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No. 50 (March 1965)
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Te Ao Hou
THE MAORI MAGAZINE

The department of maori affairs March 1965

A dozen of these old figures, nearly all of them larger than life-size, lie under the trees at Papawai, near Greytown. Sixty years ago they were among the 18 tall stockade figures placed around the marae at Papawai Pa, at that time a flourishing settlement with a population of 3,000.

As a token that peace had come, the figures stood looking into the pa instead of facing outwards to defy the enemy.

But now only six of the figures are standing, and where once there were many buildings, there is now one small meeting-house. An article on the pa, and the famous gatherings formerly held there, appears on page 36.

– 1 –

published quarterly by the Department of Maori Affairs and sponsored by the Maori Purposes Fund Board.

printed by Pegasus Press Ltd.

n.z. subscriptions: One year 7/6 (four issues), three years £1. Rate for schools: 4/- per year (minimum five subscriptions). From all offices of the Maori Affairs Department and from the editor.

editorial address: Box 2390, Wellington, New Zealand.

overseas subscriptions: England and other countries with sterling currency: one year 10s, three years £1 5s. Australia: one year A13s 6d, three years £A1 11s 6d. U.S.A., Hawaii and Canada: one year $1.50, three years $3.50. Other countries: the local equivalent of sterling rates.

back issues (N.Z. rates). Issue nos. 18-23, 25, and 27-49 are available at 2/6 each. A very few copies of issue nos. 10, 13, 16 and 24 are still available at 5/- each. Other issues are now out of print. (Overseas rates for back issues are available on request).

contributions in maori: Ko tetahi o nga whakaaro nui o Te Ao Hou he pupuri kia mau te reo Maori. Otira ko te nuinga o nga korero kei te tukua mai kei te reo Pakeha anake. Mehemea hoki ka nui mai nga korero i tuhia ki te reo Maori ka whakanuia ake te wahanga o te tatou pukapuka mo nga korero Maori.

Statements in signed articles in Te Ao Hou are the responsibility only of the writers concerned.

the minister of maori affairs: The Hon. J. R. Hanan.

the secretary for maori affairs: J. M. McEwen.

editor: Margaret Orbell.

associate editor (Maori text): E. B. Ranapia.

Te Ao Hou
THE MAORI MAGAZINE

Contents March 1965

page
STORIES
Johnny Pokaka's Grandfather, Jo Friday 8
The Story of Pare and Hutu 13
The Story of Niwareka and Mataora 17
POETRY
A Traveller's Prayer 6
Kia Toa, Kia Kaha! P. A. Webster 48
Ka Eke Ki Wairaka Puhiwahine 20
ARTICLES
Recipes for Cooking Paua 3
Earl Nikora: Greatest of Maori Boxers, Kelly Hakopa 4
Maori Gathering in London, Sam Karetu 7
Tangi, Vera D. Davidson 10
To Taupo by Waggonette, Bill Hammond 11
Some Impressions of Indonesia, Lane Tauroa 22
Maori Flax Sandals, Catherine Brown 28
Maori Flags and Banners, Margaret Orbell 32
Historic Papawai Pa 36
Transcriptions of Authentic Maori Chant: part three, Mervyn McLean 41
The Problem of Maori Drownings, Ruhia Sage 43
Play Centre at Rukumoana 44
Play Centre at Ahimia 45
Where is the Love of My People? 47
Te Taenga Mai o te Waea-Korero ki Orete. Hiri Waititi 49
Maori Clubs 51
FEATURES
Book Reviews 54
Record Reviews 59
Crossword Puzzle 61
Haere ki o Koutou Tipuna 63

COVER: Members of the Maori chorus of ‘Porgy and Bess’ rehearse in the garden of the New Zealand Opera Company's Wellington head-quarters. For more photographs and the names of those taking part in the opera, see page 24.

Illustrations: Page nine, Graham Percy. Pages 13 and 15, Para Matchitt.

– 2 –

Letters

The Editor
‘Te Ao Hou’.

I was delighted to read, in your December issue, the article by Bruce Biggs on the oral literature of the Polynesians. I was especially interested in his quotation from the Grey manuscript of the Maui story, for this very important manuscript has never been published yet, either in Maori or in English, and the versions printed by Grey in ‘Nga Mahi a nga Tupuna’ are in many ways very different from the original text. Grey not only rearranged the order of the tales, but he even undertook to improve on Te Rangikaheke's grammar and vocabulary; furthermore, he left out whatever he thought indelicate. So it was pleasant to see Bruce Biggs lift at least the tip of the veil. Alas, this is all he did do, for the ending of the tale, as printed on page 43 of your issue, still does not give anything like the correct text. The last accurate sentence is ‘Behold his skin, mottled like that of a mackarel with the black pigment of the many toothed tattooing chisel.’ From that point, without warning, Dr Biggs leaves the original text behind and instead of translating, he gives a very vague paraphrase.

I am far from suggesting that Dr Biggs did not understand the rest of the text, but I think he wished to avoid offending your delicate ears. Nonetheless, I think that the correct text should be known, even to those who cannot look it up in the Auckland Public Library, for it is not only the end of a delightful tale, but also rather important for anyone who wishes to understand fully the Maui myth and its profound meaning. For that reason, I shall quote the sentences that follow:

‘Katahi ka tomo atu, ko tona upoko ki mua. Ka ngaro te pane, e memene noa ana nga paparinga o te tini manu ra. Ka ngaro nga peke, tango atu ki te uma. Katahi ano ka tino kata nga tiwakawaka ra.

‘Ano te ohoreretanga o taua Ruahine. Anā! Oho, tuwhera ana nga kanohi, kopi ana nga kuhaa. Ehara ! Rokohanga iho ano, ka wharo ka ngaro te hope. Tana kutinga iho o aua Mataora! Ehara! Moturere atu ana ki roto, moturere ana mai ki waho. Heoi ka mate tenei Maui …’

For the rest, the text is given in Grey's ‘Nga Mahi a nga Tupuna’, page 23, more or less as it stands in the manuscript, except for the usual frequent ‘improvements’.

The main purpose of this letter is to impress on your readers that we must really set about to produce a proper text of Te Rangikaheke's writings; though some people may think the extract I have quoted a little too crude, there is no doubt of the narrative power of his style, is no doubt that this 2,000 page manuscript is the most important existing text in genuine classical Maori, no doubt that we shall never understand Maori grammar unless genuine texts of this sort are accessible; finally, those of us who are seriously interested in Maori mythology will want to have access to a correct version of the most important myths; thus one may say the key to the significance of the Maui story is given in a sentence which is only explained by the full version I have given above, namely: ‘He mahi atu ta te tangata, ma Hinenuitepo e kukuti mai’. This is one of the most important statements in Maori philosophy and the myth behind the proverb is worth preserving. So are a great many other myths found in Maori manuscripts which have never been edited.

ERIK SCHWIMMER

University of British Columbia,
Canada

sixty members of the waihirere maori club have taken part in a film to be shown in picture theatres and on television in Asian countries. One of the largest ventures undertaken by the National Film Unit, the film shows the Maori people as integrated with the Pakeha, but at the same time retaining their own culture.

an arts and crafts ‘working bee’ will be held at Tikitiki for a week next May. The participants will be a group of about 60 Maori people from Orakei, who wish to decorate their new church with carvings and tukutuku work. A number of students at Elam School of Arts are also keen to take part in the project.

The course is being organised with the help of Auckland's university extension department, and one of the tutors is to be the well-known carver Pine Taiapa.

The group will be accommodated at the Rahuia-o-Kehu marae, Tikitiki, and the catering will be undertaken by the Ngati Porou Women's Welfare League.

– 3 –

RECIPES FOR
COOKING PAUA

Kua piki ake te tini o te paua,
Kua piri ki te niao o te waka.

These shellfish are found clinging to the underside of rocks, and under rock ledges in deep water. Insert a sharp knife between the paua and the rock and lever off quickly.

To Prepare for Cooking

Wash and scrape the surface of the paua. Remove from its shell with a sharp knife. Cut away the pewa or soft part of the paua (do not throw it away, as it is delicious made into soup, savoury fillings, or added to paua fritters). Press out the teeth, of which there are two, from the mouth. The paua is now ready to be used as desired.

Fried Paua

Prepare the desired number of paua. Prick the white or central underside of paua with a fork, or else hammer to soften (as for steak). Roll in flour, then fry quickly in hot fat. Drain on absorbent paper, and serve while hot.

Paua Fritters

6 medium-sized paua with pewa intact

1 cup flour

½ cup milk

½ teaspoon salt

1 egg

1 teaspoon baking powder

Squeeze teeth from paua but do not remove pewa, as this adds to the flavour of the fritters. Mince. Mix dry ingredients together; add beaten egg and milk to make a smooth batter. Add minced paua and pewa to batter and stir well. Fry spoonfuls in hot fat. Drain on absorbent paper. Serve hot, garnished with parsley or wedges of lemon.

Stewed Paua

6 large paua

1 large onion (sliced)

2 tablespoons flour

2 cups boiling water

2 tablespoons butter

½ teaspoon salt

Prepare paua, remove teeth and pewa. Dice paua. Fry onion in butter till cooked. Add diced paua, cover with two cups boiling water and simmer gently till cooked. Mix salt and flour with a little water to make a smooth paste and thicken.

Paua Tahu

These are paua preserved in fat.

Prepare desired number of paua, following instructions given above (see ‘to prepare for cooking’). Cover paua with cold water and bring to boil, turn down heat and simmer gently for 15 to 20 minutes or until paua are cooked. Remove paua from water and drain. Have ready a half-filled container of boiling, salt-free, pork fat. Drop drained paua into fat, one by one, so that each paua is completely covered by fat. Store in cool place when fat has set.

Points to Note

(1)

Do not add paua to boiling water as this makes them tough and stringy. Use cold water as stated above.

(2)

Draining is best done in a moderate oven, 350 deg. This is to ensure that the cooked paua is absolutely dry and free of moisture, an important factor in the keeping quality of the finished product. If any droplets of moisture adhere to the paua when it is dropped into the hot fat, these do not sink to the bottom of the container but form pockets between the paua and the fat. This causes tainting.

(3)

Do not pack paua into the container first, then cover with fat. This method does not completely cover each paua, and they will not keep.

(4)

Do not salt. This will also cause tainting (see number two above).

This is the first of a series of articles on Maori cooking which the Turanganui Branch of the Maori Women's Welfare League is contributing to Te Ao Hou.

The M.W.W.L. hopes in the future to publish a book on Maori cooking, and it is with this in mind that the Turanganui Branch has collected these recipes. It would be much appreciated if M.W.W.L. members with favourite recipes were to contribute them to the League's collection by sending them either to the Dominion Secretary, Maori Women's Welfare League, P.O. Box 5158, Wellington, or to the Secretary of the Turanganui Branch, at 5 Endeavour Street, Gisborne.

two noted maori musicians of some years back, the singer Deane Waretini and the pianist Molly Meihana, are together to make a long-playing record for H.M.V.

– 4 –

Picture icon

Earl Nikora (left) fights Tony Vickers, the then Australian heavyweight champion, in a bout that ended with a knockout for Vickers in the eighth round.

Earl Nikora: Greatest of Maori Boxers

earl nikora's fight last November with Gomeo Brennan for the British Empire middleweight title was the culmination of years of hard training, and the fulfilment of a lifelong ambition. Though he lost the bout on points he put up a magnificent performance, showing all of the rugged fighting qualities that he was inherited from his famous ancestor, Rewi Maniapoto.

The greatest of all Maori boxers, Earl is the holder of three boxing titles: the New Zealand middle and light-heavyweight boxing crowns, and the Australasian middleweight title. This is a really amazing record, especially when one considers the many obstacles—in particular the limited training facilities—that he has to contend with.

Earl Parariki Hauparoa Nikora, alias ‘The Rock’, was born on 14 January 1940. He is the son of Horima Nikora and Tauariki Ormsby, and is a member of the Kaputahi and Paritekawa subtribes on the Mainapoto and Tainui tribes. He is one of a family of 11 brothers and three sisters.

Earl is married to Elsie Collier of the Ngati Porou tribe, and they have four small daughters.

Other Boxers in The Family

There have been boxers in the family previously, for his father Horima and his uncles, Brownie Nikora and Puku and Henry Wikio, were all notable amateur boxers in their time.

Earl's boxing career began at the age of 13,

– 5 –

when he and his two brothers Mick and Charley got really enthusiastic. Mick and Charley later built up [ unclear: ] ne amateur boxing records in the Waikato district.

In 1955 Earl won his first amateur title when he defeated Johnny Nomura by a K.O. in the third round. Two years later in Wellington he was taken in hand by Willie Dowhan, an Austrian professional who taught him many of the finer points of the game.

‘Absolute Fitness Essential’

Earl says, ‘One of the main things Willie taught me is that absolute fitness is essential. I shall never forget this. No other trainer had really brought this home to me in the same way.’

There followed a series of amateur fights in which Earl did so well that in the opinion of many people, he was most unlucky not to be nominated for the Olympic Games in 1960.

After this he decided to turn professional, and in a series of successful fights he took on all comers from middleweights to heavyweights.

In 1962 Earl defeated John Noumura for the light heavyweight championship by a six-round knockout. However for a long time he could not get the elimination bouts he wanted for the New Zealand middleweight title, and was getting really downhearted and considering giving up the game.

But then he got the chance to fight Tony Tyner, a leading competitor for the title, and beat him comfortably on points. Another victory against Ken Fleetwood followed, and in February 1963 Earl was finally matched with Walter Finlay, the then middleweight champion of New Zealand. Earl knocked Finlay out in the third round, thus earning his second title.

His third title of Australasian middleweight was gained soon afterwards when he defeated Reg Hayes, the then holder, by disqualification.

Bout With Tuna Scanlan

His next ambition was to fight Tuna Scanlan for the Empire middleweight crown, but for a long time he was unable to arrange this. When he did finally get his fight with Scanlan, he was shocked to find that the New Zealand Boxing Association would only allow him a non-title bout.

When he entered the ring in July 1964, he hammered Tuna mercilessly, belting him to final submission in the last round. Earl never looked like being beaten; he was determined to win this fight.

Here is Earl's record as a boxer:

Amateur: 46 fights; 36 wins, one draw and nine losses.

Professional: 36 fights; 27 wins, nine losses.

For the last couple of years Earl has done all his training at the Hangatiki Pa and down at his cowshed, where he and his manager Wally Baker have rigged up a makeshift gymnasium. He has seldom used proper sparring partners, and has done most of his training with his 16-year-old nephew Raymond Jobe and with his uncles Brownie and Reihana, who throughout his career have given him every encouragement and assistance.

Main Interest Now His Farm

Earl is not sure of his future plans, but he will not go overseas. He will defend his titles against all comers, and perhaps retire within the next two years. His main interest now is his 171-acre farm at Waitomo Road, near Te Kuiti, and that is where his future will be.

Among other things, the revenue from his boxing has enabled him to buy a new cowshed and machines and a new tractor, as well as a piano for his wife Elsie and a TV set.

Earl's personal interests include pig-hunting and music. He is the secretary of the local Maori Committee, and one of his main interests is helping to encourage children not to leave school too early, but to go on and further their education.

In winning himself a lasting place in the annuals of New Zealand boxing. Earl Nikora has earned the respect of Maori and Pakeha, and in his courage, determination and self-discipline, he has certainly lived up to the dauntless spirit of the historic saying at the famous battle led by his ancestor Rewi Maniapoto: ‘Ka whawhai tonu tatou aianei, ake ake tonu atu.’

the maori community at isolated Rakaunui, near Kawhia, have built themselves a new hall which has every amenity, including a nursery for babies, a modern kitchen, and an ablution block. The hall was built by voluntary workers who completed every aspect of the job themselves, even cutting the trees down and milling them.

