The First Pakehas to Visit
The Bay of Islands
An account of the visit of Captain Cook, the coming of Marion Dufresne and the circumstances which led to his death, and what happened when the first pigs came to Waima.
John White, the compiler of the six-volume ‘Ancient History of the Maori’ left many unpublished manuscripts behind him when he died in 1891. Many of these manuscripts, most of which were written or dictated by Maori friends and informants, have not yet been published.
The story published here is one of many White manuscripts in the Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington. John White lived at Hokianga from 1835 to 1850 (that is, from the age of nine until he was 24) but it is not known whether this account was collected during these early years.
All that is known about his informant is that he was a member of the Ngapuhi tribe. As with nearly all of White's papers, the manuscript is written in White's own hand-writing. The manuscript reference is: MS Papers 75, B19 ‘Ancient History of the Maori’ V. 10 (Maori) pp. 71–76. The translation published here is a new one, based on White's translation.
We are not sure whether or not this account has previously been published. It is possible that it may not have been, for it is not mentioned in ‘Marion Dufresne at the Bay of Islands’ (1951), a most interesting book by the late Leslie G. Kelly, one of the most notable of Maori historians. The manuscript's account of the killing of Marion Dufresne and members of his crew agrees in most respects with the story pieced together by Kelly, but gives a fuller explanation of the reasons for their death.
Captain Cook's visit to the Bay of Islands took place at the end of 1769. The Frenchman Marion Dufresne spent two months there in the winter of 1772. He and his crew were the first Pakehas to spend several consecutive weeks living amongst the Maori people.
In the translation the Europeans are referred to as ‘foreigners.’ But the word ‘tupua,’ often used to refer to them in the Maori text, normally signifies a supernatural being; William's Dictionary defines it as ‘goblin, demon, object of terror’. The word ‘kehua’, used once with reference to the Frenchmen, means ‘ghost, spirit.’ ‘Maitai,’ the other word used, refers to the iron which the visitors brought with them.
Remarks in square brackets have been added by ‘Te Ao Hou’. Apart from these, parentheses which have no equivalent in the Maori text are written by White.
The word ‘wawai’ (page 15) is difficult to read in the manuscript, and may not be transcribed accurately here.
Nga Uri o Tapua
Me Kapene Kuki
Me hoki tenei ki te take mai o Nene raua ko Patuone.
Ta Rangi-mitimiti ko Tutahua, tana ko Meto raua ko tana tuahine ko Wharetonu; ta Whare-tonu ko Te Kuta. Ka moe a Te Kuta i a Ngawa kia puta ko Patu, tana ko Tua, tana ko Kawahau, he wahine; ka moe i a Tapua kia puta ko Tari, he wahine; i moe i a Te Wharerahi o Tokerau. I muri i a Tari ko nga tamariki tokowha he tane, a, tokorua o raua
And Captain Cook
This shall be an account of the descent of Nene (Tamati Waka Nene) and Patuone.
Rangi-mitimiti had Tutahua, who had Meto and a daughter named Wharetonu. She had Te Kuta, who had Ngawa, who had Patu, who had Tua, who had a daughter named Kawahau.
Kawahau married Tapua: they had a daughter named Tari, who married Te Wharerahi of the Bay of Islands. After Tari
i mate i te parekura, ko Te Anga raua ko Te Ruanui; a, nga tama i ora ko Patuone, ko Nene.
I noho te whanau a Tapua i Tokerau, no te mea no reira a Tapua. A, kiano i mau patu noa a Patuone raua ko Nene, ka hoe te iwi o Tapua ki te hao ika i te takutai o te moana i Matauri. A, kua nui he ika ki nga waka, ka puta te kaipuke i waho o Motu-kokako, a, ka mahue nga kupenga a Tapua ma, ka hoe o ratou waka—a Te Tumuaki, te waka o Tapua me tana wha tekau topu, me Harotu, te waka o Tuwhare me tana rua tekau topu, me Te Homai, te waka o Te Tahapirau me tana rua tekau topu, me Te Tikitiki, te waka o Ne' me tana toru tekau—kia kite i taua kaipuke.
Te mea i hoe atu ai ki taua pahi, he mea tauhou taua tu waka ki taua moana. A, ka tae nga waka nei, ka tata atu ki te puke ra, ka powhiria e aua tangata kia tata atu aua waka nei. A, ka korero aua tini Maori a Tapua ma, a, ka rite nga korero, ka tata atu te waka o Tapua, a, ka whiua nga ika o te waka ra ma nga maitai tupua ra, a, ka pai aua tupua ki nga ika, ana ka huro te reo, a, ka kohia aua ika e ratou.
