the pile of dirty dishes on the table and shuddered at the thought of all those dirty clothes in the laundry which would have to be washed. As for her house—oh dear—she was going to have to work all day to put it right again.

‘This comes from having too many people in the house,’ she thought.

She was still sitting at the table when the door opened. Miha stood there rubbing the sleep from his eyes, having just rolled out of bed.

‘What's the time?' he asked anxiously.

‘Your bus went long ago mate,’ replied Hinerau. ‘Not one of you will get to work this morning. I tried to wake you earlier but couldn’t get a peep out of you.'

‘It's this jolly party business. Why didn't you pour some water over us?'

‘A fat lot of use that would have been. I would have only wet the beds.’

Hinerau stood up to prepare some breakfast. There was only a pound of butter in the refrigerator and some leftovers from the meal of the night before, so she sliced an onion into the frying pan, added the leftovers and a little dripping and set the pan on the stove.

Almost as soon as the food began hissing on the stove, Whai and Peta appeared and moved straight over to the table.

‘I’m afraid this is all there is for your breakfast, boys,' said Hinerau. ‘There won’t be anything else until I go to the shops.'

‘That's okay, this is good,' said Whai.

‘If you hadn’t fed all those drunken cobbers of yours yesterday,' said Peta, ‘there would have been some eggs for breakfast.’

‘They were your cobbers too!’ argued Whai.

‘Never mind, eat,’ said Hinerau.

– 9 –

raua, ki a Hinerau hoki. Ko Miha anake e maharahara ana.

Kei te haere te taima ki te iwa karaka, ka patai atu a Hinerau, ‘Ka pehea ta koutou mahi? Akuni koutou ka panaia.’

Ka nohopuku nga tama nei. Ko Peta ka ki, ‘Hei aha, kua ngenge noa iho au i tera mahi. E haere ana au ki te rapu mahi atu.’

‘Me au. Pehea koe e Miha?’ Ko Whai e korero ana.

‘Aua, kare au e mohio me pehea. I haere mai au ki Poneke ki te mahi moni, kare hoki he mahi i te kainga. Engari e rua nga tau inaianei e mahi ana i konei engari kare tonu aku moni.’

‘Ha ha, me pehea koe ka whiwhi moni? He pai rawa nga “sheilas” ki a koe.'

Ka whakaoti atu a Peta, ‘Me te hoko pia. Ha ha.’

Ka ruru te mahuna o Miha. ‘Pai ke atu taku hoki ki te kainga, ki te awhina i taku koroua. Kare he painga ki konei.’

‘E hoa. Maroke rawa te kainga inaianei. Pai ke atu a konei. Kore rawa au mo te hoki.’

‘Ka pehea ta tatau mahi?’

‘Hei aha. Ka nui nga mahi atu.’

Ka ki atu a Whai, ‘Ae, ka nui nga mahi i te “wharf”.'

‘E hoa he mahi taumaha rawa tena. Ka whati to tuara.’ Ko Peta e korero ana.

Ka ki atu a Whai, ‘Kare, kei reira a Henare e mahi ana. I ki a ia, kia uaua mai, ka noho ratau kia mutu rawa te marangai.’

‘Kati me haere tatau ki reira.’

Ka ki atu a Miha, ‘E haere korua; kare au mo te haere, e noho ana au ki konei.'

‘Mahi atu. Haere mai e Whai, me haere taua.’

Kare tonu e roa kua puta atu nga tokorua nei, kua haere atu ki te hopu i te pahi.

Kua timata a Hinerau ki te horoi i nga taputapu. E noho tonu ana a Miha. Nawai ra, ka ki ia, ‘He aha o whakaaro e Hine, me pehea au?’

Kare a Hinerau e korero. E pai ana ki a ia ona whanaunga, engari ko Miha te tino tangata. Na tona tuakana tenei. Ko Whai raua ko Peta he whangai na tona tungane. He taitama pai ratau katoa, he tino hoa ki tana tane, he pai ki a raua tamariki. Engari kua ngenge noa iho ia ki o ratau mahi porangi. E toru nga Hatarei inaianei kua hoki mai ratau ko o ratau hoa me ta ratau kaho pia. He unu pia, he waiata te mahi, po atu, po mai, a, tae noa ki te Ratapu. Kare raua ko tana tane e pirangi korero atu, no te mea kei te pirangi raua ma ratau tonu ratau e whakatikatika.

Although they had slept in and missed their bus to work, Whai and Peta were in high spirits, teasing each other and Hinerau. Only Miha seemed concerned.

It was approaching nine o'clock when Hinerau asked, ‘What are you going to do about your jobs? You’ll probably get the sack.'

The boys said nothing for a while, then Peta said, ‘What the heck, I’m sick of that job anyway. I think I'll go and find something else.'

‘Yeah, me too,’ said Whai. ‘What about you Miha?’

‘I don’t know,' replied Miha. ‘I came to Wellington to work because there was no work at home, and I thought I was going to make a lot of money, but heck I’ve been here two years now and I still have no money.'

‘Ha ha, how can you expect to have any money. You like the sheilas too much,’ teased Peta.

‘And the beer,’ added Whai laughing.

But Miha shook his head and said, ‘Maybe I should go home to give the old man a hand. I’m not much good here.'

‘Gwan man. It's pretty dead at home now. It's great here. I'll not go back home for anything,' said Peta.

‘But what about our jobs?’ emphasised Miha.

‘What about it,’ said Peta. ‘There's lot's of other jobs.'

‘There are plenty of jobs at the wharf,’ added Whai.

‘Those jobs are too heavy,’ said Peta. ‘You will break your back there.’

‘No fear,’ argued Whai. ‘Henare works there, and he reckons that they sit down and do nothing when it just drizzles, and don’t start to work again until the rain stops.'

‘Eh, well okay then, let's go there,' said Peta.

‘You two can go there,’ said Miha. ‘I’m staying here.'

‘Please yourself,’ said Peta. ‘Come on Whai, let's go.'

Shortly afterwards they disappeared down the road to catch a bus into town.

Hinerau had started to wash the dishes, but Miha continued to sit where he was, wondering what he should do. Presently he asked, ‘What do you reckon. Hine? What do you think I should do?’

Hinerau did not reply immediately. She was fond of the boys, but Miha was her favourite. He seemed to be more responsible.

– 10 –

Ma Miha pea e whakatika? Ka ki atu ia ki a Miha, ‘E Miha, ehara koe i te tangata ngoikore. Pai tonu tahau mahi, tahau noho. No te taenga mai o Peta raua ko Whai, katahi ano koe ka porangi haere. Kei a koe tonu te tikanga.

‘He aha to tino pirangi? Ma te hoki ki te kainga ka aha? Kei konei nga mahi, kei konei te moni, engari kei a koe te tikanga.’

Kua riro atu i a Miha te tauera, e whakamaroke taputapu ana. Kare raua e korero ano. Ka mutu nga taputapu, ka haere atu a Hinerau ki te horoi kakahu. Ka noho ano a Miha. Nawai ra, kua tu atu ia ki te whakapaipai whare, e tari ana ki waho nga pounamu pia, e whakatika ana i nga moenga. Haere ana te pakete wai me te parahe, e horoi mai ana i te kihini.

E whakawhata ana a Hinerau i nga kakahu, kua karanga mai a Miha, ‘Haere mai ki te kai ti.’

No te haerenga atu o Hinerau ki ro whare, tumeke ana ia, katahi ano a Miha ka mahi penei. Ka ki atu ia, ‘Aue, e Miha! Kei a koe hoki. Katahi ano ka penei rawa te pai o taku whare. Katahi ano au ka noho ki te kai ti ehara naku i mahi.’

Kei te ahua whakama a Miha engari kei te rekareka a ia, e kata ana.

‘E tika ana kia pukuriri noa atu koe ki a matau. Koenei anake te mahi e oti ana i konei, he kai, he moe, he porangi haere. Kare koe e kohete i a matau. Ko nga tokorua kua haere atu nei, maku o raua whero e kiki atu.’

Kare a Hinerau e korero, ka kata mai noa iho.

No taua ahiahi ka haere atu a Miha ki tetahi ‘billiard room’ i Poneke. I reira a Peta raua ko Whai. Ka karanga mai a Peta, ‘Hei Miha! Haere mai ki te purei. Kei te patua au.’

‘Naku tenei miti.’ Ko Whai e korero ana.

than the others. He was her sister's son, while Whai and Peta were the foster children of her brother. They were all likeable boys—good company for her husband, and they were always spoiling her youngsters. But she was getting very tired of the nonsense that went on. For several weekends now, they had come home with all their friends and a large keg of beer. The drinking and singing had gone on right through the night and into Sunday. She and Heta her husband had not wanted to say anything, hoping that the boys would come to their senses sooner or later and would straighten themselves out.

Perhaps Miha was ready to do something about it? He was awaiting her opinion now, so without stopping her work she said, ‘You’re not a waster, Miha. You were doing very well until your cousins arrived. It was only then that you went to the pack a bit. But it's up to you, you know.

‘What do you really want to do? What will going back home do? There are good well paid jobs here. The rest is up to you.’

Miha had taken up the tea towel and was drying the dishes. No more was said, and when the dishes were done Hinerau went off to wash the clothes, leaving Miha to himself.

He sat and pondered again for a while, then went about cleaning and tidying the house. He even fetched a bucket of water and the scrubbing brush and scrubbed the kitchen.

By the time that Hinerau had hung the washing out, he had finished everything and had made a cup of tea.

‘Come and have a cup of tea,’ he called to Hinerau.

Hinerau was more than surprised, for it was the first time that Miha had done anything like this. She was very pleased and said, ‘Gee Miha, you’re a champion. The place has never looked like this before, and it's the first time anyone has made me a cup of tea in my own house.'

Miha seemed a little embarrassed, but he was pleased too.

‘You should have been really mad with us,’ he said. ‘All we’ve ever done here is eat. sleep, and act the goat. Why haven't you growled at us? As for those wasters who've just gone, I'll kick their pants for them.'

Hinerau just smiled and said nothing.

That afternoon Miha found Whai and Peta where he knew they would be—the billiard room. On seeing him Peta called out, ‘Hey Miha, come and play. This bloke is thrasbing me.’

– 11 –

‘Haere mai, kia karia ano ko koe.’

Ka rere atu a Miha ki te tiki kiu mana. Ka timata ratau ki te purei ‘snooker’. Nawai ra, kua ki atu ia, ‘Pohehe au e haere ana korua ki te rapu mahi i te “wharf”.'

‘Mo apopo ka haere maua.’

‘Kati hei aha. He mahi tonu ta korua.’

‘Na wai i ki.’

‘I haere au ki te korero ki to tatau pahi. He tangata pai tera. Kahore tatau i panaia.’

‘Nel Nahau pea i rupahu atu i te mate pea tatau, he aha ranei?’

‘Naku i korero atu to tatau raruraru, te mea e kaha rawa te haurangi.’

‘E hoa, kare te Pakeha e pirangi ki te haurangi.’

‘Pena ano taku whakaaro. Engari he rereke tenei tangata. I kata ke a ia, kua ki mai, katahi ano tetahi o ana kaimahi ka korero tika ki a ia. Na reira pea, na te mea ranei he hunga kaha tatau ki te mahi.’

Ka kata ratau, no te mea he pai tonu ki a ratau ta ratau mahi, e kore e tino pirangi ki te haere ano ki tetahi atu. Kua mama nga whakaaro inaianei, ka hoki ano ratau ki ta ratau ‘snooker’. Kare he painga o Miha raua ko Peta. Tangetange ana i a Whai.

Ka ki a Peta, ‘Kei te mate kai au. E Miha mahau tatau e haute, me haere tatau ki te kai, ki te papara-kauta ranei.’

Kua whakahoki atu a Miha, ‘Kare au mo te hoko kai ma korua, e hoko kai ana au mo te kainga. Na tatau hoki me o tatau hoa haurangi i kai nga kai. Na reira e tika ana ma tatau e whakaki nga kapata.’

‘Kua pau ke ra a maua moni!’

‘Hei aha. Maku e hoko inaianei, ma korua e whakahoki mai ta korua taha moni ki a au. Haere mai, kai kati nga toa.’

Kua pouri haere inaianei. Katahi ano te hunga nei ka makere atu i te pahi e haere atu ana ki te kainga. Kiki tonu o ratau ringa i te taonga.

‘E Whai, kia pai to haere, kia makere i a koe nga heki na.’

‘Turituri e ta. Pehea koe. Kei te tautau haere ke o totiti, Akuni ka riro i te kuri na.’

Kei te kata ano ratau. Ka whakahua a Peta, ‘Mohio korua, he hunga tino koretake tatau. Katahi ano tatau ka whakaaro mo Hinerau raua ko Heta. Te pai o nga tokorua nei ki a tatau. Kaua koe e wareware, e Whai, ki te hoatu he moni mo to noho.’

‘Me koe hoki e ta.’

‘Ae.’

‘Me mutu hoki te tango kaho pia.’

‘I’m making mincemeat of him,' grinned Whai. ‘Come on, let me thrash you too.’

Miha reached for a cue and they lined up the balls for a game of snooker. They concentrated on the game for a while, then Miha said casually, ‘I though you blokes were going to get a job at the wharf.’

‘Tomorrow will do,’ said Peta.

‘Well forget about it,’ said Miha, ‘you’ve still got your old jobs.'

‘Who said?’ Peta and Whai were surprised.

‘I went to see the boss. He's a pretty good bloke. Anyway he didn't sack us.'

‘You don’t say. Did you lie that we were sick or something?'

‘No,’ laughed Miha, ‘I told him we had been on a binge.’

‘Gwan, but the Pakeha doesn’t put up with a pack of drunks.'

‘That's what I thought. But this bloke is different. He laughed when I told him why we didn't turn up, and said it was the first time one of his employees had told him the truth. Maybe that's why, or maybe it's because we're all such hard workers.'

They laughed and felt pleased, for each one of them enjoyed their work and did not really want to change. Feeling very relieved, they returned to their game. Miha and Peta had no hope against Whai's skill. He thrashed them both thoroughly.

‘Gee I’m hungry,' said Peta as they walked out on to the street. ‘You shout, Miha. What about a feed or a few beers?’

‘I’m not buying you wasters anything. I'm going to buy some food for the house. We and our mates ate everything in the house, so it's only right that we should fill the cupboards again.'

‘But we’ve got no money,' complained Whai.

‘So what,’ exclaimed Miha, ‘I’ll buy the stuff. You can pay me your share of the expenses later. Let's hurry before the shops close.'

It was almost dark when the three climbed off the bus and walked on home. They walked awkwardly, loaded down with all the parcels they were carrying.

‘Hey Whai, take it easy,’ said Peta. ‘You might drop those eggs and break them.’

‘Shut up man. What about yourself. Your sausages are hanging out. That dog might have a go at them.’

They laughed and felt the closeness of easy companionship.

– 12 –

‘Ae. Engari pea he “flagon” mo etahi po.'

‘Ka pai tena ki a Heta.’

‘Ka pai ano hoki ki a tatau. Hei whakamaku i nga korokoro.’

E kata tonu ana ratau kua tae atu ki te kainga.

Puare mai ana te tatau, puta mai ana te katakata o nga tamariki, me te kakara puha, titi, me te paraoa rewena.

Ka mohio ano ratau ki te painga o te kainga Maori.

A Christchurch hotel has been fined £5 for refusing to supply liquor to a Maori woman because of her race. This is the first such conviction under legislation passed two years ago.

The Arnett family of the Bluff have three sons pursuing successful careers as overseas journalists, John, the oldest, works for the Vancouver Sun, Peter is a foreign correspondent in Saigon for American Associated Press, and David is with Reuter in Fleet Street. One issue of the Vancouver Sun recently had frontpage stories by both John and Peter Arnett.

‘You know what?’ said Peta. ‘We’re a pack of real no-hopers. It's the first time that we have given Hinerau and Heta a thought, and they've been pretty good to us. Don't you forget to give them something for your board, Whai!'

‘That goes for you too.’

‘Sure.’

‘And I reckon we should cut out those kegs.’

‘Yeah, but a flagon will go well some nights.’

‘Heta will like that.’

‘So will we. Something to wet the whistle.’

They were still laughing when they reached home.

And when the door opened they were met with the sound of children laughing, and the tickling mouth-watering smell of mutton-birds, puha, and freshly baked bread.

They felt again the warmth of the Maori home.

Wanted to buy: nos. 2 and 8 of ‘Te Ao Hou’ at £1 each, Write to J.W.P. c/o the Editor, ‘Te Ao Hou’, Box 2390, Wellington.

– 13 –

What Can be Done About Prejudice?