The building was financed by a fund-raising committee led by Mr G. Hamlin; the £900 they collected was subsidised £1 for £1 by the government.

– 6 –

A TRAVELLER'S
PRAYER

I arrive where an unknown earth is under my feet,
I arrive where a new sky is above me,
I arrive at this land,
A resting-place for me.
O spirit of the earth! The stranger humbly offers his heart as food for thee.
Ka u ki Matanuku
Ka u ki Matarangi
Ka u ki tenei whenua
Hei whenua,
He kai mau te ate o te tauhou.

In former times it was believed that certain rocks, trees and springs were the homes of spirits (tipua). Travellers passing by one of these enchanted places would recite this prayer to the spirit who lived there, at the same time pulling up a twig, a frond of fern or a handful of grass, and throwing it as an offering on to the rock, or into the waters of the spring. In this way they propitiated the spirit of the place, which might otherwise have been angry at the intrusion.

Especially Important for Strangers

This ceremony was usually performed whenever a person came to one of these shrines, but it was especially important that a stranger should perform it when he approached the place for the first time. If he were to neglect to do so, the spirit would certainly take its revenge.

The spell given above is recorded in G. S. Cooper's ‘Journal of an Expedition Overland from Auckland to Taranaki’ (1851), pp. 40–42. When the expedition, led by Governor Grey, reached Te Aroha near the Thames River, Cooper was taken to see the hot spring at the foot of the mountain (Te Korokoro o Hura). As he was a stranger there, he was taught this ceremony.

Cooper gives the following explanation of the spell.

‘Matanuku’ (synonymous with Nuku, Papa, and Papatuanuku) signifies the earth. It is used here for the place to which the stranger has come. ‘Matarangi’ signifies the sky; in this unknown place, the traveller is said to have a new sky above him. In the last line, he offers his heart as food for the spirit. It was a terrible curse for one man to refer to another as being food to be eaten, and by describing himself in this way the stranger made the most humble gesture possible, hoping to conciliate the spirit and avoid its anger.

Cooper refers to this ceremony as ‘tupuna whenua’; other writers who mention it use the expression ‘uruuru whenua’. In some accounts of the great migration to Aotearoa, we are told that when the leaders of the people first set foot here, they performed the uruuru whenua ceremony in order to appease the hostile spirits of this unknown land in which they were intruders.

Many Versions Recorded

The spell must be an ancient one, for it has been recorded, with some variants, in many different parts of the country (see, for example, Richard Taylor's ‘Te Ika a Maui’, p. 171, and Elsdon Best's article ‘Maori Forest Lore’ in the ‘Transactions of the New Zealand Institute’, vol. 40, p. 192. John White, in his unpublished papers, gives a Ngapuhi version of it).

Some of these ancient shrines are still known today, one of the most famous being the tree Hinehopu on Hongi's Track. Another well-known one, Hatupatu's rock at Atiamuri, is mentioned in an article on page 11 of this issue of Te Ao Hou.

It would be interesting to hear from readers who could tell us of other such places in their own districts. Why not send a note to Te Ao Hou, at Box 2390, Wellington.

the christchurch maoris' National Marae Organisation has bought an acre of city land on which to build a community centre.

the new principal of Te Wai Pounamu Maori Girls' College in Christchurch is Miss A. Wederell, who for three years has been first assistant at the college. The former principal, Miss E. M. Trounce, retired last year.

mr j. t. piki, a Waipukurau businessman who for many years has given outstanding service to the Returned Servicemen's Association in his district, was recently awarded the association's merit badge and certificate, in recognition of his work for the organisation. The award was presented at a special function held in his honour.

Mr Piki, a member of the Ngaitahu tribe, comes originally from Tuahiwi, North Canterbury.

– 7 –

MAORI GATHERING
IN LONDON

a reception was held in New Zealand House on 27 November 1964 by the High Commissioner, Sir Thomas Macdonald and Lady Macdonald to introduce Canon and Mrs Rangiihu to Maori people at present resident in London. Canon and Mrs Rangiihu are visiting England in connection with the 150th anniversary celebration of Samuel Marsden's mission in New Zealand.

There were 60 people present at the function, 40 of whom were Maori. Many of the people attending have married since their arrival here in England.

The function was a very pleasant one, and during the course of the evening items were performed by members of the London amateur action song group.

The High Commissioner welcomed the Canon, who replied first in Maori, for the sake of those present and because the ‘taha Maori’ had to be satisfied, and then in English. At the end of the evening a vote of thanks to the hosts was proposed by Inia te Wiata.

Those present included: Sir Thomas Macdonald (High Commissioner) and Lady Macdonald; Mr C. Craw, Deputy High Commissioner; Mr M. Moohan, M.P. for Petone; Mr T. Skinner, President, New Zealand Federation of Labour; Archdeacon M. Sullivan, Archdeacon of London, and Mrs Sullivan; Mr A. T. Campbell, Public Relations Officer, New Zealand House.

Maori people present, with their husbands and wives, were:

Miss Hira Tauwhare, actress, of Masterton.

Miss Nona Tauwhare, nurse, of Masterton.

Miss Kay Whaiapu, nurse, of Tauranga.

Mr and Mrs Harry Matiu, mechanic, of Tolaga Bay.

Miss Hana Coffin, nurse, of Ohakune.

Miss Margaret Smith, clerk at New Zealand House, of Kohukohu.

Mr Tom Russell, shop assistant, of Hastings.

Miss Ani Melbourne, nurse, of Ruatoki.

Miss Peti Melbourne, nurse, of Ruatoki.

Mr and Mrs Norman (née Ruth Peta), nurse, of Whangarei.

Miss Gwen Clarke, shop assistant, of Wairoa.

Mr and Mrs Jessop (née Esther Kerr), radiographer, of Tauranga.

Miss Ella Kerr, schoolteacher, of Tauranga.

Miss Pare (Polly) Hopa, student at Oxford, of Gordonton, Hamilton.

Mr and Mrs John Manunui, labourer and milliner, of Wellington.

Mr Manu Iti, cabinetmaker, of Naenae, Wellington.

Mr John Tai, chemist, of Tokoroa.

Mr and Mrs Hemi Wiremu, commissionaire at New Zealand House, of Kaitaia.

Mr and Mrs Hoeroa Marumaru, lawyer, of Wanganui.

Mr Alec Hughes, chemist, of Nelson.

Mr Mat Pine, art student, of Wanganui.

Miss Rose Clark, schoolteacher, of Pamapuria.

Mr and Mrs Windsor, (Mrs Windsor's first name is Rachel, but I am afraid I do not know her maiden name), housewife, of Pamapuria.

Mr and Mrs Jarrett (née Gwen Nikora), schoolteacher, of Ruatoki.

Mr and Mrs Winiata Stevens, schoolteacher, of Horowhenua.

Mr Michael Raimona, shop assistant, of Rotorua.

Mr Kerry B. Davies, schoolteacher, of Rotorua.

Mr and Mrs M. Taiaroa, schoolteachers, of Christchurch.

Mr Winston Halbert, ex New Zealand Army, Taihape.

Miss Raiha Mete, nurse, of Peria, North Auckland.

Miss Frances Ututonga, nurse, of Paihia.

Mr Matiu Mete, retired farmer, of Peria, North Auckland.

Mr and Mrs Woodard (née Peggy Biddle), housewife, of Ruatoki, late of Wellington.

Mr and Mrs K. Rika, hotel proprietor, of Dargaville.

Mr Robert Clark, labourer, of Pamapuria.

Mr T. S. Karetu, information officer, New Zealand House, of Hastings.

Mr and Mrs Inia Te Wiata, opera singer, of Otaki.

The following people were unable to attend the function:

Mr and Mrs Ben Wanoa, schoolteacher, of Tikitiki.

Mr and Mrs D. Salmon (née Winnie Waapu), schoolteacher, of Hastings.

Mr and Mrs Ralph Hotere, art teacher, of Waikato.

Miss Cini Boynton, hairdresser, of Waimana.

– 8 –

Johnny
Pokaka's
Grandfather

have i told you the story of Johnny Pokaka's grandfather's deafness? No? It is an interesting story, though not amusing.

Johnny's grandfather is a magnificent man, all shoulder and belly and wide-straddled knees, and with a wide twinkling smile creasing his brown, white-pricked cheeks. His eyes are twinkling too, and little and knowing. He looked at me one day with that knowing twinkle, and tapped the air with a hefty forefinger.

‘You're looking at my ears,’ he stated.

‘I am admiring them,’ I admitted. And well worth admiration they are too—every inch of their flapping expanses. Now he cupped one, and turned it radar-wise towards me.

‘They are very nice,’ I bawled.

‘They're big, ne!’ he said.

‘Yes,’ I said, nodding violently so that I wouldn't have to repeat myself.

‘Looking at ears like mine,’ he said with satisfaction, ‘you wouldn't expect me to be deaf.’

‘No,’ I said, shaking my head this time.

‘I'm completely deaf in one ear,’ he said.

‘This one,’ and his helpless right ear was grasped in a huge hand. I assumed an inquiring expression.

‘Do you know how I got deaf, boy?’ I shook my head. ‘It's an interesting story,’ he said.

Johnny, on the other side of the table, shifted his weighty bulk in assent. ‘It's an interesting story, ne,’ he said. They both nodded, and I looked from one to the other with polite interest.

Johnny's grandfather signed to Johnny's grandmother with an imperious paw, and she bustled forward, the boards creaking under her sturdy bare feet, and poured us more tea. It was cosy there, sitting drinking thick sweet tea like comfortable old ladies. It was a bit too cosy, as a matter of fact. The sun was blazing outside, yelling at us to come out with a banner of hot light flung through the window, and a fire was roaring happily in the range behind me. A cyclamen bloomed riotously on the window-sill: I wasn't surprised at it. However I was relaxed and comfortable, if moistly so, as I watched Johnny's grandfather munch scones, waiting for him to trudge out his story.

‘Haven't you heard the story of Pa's deafness?’ Johnny's grandmother demanded. I said ‘no’, and she clicked her teeth. ‘It's an interesting story, boy,’ she said.

‘You,’ said Johnny's grandfather thickly. I blinked for a moment, but then realised that the piece of scone in the huge paw was gesturing at Johnny.

‘No-o’, said Johnny, but his grandfather's look was full of silently powerful authority. ‘Well’, said Johnny. He thought for a moment, shifting weightily, shrugging himself into the mood of the story.

The story happened on a black summer's night, as warm and hushed as a whisper. Johnny and his grandfather were mightily tired: they had been shooting up on the high spine of the country all day—had caught nothing, but were nevertheless wearily happy, full of the rare spirit of a man who is tramping a man's country with a man's weapon on his back. Still, it wouldn't look so good if they returned with nothing, and so they angled down from the tops, plodding down the ridges to the coast, making for the shack Johnny's grandfather had on the beach. They arrived there after dark and cooked up a rough meal over a hasty fire on the hearth, and then collapsed into a couple of the bunks, each of them tossed into a blanket, and not caring a single blessed thought for the hard boards and sulky sandy palliasses.

‘Ho-o’, sighed Johnny's grandfather, nodding slowly as Johnny paused to take out his tobacco tin and make a roll-me-own. ‘We surely were tired that night. Not a single warning I had, boy.’

The fire had flickered into short grey shadows and then collapsed into a pile of ash, rustling dryly. A morepork flickered past the doorway and alighted softly on the ridge-pole. Its shrieking cry, aw-w-ah, aw-a-ah, sawed through the quiet blackness, but Johnny's grandfather didn't stir. Crickets clicked and scraped in their idiotic way, clambering around in the hishing

– 9 –

grass. Lupin pods spat and popped in the cooling air, and the sea breathed and thudded as the tide surged in, but Johnny's grandfather lay oblivious. Johnny grunted, alarmed at some galloping dream, and flopped on to his back. He snored resoundingly, with a magnificence of snorting and whistling, but his grandfather didn't hear, lying there sprawled and helpless on the bunk.

‘Aii-aue-e-e-e!’

‘Ho, the pain!’ said Johnny's grandfather, shaking his head in serious memory. ‘I wouldn't want to go through that again.’

Johnny had snapped awake in heart-stopping alarm. His grandfather was screaming, threshing around in the bunk in agony, tearing at his right ear with both frantic fists. Johnny grabbed him, yelling, and tore those fists away, and peered, groping in the darkness. No good: he stumbled over to the cupboard with some vague memory of the lamp it might contain. Dishes shattered and pans crashed. Nothing. He groped to the doorway, stumbled to the shed out back, kicked open the door. An old shovel cracked down on his head, and the harness hanging on the wall seized him round the neck. But the lamp was there, hanging dusty above the scythe. Johnny cut himself and yelled with panicky fury, but tore down the lamp and stumbled back to the shack.

The lamp was empty. Johnny's grandfather's screams had descended to hoarse groans, as he swayed half-demented in his bunk. More dishes crashed; the bottle of paraffin was at the back of the cupboard. Then the painful groping of getting the lamp fueled: but at long last it flared into dusky brilliance.

Johnny gulped at the last of his tea. His fag had gone out; he struck a match, and then sat looking at the little flame in a meaningful silence. ‘Yeah,’ he said at last. ‘That was a bad night, that was.’

‘But what was wrong, hey?’

Johnny fixed me with a serious eye. ‘You

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‘I was suffering the pains of the damned,’ said Johnny's grandfather.

– 10 –

know those little jumpity wetas?’ he said softly. ‘One of those had got into grandfather's ear, and was gnawing on his eardrum.’

The silence was hot and buzzing. ‘What did you do?’ I said at last, trying to imagine the huge pain.

‘I tried to pick it out,’ Johnny said heavily. ‘But all I got was one hind leg—the rest was too far inside. Tweezers were what I needed, ne.’

‘Aii’, his grandfather sighed softly.

‘Wire, I thought. So I tore through that cupboard again: nothing. So out I went to the shed, out with the lamp, and hunted for wire and a hammer. A hammer I found.’

‘And the pain,’ said Johnny's grandfather. ‘There was I in the pain of hell.’

‘Ho, the rush!’ Johnny exclaimed. ‘Over went boxes, and rubbish, and all sorts of old things, and the blood was running from my hand, and I don't know what else. And do you think I could find any wire, ne?’

‘Did you?’ I asked.

‘Not a piece I found, until I banged against the door—and there was a whole coil hanging on the back.’

By this stage I was panting with interest. ‘Pliers,’ I said. ‘Did you have any pliers?’

‘Pliers!’ snorted Johnny. ‘Was I going to waste time hunting for pliers?’

‘I was suffering the pains of the damned,’ said Johnny's grandfather.

‘Well?’ I asked.

‘I broke it!’ said Johnny. ‘I broke off a piece of wire. And then slam! I hit the ends with the hammer, and flattened them, and then I doubled up the wire to make tweezers, panting like the very devil, ne, and all the time the blood was running from my hand. And the screams from the shack…’

Johnny's grandfather rubbed his ear with tender recollection. ‘Aii,’ he muttered.

‘So in I ran, and grabbed grandfather where he was flinging around, and held him down, and dug out that black weta, all in little pieces.’

There was a long silence. At length I could stand it no longer. ‘Well?’ I said. Johnny was silent, grim behind the lighting of another smoke, but his grandfather cupped his ear towards me.

‘Did it work!’ I yelled.