A, ka eke a Tapua ki te puke ra, a, ka homai e te rangatira o aua tupua ra te kahu kura ki a Te Tapua, me tetahi kiko kuri mataitia, he mea maoa taua kikokiko me te matu ano e mau tahi ana. A, ka mau a Tapua, ka hoatu ma Patuone raua ko te tuahine ma Tari, a, katahi ra ano taua tu kai ka kitea e te Maori; reka ai koa taua kai. A, ka tohungia te puke ra e Te Tapua ma, a, ka tau ki Te Puna, a, ka tukua he whenua ma aua tupua ra e noho i Te Puna, a, ka noho a Ngapuhi ki uta, a, ka hoe te maitai ki uta ano hoki.
A, ka ahua tupato a Ngapuhi ki aua tupua kei raru te Maori i a maitai, a, ka tikina aua tupua ra ka titiro makutu atu nga tohunga kia kitea ai te he ranei, te pai ranei, o aua tupua. Ki te wawai o ratou mata, a, kahore kau he kino o ratou i kitea e aua tohunga, a, ka whangainga e te Maori ki a ratou kai Maori, ara, ki te roi, ki te kumara, a, ki te ika, me te manu o te Wao Nui a Tane. A, kihai i to te marama, ka rere ano te puke ra ki waho ki te moana, a, ka hoki ano a Ngapuhi ki ona kainga noho ai, mahi ai i ana mahi Maori me te ngaki kai.
they had four sons, two of whom, Te Anga and Te Ruanui, were killed in battle. The surviving sons were Patuone and Nene. Tapua's family lived at the Bay of Islands, since Tapua belonged to that district.
One day, before Patuone and Nene were old enough to bear weapons, Tapua and his people were out netting fish at the sea coast at Matauri. They had caught many fish, when the ship appeared beyond Motu-kokako. Then Tapua and his people left their nets and went in their canoes—Te Tumuaki, the canoe of Tapua and his crew of eighty, Harotu, the canoe of Tuwhare and his crew of forty. Te Homai, the canoe of Te Tahapirau and his crew of forty, and Te Tikitiki, the canoe of Ne' and his crew of sixty—to look at that ship.
They went to see the vessel because such a ship had never before visited that place. When the canoes were near the ship, the people on board beckoned to them to come closer. So Tapua's men conferred together, and when they had come to a decision, the canoe commanded by Tapua went alongside the ship. Then they threw the fish from the canoe up on to the ship, as an offering to the foreigners. The foreigners were pleased with the fish, and shouted with joy as they gathered them up.
After this Tapua went on board the ship, and the leader of the foreigners presented him with a red garment and with the salt flesh of an animal. It was cooked flesh, with both fat and lean meat on the one piece. Tapua took it and gave it to his son and daughter, Patuone and Tari. Food of this kind had not previously been known to the Maori; they found it to be sweet, and very good.
Te Tapua and his people guided the ship until she dropped anchor at Te Puna, and they gave the foreigners some land there on which to live. The people of Ngapuhi gathered on the shore, and the foreigners came ashore also. The people of Ngapuhi were cautious of the foreigners, lest they should do them harm. So the priests went and examined them closely, to find out whether they were good or bad.
It seemed to the tohungas that the foreigners were not dangerous. So the Maori people fed them with their foods; that is, with fern root, kumara, fish, and the birds of the great forest of Tane. But before a month had passed the ship sailed away over the ocean, and the Ngapuhi people returned to their homes, resuming their usual activities and the cultivation of food.
Ko Ngati Pou te iwi i noho i nga motu i waho ake o Tokerau, ara, i Motu-arohia, i Te Waiiti, i etahi ano hoki o aua moutere. No nga uri o Rahiri taua hapu, a, no Te Waimate ratou; noho ai ki aua motu mahi mataitai ai i nga tau kai ika. A, ka puta ano etahi kaipuke ki taua moana, a, u ai ki Motu-arohia tau ai, a, ka u aua tupua ra ki uta.