Are you prejudiced? Or rather, to catch you out, are you not prejudiced? I don't like admitting it, but I am. If you can say that you are not, you must be practically unique. But if for example you dislike Roman Catholics, or think that all Maoris are generous, then I'm afraid that you must join the countless ranks of offenders. No-one escapes the tentacles of prejudice. It may be towards race, colour, nationality, religion, class, beliefs, or even towards other tribes within our own race. Whatever is involved, whether it be trivial and harmless or serious and pernicious, it is prejudice.

When someone's ideas and beliefs are prejudiced, he is incapable of forming impartial opinions on the subject concerned. When he acts on these distorted judgments, he is showing unfair discrimination. Thus, when A says he doesn't like Maoris because they are dirty he is prejudiced, but when A refuses to rent his house to a Maori because of his opinion of Maoris, he is discriminating.

Race and Colour

Racial and colour prejudices are probably the most prevalent ones in New Zealand, and are those with which we as Maoris are most concerned.

Racial prejudice is the result of a gradual accumulation of biassed generalisations culminating in the development of a ‘stereotype’ of a particular race. We hear therefore of Italians who are all bad-tempered, of Australians who always swear and gamble, of spendthrift and lazy Maoris, of Jews who have crooked noses and hoard their money. Nor is such prejudice one-sided. Many whites are prejudiced towards coloured people, but at the same time they may be prejudiced towards people of their own colour, for instance European immigrants; many Maoris are prejudiced towards their coloured neighbours the Islanders, and vice-versa.

Colour prejudice is not always as clear-cut as racial prejudice; often it is more refined and subtle. For instance, a ‘fair’ half-caste Maori may manage much more easily in European company than a darker half-caste. The latter would be more conspicuous than the former, and Europeans may be more tempted to avoid him, especially if other Europeans are around. At socials and gatherings many Europeans feel too self-conscious and scared to associate with a person of coloured skin; they feel themselves being singled out, and wonder what their European friends may be saying about them. European parents whom I once knew found it impossible to accept the idea of their daughter marrying me and bearing ‘throw-back’ children. Not that they had anything against me personally—in fact, they thought I was a ‘very nice chap’—it was just that, well, they had to protect their daughter (and themselves too, I suspected) from the gossip of neighbours, if we had dark children. This is colour prejudice.

Economic Factors

There are many reasons for prejudice, but some seem to be more universal and significant.

One of these is to be found in the economic gains which often follow prejudice. In the nineteenth century Maoris were generally regarded as inferior to the white settlers, and this was felt to be an excuse for depriving him of the asset reserved only for more civilized and worthy people—land. In South Africa the Africans are kept in virtual slavery, partly to provide essential cheap labour and services for that country's (or more accurately, the Africaans') economy. And in the United States discrimination is also an economic necessity; if it were not for this, Negroes would be competing directly for white men's jobs, causing hardship to the white man and a lowering of his living standards.

Political Reasons

Political stability and ambition may also be a cause of prejudice; the success of some political parties has depended largely on their ability to carry out programmes of domination and repression of a minority race. Hitler's

– 14 –

success in Germany rested largely on his ability to indoctrinate Germany with racial pride. In Africa Dr. Verwoerd further cements his political grip by guaranteeing more stringent repression of the black majority.

Fear Often a Cause

Animal fear may compel one race to discriminate against another one, especially if the former is the minority; they are afraid of being overwhelmed, and therefore all possible access to power is denied the subjected race. South Africa is of course the classic example.

Prejudice may stem from fear of pressure from a social or economic group. Until the last few years, it was virtually impossible for a Maori to acquire a position in a banking firm. Banks distrusted his integrity and efficiency, and it was felt that by his very presence, a coloured person may have lowered the bank's all-important prestige with its customers. Many Europeans refuse to let their dwellings to coloured people, especially in high-class residential areas, through fear of a drop in the value of the property.

Subconscious Feelings

A people may be prejudiced towards another in order to disguise a sub-conscious feeling of jealousy and envy; they see the other race being maybe too happy, care-free, spontaneous, uninhibited, or even as a group superior in such activities as music or athletics. So they prefer to ignore these strengths which they themselves lack, and to emphasize the weaknesses which the other groups may possess.

Another factor is that most people seem to need to feel superior to someone else. This seems to be human nature; and unfortunately this urge is often magnifiesd to a racial level, so that some races are generally believed to be superior, and others inferior. Some interracial attitudes have been moulded in very recent times, but many are of ancient origin.

Ignorance a Formidable Obstacle

Insofar as human nature is responsible for this mental distortion, we cannot cure it. We can take certain steps to prevent it, we can guide, and teach a rational approach; but we cannot suppress or stamp out a person's way of thinking. The ultimate decision lies within each person.

Probably the greatest contributing factor in the nurturing of prejudice is ignorance, which grows fundamentally from lack of personal contact between the prejudiced and the prejudged. People who cannot be bothered going out of their way to find out more about other races tend to arrive at set conclusions from the largely inaccurate opinions of others. These opinions are applied to the pre-judged race as a whole, and they may become exaggerated as they pass from one person to another. Members of that race who have proved themselves contrary to the stereotype are either irrationally ignored, or are regarded as very rare exceptions who can be divorced from the inflexible general impressions gained of that race. Ignorance is one of the most formidable obstacles to closer human understanding.

Our immediate problem concerns the need for improving the theoretically harmonious, but in fact indifferent relations between our country's two main races, Maori and Pakeha.

Teachers Could Do More

This problem can best be tackled in childhood, and I cannot stress enough the vital role of the teacher who, from my experience as one, can play a very large part in promoting better relations. Next to parents, teachers can wield the greatest influence over a child. In six hours a day children can soon come to reflect something of the way of thinking of the teacher.

Many teachers conscientiously strive to teach their children to regard others as equals. But it seems to me that the majority of teachers either do nothing in this direction, or else not as much as they could. Why is this? Firstly, many teachers themselves are prejudiced, and are not going to teach something which they do not believe in; secondly, some teachers still entertain the romantic notion that ‘there is no colour bar in New Zealand’; thirdly, many teachers remain unaware of the potential dangers of bad race relationships. They think that all this does not affect them, or else they just couldn't care a damn if the problem existed or not—and thus the teaching of racial tolerance tends either to be ignored, or to receive only very isolated attention.

Compulsory Study Needed

If the seeds of racial harmony are to be sown in the school, it is obvious that first we must have wise nursery-men, for teachers cannot teach racial harmony if they do not understand and practise it themselves.

This brings us to the education of the teachers. In my opinion the study of race relations should be one of the compulsory and essential subjects to be taught in the Teachers'

– 15 –

Training Colleges. It should entail a closer and fuller study of other races, discussions on race relations, where they fail and how to improve them, discussions on the problems of different peoples and informal lectures by people of different races, all aimed at fostering a deeper and healthier understanding between races. I have seen this carried out to some extent very admirably at Wellington Teachers' College, but not all European students were involved; it affected only those who had Maori students in their groups or who chose to specialise in Maori studies. At Training College I knew many European students who had never even conversed with a Maori before they attended the College (and not solely because no Maoris lived in their district). After mixing freely with us for two years they knew much more about us, and were not so quick to condemn. If all teachers were thus educated, they would pass on their knowledge and understanding to children who in their turn, would transmit their wisdom to another generation.

Should Try More Systematically

Of course this is an impossible ideal; it would naturally be impossible to mass-produce an entire generation of enlightened teachers. But it would help if we were to try more consciously and systematically to achieve this end.

Children learn their early prejudices mainly from parents, but also from other adults and from their own peers. They may observe these people's expressions of distaste for someone or something, or they may be subject to constant warnings—don't associate or play with those Maoris—don't mix with those Maoris or they'll eat you—or keep away from them or you'll catch sores or nits. Subject to such influences, the child's vulnerable and impressionable mind is likely to develop permanent prejudices.

Social Contact is Important

Teachers should consciously watch for such attitudes and should do what they can to eradicate them. It is especially important to encourage as much social contact as possible between the different races, both in the classroom and in the playground. They should be intermingled during school projects, sports etc., and so far as possible, they should not sit in separate groups in the classroom.

The teacher should ensure that all children are treated equally; when some do need more attention than others, this should be done as smoothly and naturally as possible. This is necessary in order to prevent a connection being made—as can frequently happen—between a particular child's weaknesses and his race or colour. Teachers should also impress upon children that basically and collectively all are equal, although individually some may not be up to the standard of the ideal citizen.

Teaching and Discussion

Children should be taught as much Maori culture as possible. By this I don't mean just how they lived in the stone-age or last century but how they live today, and what problems they still have as a group.

Quite important in any democratic classroom, children should be given the chance to discuss what they believe or have been led to believe about other races. This will give them the chance to analyze their beliefs, and through more sober observations and objective reasoning and discussion with other children, they should be able to arrive at more truthful (not necessarily glowing) conclusions about other races.

Help Him to Understand

A middle-aged couple were inspecting a a house for sale next to ours a couple of weeks ago. The woman talked quite cheerfully and politely for a while about the house they were looking at, and ended her conversation by saying, ‘Oh well, at least it's nice to know we'll be living next to white people.' (Needless to add, I appear more European than Maori.)

A child once wrote in an essay: ‘Maoris are dirty. They never wash and they have sores on their legs. They are always in the pub and they come out drunk. They always eat fish and chips, they eat like pigs, and their houses are like pig-sties. I hate Maoris…’

Well, I don't see that lady or many thousands like her contributing anything worthwhile to a bi-racial society. They live with their prejudices and they will die with them.

But what of the child? For his own good, and our country's good, is it wise that he should grow up with these ill-informed and semi-true opinions of the Maori race, because of a few Maoris he has seen or been told about? And what of those Maoris who are increasingly lifting themselves above the boy's criticism, or those equally culpable Pakehas whom he has forgotten about? I say, help him now, to understand and see the truth, before his numbers increase, before it is too late.

– 16 –

The Gods of the Ancient Maori World

The Maori gods of pre-European times, and the stories of their deeds, are rather remote from us now. Yet much of the riches of our Maori literature can be appreciated only by studying the ancient Maori beliefs as to the nature and meaning of things.

Their view of the world was essentially a religious one. According to their beliefs the nature of the world and its inhabitants was primarily determined by the events that took place during its creation. These events were the work of the gods, each of whom was responsible for certain aspects of existence.

Accounts of the nature and activities of the gods are therefore a key to an understanding of the complexity and underlying unity of the ancient Maori vision of the world.

The account published here was written by a member of Ngati Hau tribe of Wanganui, and is among the manuscripts collected by John White which are in the Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington. The manuscript reference is MS Papers 75, ‘Ancient History of the Maori’ vol. VIII (Maori) pp. 87–92. The translation is based upon White's one.

The writer refers to the separation of Rangi the Sky and Papa the Earth at the beginning of the world, but does not actually tell the story. The best-known and most vivid account of the separation of Rangi and Papa is in George Grey's classic collection, ‘Polynesian Mythology’.

Both the incantations given here are similar to others which have been recorded. The one for the separation of husbands and wives was recited when one of the partners wished the tohunga to take away his or her feelings of love and grief. In the incantation the husband and wife are identified with Rangi and Papa.

Nga Atua me Rangi

Ko ngā atua ngā mea kua noho ake i mua atu i te putanga mai o Rangi, ā, ko ngā atua ngā mea tautōhito mai o ngā mea katoa. Nō te Pō ngā atua, ā, ko ērā kua noho noa mai i te pōuri.

Nō muri mai ko ngā atua o te ao, ko Whatitiri mā, ko Maru mā, ko Tangaroa mā, ko ngā atua kikokiko hoki, ko ēnei e ngau kino nei i te tangata, ā, e kōngenge nei te tangata, ā, ka mate, ā, ko ngā atua pōtiki. Nō muri iho ēnei i te hanganga i te tangata, i a Rumoko mā, i a Uruta mā.

Kei ngā rangi i runga nei aua atua nei e noho ana, arā, ko ō rātou wāhi e noho ai i mua i te wā o te oroko hanganga o rātou i runga i ngā rangi ngahuru, arā i ngā rangi tuarea, i ngā rangi maha noa atu, ko ngā rangi e kīia nei he tuarea.

Ko te rangi tuatahi i runga ake i a tātou nei he rangi pīwata noa iho, kāore e pōuri; e mārama ana ki te titiro atu i raro nei, ā, kei raro mai o taua rangi tuatabi nei te ara o te rā me te marama e rere haere ai. A, te rangi i runga atu o taua rangi nei, ko te rangi

 

The Gods and Rangi

The gods were in existence before Rangi came forth; the gods were of old, before all things. Their origin was in the primal darkness; for a long time they existed in darkness.

After this there appeared the gods of light, the gods of this world: Whatiri, Maru, Tangaroa and their companions, and the gods who rule the flesh, those who attack and devour men so that they die of disease, also the gods which are the spirits of dead infants; these came into existence after man was created, and after Rumoko, Uruta and the other gods.

These gods dwell in the heavens above us, in the place where they were living before the time of the first creation, that is in the ten heavens, the many heavens, the multitude of heavens—those heavens above us which are spoken of as being a multitude.

The first of the heavens above us has many chinks and cracks and is not dark; when we look up from below here, we can see the light shining through the open spaces. Below this

 
– 17 –
 

tuarua, he rangi nō te ua, nō te kohu, nō te wai; ā, te rangi i runga atu, te rangi tuatoru, ko te rangi o te hau; ā, te rangi tuawhā, ko te rangi o ngā wairua, te rangi tuarima, ko te rangi o te ao mārama. A, ko ngā rangi i runga atu, ko ngā rangi o ngā atua nui o te rā, ā, ko te rangi tuangahuru ko te rangi o Rehua, ko te tino rangi pai taua rangi o ngā rangi katoa.

E kī ana anō ia ētahi o ō mātou tohunga anō o tēnei iwi, o Ngāti Hau, ko te rangi tuatahi he rangi nō te hau, te rangi tuarua nō te ao kapua, ā, te tuatoru o ngā rangi ko tērā i Te Kikorangi, arā, i te takiwā o te ao nei. Te tuawhā o ngā rangi ko Papa, ko te take mai ia o te ao nei; ā, te rangi tuarima ko Te Roto, arā, ko te take mai ia o te ua, o te kohu, o ngā wai katoa i te ao nei. Te rangi tuaono, ko te rangi ia o ngā atua, ā, he pēnā katoa ngā rangi atu anō i reira. A, tae noa ki te tuarea, ki tō Rehua, ko te rangi pai atu ia o ngā rangi katoa nei.

A, ko Rangi i takoto hū i runga i a Papa, ā kāhore kau he pumahu o rāua e tupu ai te taru me te otaota, he taru anō ia i reira, he taru papa nei, he taru toro i roto i te wāhi mākū o rāua; koia te karakia e karakiatia nei mō te wahine me te tāne anō wehea rāua i a rāua:

Tutū te kiri, wewehe te kiri
Tātarāmoa te kiri, ongaonga te kiri,
Kei mihi ki te ipo, kei tangi ki te tau,
Tangaroa whatia, Tangaroa tarā,
Anga tonu koe ki tai e, ki tai e
Whati, ko koe kei mihi, ko koe kei aroha,
Kei mihi ki te ipo, kei tangi ki te tau.

A, me te karakia anō hoki i karakia ai a Tāwhaki i a ia i piki ki te rangi kia kite i tana kōtiro; ā, e karakiatia ana taua karakia hei mauri mō te tūroro, kia ora ake ai i tana mate tūroro, ā, nō aua rangi tuarea nei anō ngā kupu. Koia nei taua karakia:

Piki ake Tāwhaki i te rangi tuatahi
E rongo, te mahaki!
Piki ake Tāwhaki i te rangi tuarua
E rongo, te mahaki!
Piki ake Tāwhaki i te rangi tuawhā
E rongo, te mahaki!
Piki ake Tāwhaki i te rangi tuarima
E rongo, te mahaki!
Piki ake Tāwhaki i te rangi tuaono
E rongo, te mahaki!
Piki ake Tāwhaki i te rangi tuawhitu
E rongo, te mahaki!
Piki ake Tāwhaki i te rangi tuawaru
E rongo, te mahaki!

 
 

first heaven is the path along which travel the sun and the moon. The heaven above this first one, that is the second heaven, is the home of the rain, fog and water. Above this is the third heaven, where the winds live; the fourth heaven has the spirits of men (wairua), and the fifth heaven is that of the world of daylight. The heavens above these ones are those of the great gods of the sun. The tenth heaven is the heaven of Rehua, and is the most glorious of them all.

But some of our own priests of this tribe, Ngati Hau, say that the first heaven has the wind, the second heaven has the clouds, and the third heaven is the place where the blue sky is seen—that is, the region close to this world of ours. The fourth of the heavens is Papa, the origin of this world. The fifth heaven is known as ‘the lake’, for from it come the rain, the mist, and all of the waters of this world. The sixth heaven is the home of the gods, as are all those beyond it, even to that of Rehua, the most splendid of the heavens.