He shook an old wise head. ‘It took too long,’ he said softly. ‘That little weta had all the time it needed.’ He nipped the magnificent flap of his right ear between thumb and first finger, and extended it towards me with a certain pride of ownership. ‘You see this ear?’ he said. I nodded. ‘Completely deaf,’ he said mournfully. ‘No eardrum at all.’ Then he peered up at me with a surprisingly twinkleful eye. ‘An interesting story, ne?’ he asked.

I looked at them both, and then caught the eye of Johnny's grandmother, who was lingering proudly at the table.

‘A very interesting story,’ I said.

Tangi

no maori stands alone in joy or sorrow; no Maori goes to the grave unhonoured. In death, a month-old babe unites her people. From near and far, men, women and children come to the tangi—the great wailing—and, against a background of mournful sound, the age-old ritual proceeds. First, the moment of silent tribute at the steps of the meeting-house, followed by the handclasps of sympathy, and purification with water. Next, much oratory, and prayers — sonorous and beautiful in the Maori tongue — until the heart-stopping moment of wailing when three hundred people become a tribal entity, bearing one woman's grief.

Later, in the sunshine, there is feasting, and laughter returns to the marae. The tribal entity separates into three hundred irrepressible individuals, and a woman faces life again. Her tears are shed, her desolation shared, and there is no more wailing. No Maori stands alone in joy or sorrow.

Dr Vera D. Davidson comes from Scotland, but has lived for some years in New Zealand. She is a medical officer for schools in Gisborne. After attending a tangi for the first time, she felt impelled to write about it.

Later she sent her description to an English magazine, where it won first prize in a competition in which writers from all over the world took part. However, ‘Tangi’ has not previously been published in New Zealand. With Dr. Davidson's permission, it was sent to Te Ao Hou by Mrs G. Pewhairangi of Gisborne, who was so impressed with it that she wanted other people to have the opportunity of reading it.

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To Taupo By Waggonette

Mr Bill Hammond, who lives at Thornton's Bay, Thames, tells here the vividly-recollected story of a holiday spent 67 years ago in the Rotorua-Taupo district.

Mr Hammond is aged 95.

it was in January 1898 that I first met Hone Ratema of Wai-iti, Rotoiti.

I was on holiday in Rotorua, staying at ‘Lake View’, the proprietor of which was Mr William Seddon. ‘Lake View’ was below Pukeroa Hill and overlooked Ohinemutu Pa on the shores of the lake.

Three of my fellow boarders, Ernest Walters, headmaster of the Hikutaia School, James Crombie, saddler of Wisemans, Auckland, and Ed Drinkwater, french polisher of Tonson Garlicks, Auckland, went off one day to Rotoiti on a pig hunting expedition. They returned full of gusto with pigs' tails decorating their hats and accompanied by the two Maori friends who had provided the good hunting. These were Hone Ratema and Takuira. the party had decided to make a trip to Taupo and I was delighted to accept an invitation to join them. I borrowed a rug from Mr Seddon, bought myself a khaki suit and an enamelled mug and plate from the store and set gaily off with the others in Hone's waggonette.

By Way of Horohoro

We went be way of Horohoro where we stayed the night. The people gave us a wonderful welcome and we made many lasting friendships. I remember Wharerahi Ratema was there and Raharuhi Pururu. Also Pore, Kingi, Keho and that fine old lady Kirikaiahi Renata who was Raharuhi's mother.

That night the big meeting-house was full of speeches of welcome, haka and song provided by the tangata whenua. On our behalf our party leader, sixteen stone Ernest Walters, contributed two tenor solos—‘Queen of the Earth’ and ‘Sister Mary Walks Like This’. Indeed Ernest brought the house down with his ‘Sister Mary’ walk. Early next morning we were on our way, one of our first tasks being to cut ti tree fascines to strengthen a frail bridge before trusting the weight of our waggonette on it.

Hatupatu's Rock

Our next stop was Hatupatu's rock. Hone Ratema told us the story as we stood by the rock searching for the scratches left by the long pointed fingernails of the witch Kurangaituku as she reached out to grab the fleeing Hatupatu. Well for Hatupatu that he remembered the spell taught him by his father, ‘Te kohatu nei-e, matiti, matata’, to open the rock and to dive in, to close it again and keep him safe from the cruel witch.

It was an exciting story dramatically told by Hone in voice and gesture. He told us that we must leave an offering, and we placed some manuka sprigs inside the rock. He told us later that the perfect weather we had for the rest of the journey was our reward for this.

There was a small hotel at Atiamuri—a four-roomed cottage. An eighteen gallon of beer stood in the bar and there were a few bottles of wine and spirits on a shelf. Ernest's choice of a drink was lime juice and the barman charged him an extra shilling for drinking it neat.

Then we came to Oruanui where we had another warm welcome from the Maori residents. During the korero that followed, Hone Ratema told the people that one of our party had false teeth. This was discussed very seriously and two old ladies refused to believe the story. Nonsense they said, the teeth would fall out. And they would look very ugly.

Niho Made By Man

No, Hone told them, the teeth sat naturally in the mouth; and they were really beautiful. They could not be told from real ones. Look at those two Pakehas, he said, and decide which has the niho made by man.

The old ladies went up to James and Ernest and gazed intently as each of them smiled to show their teeth. When James suddenly poked his teeth out on his tongue at them the two kuia took to their heels and ran faster than

– 12 –

they had for many a long day. Nor did they come back to farewell us when we left. They couldn't stay far enough away from the man who wore the devil's teeth.

We went on to Wairakei and the Huka Falls. Takuira amused himself by rocking the swing bridge as we crossed, but ours was the laugh when a puff of wind took his beautiful kiekie hat off his head and sent it sailing down and over the boiling surging white froth of the Huka.

Catching Wild Horses

After sightseeing around the Taupo area we made our way back to Horohoro where we found the men had been out catching wild horses. This was the method. Two men would keep the wild horses galloping for an hour, then two fresh riders would take over. After this there would be two more fresh ones and so on till the wild animals were exhausted and easily taken. Then followed the breaking-in. The hunters had caught eleven horses and were willing to sell some of them. I bought a beautiful pony—a light chestnut with a silver mane and tail—for ten shillings. But I never saw it again; I left it to be broken-in and I was never back that way.

When we returned to Rotorua we four Pakehas chipped in a pound each and offered it to Hone as a small return for the grand holiday he had given us in his waggonette. It was the wrong thing to do. Tears came to Hone's eyes. Friends do not expect to be paid for what they do for friends, he said.

We were ashamed. Truly he was our friend and not a hired man. We had to find another way. We went to a store and bought the finest Kaiapoi rug they had. Then we went to Hone and said, ‘We wish to thank you, Hone, for the great pleasure you have given us. As you have been away from your wife and family for a week we would like you to accept this present for your wife Merearaihi.’ Now all was well. Hone happily accepted the rug. His wife would be delighted, as such rugs were greatly coveted.

This meeting with Hone Ratema and Takuira led to many happy holidays spent with the Rotoiti people from 1898 to 1908. The years have taken their toll and few of my friends of the Rotoiti of 67 years ago are alive now. But in my memory they still live today.

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Pare inside her house.

The Story of Pare and Hutu

Na, tērā tētahi wahine puhi ko Pare te ingoa. He tino rangatira taua wahine, i noho ki tōna whare, ā, e toru taiepa o taua whare, he whare māhihi, arā, he whare whakairo. Te mea i noho puhi ai a ia, hei tino rangatira a ia mō tōna iwi, kāhore hoki i rite tētahi o tōna iwi ki a ia te rangatira. Ki te mea ka haria te kai mā taua wahine, me hoatu ki te pononga tuatahi, māna e hoatu ki te tuarua, māna e hoatu ki te pononga tuatoru, ā, mā te tuatoru e hoatu ki a Pare. Ko roto o tana whare he mea whakapaipai rawa ki te kaitaka, ki te korowai, ki te tōpuni, ā, ko ngā mea whakakakara he kawakawa me ngā mea kakara katoa a te Maori.

Na, ko ētahi o ngā rā o te tau he rā tākaro nō te iwi — he tā pōtaka, he teka niti me ērā atu tākaro a te Maori, ā, i tētahi o aua rā tākaro, ka tae mai ki te kāinga i a Pare tētahi tangata rangatira ko Hutu te ingoa, ā, ka tākaro tahi a ia me te iwi o Pare. He tino mōhio rawa a Hutu ki te tekateka niti, ā, ki te tā pōtaka anō hoki. Ka niti te iwi, ā, ka rere anō hoki te niti a Hutu, ā, ko tāna niti te mea

 

In former days there lived a woman named Pare. She was a ‘puhi’: a girl of noble birth who unlike other girls, was kept carefully guarded and was not permitted to have love affairs. She lived on her own in her house, a beautiful carved building with three fences around it. The reason for her being kept apart was that since she was of such high rank, among her people there was no one of equal standing to take her as his wife.

When food was brought to her it was given to one of her slaves, who gave it to a second slave, who gave it to a third, and this third slave gave the food to Pare. The interior of her house was wonderfully decorated with the most beautiful cloaks: fine white cloaks edged with taniko work (kaitaka), fringed and tasselled cloaks (korowai), and cloaks of black dogskin (topuni). The house was sweetly scented with leaves of the kawakawa, and with all of the other perfumes known to the Maori.

Now there were certain days of the year which were set aside by the people for games and amusements, such as whipping the top, throwing darts, and all the other games of the

 
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i tino rere ki tawhiti rawa. Ka whakamīharo te iwi ki te rere o te niti a Hutu, me te mea anō hoki a taua iwi he tino mōhio a Hutu.

Ka rongo a Pare ki te umere o tana iwi, ka haere mai a ia ki te whatitoka o tana whare mātakitaki atu ai ki te mahi niti a te iwi me te niti anō hoki a Hutu. Ka niti anō te iwi, ā, ka niti anō a Hutu, a nō ka rere te niti a Hutu, rere ana, ā, tae noa atu taua niti ki te whatitoka o te whare e nohoia rā e Pare. Naomia iho taua niti a Hutu e Pare, mauria ana e ia ki roto ki tana whare. Tēnā e haere atu ana a Hutu ki te tiki i tana niti, kihai i hōmai e Pare. Ka mea atu a Hutu kia hōmai tana teka e Pare, ka mea atu a Pare, ‘Me haere mai koe, e Hutu, ki roto ki taku whare, kia kōrero ai ahau ki a koe, nō te mea he nui noa atu taku pai ki a koe.’

Ka mea atu a Hutu, ‘E kore ahau e pai kia haere atu ahau ki tōu whare; he kotahi ahau, he iwi nui tō iwi, ā, he manene ahau ki tōu whenua. E kore te ware e tika kia haere atu ki tōu whare, ki tō te rangatira. Waihoki, he hoa anō tōku kei tōku kāinga, me āku tamariki anō.’

Ka mea atu a Pare, ‘Kāhore he tikanga o ēnā kupu ki a au, nō te mea he tino nui pū tōku pai atu ki a koe. He tino mōhio koe ki ngā tākaro katoa; nāu te kaihōtaka e tino ngunguru ana i ō te iwi katoa, nāu te teka e rere rawa ana i ō te iwi, nā reira i tino nui pū ai tōku pai ki a koe.’

Ka tautohetohe rāua, ka mea a Hutu e kore rawa a ia e pai kia haere ki roto ki te whare o Pare. Ka mea atu a Pare, ‘Me pēhea koia i te nui pū o taku pai ki a koe?’

Kihai a Hutu i pai, ā, hopukia mai ana a Hutu e Pare, tōia ana ki roto ki tana whare, a, tūtakina ana te tatau. Ka tohe anō a Hutu kia haere a ia, ā, puta ana a ia ki waho. Ka whai mai anō a Pare i a ia, ka tahuri mai a Hutu, ka kī ki a Pare, ‘E noho koe i te kāinga, wāhi iti ka hoki mai anō ahau.’

Haere rere tonu a Hutu, ā, ka kite a Pare i a Hutu e haere oma ana, ka poroporoaki atu a Pare ki a Hutu, ka mea, ‘Haere rā, e Hutu, haere ki tōu kāinga,’ ā, hoki ana a Pare ki roto ki tana whare, ka karanga i ana pononga kia whakapaia tōna whare, arā, kia mahia ngā mea o roto kia pai. A nō ka oti te mahi i ana pononga, ka noho ko Pare anake i roto, nāna anō a ia i tārona.

A nō ka rongo te iwi kua mate a Pare, ka nui tō rātou pōuri, ka mea rātou, ‘Ko Hutu anō hei utu mō te mate o Pare.’ Ka runanga taua iwi ki te whakatakoto tikanga e mau ai a Hutu. Ka haere te torohē ki te hopu i a

 
 

Maori. On one of these occasions there came to Pare's village a nobleman named Hutu, who joined her people in their games. He was very skilful both at throwing darts and whipping the top.

The people threw their darts, then Hutu threw his one, and it was Hutu's dart which flew the furthest. All of them marvelled at the flight of Hutu's dart, and they shouted their praise of his skill. Hearing the noise, pare came to the door of her house to watch her people and Hutu throwing their darts.

Again the people threw their darts, and again Hutu threw his one. Hutu's dart flew right across, and landed by the doorway where Pare was standing. Then Pare picked up Hutu's dart and took it into her house. Hutu went to fetch it, but Pare would not give it to him. When he asked her to return it, she said, ‘You must come into my house, Hutu, so that I can talk to you, for I like you very much.’

Then Hutu said, ‘I do not want to come into your house. I am alone, and your people are many. I am a stranger in your country. It wouldn't be right for a person of low birth to go into the house of one of such noble birth as yourself. Furthermore, I have a wife and children at home.’

Then Pare said, ‘These arguments mean nothing to me, for I love you. You are the most skilful at the games; your top sounds the loudest, and your dart flies the furthest, and because of this, I love you.’

They argued in this way for some time, Hutu saying that he did not want to go into Pare's house, and Pare saying, ‘It makes no difference; I love you very much.’

When she saw that Hutu still would not agree to go in, Pare took hold of him, pulled him inside the house and shut the door. Hutu insisted on leaving, and he went outside, with Pare following him. Then Hutu turned to Pare and said, ‘You stay here, and in a little while I'll come back again.’

Then he ran off quickly. When Pare saw that Hutu was running away from her, she called after him, ‘Farewell, Hutu! Go to your home!’

Then she went back into the house and told her attendants to set in order her house and all her possessions. When the attendants had done this and Pare was left alone, she hanged herself.

When the people heard of Pare's death they were overwhelmed with grief and said, ‘Hutu

 
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Hutu, ka mau, ka arahina mai ki te kāinga o Pare. Ka tae mai ki reira, ka arahina a Hutu ki te whare o Pare, ki te wāhi i takoto ai te tūpāpaku. Ka mea atu te iwi ki a Hutu, ‘I hopukia ai koe, he mea nā mātou, ko koe te utu mō Pare, ā, me mate anō hoki koe.’

Ka mea atu a Hutu, ‘E pai ana, otirā taihoa e tanu te tūpāpaku. Tukua ahau kia haere, ā, waiho te tūpāpaku nei; taihoa e nehu, kia hoki mai ahau. Kia pō toru ahau, kia pō whā, ka hoki mai ai. He tika anō ko au te utu mō tō koutou ariki.’

Whakaae ana te iwi ki ngā kupu a Hutu, a, haere ana a Hutu i tāna haere noa atu, karakia ana a ia i a ia, pau katoa ngā kī tao, ngā mata i a ia te mea ki a ia, ka ahu tana whakaaro ki Te Reinga. Ka whakatika a ia, ka ahu ki Te Rerenga Wairua, ka kite a ia i a Hine-nui-tepō. Ka mea atu a ia ki a Hine, ‘Kei hea te

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Pare and Hutu going up from the underworld.