Ko te tino rangatira o aua pakeha maitai ra ko Mariao, he tangata nui a ia. A, ka mahi, ka hokohoko aua Mariao i nga kai a te Maori, i te kumara, i te ika, i te manu, a tautini noa ki reira tau ai, me te pai atu te Maori ki aua maitai, a, kai tahi ai ki aua tupua; a, moe ai aua tupua i roto i o te Maori whare, a, moe ai te Maori i aua kaipuke.
A, ka tae ki aua ra ka hoe aua maitai ki te hao ika i te one i Manawaora, a, ka riria e te Maori. He mea hoki kua tapu taua one ra i te tupapaku o te iwi o Te Kauri, te iwi i noho i Whangamumu, a, no ratou nga tangata i paremo ki te moana o Tokerau, a, paea ai ki taua one. Ahakoa riria e aua Maori o Ngati Pou kei huakina ratou e te iwi o Te Kauri hei utu mo ta ratou tapu i takahia, kihai aua maitai ra i rongo, tohe tonu ano ki te hao i a ratou kupenga ki taua one.
A, ka pouri a Ngati Pou, a, ka mutu te hokihoki o ratou ki aua kaipuke, ki te hokohoko i etahi paraharaha, penei te roa me te ringa tangata, hei utu mo a ratou kai, me nga ika, me nga manu, a, mo te ra kotahi i mahi wahie ai, i te ata a, ahiahi noa.
A, ka hoe aua maitai ra ki uta horoi ai i o ratou kakahu, a, ka tae ki te wa e kai ai aua maitai i te ra tikaka, ka noho ka kai aua tupua ra, a, ka mahue te titiro ki a ratou kahu e tare ra i nga uru rakau i iri ai, ka tikina etahi o aua kahu ra ka tahaetia e te Maori, hei utu mo te tapu o Manawaora i takahia ra e aua tupua ki te kupenga hao ika,
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Ngati Pou were the people who lived on the islands outside the Bay of Islands, that is to say on Motu-arohia, Te Waiiti and other islands there. The people of this sub-tribe were descended from Rahiri and belonged to Te Waimate, but in the fishing season they lived on these islands in order to obtain sea-food.
While they were there, more ships appeared in the bay. They reached Motu-arohia and anchored there, and their crews came on shore. Their principal leader was named Marion [Dufresne]; he was a large [?important] man. Marion and his men bartered goods for Maori food—kumaras, fish and birds—and they stayed at anchor there for a long time.
The Maoris were friendly towards them; they habitually ate together, and the foreigners slept in the Maori houses and the Maoris slept on board the ships.
But there came a day when the foreigners rowed ashore in order to net fish on the beach at Manawaora. The Maoris scolded them for this, for the beach was tapu to some of Te Kauri's people (the people who lived at Whangamumu). Some men from there had been drowned in the Bay of Islands, and had been cast ashore on this beach. Although the people of Ngati Pou told them angrily not to do this (for they were afraid that Te Kauri's people would attack them in order to obtain recompense for the violation of their tapu), the foreigners took no notice, and persisted in drawing in their net on the beach. Then Ngati Pou became very sad, and no longer visited the ships and bargained for pieces of hoop-iron the size of a man's hand (these had been given in exchange for food, fish and birds, or for an entire day spent chopping firewood).
Soon after this, some of the foreigners came on shore to wash their clothes. In the middle of the day, when it was time to eat, they sat down and had their meal, no longer watching their clothes, which were hung up on bushes in the scrub. Then the Maoris went and took some of the clothes, as a recompense for the foreigners having violated the tapu of Manawaora by netting fish there, and eating those fish; it was this that made the desecration of the tapu such a grave offence.
Marion's men went and told how their clothes had been stolen. Two chiefs of Ngati
a, kainga ai aua ika ra, koia te tino kino o taua tapu ra i takahia nei.
Ka tae te iwi Mariao ra, ka korero i o ratou kahu kua pau te tahae, mei reira e rua nga rangatira o te iwi a Ngati Pou ra i runga i tetahi o aua kaipuke, a, ka tae a Mariao, ka herea aua tangata ki te hukahuka whakahoki, a, kia hoki mai ra ano nga kahu i tahaetia e te Maori, ka tukua ai aua rangatira e Mariao. A, i te po ka mawheto te here o aua tangata ra i a raua te wewete, a, ka pahure raua ki uta. U kau ano raua ki uta, ka ki nga tohunga Maori na a ratou atua i momotu aua whakahoki i ora ai aua tangata i herea ra.