Now when Rangi rested upon Papa, there was no warmth to make the plants and bushes grow, yet there were some plants there; they were creeping plants which stretched out their tendrils into the damp places between them. Hence this spell which is chanted when wives and husbands are to be separated:

Let the skin arise, let the skin be divided.
Let the skin be like the brambles, like the
nettles.
Do not grieve for your beloved, do not
weep for your dear one.
Tangaroa is put to flight, Tangaroa is
separated.
Turn steadfastly to the sea, the sea;
Take flight, do not grieve, do not yearn,
Do not grieve for your beloved, do not weep
for your dear one.

Here is another spell, which was chanted by Tawhaki as he ascended up to heaven in search of his daughter; this spell is also chanted to give life to an invalid, so that he may recover from the disease which is afflicting him. The words of the spell refer to this multitude of heavens. Here is that spell:

Climb up, Tawhaki, to the first heaven
Disease, obey!
Climb up, Tawhaki, to the second heaven
Disease, obey!
Climb up, Tawhaki, to the third heaven
Disease, obey!

 
– 18 –
 

Piki ake Tāwhaki i te rangi tuaiwa
E rongo, te mahaki!
Piki ake Tāwhaki i te rangi tuarea
E rongo, te mahaki!
Pipiri moko, pipiri moko,
Rarau moko, rarau moko,
Rarau ki tahatū o te rangi!

Ngā uri tuatahi o Rangi rāua ko Papa, ko Rongo-mā-tāne, ā, ko te kūmara, i puta tēnei i te mata o Rangi i te mea hoki he wāhi pumahu mahana, arā pumahu tērā, ā, he taru hoki te kūmara e kore e tupu i te wāhi kōpeke; mā te āhuru tonu e tupu ai tērā kai.

Muri iho i te kūmara ko Haumia, arā, ko te roi, arā, ko te aruhe; i tupu tēnei i te tua, arā i te tuarā o Rangi. He taru tupu kaha te taru nei, te rarauhe, ā, e tupu noa ana i ngā wāhi e wekua ana e te rangi paroro, ā, e kore e kūī noa te tupu i te rā kore e whiti ki a ia.

Muri iho ko Tāne-mahuta, ko te atua, arā, ko te take mai me te matua o te rākau, me ngā manu, me ngā pepe o te ao nei. Muri mai ko Tangaroa, ko te pūtake mai o ngā ika katoa, me ngā tuatara me te kaweau, me ngā mokomoko, ā, ko te mutunga ko Tūmata-uenga, ko te take mai ia o te tangata.

Tētahi kōrero anō a ngā tohunga o mua e kī ana ko Tiki tētahi o ngā atua o te oroko hanganga o aua atua, ā, i puta mai te tangata i a Tiki, iNā hoki ko te wahine a Tiki ko Marikoriko, kīhai a ia i puta mai i te whaea, otirā i puta i a Arohirohi i te pumahu o te ao nei; ā, kia puta i a Tiki rāua ko Marikoriko ko tā rāua tamāhine ko Kauataata.

A, ko Tū-te-nganahau tētahi o ngā atua o mua o te tīmatanga, ko te take hoki a ia o te kino, o te hē, o te aituā, o te mate ki te ao nei, ko rāua ko Tū-mata-uenga he kino anake ā rāua mahi; ko tēnei, he atua a ia Nō te riri pakanga, ā, ko ia hoki te take o ngā parekura o te ao nei.

Ko Tahu tētahi o ngā atua o mua o te

 
 

Climb up, Tawhaki, to the fourth heaven
Disease, obey!
Climb up, Tawhaki, to the fifth heaven
Disease, obey!
Climb up, Tawhaki, to the sixth heaven
Disease, obey!
Climb up, Tawhaki, to the seventh heaven
Disease, obey!
Climb up, Tawhaki, to the eighth heaven
Disease, obey!
Climb up, Tawhaki, to the ninth heaven
Disease, obey!
Climb up, Tawhaki, to the multitude of
heavens
Disease, obey!
Keep close, keep close like the lizard,
Cling, cling like the lizard,
Cling to the edge of the sky!

The first-born of Rangi and Papa was Rongo-ma-tane, that is the kumara, which originated from the face of Rangi, for that part was warm and damp, and the kumara is a plant which will not grow in cold places; it grows in warm, sheltered spots.

After the kumara there appeared Haumia. the fern root; this grew on the other side, on the back of Rangi. The fern is a plant that grows abundantly, and flourishes on places which are swept by storms; it does not become stunted through lack of sunshine.

After this came Tane-mahuta, the god who is the origin and parent of the trees, birds, moths and butterflies in this world of ours. Then came Tangaroa, the ancestor of all the fish, and of the tuatara and other kinds of lizards. The last to appear was Tu-matauenga, the origin of mankind.

Another thing the experts of the former times say is that Tiki was one of the gods of the first creation, and man came from Tiki; for Tiki's wife Marikoriko was not born of a mother in the usual way, but was formed by Arohirohi from the warmth and dampness of this world. The daughter of Tiki and Marikoriko was Kauataata.

Tu-te-nganahau was one of the gods of the first creation. It is he who is the source of the evil, wrongdoing, misfortune and death in the world; he and Tu-mata-uenga both perform only evil acts. As for Tu-mata-uenga, he is the god of quarrelling and fighting, and is the origin of all the battles in this world.

Tahu is another of the gods of the first creation; he is the god of good things, of life and well-being, of joyful hearts. It is because

 
– 19 –
 

tīmatanga, he atua a ia nō te pai, nō te ora, nō te ngākau koa, ko ia hoki te take o te pai o te tāne ki tana hoa me ana whānau, ā, ko ia hoki te take o te pai e ātawhai nei te whaea ki tana whānau, me tana tāne.

A, ko Tāne hoki tētahi atua o te tīmatanga. Ko taua atua nei te take o te tāne tangata, me te toa kurī, me te toa manu; Nō Tāne anake ō rātou ingoa, me te take mai o taua ingoa, nō te mea hoki ko Tāne te mana me te kaha e puta ai he uri ki te ao nei.

A, nō Tāne i mahi he pai ki a Rangi, nāna ngā whetū me ngā kapua i whakanoho ki te rangi; i pai atu ai te titiro o Papa ki a Rangi, koia hoki te take mai o te pai o te wahine ki te tāne; nō Tāne i pūtake mai, a, koia hoki te Rangi i kīia ai, ‘Ko te whare o Tāne’.

A, nā Tāne i pūtakea ai te ‘wai ora a Tāne’, arā te roto e kau ai anō te marama, e ora mai ai anō te marama i te mate, e hou tonu nei a ia i ia marama, i ia marama. Koia taua roto me tōna wai i kīia ai, ‘Ko te wai ora a Tāne’.

Ko Tane hoki te matua o ngā manu, ā, nāna anō hoki ngā rākau i tupu ai. He mea hua āna ingoa ki āna tini mahi, koia i kīia ai ko Tāne-tūturi, mōna i tūturi nei ana waewae i te wā ōna i hūpeke nei kia mawhera a Rangi i a Papa.

Ko Tāne-pēpeke, mōna i pēpeke nei ana waewae i a ia e whārōrō rā ana waewae kia peia te rangi ki runga, kia peia kētia atu te rangi i a Papa.

Ko Tāne-ua-tika, he haere mārōrō nō tāna tū, arā, he tika nō tana ua, ā, koia hoki e tū tika nei te rākau e tupu nei.

Ko Tāne-te-wai-ora, nōna e ora nei te marama i te kaunga i te roto i mahia nei e Tāne; ā, no te rākau, me te taru, me ngā manu, me ngā kurī, me te ngārara o te ao e ora nei i te mea e inu nei i te wai māori.

Ko Tāne-mahuta te take o te waka e hoea nei, ā, e eke nei te tangata, arā, rere i te moana, he mahuta mō te tangata ki te waka, ā, mahuta ai anō ki uta, tae pai noa atu ki tērā wāhi, ki tērā wāhi, kāore e mākū i te wai, me te mea nei e mahuta noa atu ana te ara whāriki, ā, whiti mākū-kore i te moana. A, he mea hoki nō Tāne, nō te rākau o te ngahere te waka, koia te waka i kīia ai ko te ‘Riu o Tāne’.

Nā Tū-wai-rora ngā rākau pai hei waka, arā te tōtara me te kauri. Koia te waka i kīia ai anō e te whakataukī, ‘Ko te ara tau whāiti a Tāne’, ‘Ko te tamatama a Tāne’; ā, te wha-

 
 

of him that husbands love and care for their wives and children, and wives love and care for their children and husbands.

Another of the gods of the first creation is Tane. This god is the origin of the male principle, and from him come all males—men, animals and birds. It is for this reason that the word ‘tane’ means ‘male’; Tane alone is the source of the mana and strength which causes offspring to be born into the world. It was Tane who did Rangi the service of placing the stars and clouds in the heavens, thus pleasing Papa, who looked with kindness at Rangi. This is why women like men, and treat them well; it is Tane who is the cause. It is for this reason also that the heavens are known as ‘the house of Tane’.

Tane also brought into existence ‘the living waters of Tane’, the lake in which the moon bathes and is given new life after it has died; in this way it is each month restored to life. Hence that lake and its waters are known as ‘the living water of Tane’.

Tane is also the ancestor of the birds, and it is he who caused the trees to grow. He has many names, which refer to his various tasks; thus he is known as Tane-tuturi (Tane with the bent knees) after the time when he lay with bent knees, in order to thrust apart Rangi and Papa.

He is known as Tane-pepeke (Tane with his limbs drawn up), for he lay with his limbs drawn up as he made ready to stretch his legs to their full length, thereby thrusting Rangi up above, and forcing him to live apart from Papa.

He is also called Tane-ua-tika (Tane with the straight backbone), because he is so erect, standing upright and strong. It is because his backbone is straight that trees grow straight upwards.

His name Tane-te-wai-ora refers to the moon's gaining new life by bathing in the lake created by Tane; trees, plants, birds, animals, lizards and insects also gain life by drinking fresh water.

The name Tane-mahuta refers to the canoes in which men paddle; they go on board, then speed across the ocean. Then they land (‘mahuta’) from their canoe; they go ashore, joyfully arriving at whatsoever place they wish, and are not wet from the water. As though they were merely crossing a wide path, they travel dry-shod across the ocean. Now this is due to Tane, for canoes are made from the trees of the forest; it is for this reason

 
– 20 –
 

kataukī anō hoki mō te peha rākau e mahia nei hei papaki whare, ‘Ko Tū-te-nganahau, ko te kiri o te kahikātoa, hei whare e noho maru a Kahukura’. A, tētahi hoki, ‘Ko te ake ko te kahikātea, ngā uaua o Tū-mata-uenga,’ mō ngā patu nei, mō te tao, me te hani, me te wahaika.

A, tētahi, ko Tāne te matua o ngā manu, a nāna te koukou, koia te koukou i kīia ai, ‘Ko te manu huna a Tāne,’ ā, e pērātia ana anō hoki te kī mō te kiwi, ā, e kīia ana anō te kiwi ko te ‘manu huna a Tāne’.

A, ko ia hoki te matua o ngā rākau o te ngahere, i te mea hoki ka noho a Tāne i a Mumuwhango kia puta ko te tōtara, ka noho a Tāne i a Pūwhakahara ka puta ko te kāhikātoa me te akerautangi. Ka noho a ia i a Tūwairore, ka puta ko te kahikātea me te rimu. Ka noho a Tāne i a Atatangirea, ka puta ko te maireraunui.

Ka noho a Tāne i āna wāhine kē, e puta ai he uri kapekapetau i te ao nei, arā ka puta ana uri manu; ka noho a ia i a Parauri kia puta ko te tui, ā ka noho a Tāne i a Papa, kia puta ko te kiwi, ā, ka noho a ia i a Haereawaawa, kia puta ko te weka.

 

that canoes are known as ‘the trunk of Tane’.

Tu-wai-rora is the origin of the straight, tall trees from which canoes are made, that is the totara and the kauri trees. Here are more sayings about canoes: ‘the narrow path of Tane’, and ‘the daring of Tane’. This is a proverb used of the bark of trees which is used to thatch houses: ‘Tu-te-nganahau, the bark of the kahikatoa, makes a house fit to shelter Kahukura (god of the rainbow)’. Another proverb is this: ‘the ake and the kahikatea are the sinews of Tu-mata-uenga’. This refers to the spear, the taiaha and the wahaika.

Also, Tane is the ancestor of birds, and the owl is his bird; this is why the owl is known as ‘the hidden bird of Tane’. The same expression is used of the kiwi; it is also called ‘the hidden bird of Tane’.

Tane is also the ancestor of the trees of the forest, for he took Mumuwhango, and by her he had the totara tree; he took Puwhakahara, and by her he had the kahikatoa tree and the akerautangi tree; he took Tuwairore, and by her he had the kahikatea and the rimu; and he took Atatangirea, and by her he had the maire tree.

Tane had other wives also, whose descendants were the quick, fluttering creatures of this world, the birds. With Parauri he had the tui, with Papa he had the kiwi, and with Haereawaawa he had the weka.

Poem

written after reading
‘He Aroha Ranei to taku Iwi’
in the March issue of Te Ao Hou
Authority
no longer
is fed upon a stick
nor carried in chanting centipede canoes
slides shorewards on the seas' crescents.
Sits
in faceless silence
in an office unknown
down endless corridors
proliferates his being to where pen-poised
the little men consult the kingdom
catalogue
while my impatient blood denies this progress.

We apologise for two translation errors in the article ‘The First Pakehas to Visit the Bay of Islands’ in the last issue. The passages concerned should have been as follows:

(Page 14) Te Kuta married Ngawa and had Patu…

(Page 17) the clothes which were stolen by Ngati Pou to give to Te Hikutu. to Te Kauri's people…

The women at isolated Te Tii, in the Bay of Islands, in three months raised £75 in funds for their new play centre. They did this by working together to make over 200 kits, which the district health nurse sold for them all over Northland.

Larry parr of raetihi is this year's holder of the £100 Apirana Ngata Memorial Scholarship awarded annually by the Maori Education Foundation. Larry, who is attending St. Stephen's College, hopes to become a chemist.

– 21 –

Helping Our Own

Recently in ‘Te Ao Hou’ there has been some discussion about the problems faced by prisoners, in particular Maori prisoners. As a member of the Prisoners' Aid and Rehabilitation Society in Wellington, I have had the privilege of sharing in the efforts of many exprisoners, Maori and Pakeha, to cope with the problems that they face upon their release. The Prisoners' Aid and Rehabilitation Society is a voluntary organisation, with branches all over the country, whose members regularly visit people during their imprisonment and do everything they can to assist them upon their release.

Maori Help Badly Needed

Believe me, ex-prisoners attempting to rehabilitate themselves have real problems, and sometimes the right kind of understanding and assistance can make all the difference to the success of their efforts. Maori prisoners badly need the support of their own people, and the Prisoners' Aid and Rehabilitation Society would welcome more voluntary, part-time assistance by Maoris interested in acting as prison visitors. At present there are comparatively few of us who are doing this work.

Attitudes Often Expressed

In this article I would like to mention several matters arising from an interview with a Maori recently released from prison. Some of his comments indicate perhaps the feelings and attitudes of other people who have had similar experiences. Permission to publish his comments was obtained, and the more intimate details about his family and background are not given here.

Like so many others in a similar situation, he had had a very disturbed and unsettled family background.

In the past his outlook was to leave tomorrow to look after itself. Drinking, frequent and heavy, occupied much of his leisure time.

On his initial sentence to prison he was weak and frightened. The effect of the prison system was to harden him; as he put it, he ‘went in like a chicken and came out like a rooster’.

In custody Maoris often (though not invariably) form a group or sub-culture of their own, so much so that on isolated occasions, if you hit one Maori you hit the lot. A positive function of such a group is to give expression to traditional values such as togetherness, sharing, and therapeutic conversation.

For this reason many Maoris would welcome the opportunity of group discussions with a Maori prison visitor.

On discharge the ideal is to isolate oneself from other ex-inmates. This is done in individual cases. However for a great number group identification and support is an apparent need, and in the cities ex-prisoners tend to congregate at specific places, and not infrequently share communal flats.

Prison has its obvious disadvantages, but it does provide a roof over one's head, three square meals a day and security of a sort. For some people there may therefore, if all else fails, be the temptation to regard it as a kind of home.

Many Maoris realise that they need help with accommodation and employment on discharge, but hesitate to ask for assistance. In some cases they would like those interested in their welfare to believe that they have arrangements in hand, when for reasons of shyness, independence, pride and communication difficulties, this is not the case.

One would not necessarily approve of some of these comments, but I feel that they should be taken into account, for as a prison visitor I have often heard similar opinions expressed by Maori inmates and former inmates.