 
 

must die for this.’ After they had met together to decide on the best way of capturing Hutu, a war party was sent out to find him, then took him to Pare's house, to the place where the body was lying, and told him, ‘We made you prisoner so that your death might pay for the death of Pare.’

‘Very well,’ said Hutu, ‘but do not bury the body. Let me go now, and do not bury the body until I come back. I will be gone for three or four days, then I will return. It is right that I should die in payment for the death of your princess.’

The people agreed to this, and so he left them. When he was a good distance away, he began to chant all of the spells and incantations which the priests recite when they are concerned with matters involving death and the spirit world. After this he went towards the spirit world, and saw Hine-nui-te-po, the Great Lady of the Night. He asked her, ‘Where is the path that leads below?’

Hine pointed to the path by which dogs go to the spirit world, but after Hutu had given her his greenstone mere she showed him the right path, the one that men use. Hine habitually acted in this deceitful manner, telling the truth only when bribed to do so, and in this way she collected a great deal of property.

Then Hine prepared some food for Hutu. After pounding some fernroot she put it in a basket, saying to him, ‘When you are below, eat sparingly of this food, so that it lasts for a long time; for if you eat the food down there, you can never return to this world.’

Hutu said that he would do as she instructed him, and Hine added, ‘If you bend your head downwards you will find it easy to fly down to the dark world; for when you are nearly there, a wind from below will below your head upwards again, so that you will be able to land squarely on your feet.’

Hutu flew down to the land below, and when he arrived he began to look for Pare, asking the people, ‘Where is Pare?’ They told him, ‘In the village.’

Having heard that Hutu had come to the spirit world and was asking for her, Pare refused to go outside her house.

Hutu tried to think of some way of seeing Pare. He taught the people in the village to play at darts and whipping the top, the games known in this world. So the people played with Hutu, but Pare did not come out of her house to watch them.

Hutu was very sad at this, and said to

 
– 16 –
 

ara ki raro?’

Ka whakaaturia e ia te ara rerenga kurī, kātahi ka hoatu e Hutu ki a Hine-nui-te-pō ko tana mere pounamu. Kātahi rā anō ka whakaaturia te ara rerenga tangata. Ko tā Hine-nui-te-pō hanga he māminga, kia riro atu ai he taonga māna. Kātahi ka taka kai a Hine-nui-te-pō mā Hutu; ka patua he roi, ka meatia ki te kete, ka mea atu a Hine ki a Hutu, ‘E tae koe ki raro, kia āta kai i āu kai kei hohoro te pau, nō te mea ka kai koe i ō reira kai, e kore koe e hoki ake ki te ao nei.’ Whakaae ana a Hutu, a, ka kīia atu anō e Hine, ‘Me tuohu tō māhunga ki raro ka rere pai ai koe ki te Aopōuri, ā, ka tata koe ki raro, ma te hau o raro koe e pupuhi, ka ara anō tō māhunga ki runga, ā, ka tū ō waewae ki raro.’

Ka rere a Hutu ki raro, a nō ka tae a ia, ka haere a ia ki te rapu i a Pare. Ka ui a ia ki ō reira tāngata, ‘Kei hea a Pare?’

Ka kīia mai, ‘Kei te pā.’ Ka rongo a Pare ko Hutu kua tae atu ki Te Reinga, a, e ui ana ki a ia, kihai a Pare i puta mai i tana whare.

Ka rapu a Hutu i tētahi mea e kite ai ia i a Pare. Ka ako a Hutu i te iwi kāinga ki te tākaro i te teka niti, i te tā kaihōtaka, i te tākaro i mōhio ai rātou i te ao nei. Ka tākaro te iwi rā rātou ko Hutu, otirā kihai a Pare i puta i tōna whare kia kite i aua tākaro. Ka pōuri a Hutu, ā, ka mea anō a ia ki te iwi rā anō, ‘Me tiki he rākau roa, ka topetopea ai e tātou ngā manga.’

Ka taea taua rākau, ka topea ngā manga. Ka kaikauautia taua rākau, ka mea a Hutu, ‘Me whiri he whakaheke.’ Ka oti ērā, herea ana e Hutu aua taura ki te toitoi o taua rākau, ka mea atu a Hutu, ‘Kumea ngā taura!’ Ka kumea e te iwi rā, ka piko iho te matamata o te rākau ki raro ki te whenua. Ka noho a Hutu ki te pito o te matamata o taua rākau, a, ka tono a ia i tētahi o taua iwi kia noho i tōna tuarā. Ka noho taua tangata ki te tuarā o Hutu, ka karanga a Hutu ki te iwi e pupuri rā i ngā taura, ‘Tukua kia rere anō te matamata o te rākau ki runga!’ Ka tupana ake anō te rākau rā, me te noho o Hutu rāua ko tērā e mau rā i tana tuarā.

Ka umere te iwi rā ki te pai o tērā tū mōrere, ā, ka āhuareka taua iwi ki taua mahi. A nō ka roa taua mea e tākarohia ana, ā, ka tae te rongo ki te iwi katoa. Ka rongo anō hoki a Pare i taua mahi tākaro hou, ka haere mai a Pare ki te mātakitaki, a, ka koa a Hutu i te mea ka kite atu a ia i a Pare. Titiro atu ana a Pare ki taua mahi, ka āhuareka hoki a

 
 

the people again, ‘Fetch a tall tree, and let us cut off its branches.’

They brought the tree, trimmed off its branches and cut off the top. Then Hutu said, ‘Let us plait some ropes.’

The people pulled on them until the top of the tree bent down to the ground. Hutu sat right on top of the tree, and told one of the people to get on to his back. When they were ready, Hutu called to the men holding the ropes, ‘Let the top of the tree go up!’

The tree sprang upright again, with Hutu and the man on his back holding on tight.

The people shouted with joy when they saw how good the swing was, for they were very pleased with this new game. After they had been playing the game for some time, all the people in the district heard of it. Pare was also told of the new game, and she came to watch it. Hutu was overjoyed to see her.

When Pare saw the game she was delighted, and went up to Hutu and said, ‘Let me also sit on you shoulders and fly up on the swing.’

Hutu was very glad at this, and said, ‘Hold on tight to my neck, Pare.’

Then he told the people to pull the tree right down to the ground, as far as it would go. Then he called out, ‘Let it go!’

When they let the tree spring back, it went up with such force that the ropes attached to it were thrown so high that they were caught in the land above. Then Hutu climbed up the ropes with Pare on his back. He grasped hold of the grass growing at the entrance to the underworld, pulled himself up, and arrived at the upper world, this world of ours.’

They travelled on to the village where Pare's body was lying, and her spirit went to the side of her body, entered it, and took up its abode there; and Pare was alive again, a living person in this world of ours’.

Pare's people were overjoyed at seeing their

 
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ia ki taua tākaro, ka haere atu a ia ki a Hutu, ka mea atu, ‘Tukua hoki ahau ki runga ki ō pokohiwi noho ai, kia rere au i tēnā tū mōrere.’

Ka koa a Hutu i te wā i tae atu ai a Pare ki runga i a ia noho ai. Ka mea atu a Hutu, ‘Kia kaha tōu pupuri i taku kakī, e Pare’, a, ka mea atu a Hutu ki te iwi rā kia kumea te rākau rā kia tino piko iho ai te rākau rā ki te whenua. Ka oti, ka mea a Hutu, ‘Tukua!’ Tukua whakareretia ana te rākau e te iwi rā, ā, nā te kaha o te turapanatanga ake o te rere o te rakau rā, i whiu ngā taura e mau i te rākau rā, ā, mau tonu atu aua taura i te whenua o runga.

Ka kake a Hutu me Pare anō i a ia e mau ana i aua taura, a nō ka mau ana ringa ki ngā otaota o te kūwaha o Te Reinga, piki tonu atu, ā, tae ana rāua ki runga.

Ka tae mai rāua ki te ao nei, ka haere tonu, ā, ka tae ki te kāinga i takoto ai te tinana o Pare. A nō ka tae te wairua o Pare ki te taha anō o tōna tinana, tapoko tonu atu tana wairua ki tana tinana ki reira anō noho ai, ā, ora tonu ake anō a Pare ki te ao nei hei tangata ora anō.

Ka moemiti te iwi o Pare ki tō rātou ariki ka ora mai. Ki tā rātou, he mea karakia e Hutu i hoki ake ai anō te manawa o Pare. Ka mea te iwi me moe a Pare i a Hutu; ka mea atu a Hutu, ‘Me aha āku tamariki me tērā hoa ōku?’

Ka mea te iwi o Pare, ‘Me punarua.’ Whakaae ana a Hutu, ā, tapā ana te ingoa o Pare ko Pare-hutu.

 

princess again, and said that it was the power of Hutu's chants and prayers which had brought her back to life. Pare must marry Hutu, they said. When Hutu asked, ‘What about my children and my other wife?’ they answered, ‘Pare shall be your second wife.’ Hutu agreed to this, and from this time onwards, Pare was known as Pare-Hutu.

A Ngaitahu Account

This Ngaitahu version of the story of Pare and Hutu is taken from John White's ‘Ancient History of the Maori’, volume II. The translation is a new one.

A very similar account is recorded in ‘Te Ika a Maui’ by Richard Taylor, who collected most of his material in the Taranaki district. There is another interesting version, recorded by Hare Hongi, in which almost exactly the same story is told of a man named Miru and his sister (see ‘Journal of the Polynesian Society’, vol. V, p. 118).

In this as in many other stories, it is the woman who takes the initiative in courtship. This was often the Maori custom. In this case, Pare's high rank enables her to be especially forthright in her approach.

The darts with which they played were thin, light rods, about three feet in length.

There was a kind of swing or ‘giant stride’ (‘morere’ or ‘moari’) which consisted of a tall pole, often slanting over a stream, to the top of which were attached plaited ropes on which the players swung. But there was no morere of the kind described in this story.

Here is another story of a visit to the underworld.

The Story of Niwareka and Mataora

Ko Rangi, ko Papa; tāna ko Rūaimoko (tēnei tamaiti a Papa, noho tonu i roto i a ia). Ko te tamaiti a Rūaimoko ko Manuongaonga, tāna ko Uetonga, ko tā Uetonga ko Niwareka.

Ko te wahine tēnei i whai ai a Mataora, nāna anō i patu, oma ana taua wahine ki raro. Ka whai a Mataora, ka tae ki te whare o Te Kūwatawata, kātahi ka ui atu a Mataora, ‘Kai whea te ara ki raro?’

 

Rangi the Sky and Papa the Earth had Ruaimoko the earthquake god; Ruaimoko had Manuongaonga, who had Uetonga, whose daughter was Niwareka.

This woman Niwareka was the wife of Mataora. He beat her, and she ran away to the underworld. Mataora followed her, and when he came to the house of Kuwatawata he asked, ‘Where is the road to the world

 
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Ka kī mai a Kūwatawata, ‘Rā, kai te tuarongo.’ Kātahi ka huakina e Kūwatawata, ka tuwhera te ara ki Te Pō. Ka titiro iho te tangata rā, a Mataora, e haere ana te tangata, e tū ana ngā whare.

Kātahi ka heke a Mataora, ka tae ki raro, ka tūtaki i a Tiwaiwaka. Ka ui atu tangata rā, ‘Kāore he tangata i tūtaki mai i a koe?’

Ka kī mai a Tiwaiwaka, ‘Tērā anō te whanake rā, tautau ai te ngutu, tangi ai te korotore; kua riro.’

Tae atu ia ki te ahi tā moko, e tā ana, ko Uetonga te tohunga. Kātahi ka titiro matatau a Uetonga ki ōna moko, ka toro mai te ringa o Uetonga ki ngā moko o Mataora, horoia ana, kua mā ngā moko o Mataora. Ka kī mai a Uetonga, ‘E hē ana a runga i te tā moko.’ Kātahi ka turakina a Mataora ki raro, ka tāia. Ka pā te mamae ki tangata rā, kātahi ka takitaki i tana peha:

Niwareka, Niwareka, kawe noa i a au
Ki te pōuriuri, ki te pōtangotango.
Whākina te mamae o te ipo
Kai Ahuahu, kai Rangatira,
Kai Nukumoanariki.
Ko Kurareiara, ko Taranaki.
Kai Taranaki hoki te ipo, toro hohoro e.

Na, ka haere te rongo o te tewha a Mataora ki te whare i noho ai a Niwareka, ki Aroarotea. Ko te mahi a te wahine rā he whatu kākahu. Kātahi ka haere te wahine rā, ka tae ki te ahi tā moko rā. Ka kakari mai a Uetonga, tōna pāpā, kāore i rongo. Kātahi ka ui atu te wahine rā, ‘E tā, karakia i tō karakia.’ Kātahi ka whakahua anō ko taua tewha anō, ka whakarongo te wahine rā ki te tangata rā e whakahua ana i tētahi pito o tana tewha, koia tēnei:

Whāki ki te Uru, whāki ki te Tonga,
Whāki ki te Whakarua, e.
Tirotiro ko Rangi ki te whetu,
Whakataha tō mata ki te marama au nei.
He moko puhi rākau au nei,
He moko puhi rākau au nei.
Whākina te tahu kia rongona,
Whākina te tahu kia rongona.
Mokimoki te kakara kia urua, e i.
Ko ure kā, ko ure kā mai te Houpuni e.
Taki ai au kia whakarongo, e i.

Ka mutu, kātahi ka mauria te tāne e te wahine rā ki roto ki te whare whatu kākahu rā tahutahu ai. Ka mahu tangata rā, ka kī atu ia ki tana wahine, ‘Ka haere tāua, ka hoki ki runga.’ Ka haere mai rāua.

Ka tae ake anō ki te whare o Te Kūwata-

 
 

below?’

Kuwatawata said, ‘There it is, at the back of the house.’ Then she opened the door to the dark world, and Mataora looked down and saw men walking about, and houses standing there.

He went below, and down there he met Tiwaiwaka the fantail, and asked him, ‘Have you met anyone?’

‘Yes,’ said Tiwaiwaka. ‘One came past who was crying and sobbing. She has gone now.’

Mataora went on, and came to the fire used by the tattooers; Uetonga the tohunga was there, tattooing a man. Uetonga stared at the marks on Mataora's face, then he stretched cut his hand and wiped them off, saying, ‘Your tattoers in the world above don't know how to do their work properly.’

Then Mataora was thrown down and was tattooed. When he felt the pain, Mataora chanted this spell:

Niwareka, Niwareka, you have brought me
To this great darkness, this great blackness.
Tell of the pain of the beloved one
Who is at Ahuahu, at Rangatira,
At Nukumoanariki,
Kurareiara, Taranaki;
At Taranaki is the beloved one; come swiftly to me here.

The news of Mataora's song reached the house where Niwareka was living at Aroarotea, spending her time there weaving cloaks. When she heard the song she went to the place where the tattooers were at work. Her father Uetonga scolded her and told her to go away. But she did not listen to him, and asked Mataora, ‘Will you chant your spell?’ He did so, and she listened to him chanting part of his spell, which was as follows:

(A translation of the spell has not been attempted here, for many of its allusions are difficult to understand. Mataora's first spell, given above, is also obscure in places.

It seems that it was when Niwareka heard this second spell that she realized that this was Mataora.)

When he had finished, Niwareka took her husband into the house where she had been weaving cloaks, and she looked after him. After his wounds had healed, Mataora said to her, ‘Let us return to the upper world.’