A, kihai te Maori i mohio ki te take i herea ai raua. No to raua taenga ki uta, ka rongo raua ki nga kahu i tahaetia ra e Ngati Pou, hei hapainga ma ratou ki Te Hikutu ki te iwi o Te Kauri mo te tapu i takahia ra i Manawaora.
Ka tae ki tetahi ra, ka hoe nga maitai ki uta ki te hao ano i ta ratou kupenga, a, kua mohio a Ngati Pou na Mariao i herea ai etahi o a ratou tangata. A, ka hao a Mariao ma i te ika, a, ka pae te ika ki o ratou poti, a, ka tae aua kehua ra ka utaina te kupenga ki te poti, ka huakina ratou e te Maori, a, ka patua aua maitai kia mate, a, mate katoa; kahore te mea kotahi i rere.
A, ka maua nga tupapaku, ka taona, a, na Te Kauri raua ko Tohitapu o Te Koroa i kai a Mariao, a, i a Te Kauri te kahu o Mariao, a, ko nga wheua o te hunga maitai i patua nei he mea mahi hei tirou kai, a, ko nga wheua o nga huha he mea mahi hei torino, ara, hei rehu.
Ao ake, ka u nga poti o nga kaipuke ra, a, ka tauria nga pa e rua i Motu-arohia, a, i pupuhi ano aua kaipuke i a raua pu nui. Kotahi pu i pakaru, a, i mea tetahi o nga rangatira o Ngati Pou i herea ra i runga i aua kaipuke, nana taua pu-repo i makutu, koia i pakaru ai.
O nga pa i taea nei e aua tupua nei, ko Taranui te rangatira o te hapu i noho i te pa i Te Waiiti, a, ko nga kai e kawea nei e nga Maori hoko ai ki aua tupua ra, no Orokawa. Ko tetahi o aua pa i taea nei e aua tupua, i tetahi pito o te one i Manawaora.
Nga tangata i kite i aua mahi nei, ko Tohitapu o Te Koroa o Ngapuhi, a, ko Tarewarewa o Te Patu o Ngapuhi, a, ko
Pou were on one of the ships at the time, and Marion came and had them tied up with pieces of rope, intending to keep them prisoner until the stolen clothes were returned. But during the night the men managed to untie themselves, and escaped to land.
When they arrived back, the Maori priests said that it was their gods which had parted the rope and allowed the chiefs to return alive.
These two chiefs had not known the reason why they had been tied up, but when they returned they heard how the clothes had been stolen by Te Hikutu to give to Te Kauri's people as a recompense for the desecration of the tapu at Manawaora.
One day soon after this, the foreigners rowed ashore to net fish again, and Ngati Pou learnt that it was Marion who had tied up their men. Marion and his men used their nets, and the fish were lying in their boat. When the foreigners were putting the net into the boat, the Maoris attacked them and clubbed them to death. All of them were killed; not one escaped.
They took the bodies and cooked them, and Te Kauri and Tohitapu of the Te Koroa sub-tribe ate Marion, and Te Kauri took Marion's clothes. The bones of the foreigners who had been killed were made into forks for picking up food, and the thigh-bones were made into flutes.
Next day the boats of the ships came on shore, and they attacked two pas at Motuarohia, firing their big guns. One cannon burst, and one of the Ngati Pou chiefs who had been tied up on the ship said that he had bewitched the cannon, and it was for this reason that it had burst.
Of the pas captured by these foreigners, the one at Te Waiiti was commanded by Taranui. The food which had been brought to barter with the foreigners was from Orokawa. Another pa captured by the foreigners was at the end of the Manawaora beach.
The men who witnessed these acts were Tohitapu of Te Koroa sub-tribe of Ngapuhi (who died in 1833), Tarewarewa of Te Patu sub-tribe of Ngapuhi, and Takurua of Te Mahurehure sub-tribe of Ngapuhi (these two men died in 1839).
These men also witnessed the introduction of pigs amongst the Maoris at the Bay of Islands. These pigs were received in exchange for food. One was a sow and the other was a boar, and they were quite young. They were brought to the Waima district by the parents
Takurua o Te Mahurehure o Ngapuhi. Na aua tangata i kite i te oroko whiwhinga o te Maori i te poaka i Tokerau.