Greater Efforts Necessary

As I write this, the rioting at Mt Eden has just come to an end. Our Wellington newspapers have brought home to us in a very realistic way the proportion of our people in

– 22 –

prison, for they published a number of close-up photographs of Maori and Pakeha prisoners, including some of those who dissociated themselves from the difficult element at Mt Eden. (Nor did they obscure the faces of the people in the photographs, some of whom were readily recognisable. This in my opinion was very unethical, and could add to the bitterness of those affected.)

Better Use of Community Resources

It seems that the general feeling of the public is that ‘we should get tougher’. While it may be that stronger measures are needed for the worst cases, surely the time has come to classify prisoners more carefully, to ensure that the young, and others who may be salvaged, are not thrown in among the toughest cases. We should also greatly expand the use made of psychiatric and psychological services, and the resources offered by voluntary organisations, including the churches. I consider that this is a matter in which both the Government and the community need to accept a more positive and humane role.

We Should Do Our Part

And we as Maoris should accept the challenge to be of greater assistance to our own people when they are in prison, and when they are discharged. This can best be done by joining the Prisoners' Aid and Rehabilitation Society.

The events at Mt Eden and Paparua indicate that greater efforts are needed. At such a moment of confusion, destruction and reconstruction, personally I find solace and inspiration in a saying my elders taught me in my childhood at Parihaka Pa, Taranaki:

‘Me aroha te tangata ki te tangata.’

Interest in
New University

The Maori people of Waikato and the surrounding districts are taking an active part in assisting in the development of the new University of Waikato at Hamilton.

The number of students is rapidly growing and within 15 years the University will have at least 5000 students. Since university accommodation is a necessity if all these people are to be adequately housed, the University of Waikato is appealing for funds for the building of Halls of Residence. The total target figure of £120,000 will be eligible for a four to one Government subsidy which will increase the amount available to £600,000.

As many of the University's students will be Maori, the Maori people of the district are taking a most active interest in the project, and a committee representing the Maori community has pledged its support with a target of £30,000 as their contribution to the total amount of £120,000.

On the opposite page there is published an article by the Maori Control Committee for the University of Waikato Halls of Residence Campaign. This group includes representatives of the two Maori District Councils in the university district (Waikato-Maniapoto and Waiariki), several branches of the Maori Women's Welfare League, and other organisations and areas. Its members are: Mr M. R. Jones (chairman), Mr H. Rogers (deputy chairman), Mr M. Raureti, Mr H. Northcroft, Mr J. Rangihau, Mr D. Royal, the Rev. M. Bennett, Mrs R. Sage, Mrs Schuster, Mrs C. E. Papesch, Mrs H. Rogers, Mrs D. Sinclair, Mrs O. Hill, Mrs E. Paki, Mrs Kopua, Canon W. Huata, Mr L. Rangi, Mr E. P. Marsh, Mrs S. Murray, Mrs Mihinui, Mrs Hotene, Dr H. Bennett, Mr and Mrs Maxwell, Mr and Mrs Poynton, Mrs M. Perfect, Mrs H. Anaru and Mrs M. Wikaira.

A steering committee composed of members resident near Hamilton includes Dr D. J. Sinclair (chairman), Professor J. Ritchie, Mrs R. Sage, Mrs C. E. Papesch, Canon Huata, Mr L. Rangi, Mr R. Rakena, Mr J. Day and Mr M. Raureti.

Interest in the University's development is all the greater since it is intended as soon as possible to establish at it a school of Maori studies. It was the Governor-General Sir Bernard Fergusson who at the opening of the University of Waikato first suggested that a school of Maori studies should be established there. This proposal drew an immediate response of approval from the Maori elders who were present at the opening, and has since aroused widespread support and enthusiasm.

– 23 –

TE WHARE WANANGA O WAIKATO
ME TE IWI MAORI

Te Reo o Te Kanawa

When the Governor-General opened the University of Waikato, na tana wero:

‘This is the first New Zealand University to be planted right here in the heart of traditionally Maori country. I would like to see set high among the ambitions of this university a resolve to establish a Maori faculty. I have always thought it was tragic, even scandalous perhaps would not be too strong a word, that Sir Peter Buck, Te Rangihiroa, had to go to Hawaii for the pursuit of his Polynesian studies. Surely here is a proper centre for a Maori university within a university. I do not mean separate, but part of the whole, for Maori and European alike, to kindle a new appetite among both, for the study of Maori culture, anthropology, psychology, language and the rest—for the study of each other too.

‘And even more important, this faculty should be a bright new dynamo for Maori education generally.’

He tao rakau ka taea te karo He tao kupu kore rawa.

E Tipu E Rea…

Since the Maori Education Foundation was established we have begun to realize that a university education is possible for all those who have the ability and are prepared to work. But still too few Maoris are coming into our universities to prepare themselves for full participation in, and service to, the community.

The Waikato University is young in years and is building its own curriculum on the needs of New Zealanders as members of a vast Pacific community. The university occupies a central position in the North Island and a strategic position in the heart of Maoridom.

The Maori people now have a great opportunity to build up close associations with the new University of Waikato, by making a significant contribution to the Waikato University Halls of Residence Appeal.

If we unite at every level, we can ensure that the Maori community target of £30,000 is quickly attained. A Maori Control Committee with Mr Michael Rotohiko Jones, O.B.E. as chairman, and Mr Haratua Rogers as deputy-chairman, has been appointed with power to institute and co-ordinate a drive for this contribution. By giving we can demonstrate that we have a real and practical interest in the needs of our people for university education.

Te Kohanga

On its part the University of Waikato has already approved, at all levels, the broad concept of a Centre of Maori Culture, which would not only include the study of Maoritanga within the broad context of Polynesian anthropology, but also an active direct link with the Maori people.

This is the ‘dynamo’ which the Governor challenged the university and the Maori people to join together and create.

Let us accept this challenge and back it with our contributions.

Tau Rourou—Taku Rourou

At the tribal level. Trust Boards and Incorporations are all invited to make direct grants to the campaign. At the community level the local branches of the Maori Council Welfare and Health Leagues, Marae and Hall Committees, Cultural, Youth and other social groups, Church bodies etc. could organize community fund raising projects; while at the individual level, families and single individuals could make direct contributions to the campaign fund through the Central Committee. All contributions that are promised this year will carry the maximum subsidy and where convenient may be spread over a period of five years. With subsidy the Maori contribution of £30,000 will be worth £150,000 and provide accommodation for a minimum of 75 students.

E te iwi kia kaha mai ra ki ta tatou taonga…. Ka Hao te Rangatahi

TATAU TATAU

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SELECTION BOARDS

All candidates first go through a simple selection routine conducted by the area Naval Recruiter.

Short service selections are held once a year in December. Write to your nearest Naval Recruiter for full details:

Auckland: Palmerston Buildings, 47 Queen Street; Wellington: 147 Manners Street; Christchurch: 53 Cathedral Square: Dunedin: 16 Manse Street.

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SINGING SHELLS

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This trumpet decorated with a strip of bird's skin is in the Dominion Museum.

For thousand of years in countries throughout the world, the awe-inspiring tones of conch shell trumpets have sounded on ceremonial and religious occasions.

In New Zealand shell trumpets or pu moana were of the triton variety of conch. The shells were not so easily found as elsewhere in the Pacific, and the Maori were the only Polynesians to possess wooden trumpets. But they still blew their shell trumpets to assemble the people or to announce the arrival of visitors. In some chiefly families they announced the birth of a first-born son.

Susi Robinson Collins wrote her poem ‘Hine-mokemoke’ after reading this legend recounted by Harry Dansey in the ‘Auckland Star’:

‘It seems that once upon a time the people of the East Coast, near where the Wajapu River runs out to sea, used to hear when fishing strange music … one day some people hauled up a crayfish trap and there clinging to it was a triton shell. And, wonder of wonders, the shell was singing. So they took the shell and made it into a pumoana … and ever afterwards this same trumpet sang to them sad songs of the green ocean depths … And they gave the magic trumpet a special name -Hine-mokemoke which means, the lonely maid.’

Hine-mokemoke

From
the sea deep
Hine-mokemoke sings;
come surging up
the sad tales whispered
in the ear of frail shells
on the ocean's floor.
Lovely and lonely
Hine-mokemoke sings
down amid the curling fronds
dark and secret songs
of the tremendous deep.
Against my ear rests
the singing shell.
all its secrets murmuring
soft
as the waters of Waiapu.
gentle
as Titipounamu.

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PEOPLE AND PLACES

Recently thirty members of the Ohau Maori Youth Club, Rotorua (see photo above) spent three weeks touring Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria as the guests of Australian Rotary Clubs.

The fifteen girls and fifteen boys gave warmly received concerts at Toowoomba. Newcastle, Woollongong, Yass. Wagga Wagga, Miidura and Broken Hill. They were accompanied by Canon Wi Huata. four other elders, and Mr John Smith, a Rotorua tourist guide and fisherman.

The group travelled on a non-profit basis, as ambassadors of their country, and were billetted with Rotarians during their stay. As well as giving public performances to most enthusiastic audiences, they performed free of charge at a large number of hospitals, old folks' homes and similar institutions.

Founded in 1962, the Ohau Maori Youth Club is an especially vigorous group which has won a number of prizes at Maori cultural competitions.

Another group to travel overseas is the Aotearoa Concert Party (see photo at top of next page).

At present accompanying the National Band of New Zealand on a tour of Canada and the United States, they are the first Maori concert party to be sponsored on such a tour.

Members of the group are, from left. Olive Pearse, Faith Panapa. Agnes Manunui. Don Manunui and his wife Nancye. Meilene Chan, and Tawhai Richmond. Olive is from Waimarama, near Hastings; Faith and Nancye, both daughters of Bishop Panapa, are also from Hastings. Agnes and Don belong to Ngati Tuwharetoa. Meilene belongs to Ngati Raukawa at Otaki and Tawhai, a member of Te Arawa, is from Te Puke. After a preliminary tour of New Zealand with the band, they flew to Toronto where they will perform during a three-week engagement at the Canadian National Exhibition. After this there will be [ unclear: ] tour of America, and they expect to return home on about 10 November.

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Yet another concert party at present touring overseas is a 15-strong group from the Wellington Anglican Maori Club (see photo below). They are led by the Rev. Kingi Ihaka, the Anglican Maori viear in Wellington.

Sponsored by an American entrepreneur they are touring Canada and the United States for 15 weeks, demonstrating Maori culture at fairs and shows. It is a good-will tour, designed to ‘put New Zealand on the map’ and to further knowledge and interest in our country and its peoples.

On 6 September the group leaves North America for London, where they will have a reception at New Zealand House.

After a week in London they fly to Hong Kong for 10 days. There they will entertain at an international congress on behalf of the New Zealand Government.

Flying back via Australia, the party will return to New Zealand on 27 September.

This photograph of the group was taken in the porch of Te Hau Ki Turanga, the meeting-house in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. Carved in 1842, this is probably the oldest Maori meeting-house still standing.

– 28 –

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photo by Gisborne Herald

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photo by Rotorua Post

At a week-long residential Maori arts and crafts school at Tikitiki, 70 Auckland Maoris and Pakehas studied tukutuku work, kowhai-whai and carving under the tutorship of the well known Tikitiki carver Pine Taiapa.

In the photograph at left, Pine is watched at work by the Minister of Education, Mr A. E. Kinsella (centre) and by Mr S. R. Morrison, director of the extension department, Auckland University.

The course, a highly successful one, was organised by the extension department of Auckland University, Nati Women's Welfare League, the people of the Tokararangi marae at Horoera, Ngata Memorial College and Pine Taiapa. Several experts on arts and crafts were present as observers. Those attending the school stayed at the Rongomaianiwaniwa marae.

They were most enthusiastic about what they were learning, and also very much enjoyed the opportunity of getting to know the East Coast people who were their hosts.

Among the Aucklanders were a group of Ngati Whatua from Orakei who are learning Maori crafts, especially tukutuku, so that they can decorate the interdominational chapel at Orakei.

Judge Norman Smith (sec photo left). judge of the Waiariki Maori Land Court, Rotorua, retired last June after 46 years spent in Maori land affairs.

Leading Maoris from all over the Waiariki district attended a special gathering at the new Maori Land Court to say farewell to the Judge and to pay a spontaneous tribute to his long and notable service to the people of the district.

Of Scottish origin. Norman Smith came to New Zealand with his parents as a small boy, and grew up in Rotorua. He left school when he was fourteen, and later studied for all his examinations by correspondence and with tutors.

In 1919 he joined the then Native Affairs Department in Rotorua as a cadet. He qualified as a solicitor, and in 1933 moved to Wellington, where he later became chief clerk. In 1950 he returned to Rotorua as Commissioner Smith, and two years later was promoted Judge and moved to Gisborne. In 1961 he returned again to Rotorua.

Looking back over his life's work he says with conviction, ‘I have never wanted to do anything else.’

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How to
Make a
Tipare
or
Headband

Headbands (known as tipare in the North Island, and kopare in the South Island) may be made quickly from a variety of materials. Flax is most commonly used, although houhi (lacebark), kiekie and pingao are all popular when available. Flax is improved by being softened before use; this is done by pulling it against the back of a knife or a shell.

To make a headband, prepare six strips of softened flax of equal width.

Taking two strips, bend one over the other to form a V as indicated. Do not bend the flax exactly in the middle, or place it in the middle of the second strip; if this were done, all the joins would later be together.

The left bottom strip bends up over one piece to lie inside the original V.

Now take the right strip and bend it up under one and over one. so that it lies parallel with the strip on the left.

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Take the outside strip which is on the top (i.e. the right strip) and bend it under two pieces and over one. so that it lies to the left.

Now take the same strip and bend it up under one and over one, so that there are two strips to the right and two to the left.

Again, use the outside strip which is on the top (i.e. the left strip) and bend it under two and over one to lie to the right.

Using the same strip, bend it up under one and over one.

Continue in this way, always using the outside strip which is on the top. Weave it under two and over one, then up under one and over one.

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When a strip becomes short, lengthen it by adding one of the previously prepared strips. Weave the short strip under two and over one. Trim this strip level with the edge of the plait.

Use the soft end of the new strip for the join. Cut the strip on the same angle, and slide it in on top of the strip to be replaced.

Push it in as far as it will go. Now use the new strip to plait up under one and over one, then continue plaiting as before.

When the headband is long enough, join the two ends together. This is done by working the loose strands into the other end, threading them into the weave where they will fit.

Bend them to the inside, and trim them so that they will slide into the weave and be concealed.

This article by Catherine Brown is the second in a series on Maori weaving.

Catherine Brown, who is of Ngai Tahu descent, comes from Taumutu, about 40 miles from Christchurch. An adviser in arts and crafts with the Education Department, she has taught weaving at most of the Maori arts and crafts courses which the department has held throughout the country.

– 32 –

The Sculpture
Of
Arnold Wilson

Arnold Wilson believes that sculptors today cannot merely copy the great classical art of the past. If traditional Maori sculpture is to be an inspiration to contemporary artists, it must be re-interpreted and made new.

‘At present,’ he syas, ‘carving works of the Maori tradition are reproductions of the work of years ago. Maori relief work has been thrashed, and to my mind is not “living”. It is time now to see the possibilities in a different environment, and thus to make the works “live” again.

‘Modern tools also offer new possibilities. Early Maori carvings tended to be flat because of the lack of tools with which to round a work.’

In his work Mr Wilson is concerned to develop the inherent characteristics of form and grain in the wood that he is carving.

‘One must play on the theme that a piece of wood is not dead, but alive, to be exploited.

‘I try to work round a piece of wood, for carving works are governed by the character of the wood—its grain, knots and so on.

‘As a rule, working in my own way, nothing is drawn on the wood beforehand.’

A member of the Tuhoe tribe, Arnold Wilson was born at Ruatoki North in the Bay of Plenty. He was educated at the Ruatoki North Primary School and at Wesley College. From an early age he showed an interest in art, and this was encouraged by his teachers.

From Wesley College he went to the Elam School of Fine Arts in Auckland. In 1954 he graduated with a Diploma of Fine Arts, being the first Maori to gain this degree with first-class honours in sculpture.

After attending Auckland Teachers' College, Mr Wilson taught arts and crafts at district high schools in Northland, and in 1958 became art teacher at the new Bay of Islands College in Kawakawa. Last year he moved to Auckland to become head of the art department at Mt Albert Grammar School.

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Mr and Mrs Wilson's two children (right) play with a friend beside sculptures in their garden. The carved figure third from the left is now in one of the Australian offices of Air New Zealand.

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Arnold Wilson in his studio. Influenced in its development by both Polynesian and European traditions, his work reflects his strong originality and Integrity of purpose.

– 33 –

His sculpture is widely known, having been shown in several exhibitions in Northland and Auckland. Two years ago a collection of his work was exhibited throughout the North Island by the Community Arts Service.