So they went up, and when they reached Kuwatawata's house again, they passed through it. But Mataora omitted to give Kuwatawata one of his wife's cloaks as a payment for

 
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wata, ka puta rāua ki waho. Kāore tangata rā i waiho i tētahi o ōna kākahu hei utu i te ara ki Te Pō. Kātahi ka karanga mai a Te Kūwatawata, ‘Mataora e, haere rā, pāia te ara ki te pō, pāia te ara ki te ao, ka mutu te haere o te tangata i taua ara.’

Ka noho a Mataora i tēnei ao. Nō reira te whakataukī mō te moko:

‘Nā Mataora i ako
Te mahi a Uetonga,
Te mahi tā moko.’

Me tēnei anō hoki:

‘Ngā ngāngā a Mataora—
Ngā mahi a Uetonga.’

 

allowing them to travel over the road to the underworld.

When she saw this, Kuwatawata called after them, ‘Mataora, farewell. The road to the underworld, and the road to the world above, are now blocked up for ever. Man will never again travel that road.’

Mataora lived with his wife in this world. Hence this saying about tattooing:

‘It was Mataora who taught
The art of Uetonga,
The art of tattooing.’
This is another saying:
‘The essence of Mataora—
The art of Uetonga.’

Knowledge Brought Back From Underworld

This Ngati Kahungunu version of the myth of Mataora and Niwareka is taken from John White's ‘Ancient History of the Maori’, volume II. There are in existence a number of other versions, which differ from it only in detail.

Several versions are brought together in an account given in A. W. Reed's ‘Treasury of Maori Folklore’, pages 97–101, where we are told that the garments which Niwareka

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Peter Smith, aged 12 (left) and Barry Smith, aged 15, are sons of the late Peter Smith, an All Black and New Zealand junior tennis champion. At present living in Australia, they have been holidaying here with their mother and step-father, and took part in the national junior tennis championships and the Maori tennis championships.
Barry is the under-16 South Australian champion, and Peter is the South Australian primary schools champion. Both hope to be able to become professional players.

brought back from the underworld—in one version, a cloak named Te Rangi-haupapa and a belt named Te Ruruku-o-te-rangi—are the prototypes of all such garments woven by women.

So Mataora brought back from the underworld the knowledge of the art which was the badge of manhood, and Niwareka brought knowledge of the art which was the main concern of women.

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Ka Eke Ki Wairaka
On The Summit Of Wairaka

Ka eke ki Wairaka ka tahuri whakamuri,
Kāti ko te aroha te tiapu i Kakepuku
Kia rere arorangi te tihi ki Pirongia
Kei raro koe Toko, taku hoa tungāne
Nāku anō koe i huri ake ki muri
Mōkai te ngākau te whakatau iho
Kia pōruatia e awhi-ā-kiri ana.
Kotahi koa koe i mihia iho ai
Ko taku tau whanaunga nō Toa i te tonga
Nō Mania i te uru, ka pēa tāua.
I ngākau nui ai he mutunga mahi koe.
Kāti au ka hoki ki taku whenua tupu,
Ki te wai koropupū i heria mai nei
I Hawaiki rā anō e Ngātoro-i-rangi
E ōna tuāhine Te Hoata u Te Pupū
E hū rā i Tongariro, ka mahana i taku kiri.
Nā Rangi mai anō nāna i mārena
Ko Pihanga te wahine, ai ua, ai hau,
Ai marangai ki te muri e
Kōkiri!

On the summit of Wairaka, as I turn for one last look,
My sorrow and love burst forth,
Take flight over Kakepuku hill,
Soar up to the heights of Pirongia
And to you below there, Toko, my cousin and lover.
I was the one who turned away—
How slavish and cowardly not to seek
Two more nights of close embraces!
It is you alone who have my heart.
O my love, my kinsman, descended from Toa in the south,
From Mania in the west, we were well matched.
I wanted to end my days with you,
But now I go back to my own country,
To the boiling springs that Ngatoroirangi,
With his sisters Te Hoata and Te Pupu,
Brought from Hawaiiki,
Bubbling up at Tongariro to warm my body.
It was our father the Sky who married Tongariro to Pihanga,
Making the rain, the winds and the western storms.
Go forth, my love!

A Love Song for Te Mahuta Te Toko

‘Ka eke ki Wairaka’ is a song composed by Rihi Puhiwahine for her lover, Te Mahuta Te Toko. Mr Mervyn McLean's transcription of the music of the song is published on pages 3842.

The song appears as No. 46 in Apirana Ngata's ‘Nga Moteatea’, volume one. It has also been published in ‘Puhiwahine, Maori Poetess’, Pei te Hurinui Jones' account of the life of Puhiwahine. This appeared in instalment from in Te Ao Hou, and was later published as a book. Most of the details given here have been taken from the second instalment of Mr Jones' account, which appeared in Te Ao Hou No. 29.

Puhiwahine, who lived in the second half of the last century, belonged to the Ngati Tuwharetoa tribe, of the Taupo district. She was famous for her wit and high spirits, and for her talents as a singer and poet. ‘Ka eke ki Wairaka’ is the best known of the many songs she composed, and it is frequently sung as a farewell song at the end of a gathering.

Puhiwahine met Te Mahuta Te Toko, a distant cousin, at a tribal gathering at Whati-whatihoe at the foot of Mt. Pirongia. They loved each other at first sight; but some time later her two brothers arrived. As on previous occasions, they objected to Puhiwahine's choice of a prospective husband, and took her away at once. On their way back to Taupo they stayed for a few days at Owairaka near

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Parawera, and it was here that Puhiwahine composed this song.

Notes on the Song

1.

Wairaka is short for Owairaka.

2.

Kakepuku, a high hill near Te Awamutu, stands between Owairaka and Pirongia.

3.

Toko is the short form of her lover's name.

4.

Toa signifies Ngati Toa of the Porirua district.

5.

Mania is short for Ngati Maniapoto.

6.

After landing from the Arawa canoe, the high priest Ngatoroirangi made a journey inland from Maketu. He climbed Tongariro, but nearly died from the cold. So he sent a message to his sisters at Hawaiiki, and they came with fire to warm him. This is the explanation for the hot springs and volcanic fires of the Bay of Plenty, Rotorua and Taupo districts.

In former times, the name ‘Tongariro’ referred to both of the mountains now known as Ngauruhoe and Tongariro.

7.

In a fight with Taranaki (Mt. Egmont) and several other mountains, Tongariro won Mt. Pihanga as his wife. It is said that the storms and rain in the Taupo district are the result of their marriage.

8.

Puhiwahine knew some English, and was fond of using transliterated versions of English words. ‘Marena’ as the word for marriage had been accepted into the language at an early date, but the other two transliterated words in the song are less common: ‘tiapu’ for ‘jump’ and ‘pea’ for ‘paired off’.

the ngati awa tribal committee is planning to raise £7,000 to build a new and larger meeting-house on the Waireka marae, on the Whakatone foreshore. They have already raised about £2,000 towards this amount.

the last issue of te ao hou said that when Mr Joe King of Christchurch and his wife represented New Zealand at Sydney's recent world amateur ballroom dancing championship, he was the first Maori to do so. But it is almost impossible these days to keep up with Maori ‘firsts’, and in fact there was another Maori there also. He was twelve-year-old Pierre Bidois of Auckland. Though Pierre and his partner entered only four Australasian events, they won three first places and one third.

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Some Impressions of Indonesia

The Rev. Lane Tauroa, a Methodist Minister, is in Indonesia under the sponsorship of the National Council of Churches.

‘Oh for some sunshine!’ On numerous occasions I had expressed this longing as I shivered through a King Country winter. However, at this moment I would welcome a real dinkum hoary King Country frost, or a biting wind straight off Ruapehu. I've basked in twelve months of sunshine and heat and I've ‘had it’.

In West Java it is perpetual summer, perpetual harvest. I don't mean that we never have rain; we certainly do. In the wet season we can count on a tropical downpour daily. However the heat remains, so that one becomes sticky rather than cool.

The Whole Region a Huge Garden

The rich volcanic soil of West Java, with the rain and the sunshine, make the region a huge garden. Crop succeeds crop without interruption. On the flats, paddy (rice) is the chief crop. The paddy marches up the lower slopes of the hills by way of terraces. Higher up are vegetables of every kind and higher still are the tea-shrubs. The fruit includes pine-apple, coconut, papaya, mango, banana, apukuk, durian, oranges, and other tropical varieties. These are all delicious, but it takes a little courage to try durian, which has a revolting smell, just like our corn steeped in water.

My family and I landed in Djakarta, a city about 3,500,000, in December 1963. Stepping from the plane on to the tarmac was like walking into an oven. I am a little more acclimatised now, but still find the heat oppressive. I've trudged the streets of New York in high summer, and it can be hot there. However, in New York (or Auckland for that matter) one can look forward to fall and winter. Here in Java there is no autumn or winter, simply a wet season and a dry season.

Djakarta is a bustling, crowded city. The streets are jammed with traffic. Cars, trucks, buses, bemos (three-wheeled taxi), bicycles, betjaks, jostle for right-of-way. Motor traffic includes the latest model cars from Europe, the United States, Japan and Russia. Of course there are jalopies, but I couldn't help noticing the new cars, for there were many models which I had read about in motoring magazines but had never seen before.

Startling Contrast Between Rich and Poor

Some folk in Indonesia are wealthy, but there are many more who are desperately poor. Soon after our arrival we were on the way to a shopping centre, when we had to stop at a railway crossing. Ahead of us was a long line of chromium-plated, fish-tailed vehicles whose occupants were being beseiged by numerous beggars dressed in rags — men, women, and children. The contrast between rich and poor is startling to a New Zealander.

The betjak is the cheapest form of public transport available. It is a three-wheeled bicycle (two front wheels, one rear) pedalled by the driver, which has seating for two passengers. Since there is no set fare, bargaining goes on until an acceptable price is reached. The intending passenger holds most of the cards, for betjak men badly need the money, or they would not be engaged in such strenuous work. In Djakarta's heat, the job is not easy.

Largely Planned by the Dutch

The Dutch were largely responsible for planning the city. It stands on reclaimed swamp land, drained by canals. These sluggishly-flowing canals serve many of Djakarta's residents as toilet, wash-room and bathing-pool. Thus the sights along the canals are apt to be somewhat of a shock to a new arrival.

Summarising my first impressions, I would describe Djakarta as a city of oppressive heat and hordes of people, which exhibits a heart-breaking contrast between rich and poor. I have seen men, and women too, shouldering loads which would give a good New Zealand

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union man duodenal ulcers in a month. I have no hankering to live in Djakarta, and was glad when we were able to take up residence in Bandung, in West Java.

Bandung is much cooler than Djakarta and a much more pleasant city to live and work in. The main shopping and residential area stands in a basin at the foot of encircling hills. According to legend, this basin was formerly a lake.

Legend of a Prince's Courtship

In the dim and misty past a certain prince, Sang-Kuriang, fell in love with a beautiful woman, Dajang Sumbi. Princess Dajang Sumbi was Sang-Kuriang's mother, but he didn't know that. He wooed her, and she did everything possible to discourage him. She set him a number of tasks which he was to complete between sundown of one day and cock-crow of the next day. One task was to fill the basin with water, and another was to build a canoe for use on the lake thus created.

Nothing daunted, Sang-Kuriang set to work and to Dajang Sumbi's horror it became evident that he would complete his tasks within the allotted time. The Princess therefore played a trick. Although cock-crow was still some hours away, she began threshing paddy. (Rice is separated by threshing in the same way that in New Zealand cocksfoot seed is separated from the stalk.) When the roosters heard someone at work, they thought that it was time to rise and shine, so they began to crow. In this way Dajang Sumbi was able to claim that Sang-Kuriang had failed to accomplish his tasks within the time limit he had been set.

Furious at Being Tricked

The poor man was puzzled and downcast, but when he discovered that he had been tricked his disappointment changed to rage, and he chased after Princess Dajang Sumbi, intending to take her by force. However she narrowly escaped him by springing up to heaven from a mountain which stands near the city of Bogor. Sang-Kuriang was naturally very bitter, and in his rage he overturned the canoe which he had built, allowing the waters of the lake to escape. That canoe is visible today in the form of a certain mountain, the shape of an overturned canoe, which stands near Bandung. Incidentally it is a volcano, and still mildly active. Standing on the lip of the crater I was reminded of Rotorua: same awful sulphur smell, boiling mud, and steam escaping from vents in the earth.

Bandung is a university city with between 35,000 and 40,000 students. There are two State Universities, and at least thirteen other universities which are run by private organisations. My work is with Christian students. Christians are a minority group in Indonesia, numbering approximately 6,000,000 in a total population of 104,000,000. Although most Indonesians are Moslem, people are free to preach and teach. This is largely due to President Sukarn o. Some years ago, the extreme Moslems demanded that Indonesia should become an Islamic State, and that Islam should be the only recognised religion. But the President insisted that the people should have religious freedom.

My work brings me into contact with Christian and non-Christian students from all of the islands of the Republic of Indonesia. The young people here are engaged in the great adventure of nation-building. They are determined that the Indonesian Revolution shall be carried through to a successful conclusion. To understand the Indonesian Revolution one must know something of recent Indonesian history. Briefly, this is as follows.

Dutch Colonization and its Consequences

Round about 1600, the Dutch landed in Java. By 1750 they had a monopoly of all the trade, and ruled Java and certain of the outer islands. In their dealings with the indigenous folk they relied upon the traditional chiefs and princes, and upon force of arms when the chiefs and princes proved uncooperative. Indonesians became third-class citizens in their own land. Above them in rank, status and wealth were the middle-men — Chinese, Indians and Arabs. Above the middle-men were the Europeans, who determined the destiny of the peoples. From then until 1945, the indigenous people had little or no say in the affairs of their own land. They were the servants, the hod-carriers, a part of the economic apparatus of the European. There were a few Indonesians who enjoyed certain privileges, chiefly ‘friendly’ princes and chiefs, but no Indonesian could ever hope to equal the European in status or rank. At various times and places they rebelled against Dutch rule, but without success.

The area in which we live was formerly forbidden to non-Europeans. Is it any wonder that after gaining control of their own affairs, the Indonesians should have renamed it ‘Merdeka’ (Freedom).

Continued on page 52

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PEOPLE AND PLACES

when te ao hou went to press, the opera ‘Porgy and Bess’ was still in rehearsal, and it was already clear that it would be a most exciting production. Inia Te Wiata (see photo above) had arrived from London to play Porgy, and the three Negro singers, Martha Flowers, John McCurry and Delores Ivory were here to take the parts of Bess, Crown and Serena. Two well known Maori singers have the other leading parts: the popular entertainer Toni Williams (see photo above, right) is Sportin' Life, and the singer Hannah Tatana (above, far right) is Maria.

Here are the names of the singers taking other parts in the opera. All of these people also sing in the chorus.

Their usual occupations—which cover a very wide range—are also given here:

Isobel Whatarau Cowan, housewife, of Feilding, is ‘Clara’.

Mark Metekingi, teacher, of Wellington, is ‘Jake’.

Sam Stevens, teacher, of Auckland, is ‘Mingo’.

Kahu (Nick) Karaitiana, carpenter, of Christchurch, is ‘Robbins’.

Sid Reweti, clerk, of Wellington, is ‘Peter’.

Tuta Kainamu, clerk, of Gisborne, is ‘Frazier’.

Diana Winterburn, nursing sister, of Auckland, is ‘Annie’.

Celeste Barker, housewife, of Rotorua, is ‘Lily’.

Don Selwyn, teacher, of Taumarunui, is ‘Jim’.