He mea utu ki te kai aua poaka. He uwha tetahi, he toa tetahi, a, he kuwao aua poaka. Maua mai ana ki roto ki Waima e nga matua o Te Takurua. Ka tae aua poaka ki Waima, ka kiia e te iwi he atua, a, tukua ana aua kuri kia haere noa atu nei koa. E tupu ana te kumara, kiano i hauhakea, a, e tapu ana ano nga mara, a, ka haere aua poaka ki roto ki aua mara haere ai, a, he tapu te taea atu ai e nga kaitiaki o aua poaka. Ko te ngunguru anake e rangona atu, i mea pu ai te iwi koia ano he atua aua kuri nei; a, ka tae ki te wa i hauhakea ai aua mara, kua nui noa atu te ketunga [ unclear: ] aua kuri ra i te kumara hei kai ma raua, a, na nga tohunga i karakia aua mara i kore ai e he te iwi mo nga mahi ketu a aua poaka i nga mara i te wa e tapu ana nga mara.
Ka noho ra aua poaka, i utua ra ki te kai, a, ka whanau, a, ka pokaia e ona tangata mohio ki te poka kuri Maori. A, ka tini te poaka, ka runanga a Ngapuhi ka patua nga poaka, a, ka kai te iwi i te poaka tao ki te hangi. A, ka taki, ka korero, ka mea te iwi nei te pai o te ao, me mate te tangata me mate mo tenei tu kai, a, ka tini haere te poaka.
Ko te toa o aua poaka nei i tapaa ki te ingoa nei ko ‘Hanikura’, a, ko te uwha i tapaa ki te ingoa ko ‘Te Maro-o-te-Kopu’.
Ka mate nei a Mariao i a Ngati Pou, ka turia ratou e Te Hikutu mo te tapu i Manaw-ora [ unclear: ] takahia nei e Mariao, a, ka mate a Ngati Pou, a, ka whati nga morehu ki Whangaroa, a, na ratou i patu, a, i kai nga pakeha i te kaipuke i patua ki reira e Tara o Ngati Uru, a, na Hongi Hika taua iwi ra i patu i te wa i wera ai te kainga o nga Weteriana, a, i tu ra a Hongi i Hunuhunua i te pu, a, kei reira ano nga uri o Hongi e noho ana, kei Whangaroa.
of Te Takurua. When the pigs arrived at Waima the people thought that they were gods, and allowed them to wander wherever they liked.
The kumara crop was growing, and as it had not yet been taken up, the plantations were very tapu. The pigs went into the plantations, and because of the tapu no one could go and take them away. All that the people could hear was the pigs' grunting, and this made them more certain than ever that the animals were gods. But when the time came to take up the kumaras, it was found that the pigs had rooted up and eaten a good part of the crop. So the priests recited incantations to prevent the gods from punishing the people for the pigs' having rooted in the plantations while they were tapu.
These pigs which had been exchanged for food continued to live there, and had young ones, which were gelded by the experts in the same way that they gelded dogs. When the pigs had become numerous, the people of Ngapuhi held a meeting and killed some of them. They ate the flesh of the pigs cooked in the ovens, then they made speeches, saying that it was the best food in the world, and that if man must die, let him die for such food as this. After this the pigs increased in number. The first boar was called Hanikura, and the first sow was called Te Maro-o-te-Kopu.
After Marion had been killed by Ngati Pou, they were attacked by Te Hikutu because of Marion's violation of the tapu of Manawaora. Ngati Pou were defeated, and the survivors fled to Whangaroa. It was they who killed and ate the Pakehas from the ship who were killed there by Tara of the Ngati Uru sub-tribe (that is, the crew of the Boyd in 1809), and this people the Ngati Uru were killed by Hongi Hika when he burnt the Wesleyan settlement at Whangaroa; it was in this war that Hongi Hika was wounded with a musket shot at Hunuhunua. The descendants of Hongi Hika are living at Whangaroa to this day.
A national speech contest open to Maori pupils is to be held annually. The contest will be organised jointly by the Post-Primary Teachers' Association and the Maori Education Foundation. It will be sponsored by the Governor-General, Sir Bernard Fergusson, who has commissioned a handsome prize, the Korimako Trophy, to be awarded to the winner of the senior section. The Secretary for Maori Affairs, Mr J. M. McEwen, has offered to present a trophy for the junior section.
Individual schools will conduct their own elimination contests, and there will then be regional finals. The Dominion final of the section will be held in the August vacation, and the junior in early December.