Mr Wilson designed and made the tall figure which stands at Judea Pa, Tauranga, as a memorial to the late Dr Maharaia Winiata. More realistic than most of his work, this symbolic statue is intended as a challenge to Maori youth to seek education.

– 34 –

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Alexander Turnbull Library photographs
Lindauer painted these women in front of ‘Heretaunga’, the meeting-house that once stood at Pakowhai near Napier. A surviving photograph of the carving shows the accuracy of this copy.

A PORTRAIT GALLERY OF
FAMOUS MEN AND WOMEN

In the Auckland City Art Gallery there is a famous collection of portraits of great Maori men and women of the past. They were painted by Gottfried Lindauer. who was born in Bohemia (Czechoslovakia) in 1839. and came to live in New Zealand in 1873.

He was at once attracted to the Maori people, and with his directness and simplicity of temperament and natural gaiety, he soon won many friends amongst them.

After he had been in New Zealand for a few months he visited Auckland, where he became friendly with a young man named Henry Partridge, also a newcomer to the country.

Partridge had often visited remote Maori villages with his friend James MacKay, the almost legendary figure who was then Civil Commissioner for the Coromandel district. There he learnt to know and greatly admire the old-time rangatira and their way of life.

When Lindauer showed Partridge his sketches of Maori people. Partridge conceived the idea of a collection of paintings which would preserve the memory of the old Maori way of life, and of the famous Maori figures of that time.

Thus a friendship and partnership was born which was to last for 50 years. At that time Partridge was only 26, was married with a family, and had been in business for only a year. Nevertheless he commissioned Lindauer to paint the first of the portraits, and added to his collection whenever funds permitted.

In time Henry Partridge's collection of Lindauer's paintings grew to include 70 pictures. Some were scenes of Maori life, such as that reproduced on this page, but most were portraits. The great majority of them were painted from life, and they were done with meticulous accuracy. As an artist Lin-

– 35 –

dauer had his limitations, but his portraits are most faithful likenesses. The garments, moko, weapons and ornaments of his subjects are also recorded with great accuracy of detail.

The paintings commissioned were mostly of famous men and women of the time, and it is this which makes the collection so very valuable today. In some cases the Lindauer portrait is the only surviving record of their appearance, and most of them are by far the best likenesses available. The fact that all these people are presented as seen through the eyes of the one artist gives the collection an added impact. Row upon row, in these paintings they still live today.

In 1915 Henry Partridge gave his collection to the people of Auckland, his only condition being that they should contribute £10.000 to a fund for Belgian war refugees.

In a book shortly to be published by A. H. & A. W. Reed Ltd., a selection of 48 of the paintings are published in colour. Royalties from the sale of the book are to be donated to the Maori Education Foundation by Mrs E. L. Clayton, daughter of Mr Partridge and sponsor of the publication.

One of the best known of Lindauer's portraits is his painting, shown above, right, of King Tawhiao.

Tawhiao Matutaera Potalau Te Whero-whero, the second king of the Waikato tribes, was a chief of a very high lineage, being a descendant of Hoturoa and also connected by another line of descent with Tamatekapua. He was declared king at Ngaruawahia in 1860, on the death of his father Te Wherowhero, and led his people with dignity and integrity through the difficult years of the Waikato war and its aftermath.

The high chief Te Hapuku (see portrait, right) was one of the leading rangatiras of the Hawkes Bay district, a spirited and autocratic warrior chief of the old school.

In about 1853. Hapuku and his people were driven northwards away from the Heretaunga district, in the course of intertribal warfare amongst the hapus of Ngati-Kahungunu. Twenty-five years later, when Hapuku lay dying in his village on the shores of Te Aute Lake, he was visited by Sir George Grey, who was responsible for a final reconciliation between him and Karaitiana, the leader of his enemies.

– 36 –

Ropata Wahawaha

Major Ropata Wahawaha, the warrior chief of Ngati Porou on the East Coast, was a fearless, often ruthless soldier who fought on the Government's side against Te Kooti.

In his boyhood he was taken prisoner in a raid by the Rongo Whakaata tribe of Poverty Bay. Later he took a grim revenge on his enemies.

From 1864 until 1871 he pursued Te Kooti, spending much of this time in the wild forests of the Ureweras, where he and his men withstood terrible hardships. Innumerable stories were told of his fierceness and bravery in battle, his cleverness as a strategist and his great powers of leadership.

Yet despite his single-mindedness as a fighter, throughout the Urewera campaign he bombarded the Government with letters imploring. and indeed demanding, generous treatment for his enemies, the defeated Tuhoe.

After the war Major Ropata Wahawaha became a member of the Legislative Council, highly respected by the Pakeha and venerated by his own people.

Patuone

This Maori tribute to Patuone and his brother Tamati Waka Nene is from C. O. Davis' The Life and Times of Patuone' (1876).

‘Patuone and Waka Nene were great in counsel and great in fight… they gave good advice to their tribes and to the Ngapuhi nation generally. Patuone was present at many Maori fights north and south, east and west. Often he acted as a peacemaker, because it was his custom to prevent bloodshed. In the early times, Patuone and Waka befriended Europeans who visited New Zealand in ships. … All the world knows that these men were true in action and speech. In their death, the Maoris say that great trees, giving shade to many, have been uprooted; but the Maori proverb is. ‘When one great chief dies, another great chief lives’, and a second proverb is ‘The sun goes down when its course is run’… Patuone reached the end of his journey, and lay down to die. Waka Nene did the same. They have gone to be greeted by generations that went before… Their good sayings and good deeds will be long remembered.

– 37 –

Topeora

Proud and imperious Rangi-Topeara was of the highest birth, a descendant of Hoturoa of the Tainui canoe. She was a niece of Te Rauparaha and a sister of Te Rangihaeata, Raupzraha's great fighting ally. Born at Kawhia. she came south when her people Ngati Toa were led by Te Rauparaha to a new home at Kapiti Island and on the shores of Cook Strait. Later she lived at Otaki, where she died in about 1873.

Topeora was a famous poet, and many of her songs are still known and sung to-day, Some are love songs composed for her several husbands and lovers; others are kaioraora, cursing songs directed at her enemies. Her high birth and strength of character made her an important person in her tribe, and she was one of those who signed the Treaty of Waitangi.

When she and her husband were baptised in the 1840s she chose as their new names Queen Victoria (Kuini Wikitoria) and Albert (Arapeta). No other names would do.

Tuhoto

Tuhoto Ariki came of a long line of high priests of Te Arawa, and from his youth he was set apart as one who was learning the mysteries of the priesthood. He lived on Mokoia Island in Lake Rotorua in the early years of the last century, and was greatly feared as a tangata makutu, a wizard who could destroy men by his magic.

At the time of the terrible Tarawera eruption of 1886, old Tuhoto was living at Wairoa on Lake Tarawera with his kinsmen of the Tuhourangi tribe. The people of the village believed that it was Tuhoto who had caused the disaster, by calling upon the god of volcanoes to arise and destroy the tribe.

In the eruption Tuhoto was buried alive in his little house beneath a sea of mud and ashes. He was dug out four days later by a Pakcha rescue team, and to everyone's astonishment was found to be still alive. He died a few days later, aged about 100.

– 38 –

He Waiata Patupaiarehe
Recorded by Kore Crown (leader) at Makara on 10th February, 1963.

– 39 –
– 40 –

TRANSCRIPTIONS OF
AUTHENTIC MAORI CHANT

To avoid any appearance of commercialising the songs. Mr McLean has declined to accept payment for his work in preparing this series.

much has been said in previous articles of the additive rhythms in many Maori chants. It is these rhythms which help make the chants so very much alive musically. To the western ear they sound like syncopations over an unchanging beat, but really they are a series of time changes.

What hasn't been stressed to date is that these time changes are often systematic. That is to say, they form a regular pattern which repeats over and over again. This was true of ‘Ka eke ki Wairaka’ with its four regular bars of 7/8 time to each line of the melody, and it was true of ‘Pinepine te kura’ with its two bars of 5/4 time to each line. The patupaiarehe song in this issue also has regular time changes, though the situation is a little more complex than in the songs just mentioned.

The time is 11 + 11 + 7 quavers for each repetition of the melody, made up of (7 + 4) + (8 + 3) + 7 quavers. This sounds difficult, but it isn't really if one remembers that this song has two ‘drag’ figures to act as markers along the way. These drags are distinguished by slurs in the transcription. The first drag figure is an even 8 quavers long. The second (at the end of the line) is exactly the same as the first, except that a quaver is dropped from the end to make it the ‘odd’ number of 7 quavers long. It is natural to sing the first drag for an even number of beats because it is preceded by an even bar of 4 quavers. And

it is equally natural to sing the second drag with one quaver short because the preceding bar is this time 3 quavers long and is therefore also a quaver short.

Knowing this may be a help to some readers in learning the song, but it is not essential. The only way to become really sure of a song is to practise it with careful attention to time values until it becomes part of oneself. When this happens, counting is not only unnecessary but could even be a hindrance. As someone has said, if a centipede had to think which leg went before which, it would probably fall over!

Another point which intending singers should know is that even in western music, singers make small changes here and there which are not really part of the song. Sometimes these changes are intentional and sometimes they are not. Some musicians think that when a song is written down from a performance, all these slight changes should be included. If the singer pauses to cough, for instance, this pause should get written down too. Others think that only the essential things should be noted. A lot depends, of course, on the purpose for which the transcription is to be used. If it is to be used for teaching, there is not much point in writing down coughs and other things which the singer did not really intend. On the other hand, if there is doubt about the singer's intentions or if the song is performed in different ways by different people, everything should be noted.

In Maori chant it is the drag figures which are most subject to change. Different singers tend to have their own drags, and sometimes a singer may alter a drag slighlty during the course of a song. A few singers use ornament seemingly at random during the drags. To make things easier for the reader the drags in the present transcription have been made the same at each repetition, although the grace notes didn't always come quite at the same places in the recording. These changes were in fact so minute that many people would be quite unable to hear them, so including them would certainly not be worthwhile

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for the person who wants to learn the song. It should be noted that the time of the grace notes is taken from the notes to which they are tied. The zigzag line in the first drag indicates a portamento.

The song is a variant of the turehu song which appears as song 38 in Part One of ‘Nga Moteatea’ edited by Apirana Ngata and Pei Te Hurinui. The text also appears in John McGregor's ‘Popular Maori Songs’ (1893) P 43 and in the ‘Journal of the Polynesian Society vol. 3 p 31. The recording from which the transcription was made was recorded for the writer on 10 February 1963 at Makara by Kore Crown (leader) and her daughter Rina Tuwhangai. These singers belong to Ngati Hounuku and Ngati Horotakere tribes of Waikato. The song has also been recorded by Whati Tamati (Waikato tribe) of Hamilton and in its ‘Nga Moteatea’ form by Sam Huia (Waikato tribe) of Makomako.

A Fairy's Love Song

Mr Mervyn McLean's transcription and discussion of the music of this song is published above.

Two main versions of the song are in existence. One is song No. 38 in Apirana Ngata's Nga Moteatea, and the other is quoted by Hoani Nahe in the ‘Journal of the Polynesian Society’ vol. 3, p 31. The text published here is closer to the latter version, though not identical with it.

Hoani Nahe tells us that the version he records is ‘the love-song of Whanawhana and Rangipouri, chiefs of the iwi atua, or Fairies…the chief of the Patupaiarehe [fairies] ardently desired Tawhaitu, who was the wife of Ruarangi, ancestor of the Ruarangi hapu of Ngati Haua’. In the Ngapuhi version and explanation recorded by Ngata, the fairy chief Te Rangipouri loves Ripiroaiti, wife of Ruarangi, who came in Kupe's canoe. Ngata's version has Taputeururoa as the fairy man's first wife, whereas in Hoani Nahe's version and explanation, Taputeruru and Ripiroaiti, also Nukupori and Tuku (in this version, Tiki) are the names of fairy chiefs.

The translation given here is therefore somewhat conjectural. It follows Ngata's version in interpreting ‘whanawhana’ as meaning ‘joyful’, but since the version published here, like that of Hoani Nahe, has ‘ko’ instead of ‘ka’ before this word, it should perhaps be regarded as a proper name. Similarly, ‘tawhaitu’ might be better interpreted as the name of the woman in question.

The word ‘maori’ is used in the song in the sense of ‘human’.

Since she is the first human woman whom the fairies have encountered, she is described as ‘the first of her race’.

Kāore te rangi nei te pēhi whakarunga
I torona e au te tau o Tīreni
Whakatata rawa mai ka murimuri aroha
Kei Pirongia rā ko te iwi tauwehe
E wāhi rua ana ko Tiki, ko Nukupori
Ko Tapu-te-uru rā ko Ripiroaiti
Ko whanawhana ko au, ko Te Rangipōuri
Ka tango mai he wahine tuatahi tonu au
Nāku i tū atu, kia uru tomokia
Te whare o Ruarangi kia tawhaitu
Kia whakapakia ki te kiri māori
Ka tākohua mai te ripa ki Puāwhe
He ripa tau-ārai ki te makau i te ao, i.

The harsh winds blow upon the uplands.
Once I held my loved one of Tireni.
Now my heart is filled with sorrow.
At Pirongia are the people from whom I am
separated;
Tiki and Nukupouri are parted,
Taputeuru and Ripiroaiti.
I, Te Rangipouri would be most joyful
At possessing her, the first of her race.
Indeed I dared all dangers when I boldly
entered
The house of Ruarangi, to caress her human
skin.
Covered in mist is the ridge at Puawhe,
The barrier that hides my loved one from the
world.

– 42 –
– 43 –

A Little Boy Meets Captain Cook

Is the last issue of ‘Te Ao Hou’ there was published a Maori account of Captain Cook's first visit to the Bay of Islands.

Several other stories tell of Cook's visits to other places, and of the first reactions to the strange customs and possessions of the Pakeha.

This story of Cook's visit to Whitianga, on the Coromandel Peninsula, appears in John White's ‘Ancient History of the Maori’, volume V. It was originally told by Te Horeta Te Taniwha, who had been a small boy at the time of the visit. But since White publishes two similar versions of the story, apparently written by different people. it seems that Te Horeta Te Taniwha's account was known to a number of story-tellers and had become part of the folklore of this people.

For reasons of space one episode in the story is omitted here.

I ngā rā o mua noa atu, i a au e tino taitamaiti ana, ka o mai te kaipuke ki Whitianga; e noho ana hoki mātou ko taku iwi i reira. Ehara i te tino noho tupu; he haere nō mātou ki reira, ki ērā whenua o mātou, whakauruwhenua ai, i te mea hoki, he tikanga tēnei nō ō mātou tūpuna iho, arā, ka noho mātou i tētahi wāhi o ō mātou whenua, ā, ka heke te iwi ki tētahi wāhi noho ai, ngaki ai, kia mau ai te mana o ō mātou whenua i a mātou, kia kā tonu ai ā mātou ahi i te nuku o ō mātou whenua, kei riro aua whenua i ētahi iwi kē.

Ka noho rā mātou i Whitianga, ka puta taua kaipuke nei ki reira, ka kite atu ā mātou kaumātua i taua kaipuke. Ka mea rātou he atua. ā. he tupua ngā tāngata o taua kaipuke. ā, ka tū te kaipuke, ā, ka hoe mai ngā poti ki uta.

Ka mea aua kaumātua, ‘Koia anō he tupua, he kanohi kei ngā muri-kokai, inō e hoe tuarā mai ana ki uta.’

Ka ū mai aua tupua ki uta, ka mataku atu mātou ngā wāhine me ngā tamariki, ā, ka oma mātou ki te tahora (ngahere). Ko ngā toa anake i noho i ārō atu ki aua tupua. A nō ka roa. ā. kāhore kau he hē o aua tupua ki ō mātou toa, ka taki hokihoki mai mātou, ā, ka mātakitaki aua tupua, ā, ka mirimiri ō mātou ringa ki ō rātou kākahu, ā, ka mihi mātou ki te mā o ō rātou kiri me te kahurangi o ngā kanohi o ētahi.

Ka mahi ka kohi tio aua tupua, ā, ka hoatu he kūmara, he ika, he roi e mātou ki aua tupua; pai tonu mai rātou, ā, ka noho mātou ngā wāhine me ngā tamariki, ka tunu pipi mā

It was a long It was a long time ago, when I was a very little boy, that the ship came to Whitianga. Our people were living there at the time, though it was not our permanent home; we were there to preserve our title to the land. In this we followed the custom of our ancestors, staying for a while in one part of our territory then shifting to another place, living there and cultivating our gardens so that the mana of our land would remain with us, and our fires would stay alight throughout our lands. This was to prevent them being taken by other tribes.