Rangi Hapi, signwriter, of Hastings, is ‘Crab Man’.

John Denny, stevedore, of Christchurch, is the ‘Undertaker’.

Other members of the chorus are:

Thelma Keepa Grabmaier, clerk, of Wellington.

Mary Reid, housewife, of Hastings.

Peti Rei, housewife, of Rotorua.

Margaret Kimura, receptionist, of Foxton.

Melva Puki, nurse, of Rotorua.

Lynn Wehipeihana, textile spinner, of Wellington.

Hira Wainohu, housewife, of Hastings.

Lorraine Bristow, training college student, of Wellington.

Ngaire Karaka, teacher, of Auckland.

Polly Tarawhiti, typist, of Wellington.

Anne Baird, housewife, of Waipukurau.

Newha Taiaki, civil servant, of Hamilton.

Josh Gardiner, clerk, of Rotorua.

George Henare, teacher, of Te Araroa.

Edward Huriwai, ministry of works, of Rotorua.

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Peter Keiha, farmer, of Gisborne.

Ross Waters, surf instructor, of Auckland.

George Wikaira, training college student, of Te Awamutu.

The tour manager for the show is Mr Sydney Crawford of Hastings, who in 1963 was the tour manager for the Arohanui Maori Company during its trip to the United States.

a congregation of almost 2,000 Maoris and Pakehas attended the Christmas service at Oihi in the Bay of Islands to celebrate the 150th anniversary of New Zealand's first Christian service, held at Oihi by the Rev. Samuel Marsden on Christmas Day, 1814.

At the service (see photo below) the sermon was preached by the Rev. R. E. Marsden, great-great-grandson of Samuel Marsden. He spoke at the foot of the tall cross which marks the place where the first service was held, and chose for his address the same text as that preached 150 years ago: ‘Behold, I bring you tidings of great joy’.

Many of the visitors, including the Governor-General, Sir Bernard Fergusson, and Lady Fergusson, and the other members of the official party, made the ten-mile trip by boat to remote Oihi; other visitors made a 25-mile road trip, then walked the last mile of the way.

Five hundred visitors from all parts of New Zealand stayed at the Waitangi marae during the three-day celebrations. On Boxing Day there was held in the grounds of the Treaty House a pageant in which the events of Christmas Day 1814 were re-enacted by descendants of Maoris and Pakehas who were present at the original service.

It is estimated that altogether 6,000 people visited Waitangi for the celebrations.

The Rev. R. E. Marsden is at present on a country-wide tour, preaching at Anglican churches all over New Zealand.

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Northern Advocate Photo

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the photograph above shows four successful students who last December graduated as kindergarten teachers in Auckland. They are, from left to right, Theresa Wi Repa from Hicks Bay, Eileen Pakinga from Three Mile Bush, Kamo, Margaret Wihongi from Kaikohe, and Gloria Thompson from Panmure, Auckland. Miss Thompson gained her diploma with merit, being the first Maori student to do this. She is the recipient of a special award which will enable her to visit kindergartens where there are large groups of Maori children, in the hope of learning ways of encouraging Maori parents to take a more active interest in the work of kindergartens.

there were several Maori lads among the New Zealanders who last January attended the Australia Scout Jamboree at Dandenong, Victoria. This photo shows, from left to right, Neville Luke of Lower Hutt, Vernon Winitana of Lower Hutt, and Henare Broughton Tuahiwi, North Canterbury. Two other boys, Bruce Luxford of Turua and Eric Brunger of Taihape, were out of camp when the photographer arrived.

The New Zealand Contingent's section of the camp was approached through archways decorated with carved and painted Maori designs, and as their demonstration of the culture of their country, the New Zealand boys performed vigorous hakas and action songs.

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one of the many Maoris who has spent a period working in the Islands is Miss Josephine Pryor (see photo above).

Miss Pryor, a trained nurse, is the daughter of the late Henry (Gundy) Pryor and the late Taini Teawaroa, both of Te Teko. She is a sister of Albert Pryor, the Maori All Black.

After training at the Whakatane and Wanganui hospitals she became a staff nurse and junior sister at Whakatane, later spending a period at St Helens Hospital in Auckland to complete her midwifery course. In 1961 she left New Zealand to take up a position as a registered nurse in Western Samoa. After completing her two-year contract she returned to New Zealand, and has now a position in the maternity section of Middlemore Hospital. Last year she and a friend spent a holiday in Japan, where they saw the Olympic Games.

Her photograph was sent in by Mrs M. B. Akuhata-Brown, who writes, ‘Here is a young lady who was deprived of both her parents while still at school, but who nevertheless had the determination and foresight to succeed in her chosen profession. May we all, who are in the same predicament, be as courageous and ambitious!’

mrs mary wi repa (see photo above) lives with her husband, Mr Romeo Wi Repa, at Whanarua Bay on the East Coast.

She has always been fascinated by paintings, but while their ten children were growing up she had no leisure time to spend on it herself. Even after the children had gone their different ways, Mrs Wi Repa still hesitated for a while, very conscious of her lack of training as an artist.

Then she started experimenting. She remembered a Japanese painting on glass that she had seen, and tried her hand at a similar one. Her painting was entered in a contest at the Opotiki Agricultural Show, and to her astonishment it won first prize; despite its technical limitations, it was warmly praised by the judge for its vividness and freshness of colour.

In the seven years since then, Mrs Wi Repa, who is now 60 years old and has many grand-children, has spent most of her free time painting. She does both abstract paintings and landscapes, and is especially fond of painting the beautiful scenery near her home. She has also a special interest in historic Maori places, and scenes from the past.

Her work has vitality and freshness, and the sunlight and warmth in her landscapes reflects her natural ability as a colourist.

Mrs Wi Repa has sold many paintings, and has had them hung in several exhibitions, including the Kelliher contest. Recently she held a successful one-man show in Wellington.

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MAORI
FLAX
SANDALS
and how
to make them

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These old sandals are in the Dunedin Museum.

Paraerae, or flax sandals, were once a common sight in the South Island. They were also used at times in the mountainous parts of the North Island, especially in winter. Many kinds of paraerae were made, the more complicated kind requiring a considerable amount of preparation.

Today a simple kind of sandal, intended for everyday wear, is still made by a few people.

The following instructions describe how they may be made.

Use long flax leaves and divide them into strips approximately half an inch wide. Ten strips will be needed for each sandal.

Soften these by pulling them against the back of a knife or a shell.

The strips are used double. The dull sides of two strips are placed together as in the photograph. These double pieces are then treated as single strips.

Plaiting is started from the toe, and the five strips are plaited in the following order.

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Bend the first strip as shown (diagram A) and lie it to the right. Lay the second strip through the middle of the first one (diagram B).

Then plait the third strip across to lie parallel with the second piece.

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A

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B

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C

Bend the strip indicated by ∗ to make an edge (diagram D). There will now be three strips pointing to the right. Plait the fourth strip through these (diagram E).

Bend the lowest strip to lie parallel with the three lying to the right.

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D

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E

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F

Plait the fifth strip through these four (diagram G). Bend the lowest strip to lie to the right. There will now be five strips lying to the right and four to the left (diagram H).

Now bend the last plaited strip (fifth) back over and plait it back to the left so that there are now five strips in direction. The plaiting will have formed a peak (diagram I).

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G

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H

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I

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Now turn it slightly so that the flat toe of the paraerae is horizontal. Working from each side, alternatively bend over a strip to form the side and plait it through the others until the paraerae is the desired length. The plaiting will still form a peak in the middle.

To finish the heel, take two finer strips and knot them. These two strips are then plaited through as shown.

Beginning from the left, the first strip winds around this extra piece, then back over it to tuck down on itself and under a plait before being trimmed.

The next strip winds under, over, then under the extra piece before tucking in on itself. Treat the other strips on each side of the knot in a similar manner to these two until all the strips are tucked in. Trim these ends off. Do not cut them too close to the plait.

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Tighten these extra strips then knot each on itself so that there is a loop for the lacing to thread through.

Thongs are made from muka flax and are rolled on the thigh to make miro. To make this, strip several flax leaves into fine strips.

With a sharp knife cut across the dull side of the leaf. With a shell or a knife pull against the shiny side starting at the cut. Long strands of muka (fibre) will be obtained. Separate the strands into two bundles and roll them down the thigh; as the hand pulls back, the strands ply together.

If this is not possible, then long, thin strips of flax can be used instead, although they do not wear very well.

When the threads are made the paraerae is laced as shown.

The threads then cross each other to thread through the loops. This may be tied in front of the foot or caught around the leg in the manner of a Roman sandal.

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In the troubled times of the 1860s and 1870s, many sections of the Maori people sought new symbols to serve them as a rallying-point and a source of strength. Some of these historic flags of a century ago are still in existence today.

Maori Flags and Banners

though long strings of feathers floated from the tall stern-pieces of their war canoes, the Maori people in former times did not possess flags similar to those of the Pakeha.

However they were at once attracted to them, for they had a keen interest in signs and symbols, and quickly learnt how much importance their Pakeha visitors attached to these bright cloths.

When James Busby, British Resident at the Bay of Islands, suggested in 1834 that the Maori people adopt a flag of their own, the northern chiefs readily agreed to this. After some discussion they voted in favour of a large flag having a red St George's Cross on a white ground, and in the top left-hand quarter a second St George's Cross on a blue ground. Within the quarters of this upper area were four white stars representing the Southern Cross.

New Zealand's ‘First National Flag’

The flag was hoisted amid much ceremony, and was declared to be the national flag of New Zealand. But apart from the fact that ships bearing it had the protection of the British navy, the flag meant little to the Maoris in the north, and nothing at all to the people in other parts of the country.

Ten years later, resentment against the growing strength of the newcomers found expression in the famous incident in which Hone Heke four times cut down the Pakeha flagstaff at Kororareka, regarding it as a ‘rahui’, a post erected to claim possession of the land.

When war broke out in the 1860s, many sections of the Maori people sought new symbols to serve as a source of strength and a rallying-point in their struggle. Under their

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The figure on this Hauhau flag is making the magic gesture believed to ward off the enemy bullets.

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This drawing of the flag of the Maori King was made in 1863 at Ngaruawahia. Many of the Maori King Movement flags had three symbols similar to these ones. According to several writers, they represent the three islands of New Zealand.

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This figure is on a Hauhan pennant, one of several flags in the Dominion Museum. The cross and the border of the flag are red, on a white ground; the figure is red and black, with a blue strip at the neck.

new flags they fought, and many died.

The huge pennant at the top of this page is Te Wepu (The Whip), one of the war standards of Te Kooti. Fifty-two feet in length (representing, it is said, the weeks of the year) and four feet deep, it was of bright red silk with white embroidery. Te Wepu was made by Catholic nuns in Hawkes Bay for chiefs of the Ngati Kahungunu tribe, but was captured in battle by Te Kooti, who reinterpreted its imagery: the bleeding heart symbolised the sufferings of the Maori people and their determination to fight for their land, and the mountain symbolised Aotearoa. According to some accounts the crescent moon represented the Old Testament, and the cross the New Testament.

Another well known flag belonging to Te Kooti is illustrated in an earlier issue of Te Ao Hou (No. 45, page 11).

The Hauhau flag illustrated on page 32 is one of several that are now in the Auckland Museum. The figure is five feet high, and is

– 34 –

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This red and white flag flew at Gate Pa, near Tauranga, during the heroic battle of 1864. The star is said to represent the Star of Bethlehem.

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The flag of Titokowaru, the famous Taranaki warrior who fought against the Pakeha in the 1860s. It is red and white, and seven feet six inches in length.

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The flag of Te Ua, prophet of the Hauhau faith. ‘Kenana’ is the Maori form of Canaan in the Bible. The outer area of the flag is red, and so is the lowest of the three symbols. The lettering and the other two symbols are black.

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This handsome flag, captured in the Hunua ranges in 1863, hangs in the entrance to the Auckland Public Library. It is red, white and black (in the drawing the black area is represented by stripes).

red on a white ground, with a red surrounding area. Altogether this huge flag is 20 feet long by 12 feet deep.

The tall flagpoles or ‘niu’ which were the centres of worship of the Hauhau cult were hung with many different flags. One kind, of which several have survived, was known as a ‘Riki’, and represented the Angel Gabriel; it was usually a pennant with a cross at the wider end. Gabriel was regarded as an avenging angel, and was believed to have inspired, the prophet Te Ua. In Te Ua's flag ‘Kenana’ the trefoil device, which may have been copied from a playing card, is said to represent the Trinity.

King Movement Flags

The Maori King movement also had many flags, one of which is illustrated on page 33. Other flags bear the words ‘Kingi’ or ‘Niu Tireni’ (New Zealand). James Cowan in his book ‘The Maori Yesterday and Today’, page 85, illustrates a later and most complicated one which features the Tainui canoe, the rainbow god Uenuku and the Pleiades (Matariki), together with a cross, a crescent moon and the sun. Another similar flag flown at Ngaruawahia today appears on page 30 of Te Ao Hou No. 41.

Many of the old flags are very well sewn, for often their makers were girls who had learnt needlework at the mission schools. The beautifully made flag ‘Aotearoa’ was sewn by a young half-caste woman named Heni Pore who had been to school in Auckland in the 1850s. Many years later she met the writer James Cowan and told him the history of the flag.

‘I made that flag in our camps as we travelled about in the Hunua bush in the latter part of 1863. It took me about three weeks to complete the work, doing it as opportunity offered.’

Cowan adds that at that time Heni was about 23, ‘with two or three children which she and her mother and sister carried on their warlike wanderings. She carried a gun, too, and was able to use it.’

Many Have Not Survived

Altogether there are approximately 20 Maori war flags still in existence, as well as some drawings in the Dominion Museum and elsewhere. However in many cases nothing is known of their history and symbolism. Other flags were captured but have not survived; Captain Gilbert Mair in 1870 presented Te

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Kooti's Te Wepu to a museum, but later was furious to find that it had been cut to pieces and used for dusters.

Here is a contemporary description of another flag which is apparently no longer in existence. It was captured in 1860 at the Battle of Waireka, in the Taranaki War.

‘The devices on the flag were Mt Egmont, or Taranaki, and the Sugar-loaf Rock at New Plymouth, with the letters M.N. (Maori Nation), the figure of a heart and star, or the sun, on a red ground. The natives explained these symbols as meaning that the land from Egmont to the sea was the land of their forefathers: that the heart of the Maori was set upon having this land; and that the sun or star was the eye of the Deity.’

The drawing at the top of pages 3233, and the one of the king's flag on page 33, are in the Alexander Turnbull Library. The drawings on page 34 are copies of drawings in the Dominion Museum.

Two Maori Women
Honoured by Queen

two maori women with most notable records of service to the Maori people were made Members of the British Empire in this year's New Year Honours.

Miss M. M. Kewene

Miss Mabel Mahinarangi Kewene, M.B.E., was born at Mangere, Auckland. Her family comes originally from the Waikato, and she is a great grand-daughter of Kewene Te Haho of Kawhia.

Miss Kewene trained at Green Lane Hospital in Auckland for her nursing certificate, and later at Gisborne and Invercargill for her maternity and midwifery certificates.

In 1949 she was appointed to the Te Puia Hospital, north of Gisborne, and since 1959 has been matron there; the East Coast, she says, ‘is almost a second home to me now.’

Miss Te K. Riwai

Miss Te Kiato Riwai, M.B.E., who is a Chatham Islander by birth, was educated at Te Wai Pounamu College in Christchurch. After completing her nursing training she spent the last two years of World War II nursing in Italy and England, and was awarded the British Empire Medal for her military nursing services during this period.