While we were at Whitianga this vessel came there. When our elders saw it they said it was an unearthly thing, and that the men in it were spirits. Then the ship came to anchor and the boats were rowed to the shore. ‘Yes. these must certainly be spirits,’ our elders said then, ‘for they have eyes at the back of their heads; see how they paddle with their backs towards the shore!'

When these strange creatures landed we children were frightened, and so were the women; we ran away into the bush. Only the warriors stayed there, face to face with the foreigners. But when they had been there for some time and had not harmed our warriors at all, we came back one by one, and gazed at them, stroking their garments with our hands, and admiring the whiteness of their skins and the beautiful colour of the eyes of some of them.*

* The word used to describe their blue eyes is ‘kahurangi’. This has the meaning of ‘prized, precious’, and is also used to refer to the colour of a light-toned variety of greenstone.

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aua tupua, ā, ka kite atu mātou e kai ana taua hunga i te kūmara, me te ika me te pipi, ka oho mauri mātou, ka mea, ‘Ehara pea i te tupua pēnei me ngā atua māori nei, inō hoki e kai ana i ngā kai o te ao māori nei.

Ka haere aua tupua ki te ngahere, piki haere ai ki tō mātou pā i Whitianga, me te kohi otaota i ngā pari, me te pātōtō haere i ngā kōhatu o te ākau, ka mea mātou, ‘Hei aha rā aua mea mā aua tupua?’ ā, ka kohia atu hoki e mātou, e ngā wāhine me ngā tamariki. ngā kōhatu noa, ngā tarutaru noa, ka hoatu ki aua tupua; he kōhatu i paingia, ā, ka kohia ki ā rātou pūtea, he mea i makā ko ngā tarutaru me ngā peka rākau i hoatu. Ka tū, ka kōrero, he ui pea, ko te reo koa. kīhai i mōhiotia; kata atu ai mātou, ā, ka kata hoki aua tupua, ā, pai noa iho mātou. Ko ngā toa me ngā kaumātua nohopuku ai me te mātakitaki ki aua tupua.

Ka kai nei aua tupua i ngā kai i hoatu ai e mātou, me te kīnakia ki ā rātou kai i mau mai ai, ā, ka haere mātou ko aua tupua ki roto ki te awa o Whitianga: nei koa, he toko-toko i te ringaringa o ētahi o rātou mau haere ai. A nō ka tae mātou ki te wāhi rākau māmore e nohoia ana e le kawau, ka whakaaria aua tokotoko e aua tupua ki aua manu. Roa kau anō, ka papa te whatitiri, ā, ka rapa te uira, ka taka iho te kawau. Ka whati mātou, ka papahoro ki te nehenehe (ngahere), ā. ka mahue ko aua tupua rā anake. Ka kata aua tupua, ā, ka karanga rātou, ā, ka tāwhiri ngā ringa ki a mātou. Roa kau iho anō, ka hoki ngā mea māia o mātou ki aua tupua. ā, ka mau ki aua manu rā. ka titiro kua male—i mate rā i te aha?

Ka noho tūpato ō mātou kaumātua, ā, ka hoki ki te kāinga, ā, ka hoki mai anō hoki aua tupua rā, ā, ka noho pai noa iho i a mātou, ā, ka hōmai ētahi o ā rātou kai i mau mai ai; nei koa he pakeke, arā ko te reka. Ka mea ō mātou kaumātua, he pungapunga taua kai nō te whenua o aua tupua, ā, ka hōmai te kai matu (ngako); ka mea anō aua kaumātua, he tohora, ko te mātaitai koa kakati ana ki te korokoro, a, kīhai i manakohia taua matu e mātou.

Ka tū te kaipuke rā i reira, ā, i roa noa kaeke atu ētahi o ō mātou toa ki te kaipuke, ā, ka kite i ngā mea o reira, ā, ka hoki mai ki uta, ka kōrero ki te iwi, ā, ka minamina haere atu hoki ētahi kia kite i te puni o taua ope tupua. ā, ka haere tahi atu hoki ahau. He iti rawa nei au i aua rā, ā, ka haere tahi

The foreigners began to gather oysters, and we gave them some kumara, fish and fernroot. They accepted this gift with much pleasure, and we (the children and the women) roasted some pipis for them. When we saw them eating the kumara, fish and pipis we were startled, and said, ‘Perhaps they are not spirits like those that we know of; for they are eating the foods of this world.

The foreigners went into the forest, and also climbed up to our pa at Whitianga. They gathered grass and small plants from the cliffs and kept knocking at the rocks on the shore. We said, ‘Why are they doing this?’ And we and the women also gathered up stones and grasses of all sorts, and offered them to the foreigners. They were pleased with some of the stones, and put them in their bags, but they threw away the grasses and branches of trees.

After this they spoke to us, perhaps asking us questions, but we could not understand anything that they said. So we started laughing, and they laughed too, and we were pleased. But our warriors and elders still gazed in silence at the foreigners.

These people ate the food we had given them. flavouring it with a food that they had brought with them. Then we accompanied them up the Whitianga River.

Now some of the foreigners had rods in their hands, and when we came to the place with bare dead trees, where the shags were living, they pointed these rods at the birds. Soon afterwards there was a peal of thunder and a flash of lightning. and a shag fell from the trees. We were terrified and rushed away into the forest, leaving the foreigners on their own.

They laughed and called to us, beckoning to us to come back. After a little while the braver ones amongst us went back to them and picked up the birds. We saw that they were dead—but what had killed them?

Our elders were still suspicious, and returned to the village, as did also the foreigners. They continued to be very friendly towards us, and gave us some of the food that they had with them; some of it was very hard, but sweet. Our elders said that it was pumice-stone from the land where those foreigners lived. They also gave us some fat food, which our elders said was whale-meat. But its saltiness nipped our throats and we did not care for this food.

After the ship had been lying at anchor for some time, some of our warriors went on

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mātou ko ētahi o aku hoa i ngā toa. Ko ētahi o aku hoa i wehi, ā, noho ana i uta.

Ka eke atu mātou ki te kaipuke, ka mihi mai aua tini tupua ki a mātou, me te mihi atu hoki ō mātou toa ki a rātou, ā, ka noho mātou i te papatakahi o te kaipuke, ā, ka mātakitaki aua tupua ki a mātou, me te miri-miri ngā ringa ki ō mātou kākahu, me ngā māhunga ō mātou, o ngā tamariki, me te kowhetewhete mai, he ui kōrero pea ki ō mātou kākahu, me ō mātou mako, me ō mātou heitiki, ā, tē mōhiotia atu. Ka kata mātou, ā, ka kata hoki aua tupua. me te whakaari mai i ō rātou kākahu, me te tango-tango ki ō mātou kākahu, ā, hoatu ana hoki ō mātou kākahu mō ō rātou, ā, ka mea ētahi o ō mātou toa, ‘Ka pai,’ ā, ka whakatau mai aua tupua ki aua kupu, ā, ka kata anō mātou, me te kata mai anō hoki aua tupua.

Kotahi te tino tangata o taua kaipuke; i mōhiotia ko ia te ariki no te mea, he tangata rangatira, he pai nō tana tū, ā, he hāngū, arā, kōrero nui ai ētahi o aua tupua, ko taua tangata kihai i maha ana kupu. Heoi anō tāna ko te whāwhā ki ō mātou kākahu, me te tangotango i ā mātou mere, me ngā tao, me ngā wahaika, me ngā hou o ō mātou māhunga. He tangata tino pai a ia; ka tae mai a ia ki a mātou, ki ngā mea tamariki, ka pakipaki i ō mātou paparinga, me te pōpō i ō mātou māhunga, me te kuihi te waha, he kōrero pea i ana kupu mō mātou, ā, tē mōhiotia kautia atu.

Roa kau ihō mātou i te kaipuke o aua tupua, ka kōrero taua rangatira, ka mau ki te ngarahu ka haehaea ki te papatakahi o te kaipuke, ā, ka tohutohu ki uta, me te titiro mai ki ō mātou toa, ā, ka mea tētahi o ō mātou kaumātua. ‘E ui ana ki te āhua o te whenua nei,’ ā, ka whakatika atu taua kaumātua, ka haea te āhua o te Ika a Māui, mai rā anō i Muriwhenua, ā, te ngutu atu anō o te Ika i Wairarapa, ā, ka tū, ka tohutohu taua kaumātua ki taua rangatira rā, me te tū mātakitaki ngā tupua me ngā Māori ki a rāua. Roa noa, ka mau taua rangatira rā ki te mea mā, ka mau ki te rākau iti, ka tuhia ki taua mea mā rā te haenga a taua kaumātua Māori, ā, ka kōrero mai ki taua kaumātua Māori, ka kōrero hoki te Māori rā ki te take o te Reinga. Tē mātau kau te tupua rā, ā, ka tohutohu te kaumātua Māori rā, ka takoto. ā, moe a ia i te papatakahi o te kaipuke, ā, ka tohu hoki ki te Reinga i Muriwhenua, ā. ka tāhurihuri taua rangatira

board and saw what was there. When they came back on shore they told our people what they had seen, and some of the people greatly desired to see the place where this company of foreigners were living.

I went with them; at that time I was only a little boy. Some of my friends also went with the warriors, but others were frightened, and stayed on shore.

We went on board the ship, and our warriors exchanged greetings with the great number of foreigners there. We sai on the deck of the ship, and the foreigners gazed at us, touching our garments with their hands and patting us children on the head. At the same time they were jabbering away, apparently asking us questions about our clothes, our earrings of mako sharks' teeth, and our greenstone tiki. But as we could not understand them we laughed, and so did they. Then they held up some clothes, showing them to us and at the same time touching our own clothes. We exchanged some of our clothes for their ones, and some of our warriors said ‘Very good—very good!’ Some of the foreigners repeated it after them—‘Very good!’ And we all laughed again.

There was one who was the supreme man on that ship. We could tell by his noble conduct and demeanour that he was their lord. Some of the foreigners spoke a great deal, but this man did not say very much; he merely took our garments in his hands and touched our clubs and spears, and the feathers that we wore in our hair. He was a very good man; he came up to us children and patted our cheeks and gently touched our heads, while he spoke in a quiet voice. Perhaps he was talking to us; but we could understand nothing at all.

Soon after we came on board the foreigners' ship. this leader spoke to our party, and took some charcoal and made some marks on the ship's deck, at the same time pointing towards the shore, and looking at our warriors. One of our elders said, ‘He is asking about the shape of the land;' and he stood up and drew the shape of the Fish of Maui [the North Island], from Northland to the Wairarapa, the mouth of the Fish. And our elder explained the meaning of this to their leader, while the foreigners and our people sat watching them. After some time the leader took some white stuff and a little stick, and drew on the white stuff the map made by our elder. They con

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rā, ka kōrero ki ētahi o ana hoa, ā, roa noa e kōrero ana, ka titiro taua tini tupua ki te āhua o te motu nei i haea e taua kaumātua Māori, ā, ka wawara noa atu aua tupua ki ā rātou haere noa atu.

Kīhai mātou ko aku hoa tokorua i haereere i taua kaipuke, he wehi hoki nō mātou kei mate i aua tupua te mākutu, ā, ka noho mātou ka mātakitaki i te puni o aua tupua. Roa noa e ngaro atu ana taua rangatira rā ki tana wāhi o tō rātou kaipuke, ka puta ake anō a ia, ā, ka haere mai ki a mātou ko aku hoa tokorua, ā, ka pōpō anō i ō mātou māhunga, ā, ka toro mai tana ringa ki a au, me te whao anō i tana ringa, ka kōrero mai ki a mātou me te toro mai anō tana ringa me te whao. I wehi aku hoa, ā, nohopuku ana. Ka kata atu ahau, ā, ka hōmai taua whao e ia ki a au, ka mau taku ringa, ka kī atu au, ‘Ka pai.’ Ka whakatau mai hoki a ia i aku kupu, ā, ka pōpō anō a ia i ō mātou māhunga, ā, haere ana. Ka mea aku hoa, ‘Koia nei te tino rangatira o te kaipuke nei, iNō hoki te oha ki a tātou, ā, tētahi ōna he pai nōna ki te tamariki; e kore te tino tangata e ngaro i roto i te tokomaha.'

Ka mau au ki taku whao, ā, ka manakohia e au, ko taku hoa haere hoki ia, hei koinga mō taku tao, ā, hei purupuru oreore puta mō ngā niao o ngā waka. I a au taua whao nei, ā, ka taka ki taua rā ka tahuri tō mātou waka, ka ngaro taku atua i a au.

Ka tae anō taua rangatira rā anō ki ana mea, ka maua atu e ia ki tō mātou tino kaumātua, ā, ka opehia atu e ia e rua aohanga ringa, nō muri nei i mōhiotia ai he rāwai, arā, i aua wā i kīia e ō mātou koroheke he parareka, he mea hoki i tū-a-rite ki te para a te Māori. Ka mau taua kaumātua rā, ka tiria ki te whenua, ā, mau tonu taua kai ki a mātou i ngā tau katoa. He mea tiri (ngaki) aua kai nei i Te Hunua, nō te mea nō Ngati Pou taua kaumātua i a ia aua kai. A, e toru ngā tau i tiria ai aua kai nei, ka karangatia te hākari, ā, ka kainga aua kai, me te tohia ki ētahi iwi anō o Waikato, ā, o Hauraki.

Four hundred Maoris from Taranaki, Waikato and Wanganui will take part in a spectacular outdoor production telling the legend of Hinemoa and Tutanekai, which is to be held as part of New Plymouth's Festival of the Pines next February.

tinued to speak to each other, and our elder told him of the significance of Te Reinga. As the foreigner did not understand what he meant, our elder explained it again, lying down on the ship's deck, shutting his eyes, then pointing once more to Te Reinga in the north. However the leader of the foreigners turned away and spoke to some of his companions. and after they had talked for some time all of them stood looking at the map which our elder had drawn. Then they went off in different directions, murmuring to each other as they did so.

I and my two friends did not go wandering about the ship, for fear that we should be bewitched by the foreigners; we sat where we were, staring at the foreigners' home.

The leader disappeared for a while into his own part of the ship, then he came up on deck again, and approached my two friends and myself. He patted our heads, said something, and put out his hand towards me, holding the nail. My friends were afraid and said nothing, but I laughed, and he gave the nail to me. I took it in my hand, saying, ‘Very good.’ He repeated this after me, patted our heads again, and went away.

My friends said, ‘His gift to us shows his nobility; he is indeed the leader of the ship. Also, he is very fond of children. A noble man—one of high birth and standing—cannot be lost in a crowd.'

I took my nail, and looked after it very carefully; it went with me everywhere as my companion. I used it as the point of my spear, and also to make holes in the sideboards of canoes, to bind them to the canoe. I kept it until one day our canoe was capsized at sea, and my precious possession [literally, ‘object with supernatural powers’] was lost to me.

The leader of the foreigners again brought some of his possessions to our chief elder, and presented him with two handfuls of what we now know to be potatoes. At that time our elders thought that they were parareka (a kind of fern-root). for they were similar in appearance to this. Our elder took them and planted them in the earth, and every year since then we have had a supply of this food. They were first planted at Te Hunua [in the Wairoa district] because the chief who grew them belonged to Ngati Pou. After they had been planted for three years, a feast was given. The guests ate of this food, and seed potatoes were distributed among other Waikato and Hauraki tribes.

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History of a Great River

To most people the name ‘Benmore’ brings to mind a picture of the new hydro-electric dam away down south in the Waitaki River Basin. Few people, perhaps, would be aware of the historical and legendary significance of the district which is now under the waters of this great new lake, and of the history belonging to all of the wide area through which the Waitaki River runs from the mountains to the sea.

Route to the West Coast

The Waitaki River derives its name from the Maori words wai (water) and taki (a sounding or weeping). The words Waitaki and Waitangi have the same meaning, for the South Island Maoris did not use the nasal sound Ng, but replaced it usually with the sound K, so that for example tangata became takata, and Rangiora became Rakiora.

The route up the river was frequently travelled by Maori parties on their way to the West Coast in search of the coveted pounamu (greenstone). Usually they crossed to the north of the river close to where Duntroon stands today, later crossing back to the south side at the mouth of the Otematata River.

Fed by Seven Lakes

Serving for much of its length as the boundary between Canterbury and Otago, the river has its source in the Takapo and Pukaki Rivers which are fed by the seven lakes: Lakes Takapo, Pukaki, Ohou, Te Kapaururu, Te Oteote, Otauwhiti and Whakapapa.

The northernmost of these great lakes is Takapo; its correct name is Takapotiri. My Arai-te-uru relatives told me that Takapotiri was the son of Tane-mahuta the forest god, and was the tutelary deity of the kaka, kakapo, kea and tarepo birds. I believe that Parliament decided that Takapo was the correct spelling, but as we all know, the general public still continues to call it Tekapo.

Opposite Takapo is Lake Pukaki, a word which means ‘a great swelling or choking in a throat’. This name refers to the time when the water comes rushing down in the flood season, and there isn't room to contain it. (The word pukaki can also mean a source, as of a river).

Ohou is a lake slightly to the south-west of Pukaki. It is now called Lake Ohau, but according to my people this is incorrect. However though I have heard the name Ohou mentioned by the elders, no-one seems to know much about it. Possibly the name comes from one of the tribes who were the first to arrive here-that is Ngapuhi te Aitanga, Te Rapuwai, Waitaha, Hotumamoe, and later on the Tahupotiki or Ngai Tahu.

There are two places named Ruataniwha or ‘dragon pit’; one is close to Lake Ohou and the other is by the junction of the Ohou and Waitaki Rivers. The taniwha is the counterpart of the English dragon.

The Throne of Patuki

Benmore itself, the great mountain some miles away from the dam, is known to the Maori as Te Taumata o Patuki. The word ‘taumata’ usually means ‘summit’; in this case the expression can be translated as ‘the Throne of Patuki’. I have been told by the elders that Patuki was a chief whose stronghold was Raupuke Island in Foveaux Strait. He was the grandfather of the important chief Tuhawaiki, known to the Pakeha whalers as Bloody Jack.

Behind Lake Ohou are the mountains now known as the Ben Ohau Range. Their old name was Maukatua, or ‘the foremost range of mountains’ (the word mauka is the South Island equivalent of maunga). Alongside them, at the headwaters of Lake Ohou and between the Dobson and Hopkins valleys, is a smaller range of mountains formerly known as Te Taremauka a te Atua, though a more recent Maori word for them is Maumau. Te Taremauka a te Atua means ‘the raised-up mountains of the god’.

Many Names Recorded

The Hopkins River was formerly Otao or ‘driftwood’, and the Huxley River was Tairau, which means ‘a stake or peg’. Broderick Pass, which was very much in use in the old days,

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The district beneath this huge new lake, together with the surrounding countryside, is rich in history and legend.

was formerly known as Te Tarahaka, an expression meaning ‘a thief who steals without qualms or care for the thoughts of others’. Te Waimaturaka or Waimatau, ‘the waters of knowledge’, are on the northern side near Lake Ohou. At the junction of the Takapo and Pukaki Rivers was Te Rauru, an ancient Maori kaika or kainga the site of which has long since disappeared. Te Rauru is the name of a certain method which the Maori used for plaiting flax with seven strands.

Among the many other names in this district are Mt Tauhinu, called after an alpine shrub, and Mt Totara, called after the alpine totara tree. Mt Manahunei's name means ‘the supernatural flowering of grayness on the bullrushes’. Fox Peaks, east of Lake Takapo, were formerly Otupaka, where a very heated quarrel took place. South-east of Lake Takapo is Te Wharerangi or Te Whareraki, ‘the heavenly home’.

Aorangi or Mount Cook

I should like to leave this area for a moment to go across to Aorangi, or Mt Cook. I have often heard over our radio station that this was called by the Maoris the ‘cloud-piercer’, but my grandmother told me that in this case the word is of ancient Arai-te-uru origin.

When the canoe Arai-te-uru was off the east coast of the South Island she struck a rock near Shag Point (many people say that this rock is the prow of the canoe). Now the ariki of this canoe was named Kirikiri Katata. As the canoe was sinking he swam ashore with his mokopuna (grandson) Aorangi. When they reached the shore the old chief had his grandson on his shoulders. They waited for the rest of the party to come ashore, and as they approached their chief the boy cried out, ‘See, I am the highest person in this land!’

Named After His Grandson

Whereupon the chief looked up at his grandson and said, ‘Yes my son, look.’ He pointed towards the Southern Alps, where one lonely peak could be seen above the clouds. ‘I shall name that peak after you, for you and that mountain are indeed the highest in the land.’

This chief Kirikiri Katata also named the lower summit of Aorangi after himself.

Maukatua, the mountain now known as Ben Ohau, had a wife called Aroarokache: until she met Kirikiri Katata she had always been a faithful and dutiful spouse, but Kirikiri.

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Katata persuaded her to leave her husband and to go with him to where the rangatiras reside on the higher peaks. There Aroarokaeh tands today; she is known to the Pakeha as the beautiful Mt Sefton.

Ancient Names on Waitaki River

Returning to the Waitaki River and travelling eight or nine miles down from the junction of the Ohou River, we find on the southern side Te Parikarakaraka, the echoing cliff. Further down, past the Te Kara stream, we come to Te Pari-o-waka-taka-kura or ‘the red cliffs that change their direction’. They are known today as Goose-neck Bend. A mile or so further on is Te Anawhakairo, ‘the cave of carvings,’ then Te Wahi-tatari ‘the visiting place’—that is, the place where parties of travellers used to meet. Further downstream is Te Awa-ataahua or Te Awa-ataka, ‘the beautiful river’, then we reach Te Ana-o-kaitaoka, ‘the cave of ovens where the food was burnt.’ To the east of this is Oteuku, ‘the bill of white clay’, now known as Sugar Loaf Hill.

Then onwards to Te Ana-haruru, ‘the cave of vibrations,’ so called because a party of Maoris were resting there when Te Ruamoko, god of earthquakes, was moving around underground. Away in the distance stands Pass Peak, once known as Te Kaihikihiki, ‘the food bearer’. This used to be a route to the West Coast. Otematata Saddle was known to the old people as Otematakou and also as ‘the pass of Tauahuriri’ (a famous Ngai Tahu chieftain).

West of the Otematakou Saddle the first stream was formerly known as Te Maukatipua, ‘the mountain demons’, though this was later changed to Otamatapio, ‘a green uncooked plant’. As the Waitaki River turns to the east we find a certain rock named Te Papaka-o-huruhuru, ‘the resting-place of Huruhuru’. Nearby is Parsons Rock, formerly Te Ikaraeroa, ‘a lofty headland’. This is another name of ancient Arai-te-uru origin.

Te Hakataramea River gives its name today to the town of Hakataramea. This name is said to commemorate a dance which took place there long ago, in which the dancers wore sachets made from the skins of laughing owls (whekau) and filled with the sap of the sweet-scented taramea stalks. A bridge over the Waitaki connects Hakataramea with Te Kohurau, ‘the place of a hundred mists’, now known as Karou.

These and a great many other names recall

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the lives of all those who lived and hunted in this area throughout the ages, over a period of time stretching back far beyond the arrival of the ‘Great Fleet’ 600 years ago. Among the other remaining tokens of this long history are the rock paintings and other relics which have been discovered in many places.

Driven from Ancestral Lands

It was in the Waitaki area also that the last remnants of this ancient race were hunted and driven from their homes by mounted constabulary and runholders armed with guns. There had long been disputes about the ownership of the upper Waitaki valley, the Maori owners claiming that they had sold to the Pakeha only the land in sight of the coast. In 1877 a group of about 150 Maoris went to live on the bleak, swampy flats at Omarama (four miles south of the new dam) in order to demonstrate their rights to the surrounding country.

But two years later they were driven out by the armed constabulary and it was only through the timely intervention of Ihaia Tainui, Member of Parliament for Southern Maori, that bloodshed was avoided.

It was the middle of winter. Snow was falling, and it was bitterly cold. With their carts and drays, the small group of Waitaha began the long, painful trek to the mouth of the river, where they still owned a few acres. One can well imagine the feelings of their old chief and tohunga Maiharoa as he passed through the tribal camping ground of Maukatipua and climbed to the top of the Otematakou Saddle. The last of the ancient lineage of the chiefs of Waitaha, he looked back, deprived of his birthright, at the lands where for remote ages his people had hunted, fought and died. Slowly he turned his back on those great mountains and valleys, and with a sad heart began the long journey to the coast.

The dispute over this area, along with other South Island disputes, was settled only in 1944, when the Government offered to settle what were known as the Ngaitahu Claims for £300,000, payment to be spread over 30 years. This offer was accepted, and so the Ngaitahu Trust Board came into being.

Power and Warmth from Benmore

And now much of this historic district has been obliterated by this new lake made by men. When W. B. Mantell, the Pakeha explorer, first entered the Waitaki region in 1848, he said to the Maori chief Huruhuru, ‘some day a bridge and a city will be here’. Today there stands in that high region the great dam and powerhouse which will bring power to our cities and warmth and light to our homes. Though we have lost a part of our cultural heritage, we shall in the end be well repaid through the efforts of the Pakeha and Maori builders of this great project.

The Te Puea Trophy, awarded annually to the branch of the Maori Women's Welfare League with the best report of its activities, went this year to Nga Iwi District Council (Auckland). Runners-up were Rotorua District Council and Maketu Isolated Branch.

Eight of the Maoris who made their opera debut in the New Zealand Opera Company's production of ‘Porgy and Bess’ earlier this year were retained for the chorus of ‘II Trovatore’, the present production. They are Josh Gardiner. George Henare, Bob Hirini, Tuta Kainamu, Peter Keiha, Mark Metekingi, Don Selwyn and Ross Waters.

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Introducing Ken Eru

It was the singing that began it all. He sang to himself as the spirit moved him, the melody and the harmony catching together and welling to the surface like a spring, or a season of the year. As I noticed him singing to himself, he noticed the noise that I make when I sing to myself, and he opened up a conversation about music. After five minutes, or a day or so, we were down to it.

‘Beautiful, beautiful,’ Ken said. ‘It was beautiful, BEAU-TI-FUL. You know that song ‘Grandfather Clock’. We sang it slowly and quietly. When the choir finished its singing some of the people in the audience were crying. Yes, crying, in the audience. I told the children when we were learning the song: Now this is a love song about an old man who loved a grandfather clock, and we have to let the audience know about this when we sing to them. ‘… and it stopped dead, never to go again …’ Ken's hands lived a little, and fell, as he murmured the song, and his face held the expression of his illustrating the song to the children in his choir.

It was not only that by this time I was caught up in his enthusiasm, but also that I agreed with his policies.

‘Grandfather Clock,’ I said.

‘Yes, “Grandfather Clock”,' he said. ‘It was beautiful, beautiful. Just a simple song, but it's got everything, and if it is sung properly, well …' I opined that this was the way of things always and that choral societies ought to appreciate this and sing ballads before they attempted Bach.

We did not talk about music and singing all the time. Ken's real interest was in land. I mentioned one day my reading about the Australian method of treating stock depastured on lands deficient in cobalt. ‘Instead of topdressing the land with “cobaltized” superphosphate you feed a “cobalt bullet”, a sort of pill, to the sheep. This “cobalt bullet” stays in the sheep's rumen for months, or indefinitely, and provides for the sheep the necessary trace element that cannot be obtained from the pasture.' Ken received this quietly as from a student rather than as from a farmer and the conversation turned over a few stones concerning science and farming. In private I considered the giving of ‘cobalt bullets’ to one or two persons of my acquaintance, as a favour.

But the talk was mostly about music and singing, except when Ken spoke of sea-foods. ‘It's beautiful,' said Ken, ‘simply beautiful. A lot of people don’t like seaweed because of the slippery skin, but I can tell you that it's just beautiful.'

‘Do you boil it, or something,’ I said.

‘No. You don’t boil it. Just wash it and eat it with salt and pepper and bread and butter. You can feel the iron grabbing as it goes down.'

I knew what he meant. I referred to Thomas Brunner the explorer almost starving to death in the Buller Gorge in 1846 and reaching the coast only to find that sealers had robbed the Ngai Tahu plantations in which he had expected to find potatoes. ‘He found and ate seaweed,’ I said, ‘and I have taken this as evidence of his having been in desperate straits.’ Ken glanced at me as if to say that apart from whatever he had just been saying, being nearly starved to death did not have anything to do with whether or not seaweed was good or bad to eat.

There were other times of course, when we made general conversation with other people on the job about the Ranfurly Shield, the new boss, promotions, the weekend, the size of ‘the double’, the second world war, Vietnam, family and friends, Bill Worker, and Don Jurist, and Jack Metaphysician reciting the secular Polynesian litany. There was a time shortly after I had bought a report about the district by the Ministry of Works during which we made some desultory enquiries about the commercial properties of the volcanic ignimbrite stone in the district, but the main topic of our conversation was music.

Ken invited me to hear his church choir at the time of his telling me about the stands of native timber in the district. ‘There must be

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a million feet of timber there,’ he said. ‘It's like wheat, like wheat,' I was flattered that my opinion should be solicited, and curious to hear the choir, and bigoted about the chances of my being amused. I kept my humours about the average church choir (worship without adventure, Alleluias without delight) to myself however, and I went to the church service as arranged. Ken took me to the service in his car. I stayed after the service to hear the choir rehearse.

It was, as Ken would say, beautiful, simply beautiful, BEAU-TI-FUL. I joined the choir and sang with it for about six months. Twice during that time the service was broadcast over the local radio station. Some weeks after I joined the choir I escorted three visitors from Timaru, basketball players, to the church. We went inside and they looked at the tuku-tuku work, and the carving. I said, ‘There's the choir loft. You can go up those stairs. I have been a member of this choir since a few weeks ago.'

One of the girls said, ‘Were you there in the choir on Sunday?’

I said, ‘Yes.’

She said, ‘I was at church here on Sunday. The music was simply beautiful, beautiful. I wrote to my mother yesterday and I told her about the beautiful music that I heard at church here.’

Several times, of course, we talked about race relations in New Zealand and the ‘colour bar’, and the sentiment that there is no ‘colour bar’ in New Zealand. Since then, however, it has become unnecessary to argue the point. The proposed amendments to the Property Law Act at present before Parliament admit that there is a ‘colour bar’ in New Zealand, and intend to diminish it as it affects housing anyway—and a good riddance.

One apprehends the subjective, impressionistic style of this ‘introduction’. Although the facts presented are true they are not parts of a narrative that refers objectively to past school days and present bank balance so much as attractions to your attention. But then I am not interested to proceed from any preliminary recitation of facts to a value-judgement about my friend. I want you to meet him. I intimate, suggest, introduce him to you. You can make up your own minds. Not that he needs any introduction to many hundreds, or thousands, of people throughout this Land of the Long White Cloud.

His favourite expression of approval is ‘Beautiful, beautiful, BEAU-TI-FUL’.

Last July the new dining hall at Kuku, Ohau (south of Levin) was officially opened. Built almost entirely by voluntary labour, the hall has a modern design and excellent facilities.

A Meeting of representatives of Wairarapa Maoris has approved plans for the complete restoration of historic Papawai Pa near Greytown.

Applications from persons of Maori descent are being invited by the Ngarimu V.C. and 28th (Maori) Battalion Memorial Scholarship Fund Board for secondary school scholarships, university scholarships and a postgraduate scholarship to be taken up in 1966. Full details are available from the Secretary of the Board, to whom enquiries should be addressed c/o Department of Education, Bursaries Section, Private Bag, Wellington.

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More Maoris In
Skilled Forestry Work

From the young girl carefully weeding rows of seedling trees in a nursery during school holidays to the office of the Minister of Forests, the Maori people have served in every activity of the Forest Service. In Northland and the Rotorua area in particular, it is doubtful if forestry could have flourished as it has done were it not for the great contribution to the work force by Maori labour.

In the past an inclination to work as one of a group and some reluctance to accept authority has meant that though there were hundreds in the various trades and grades of workmen, there were not very many who had accepted staff status and its accompanying responsibility. But in recent years this position has changed and there have been numerous appointments to staff, so much so that about 10% of the junior field supervisors are now Maori.

Many in Responsible Positions

Amongst those who have done well are Aussie Kirk, a first grade Ranger now at Kaikohe and very well known in the central King Country, especially as the Tuwharetoa Fire Officer; Paki Leach, who came in as a ranger trainee from Rotorua and is now stationed at Hokitika; Toko Te Aho, another trainee from the Wairoa district, now in charge of Karioi Forest; Barry Woods, an appraisal officer stationed in Rotorua; Ereatara Tamepo of Te Puia Springs, a former holder of a Ngarimu scholarship who gained his U.E. exam and is now doing forest work at Kaingaroa; and Tom Cookson, who has worked his way rapidly to the senior position in the Protective Division at Palmerston North.

Scientists Also Needed

There is a great future in forestry, and the Forest Service would like to see still more Maoris applying for appointment as trainees. There have been many good Ranger trainees. but so far there has not been a Maori amongst the 15 young men who each year are chosen to become Forester trainees. Boys chosen to become Foresters are granted a bursary to enable them to study for a university science degree, then study overseas before returning to the Forest Service as scientific and technical advisers.

– 57 –

BOOKS

Department of Anthropology University of Auckland, 12s

My Dear Pat,

Tena ano ra koe, te waihongaiho a o taua matua tupuna—te maramara i poua e ratou hei kai arataki, hei kai manaaki i te Iwi. Kati ra.

I have been asked to review your book but, while appreciative of the honour, I face the task with certain misgivings which will become apparent to you as this letter unfolds.