Always interested in Maori welfare work, she 12 years ago joined the Maori Affairs Department, and is a senior welfare officer working in a huge area that extends from Motueka in the north to Southland and the Chathams in the south.

New Maori Studies Course
At Victoria College

the victoria university council has appointed Dr Joan Metge, of Auckland, as senior lecturer in the newly established Maori studies section of the department of anthropology.

Dr Metge took an M.A. degree at the University of Auckland in 1952, and subsequently spent three and a half years engaged in fieldwork research among Maoris living in Auckland and in ‘Kotare’, a rural community in Northland. After studying at the London School of Economics for two years, she was awarded a doctorate of philosophy degree by the University of London. She returned to New Zealand for further research on Maori community life, and in 1961 she joined the lecturing staff of the Department of University Extension, University of Auckland.

Dr Metge's recently published book, ‘A New Maori Migration: Rural and Urban Relations in Northern New Zealand’, is based on her field research in Auckland and at ‘Kotare’ in the North.

The Maori language and culture section of the Maori I course at Victoria University is being taken by Mr Bill Parker, of Ruatoria, a member of the Ngati Porou tribe. Mr Parker, a senior lecturer with the Wellington Regional Council of Adult Education, is well known for his wide knowledge of Maori language and culture. For some years he has read the Sunday evening Maori News.

The preliminary course in Maori language, designed for beginners who wish to take Maori I in the following year, is being taken by Mrs E. B. Ranapia, who is senior Maori teacher at the Correspondence School in Wellington, and a member of the Maori Language Advisory Committee.

It has been decided that the ‘double vowel’ system of spelling the Maori language will not be employed in this new Victoria University Maori studies course.

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HISTORIC PAPAWAI PA

papawai pa in the wairarapa is three miles east of the small town of Greytown, and 50 miles by road from Wellington.

The old meeting-house is seldom used these days, and there is little to suggest to a casual visitor that Papawai was once a thriving settlement and an important political and cultural centre.

But there is still one sign of its former splendour. In the fence beside the marae are six tall figures, badly split and battered, which have about them an air of mournful dignity and pathos. They must be the last stockade figures still standing on a marae anywhere in the country. Twelve more figures lie prone in the grass, some of them beside the front fence, some under the trees by a stream behind the meeting-house.

Each figure is at the top of a tall post, and nearly all of them are larger than life-size. They were made 60 or more years ago, the great logs being felled locally and hauled by bullocks to the pa. The carving was also done by local people. The 18 figures represent famous chiefs in surrounding districts, among them being Nukupewapewa, Te Whare Pouri and Kingi Ngatuere.

Famous For its Huge Gatherings

The present meeting-house, Hikurangi, was opened in 1888. Soon after this, three other meeting-houses and their outbuildings were erected; their names were Aotea, Waipounamu and Potaka. From then until a few years after the turn of the century, Papawai was famous throughout the land for the great meetings held there. The leaders of the pa at this time were Hoani Rangitakaiwaho, the hereditary chief, and Tamahau Mahupuku, who married the widow of Hoani's uncle.

It was at Papawai in 1896 that the chiefs of the Wairarapa signed away their rights to Lake Wairarapa, receiving in exchange £3,000 and several thousand acres of bush country near Mangakino.

In the following year the Kotahitanga Movement's ‘Maori Parliament’ or ‘Federal Assembly’ was established at Papawai, with Tamahau Mahupuku as premier. In 1898

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tribal delegations from many parts of the country, including Parihaka, Waikato, Northland and the East Coast, travelled to Papawai to discuss new government proposals to put an end to the land troubles. Richard Seddon, the New Zealand premier, and King Mahuta, leader of the Waikato tribes, were among those present, and the meeting was one of the largest held in the colony for a long time.

Population of Three Thousand

It is said that during these years, Papawai had a population of as much as 3,000. It had its own bakery and stores, and as it was the home of the ‘Maori Parliament’, it was known to its supporters as the ‘Maori capital’. But the land on which the settlement's prosperity depended was gradually sold. After the death of Hoani Rangitakaiwaho in 1909, the greatness of Papawai began to fade.

Tamahau Mahupuku, who for 20 years had been the most influential chief in the Wairarapa, died in 1904. Seven years later a handsome memorial to him was unveiled. Nearly 20 feet high, it has a massive dome and a heavy cornice supported by four corinthian columns. Between the columns were bronze panels depicting symbolic scenes, and a marble slab with a funeral inscription.

The monument is still there today, but it is stripped of its glamorous facade. The main meeting-house blew down in a gale in 1934, and only Hikurangi and the carved figures remain today. If they are to be preserved, both the house and the figures urgently need to be repaired. This question has been much discussed, but opinions were divided as to what should be done. However there are now signs of a new interest in the matter, and Papawai's historic remains may yet be preserved to speak of the past to a new generation.

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N.M. 46 Ka Eke Ki Wairaka

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N.M. 46 Ka Eke Ki Wairaka

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identical. The first beat of the bar is throughout placed on the same words and the ‘drags’ are placed at identical points, so that there is complete agreement on line division. As with most other waiata transcriptions in this series, the notation has been arranged so that each repetition of the melody fills one line of manuscript with the ‘drag’ figure at the end of the line.

The text and translation of the song can be found as Song 46 in Part One of ‘Nga Moteatea’ edited by Apirana Ngata and Pei Te Hurinui; on p. 8 of ‘Puhiwahine’ by Pei Te Hurinui (Pegasus Press) Christchurch 1961; in ‘Te Ao Hou’ 29, p. 18 where the above originally appeared; and in Barry Mitcalfe's ‘Poetry of the Maori’ (Pauls) Hamilton and Auckland 1961, on pp. 39–40. The text also appears in McGregor's ‘Popular Maori Songs’ Supplement No. 2 (1903) p. 43.

a new accommodation house, to sleep 1,000 people, is planned for the Turangawaewae marae.

figures quoted by the n.z. maori council show that the number of Maoris going overseas is 14 times greater than it was 10 years ago. In 1963, almost 580 Maoris travelled overseas.

In 1951, three and a half per cent of all our overseas forces were Maoris; by 1961, this figure had risen to almost 12 per cent.

a rotorua family the Macfarlanes of Rotokawa, can certainly be proud of the academic record they are building up.

Last year Angas, aged 18, and his sister Marjorie, aged 16, both passed their university entrance examination. Angas, who attended St Peter's Maori Boys' College in Northcote, will train as a teacher. Marjorie, who studied at Rotorua Girls' High School, has taken a job in a Rotorua government department.

Another son, Kenneth, also got his U.E. at 16 years of age and is now taking medical laboratory training at Greenlane Hospital in Auckland.

To round off a successful year, another daughter, Anne, a nurse at Oakley Hospital, gained top marks for New Zealand in the Division of Mental Health final examination.

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THE PROBLEM OF MAORI DROWNINGS

Dominion President, Maori Women's Welfare League.

without water, man could not survive. At the same time, though, water can be a killer. Last year in New Zealand, 113 people lost their lives in the water — and 19 of them were Maoris. The Maori population ratio is about one in 14, but this drowning rate is about one in six. It is a serious cause for concern that so many of these tragedies should involve our Maori people.

Seven drownings last year occurred in the sea. One man drowned when he tried to rescue one of his children who was being swept out to sea on an inflated rubber raft. The father, a non-swimmer, got into difficulties as he reached the raft and his wife swam out and rescued the child. Two spectators swam to the father's aid and pulled him to the beach, but he did not respond to resuscitation attempts.

Rubber Rafts Can Be Death-Traps

Inflatable rubber rafts can be death-traps, especially the cheap variety which are intended for camping, not for surfing. Even quite a small wave can roll them over.

The following principles for ensuring safety in small boats should be observed at all times:

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Use your boat only where it will be safe. Any boat under 16 ft. should not leave sheltered waters.

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Don't overload.

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Be fully equipped. All boats, even those with motors, should have oars and rowlocks, a baler, anchor and rope, spare bungs, and life jackets for everyone (which should be worn).

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Watch the weather. If it looks threatening, stay ashore.

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Don't abandon ship. If your boat capsizes, stay with it.

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Always wear a life-jacket.

Five drownings last year occurred in rivers, another two in creeks. A boy who was playing by the riverside was seen to slip and fall into the water. He was wearing gum-boots. Rubber-soled footwear is not suitable for use in wet or slippery conditions, as it does not provide a firm grip. One should be especially careful when wearing gum-boots in water.

The phrase ‘not seen again’ is one which appears again and again in drowning reports. An instance is that of the 15-year-old Maori boy seen swimming out to a pylon in a river. He was washed downstream and was not seen again.

Rivers Are Dangerous Places

Don't under-estimate the power of a river current. Unless you're a powerful swimmer it's wisest to stay close to the bank, and never swim alone. You can't tell when help will be needed, should your foot wedge in a hidden snag, or a sudden cramp seize you.

A thought-provoking aspect of the Maori drownings last year is that, of the 18 victims whose age is known, nine were children under 10 years old, and four of the remainder were younger than 20.

Adult Supervision Would Save Lives

This is a tragic story indeed. Over the past two months, four out of five people who were drowned in this country were aged under ten, and in most cases their deaths could have been prevented. By far the safest method of avoiding tragedies like these is to keep young children away from water. This of course is not always possible, but in most cases adult supervision could have saved the child's life.

One vivid example of the great risks to which young families are liable is that of a Maori girl, aged 18 months, who was discovered drowned in a fish pond in the front lawn of her home. The girl's parents were inside the house at the time of this tragedy, when they heard a child outside asking about ‘the doll in the fish pond’.

A four-year-old boy died through falling from a tree into the river, and an eight-year-old girl drowned when she slipped from a log on which she was trying to cross a stream.

In another drowning accident, a Maori boy

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aged 6 got into difficulties while playing in a canal. His sister, two years older, went to his aid. Not only were her attempts to save the boy unsuccessful, but she herself was not seen again.

Children Should be Taught to Swim

Cases such as these show the need for parents to carefully watch children playing in or near water.

Children should be taught to swim as soon as they are old enough to learn and, as an additional measure that may save someone else's life, they should be taught rescue breathing. Even more important, every parent should learn rescue breathing, for it could mean the difference between life and death for his child.

It is the duty of every parent to:

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Watch children of all ages when they bathe or play near water, and keep them away from ponds, creeks, canals, sheep dips, and all other water hazards near their homes;

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See that children learn swimming and water safety;

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Take the trouble to learn water safety and rescue breathing themselves.

Children can learn swimming, rescue breathing, and water safety at school and at learn-to-swim classes conducted by swimming clubs. Those who belong to St. John Ambulance, Junior Red Cross, Boy Scouts and Girl Guides will be taught rescue breathing.

Free Booklet on Rescue Breathing

Parents can learn about water safety and rescue breathing in several ways. There are demonstrations at shows and at other places; clubs or associations can borrow films from the National Water Safety Committee, Department of Internal Affairs, Wellington; and by writing to this same address, anyone can obtain a free booklet telling how to practise water safety and do rescue breathing. A free booklet is also available on safety in small boats.

Here are reports sent in by the committees of two more successful play centres.

PLAY CENTRE AT
RUKUMOANA

in december 1963, some thirty Maori people at Morrinsville attended a meeting at which Mr A. Grey, the pre-school officer of the Maori Education Foundation, described the aims and organisation of play centres. The enthusiasm of his hearers led to the formation of a play centre committee of interested parents who thereafter met monthly to discuss the setting up of the Centre, how to obtain preliminary equipment, how to raise funds, and how to create greater interest amongst the community generally. As well as this, several mothers visited neighbouring pre-schools at Morrinsville, Walton and Gordon to gain first-hand knowledge of how these groups managed and what equipment was in use.

The Committee decided to have the opening session on the 6 May 1964. This was a very successful day at which 18 pre-school children, 11 mothers and three fathers were present. Later in the afternoon, two Morrinsville Kindergarten teachers visited the Centre, and expressed their surprise at the numbers present and the array of equipment in use. Equipment at this stage consisted entirely of play things brought in by the parents. Three tables and several chairs for the children's use were donated locally.

Fathers Also Work on Committee

The Committee consists of two sections: The management committee, composed of fathers, whose function is to raise funds, provide equipment etc., and the sub-committee, composed of mothers who supervise at the centre sessions. The presiding officers are: president, Mr J. Pene; secretary, Mr E. Walker; treasurer, Mr Tuhakaraina; roster mother, Mrs Z. Walker. To date, the committee has raised approximately £23, largely from subscriptions from parents, and this money will probably be spent on the purchase of equipment.

Weekly Sessions Held in Meeting-house

Play Centre operates weekly and is held on Wednesday afternoons from 1 p.m.-3 p.m. at the Paki-O-Matariki Meeting House, Rukumoana. At present there is no trained supervisor, but each session is organised by the roster mother, lady welfare officer and two mother helpers, the latter of whom work to

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a pre-arranged roster system. Mothers helpers total 11, including one Pakeha, and it is hoped that several of these will train for their helpers certificates and eventually their supervisors certificates.

Equipment consists of dolls, plain and coloured blocks, interlocking toys, wheel-barrow, trucks, water play, dough and books, plastic containers, blackboard and chalk.

Twenty-one Children on the Roll

There are 21 pre-school children on the roll and weekly attendances average 10-12. Each child is charged 1s. per session with a maximum charge of 2s. 6d. Three Pakeha children are among those who attend. The children look forward to their weekly sessions and enjoy mixing freely with others and playing with the toys and materials. Each session ends with a quiet period in which the children gather around one of the helpers, who reads a story from a picture book.

The present aims of the centre are two-fold: To promote interest locally, and to build up equipment to the standard desired for affiliation with the parent body in Auckland. The future aim will be to obtain a section and a building which will be used exclusively for play centre purposes.

PLAY CENTRE AT
AHIMIA

the official opening of the Centre was in September 1963. After a talk given by Mr A. Grey, pre-school officer for the Maori Education Foundation, the local headmaster and his wife, together with a group of interested parents, set about discussing ways of setting up the centre and creating interest in the village. Three mothers visited an existing pre-school at Turua, where they gained much practical information on how to run the centre. Equipment at this stage was provided largely from school resources.

Since then parents' interest has become so great that all of them are now members of the committee. Mrs B. Renata is the president and Mr H. Connor the secretary-treasurer. Meetings of the committee are held monthly to discuss the centre's progress, equipment and maintenance, and ways and means of fund raising. Fund-raising schemes have included holding stalls, dances and raffles, and at present the committee is holding £30, as well as the £50 received as a government grant when the Centre was affiliated with the parent body in Auckland.

Sessions are held weekly on Saturday mornings from 9.30 a.m. to 12 a.m. They are organised by a trained supervisor (the local teacher) and two mother helpers. Altogether there are 13 mother helpers, and they work according to a pre-arranged roster system. Three of the mother helpers, Mesdames Collier, B. Renata and M. Connor, have qualified for their helpers certificates, and these three are now preparing for their assistant supervisor certificates.

Enthusiasm is Infectious

The 17 pre-school children on the roll show a keen eagerness to attend the weekly ‘school sessions’, and often older brothers and sisters of the tiny tots in the class also come along. Enthusiasm is infectious, and the greater awareness of school life which the centre has stimulated has also improved the school attendance and achievement of the older children.

The equipment provided from school resources has now been supplemented by the committee's purchases. The committee hopes in the future to obtain a complete range of standard equipment, to acquire a play centre building of their own, and, when the need arises, to operate more frequently.

through the play centre federation, the Maori Education Foundation can make available grants to enable Maori parents to attend play centre training courses.