I would like you to know right off that I do not consider myself competent to be writing this review—I consider that any of our many eminent sociologists would be far better qualified to interpret the conclusions you reach in your very thorough work. However, probably because of my family connection with the people of Waima and the fact that I work in the area as a Welfare. Officer, my views on your book have been sought. As a tangata whenua therefore, and one who is closely associated with our people in the course of my work, let me now give you my impressions and my thoughts on what you have done.

I believe that the Maori has two basic attitudes which he must preserve if his Maoritanga is to survive; these are his love of people, and his pride in himself as a Maori. In both these attitudes the main consideration, I feel, is the one of being proud of what he is, and of what he offers as a manifestation of this pride. To do anything at all which might suggest or indicate that the Maori has very little of which to be proud in certain aspects of his way of living is, in my opinion, to undermine this very pride to which his adherence is so necessary. I contend that your indication of the conditions under which our Mahurehure people live — the substandard housing, unproductive land etc. — is to attack them where it will hurt most: in their prestige, indeed their mana, among their own race and throughout the land.

I believe in the age-worn adage that ‘the truth hurts’ and I have no doubt that the facts and statistics you have gathered will stand up under the severest scrutiny. However I wonder if figures can always be said never to lie, especially when they are used in measuring the soul of a people? You have (whether rightly or wrongly, cannot be argued at this late stage) named our people in your thesis for your Master of Arts degree, but can you honestly say that you have revealed to the world the intangible qualities that the people of Waima have which can never be seen in a statistical table: their love of people which makes them ‘open house’ to complete strangers, which makes them invite everyone who calls to a meal where every bit of food (even to the last they have in their cupboard) goes on the table, where their differences in religion or boundary fences are buried in combining together at mourning, at assisting a whanau pani or in a project for their Maori school—all this because ‘te mea nui he tangata’.

There has never been a book written about the Ngapuhi people. Have you ever wondered why? Is it because we have never had the students of sufficient intellect to undertake the task? Or is it because our kaumatua have passively resisted such an undertaking by Maori or Pakeha? If it is because of the latter reason, then why such resistance from our elders? Some may like to say that we are afraid to show our tarakura; others could also say that we do not wish to harp on some of our better qualities and achievements (of which we have a small number)—whatever the reasons, I believe that our pride as Ngapuhi will best be maintained if we cling to the memories which accord us most satisfaction.

If the purpose of your book was to bring to the notice of the appropriate authority the plight of our people, then I am certain we would welcome your leadership and advice as to what we as a people should do next. You well know the desperate need the people have for inspired and well-conceived leadership.

You will of course know that as you rise in your chosen profession, we of Waima will share in your glory. Let us please share this with the boy who came from humble beginnings and who was charged by his tupuna to place the people first.

Kati nei ra. ma te Atua koe e manaaki i nga a ra e haere mai nei.

Na to whanaunga.

Sonny Baker

– 58 –

Rebecca and The Maoris

Rebecca is a lively, pretty Maori girl who lives in Rotorua. In this well designed book of photographs she introduces the reader to her friends and relatives, and at the same time to Rotorua. The ‘sights’ are adequately covered, but the pictures are mainly concerned with portraying the warmth and every-day variety of normal Maori life. They do this very well indeed.

Maori Picture Dictionary

This small book gives the meanings of a selection of Maori words, sometimes discussing them at some length. Each page has two excellent illustrations by Roger Hart. It is not comprehensive enough to serve as a dictionary for translation purposes, but anyone learning Maori and wanting to add to his vocabulary would find the book a useful and attractive way of doing this.

M.O.

– 59 –

RECORDS

A Record from
Ngati Poneke Club

‘Songs of the Maori’ Ngati Poneke Young Maori Club

HMV MCLP 6187 12in 33 ⅓ LP

Ko Ngati Poneke hoki matou,
He iwi taitamariki,
He pani no nga iwi o te motu.
We are members of Ngati Poneke,
Young but ever hopeful,
We are orphan members of the tribes of Aotearoa.

Collectors of Maori music have had to wait almost thirty years to obtain a full-scale commercial recording of this, the oldest Maori cultural group still in existence with a record of unbroken service. This durable group has old boys and old girls spread throughout the length of New Zealand, and it has won a welldeserved reputation for consistent excellence of performance in the cultural field, as well as having a noble record of public and patriotic service. Its successes in Maori competitions throughout the years would fill this page, its services to Maori youth are legion, its lists of members and ex-members read like a Who's-Who of Maoridom. Now all of those who have ever experienced the matchless spirit of this great club, along with those who merely enjoy good Maori entertainment, can enjoy a record which ‘features a variety of the most popular, moving and classical items’ which have brought Ngati Poneke fame.

Having said all this, I should add that this record does not do full justice to Ngati Poneke, as all who have seen them perform will testify. For example I should like to have heard at least one of the formal choral arrangements with which the club has won the Wellington Competitions Society's annual Maori Choir Championship both years since its inception in 1963. There are no peruperu on the record, nor any of the poi which have always featured prominently in their concert performances. However in place of these there are some of the finest action songs of the Maori people, which have always been regarded first and foremost as Ngati Poneke's own (for no other reason in some cases than the fact that over almost thirty years they have performed them constantly and well).

A notable feature of most of the numbers is the clarity of diction and enunciation in even the most spirited action songs. I listened particularly carefully to ‘Waikato’, for the complex wording and syncopation of this song are often the downfall of less-experienced groups. Ngati Poneke sailed through it in fine style however. ‘Ringa Ringa Pakia’ unfortunately has a tendency to flatness. In ‘Pakia Kia Rite’ there appears sometimes to be variation between the tempo of the men's and women's parts; this mars it somewhat. ‘Whakarongo Mai’ is the better of the two haka taparahi featured, and is free of the rather high-pitched screeching by the kaea which comes out several times in ‘Ka Mate’, featured as part of the opening powhiri.

All in all, however, the record offers some lively renditions. Ngati Poneke's repertoire is fortunately free of the dreary dirges which seem of late to be sapping the vitality of the modern action song, where a tendency towards languid tunes has produced some pretty spineless offerings. I think however that all Maori groups which intend recording in the future should be warned that by this time ‘Tahi Nei’, ‘Manu Rere’ and ‘Po Atarau’ have become played out and are fairly and squarely in the hackneyed class. Let's make Ngati Poneke's the last record on which we hear these items for some time.

Technically the recording is good even though a little better balance would have ensured that the women members of the group were heard more prominently. The cover design is excellent and the cover notes adequate and free from mis-spelling.

– 60 –
– 61 –

Crossword Puzzle 49

Picture icon

Solution to No. 48

ACROSS

1. Action song.
11. Slowly, gently; morning.
12. Oven.
13. Spade.
14. Wake up.
16. Avenged, paid for.
17. Good.
18. Whale.
19. Dimly seen; imperfectly understood.
21. Up.
22. Accident.
23. Jane; hen.
25. By; belonging to.
26. Putrid; thin, emaciated.
27. Majority.
30. Dash, strike; whip a top.
31. Tired.
32. Muttonbird.
33. Tip, point, linger, toe; tingle.
34. Appear above water; rise; be flooded.
35. Shellfish.
37. Afternoon.
40. Offspring, descendant.
41. But.
43. Pathway across the sea.
45. Move.
48. When; belonging to.
49. Mad.
50. Shrub used for hedges; poor land.
51. White; for.

DOWN

1. Rare visitor, sacred.
2. Day after tomorrow.
3. Current.
4. From afar.
5. Roam, go round about.
6. Me; bark.
7. Downwards.
8. To sit (passive).
9. Mt. Cook.
10. For.
15. Posture dance.
17. Swing, wave.
18. Remainder, left over.
20. Thatch; fence in.
23. Mind, thought.
24. Noise, screech; thicket.
28. Shake, quiver.
29. Deceit, cheating.
31. Make common, free from tapu.
32. Sea, tide, coast.
33. Parson bird.
36. Mind.
37. Path; that is to say.
38. Hymn.
39. Lead.
41. Mount, board.
42. Tongue.
44. Warrior, victor.
45. Beach.
46. Long.
47. Party, group.

– 62 –
– 63 –

HAERE KI O
KOUTOU TIPUNA

The Very Rev. J. G. Laughton

The Very Rev. John George Laughton, C.M.G., the pioneer Presbyterian missionary who spent most of his life among the Tuhoe people of the Ureweras, died at Rotorua on 3 July after a short illness. He was aged 74.

Mr Laughton was a former moderator of the Presbyterian Church of New Zealand, and was for many years moderator of the Presbyterian Maori Synod. A distinguished Maori scholar and an authority on Urewera history, he played a major part in the tremendous task of revising the Maori translation of the Bible.

Among the Tuhoe, Hoani Rotene (to give Mr Laughton his Maori name) was revered as one of the most honoured of elders.

Born in the Orkney Islands in 1891, he came to New Zealand in 1903, and was educated at Otago University. After five years spent as a Presbyterian Missionary in Piopio, Mr Laughton in 1918 was appointed to Maungapohatu, Rua's stronghold in the heart of the Ureweras. There he built and established the first church and school, and quickly won the friendship and respect of Rua and his followers.

In 1926 he and his wife, the former Miss Horiana Te Kauru, moved from Maungapohatu to Taupo. He was appointed Assistant Superintendendent of Maori Missions in 1933, and became Superintendent in 1936. In 1958 he moved to Whakatane when the Mission's headquarters was established there. In 1946 Mr Laughton was appointed Chairman of the Maori Bible Revision Committee, and four years later he went to England, together with his wife, to see the revised Bible through the Press.

In 1948 King George VI conferred upon him the honour of Companion of Michael and St George.

In 1956, on the constitution of the Presbyterian Maori Synod, Mr Laughton became its first Moderator, a position he occupied until his retirement six years later.

Two thousand people attended the tangihanga at Te Maungarongo marae, Ohope.

In a tribute to Mr Laughton, the Moderator of the Presbyterian General Asembly, Mr D. N. Perry, said ‘No words of mine can convey the sense of loss our Church will feel on the passing of this great and humble man … I believe history will speak with deep gratitude of his leadership and the solid foundation he has laid for a true and practical expression of Christian faith and deep harmony in race relations in New Zealand.’

Mr Laughton is survived by his wife, two sons and three daughters.

Mr Rangiataahua Royal

Mr Rangiataahua Kiniwe Royal, O.B.E., M.C. and bar, died suddenly at his home in Rotorua on 8 July. He was aged 68.

The first Controller of Maori Welfare in the Maori Affairs Department, Wellington, Mr Royal was the person originally responsible for laying the foundations of the Maori Welfare Division of the Maori Affairs Department. His strength and honesty of purpose, his outstanding administrative ability and the genial warmth of his friendship won him widespread respect and affection.

Mr Royal was born at Otaki in August 1897, and after attending the Otaki primary school moved to Hauraki, where he attended the Thames and Paeroa High Schools.

In 1912 he became the country's first Maori scoutmaster.

He joined the Maori Affairs Department at Rotorua in 1916 and during his earlier years in the department he served as interpreter, consolidation officer and field development officer.

Mr Royal served in France in World War I and was discharged in 1919 with the rank of lieutenant. He was one of the first officers to volunteer at the outbreak of World War II, and served with distinction as major in the 28th Maori Battalion commanding B Company.

In Crete he was awarded the Military Cross for valour in leading a bold charge against German paratroopers at Suda Bay, and later in the Libyan campaign was given a bar to the decoration.

In 1945 he was appointed Controller of Maori Welfare and played a prominent part in the framing of the Maori Social and Economic Advancement Act of that year.

In 1956 Mr Royal retired to Rotorua. In 1964 he was awarded the O.B.E. for his services to the

– 64 –

Maori people.

In the world of sport Mr Royal had an outstanding record. He played Rugby for a Maori team in France and England during World War I, and before that was an Auckland representative five-eighth. He was selected for the 1922 All Black team in New Zealand, but was unable to play because of an injury.

Later Mr Royal organised the first Maori cricket team to play in first class matches, and was a Rotorua and South Auckland representative. He also represented the district in rowing.

During his active years Mr Royal was a member of the Maori Advisory Board of the New Zealand Rugby Union, and on the national executives in hockey, tennis and golf, and organised the Maori Lawn Tennis Association.

In 1922 he married Te Puhi o Rakaiora Taiaroa, daughter of the Hon. K. Taiaroa of Otago.

He is survived by his wife, two sons and three daughters.

Mr William Rika

The death occurred in Rotorua last June of Mr William Rika. He was aged 59.

Born in Reporoa, Mr Rika was formerly prominent in hunting and dog trial circles. He was a foundation member of the Rotorua-Bay of Plenty Hunt Club, and served as whip for several years. He was a well-known competiter at dog trials in the Auckland province, winning events at Auckland and Waikato shows.

For a period he lived in Hamilton, working as a builder. He was a Maori warden and president of Ngati Hamutana.

Mr Rika was a member of the Ngati-Whakaue Tribal Lands Incorporation since its inception in 1961.

He is survived by his wife, two sons, Tony (Hamilton) and Len (Rotorua), and two daughters, Julie (Mrs Ngakuru, Auckland). and Carolyn (Rotorua).

Mrs Hinehou Roiri

The death occurred at Otaki last April of Mrs Anetanui Ruakahurangi Hinehou Roiri, a member of the Raukawa and Arawa tribes.

Mrs Roiri was a member of the well-known Tahiwi family. Together with her brother, the late H. Tahiwi. and her sister Mrs Ria Tahiwi, she was a member of a choral and action-song group which visited Australia before the war and made the first Maori records.

Mrs Roiri is survived by her husband, Maunga Kerehoma Roiri (of the Ngati Rahiri sub-tribe of Ngati Raukawa), by their children, Roy, Ria (Mrs Connor), Rota and Aroha, and by thirteen grandchildren.

We regret that in an obituary published in the last issue the late Mrs Roiri's name was incorrectly spelt. — Ed.

Mr Metekingi Takarangi

The death occurred at Wanganui on 2 July of Mr Metekingi Takarangi. He was aged 83.

Known on every marae throughout New Zealand, Mr Takarangi was a member of the Ngati-Hau-Apaparangi tribe and an elder of Putiki Pa. He was interested in and worked for many organisations for the welfare of the Maori people, and was patron of the Whanganui Maori Educational Advancement Committee. He was awarded the M.B.E. in the 1962 Queen's Birthday Honours List for his services to the Maori people.

He was a keen sportsman, his main interests being Rugby, the New Zealand Maori Golf Association and the New Zealand Maori Tennis Association.

Many Maori and Pakeha mourners, including visitors from all over the country, attended the funeral at Putiki Pa.

Predeceased by his wife, Mr Takarangi is survived by two sons, Te Mooro (Patea) and Mei Hunia (Auckland), and two daughters, Ngaamo (Mrs R. Jury, of Gonville) and Ani Reneta (Mrs R. Davenport, of Putiki). Another son, Wiripo, was killed on active service with the Maori Battalion.

Mr D. M. Jillett

Mr D. M. Jillett, officer for Maori education for New Zealand, died in Auckland on 1 July after a short illness. He was 59.

Mr Jillett, who was a trustee of the Maori Education Foundation, was appointed senior inspector of Maori schools in 1958. He took up his present position in 1962.

Born at Titahi Bay, Wellington, he was educated at New Plymouth Boys' High School and Victoria University. He taught in the Wanganui and Hawke's Bay Education Boards' districts and had wide experience of district high schools. He joined the inspectorate in Auckland in 1951.

Mr Jillett was active in New Zealand Education Institute affairs and was president in 1950-51.

He is survived by his wife, one son and two daughters.

Mr Tonga Awhikau

Mr Tonga Awhikau died last July at Lowgarth, South Taranaki, at the age of 102.

A highly respected elder, Mr Awhikau is remembered for the energetic efforts he made to help his people and to further harmony between Maori and Pakeha.

Mr Awhikau, who was a chairman of the West Coast Lands Committee, was born in 1863 at the time of the war with Titokowaru. He remembered the command to fire by Major Von Tempsky which started the famous battle of Te Ngutu-o-te-Manu.

He is survived by a son, Tui, and several grandchildren and great-grandchildren.

– 65 –

TIAKINA NGA MANU MAORI

KERERU

Ko tenei manu he morehu no te wao nui a Tane.
Na runga i nga mahi pohehe a te tangata i whakaaturia ai nga
tikanga kia kaua e patua tenei manu.
Ko etahi enei o ana ingoa ko te kuku me te kukupa.
He manu huatahi tenei ara kotahi ano tona whanautanga i te tau
kahore i penei i etahi manu nei te kaha ki te whanaunau.
He inoi atu tenei kia koutou katoa manaakitia te manu nei kia rite
ai tana tupu ki nga ra o mua.

Na Te Tari

Kaitiaki o nga Manu