The Northland playcentre association was recently granted £50 for 1965, having spent a similar amount last year on playcentre training expenses.

a memorial to the late mr charlie goldsmith was unveiled on 12 December in the Awatere Valley at Te Araroa on the East Coast. Mr Goldsmith, who was well known on the East Coast, was an Officer in the Pioneer Maori Battalion in the first world war. For many years he managed the Waiapu Farmers' Cooperative at Tikitiki. He was closely associated with Sir Apirana Ngata in many of the major Maori projects on the East Coast.

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– 47 –

Where Is The Love of My People?
He Aroha Ranei To Taku Iwi?

The writer of this article was recently an inmate at Waikune Prison.

hospitality and generosity are two well-known traits of the Maori people. That is why I feel it is so strange and sad that very few of our Maori leaders and people appear to take an active interest in the welfare and rehabilitation of Maori prison inmates. In nearly all the prisons and institutions the people who take an active and personal interest are Europeans, yet whether we like it or not, the number of Maoris who are inmates in these places is higher, proportionately, than the number of Pakehas.

We must face the fact that unless we find an effective way of curbing the increasing number of young Maori offenders, the proportion of Maoris in prison is going to become even higher. This is especially the case as the biggest percentage of the Maori population is in the teenage and primary school age group.

Most Are Not Well Educated

Most of the Maori inmates in prisons and such places belong to the labouring class. Now don't get me wrong on that subject, for there is nothing to be ashamed of in being a labourer. It is a well-known fact that many such people earn very high wages doing manual tasks. Also, they form an important part of our country's employment structure. But the fact remains—very few Maoris with a good education end up in prison. Is education to a higher level the answer? That, and a broader and wider outlook which takes into consideration the years ahead—not just a matter of living for the present and forgetting tomorrow.

Some Drastic Changes Needed

There will have to be some drastic changes if—and without, I emphatically state, losing our identity and Maoritanga—we are to do anything about these problems. Is that possible? Of course it is. Other countries and races have done it, so why can't we? Pride is very important to us Maoris, and until we learn to equal the skills and capabilities of the Europeans in our present-day society, that pride will continue to suffer.

The Forgotten Men

Can it be this thing we call pride that makes so many of our own people, even the members of social and community-minded groups, neglect these forgotten men? Those people who are in prison, whatever their crimes, are paying their debts to society. Surely what matters most is that they should become better citizens, and find a new, honourable place for themselves in society?

It is not easy for any inmate to manage this on his own. The long months of isolation from his people and his loved ones tend to make him see life in a bitter way. Often, his folks and friends have neglected, or forgotten, to keep in contact with him. Many of those readers who saw service overseas during the two World Wars, and also those who have spent long periods in hospital without visits and news from home, will know what it is to be forgotten.

Many Organisations Could Help

In most districts throughout New Zealand there are Maori religious leaders, Maori Women's Welfare Leagues, and branches of the New Zealand Maori Council. I am sure that amongst them there are some mothers, sisters and fathers who would be willing to correspond with inmates—or who, if they live near any of these prisons, would open their hearts and perhaps pay some of these Maori inmates a visit. Some of these Groups and Branches might find the time to send along used magazines and old unwanted books, or even to adopt one of the Maori cultural groups (most institutions have such a group). I am sure that this would be ever so much appreciated, especially by the inmates of inland prison farms, which are situated far from the main centres. If the superintendents of these

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places were approached I'm sure satisfactory arrangements could be made for selected Maori inmates to make contact with interested people.

A Signpost At Raetihi

At Raetihi, the Maori members of the Wainuiarua Maori Pastorate have taken the inmates of Waikune Prison, National Park, to their hearts, and made them feel like members of their own families. This was through the good and understanding work of the Rev. Keith Elliott, V.C., and his charming wife Margaret, and the superintendent of Waikune Prison. This good work is now carried on by the Rev. Brown since the Rev. Elliott has now been transferred to Putiki. This act of kindness and goodness has been kindled, perhaps as no more than a vague glow like the first hint of a new dawn. But it is an unmistakable signpost for some of these inmates.

So Many Who Need Help

But there are so many others, all over the country, who so much need help. At night, when all is quiet and the hours seem long and drawn-out, I hear outside the muted voices of the darkness, and often the sound of the wind singing on its way to ‘te whare kura o Mangareia’. I see the Maori inmate who never receives a letter standing with a haunting look of sadness, and another with no Christmas greeting or parcel, who sits alone in his cell—or who gazes wistfully at someone else's children. And what of the chaps who have no home or friends to go to on their day of release? Then in my loneliness I cry out silently, ‘Where is the love of my people?’.

Te Ao Hou would welcome letters from readers on this subject.

Kia Toa, Kia Kaha!
thoughts from an old warrior

Not now, my son, the slapping of flesh the stamping of feet and the pulsating voices of frenzy,
No longer utu for insults thrust at us.
No longer chance for the warrior.
—You would have been one, firm-fleshed and brazen, wily and swift with your weapons…
Now but faintly the echo will drift to you sometimes
When some of you act out a war-dance.
Now but weakly the pulsing of warrior's lust
Will rise in your blood to throb madly.
Very dimly the cry will ring in your ear-drums.
Kia toa! Kia kaha! Be a warrior!
There is no longer the stamping of feet
And the slapping of flesh in the war-dance.

But, my son, listen. Still, still be a Maori;
Not a warrior for now it is peace-time.
Think as you work by your Pakeha brother
Of the skills that we had. Use them wisely.
Know where you go as you sail your canoe.
Hold firmly the paddles, dip strongly.
Be proud of the fleet that you sail with.
Make your eye keen in your hunting.
Use the best flax in your weaving.
Cast your nets wide in your fishing.
Kia toa, my son!
Kia kaha, my son!
Kia toa! Kia kaha! Be a Maori!

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TE TAENGA MAI O TE WAEA-KORERO
KI ORETE

Ko ētahi pitopito o ēnei kōrero he mea pātai nāku ki a Waikohu Waenga rātou ko Timi Mekerāpata ko Moana Waititi. Ko Timi rāua ko Moana ngā mōrehu kai te ora ināianei o te rōpū nāna i whakatū te waea mai i Wharekahika ki Te Kaha. No te 22 Noema 1964, ka mate a Waikohu Waenga. I kī mai a Waikohu i mutu tāna mahi i Te Kaha; nā ōna hoa i whakatutuki atu te mahi ki Omaio. I mutu ai tana mahi he mea pupuri a ia nā Te Tane Tūkāki hei hoa mahi taiapa mōna ki Te Kinakina. Ko Timi Mekerāpata rāua ko Moana Waititi i roto i ngā rōpū mahi pōhi, kani rākau hoki, hai pou mō te waea. Ko Piri Tūari te tangata whakahaere i te mahi kani rākau.

E tamariki tonu ana au i te taenga mai o te waea ki konei, ēngari kai te mau mahara tonu anō au ki ētahi o ngā kōrero, tae noa atu ki te wā o te hui i te whakapuaretanga o te whare-waea ki Orete. Heoi anō tō mātou hē, he kāore rawa tētahi o mātou i te mau mahara ki te rā me te tau o te hui. Nā ngā uiui ka whakaarohia e tata ana nō te tau 1905, 1906 rānei.

Ko Pēria te ingoa o te pā i reira te whare me te pou-waea whakairo e tū ana. Ko Pārekoihu Te Kani te rangatira o reira. Ko Te Whānau-a-Pararaki te ingoa o tōna hapū.

I ahu mai te mahi o te waea a ngā Maori i te takiwā o Ngātiporou. Kāore au e mōhio i tīmata mai rānei i Waiōmatatini, i Tikitiki rānei. I rongo noa au e kōrerotia ana kua tae mai te waea ki Te Kawakawa (Te Araroa). Koianei te takiwā kāore anō he waea-kōrero, mai i Te Araroa ki Opōtiki.

Nō tētahi o ngā haerenga mai o Apirana Ngata ki tēnei takiwā ka kōrero a ia ki ngā tāngata, ‘Mahia he waea mā koutou. Ki te oti i a koutou, kāore e roa ka mahia e te Kāwanatanga tētahi māna, me ōna tikanga katoa.’ Nā konei i ue te mahi o te waea i roto o te takiwā nei. Nā reira hoki i karangatia ai ‘te waea a ngā Maori’.

Me hoki ake taku kōrero ki te wā i tutuki mai ai te mahi o te waea mai i Te Kawakawa ki Wharekahika. No Wīngara Houkāmau te rangatira o reira, inā rā ko tōna ingoa kārangaranga ko Te Ngārara; ko te ingoa o te whare-waea ko Te Hētana.

I reira ka harakoa ngā tāngata o Wharekahika mō te taenga mai o te waea ki a rātou. I roto i ā rātou mahi ngahau, ka waiatatia mai e rātou ki a Whāka Parakau:

Whāka pukunui, whakarongo mai rā,

Kai te koa a Hētana i ēnei rā, ei.

He rangatira a Whāka Parakau nō Pōtaka, a, kei te haere mai te mahi o te waea ki reira.

Ko ngā ingoa o ngā tāngata nā rātou i mahi te waea mai i Wharekahika ki Pōtaka, tae noa mai ki Whangaparāoa, ahu atu ki Orete, ko George Kelly te rangatira, ko Waikohu Waenga, ko Pua Grace, ko Tauranga Tuhiwai. Te taenga mai o te waea ki Pōtaka, ka tapaia e ngā tāngata nei te ingoa mō te waea a Whāka ko ‘Pukunui’.

He mīhini kōrero anō tā rātou i a rātou e mahi ana, ko te ‘Koene’ te ingoa, ēngari kore rawa māua tahi ko Waikohu e mōhio he aha rā te tikanga o tēnei kupu Maori. He mea whakaaro noa iho he tino reo nō tō rātou rangatira ki te kōrero, i runga i tā rātou waea, ‘Go on’, ka whakakoenetia e te Maori.

Kua tae mai te kōrero ki te Taiwhakararo nei ko ngā rākau e hiahiatia ana hei pōhi me pūriri, me kani hoki he rākau hei pou. Ka whakatika a Te Whānau-a-Kauaetangohia me ōna pekanga maha ki te wāwāhi pōhi, ka mahia he wāpu mō te kani i ngā rākau. I Whangaparāoa te wāpu a tēnei hapū; tā Te Whānau - a - Pararaki i Oruaiti, ko tā Te Whānau-a-Maru i Wairuru.

Ka pātai atu au ki a Timi rāua ko Moana, ‘E hia tō koutou utu mō tā koutou mahi?’ Ka kī mai, ‘E tama, he kai noa iho rā te utu. Inā rā ko mātou tonu hei patu poaka puihi hai kīnaki mā mātou. Heoi anō, i te whakahau a ngā pakeke ki te mahi pou mō te waea, ka haere katoa ki te mahi.’ Engari tō Waikohu mā rōpū, i kī mai ia, e ono hereni tō rāua utu ko Te Pua Grace i te rā. Ko ētahi, he pakeke atu i a rāua, e iwa hereni i te rā. Nā rāua tētahi mahi taumaha, ki te mau i ngā pōhi me ngā pou ki ngā wāhi e hiahiatia ana, ēngari nō rāua te utu paku rawa, nā te mea

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hoki he tamariki iho rāua i ērā.

Kai te haere mai te mahi o te waea i Pōtaka. Ka eke mai ki runga o Taumatahapaipu, ka tuku heke te haere. Kua kitea mai te moana me Whangaparāoa. Kia titaha te rā, ka kitea atu te waea e pīataata ana i ngā wāhi kua rewa ki runga i ngā pou, ka waiatatia e Wīkuki Waititi rāua ko Te Ahiwaru Waenga:

Hau kiwi, hau weka, kawea he kōrero,

Kai te uira te waea i ēnei rā, ei.

Ka tae mai te mahi o te waea ki Whangaparāoa. I roto tonu i te whare o Te Mānihera Waititi te waea. I konei ka whakauru atu ētahi ki roto o te rōpū mahi waea. Ko ngā ingoa ko Hauraki Tāwhai, ko Kūaha Waititi, ko Takamoana Erueti, ko Tiōpira Pōpata. Ka neke te kāinga o ngā tāngata mahi ki Matapapa. Kei muri te mahi e haere atu ana. Kua tipu te whakaaro i a Te Pārekoihu Te Kani kia neke noa atu te rongo o tāna waea i ā ētahi atu. Kātahi ka karangatia he hui mō te whakapuaretanga o te waea ki Pēria. Ka tīkina tētahi kaumātua nō Te Kaha, ko Māihi Tamatama-ā-rangi te ingoa, he hauā te waewae, koia nei te tohunga nāna i whakairo te rākau kua tae mai hei pou ki te taha o te whare-waea. I runga rawa o ngā whakairo o te pou nei ko te Maori e horo ana i te tōhora. Kei roto i ngā kupu o te haka e whakahua ana ki reira. He mea pōhiri atu anō Te Tairāwhiti kia haere mai ki te hui. Ka haere mai a Wīngara Houkāmau, a Te Ngārara e karangatia ana, a Apirana Ngata, me ētahi atu o ngā rangatira o Ngātiporou; pērā anō Te Taiwhakararo. Na, koia nei ngā kupu o te haka i te taenga mai o te ope o Ngātiporou:

Kaea: Te Peketua, e

Nuinga: O!

Kaea: Te peketua, e

Nuinga: O!

Kaea: Ko Hoani ka tiki rā

Nuinga: Tau tangata e tāoro ai koe, tāoro

Kaea: Ngā rongo rā o te waea e, hau tonu mai i runga o te toetoe

Nuinga: Aha ha. Noho mai ana a Te Ngārara i raro i tōna poupou taiapa rīwai e tū mai rā i a Te Hetana. Kei te aha rā koe ki te pou o te waea e tū nei i Pēria. Titiro ki runga ki Maori e horo nei te tōhora. Titiro ki raro ki te pūtake ka uira nei te whakairo. Auware rā, auware rā, i au e. Hei.

Nā ngā mahi tinihanga a ngā koroua nei ki a rātou ka kīia te pou o te waea a Te Ngārara he poupou taiapa rīwai. Ko tā rātou hoki he mea whakairo rānō. Ka neke atu te mahi o te waea ki Te Maru-o-Hinemaka ki Wairuru, ka waiatatia anō e ōna tāngata te waiata:

Te rongo o te waea whakangarongaro ana,

Ka whakapau ngā mihi ki ngā kaimahi e.

Ko ngā kōrero o te hui, kāore rawa māua ko Moana e mōhio. E kī ana a Timi Mekerāpata i takoto rānō te pereti, i kohia he moni hei utu i ngā tāngata nāna i whakatū te waea Ko tētahi wāhi hei aroha ki te rangatira, ki a George Kelly, ēngari kāore a ia i mōhio ki te nui o ngā moni, ki ētahi atu o ngā kōrero o te hui.

Nō te 12 o Tihema 1964 ka tūtaki au ki a Hōri Kōrimete (George Goldsmith). Ka kōrero mai ia ki a au i tae a ia ki te hui i te whakapuaretanga o te waea i Orete. Nō te tau 1903. Engari ko te rā me te marama o te hui, kāore a ia i te mau mahara. E āhua tamariki tonu ana ia i taua wā. Ka whitu tekau mā whitu ōna tau ināianei. I haere mai a ia mā runga i tōna hōiho i Port Awanui ki te hui, he pēke noa iho tōna tera, ēngari ko te tuarā kē o tōna hōiho i pahore i tōna whero.

a young maori accountant, Ariari Te Rangi Paul, of Rotorua, recently left with his wife Jean for New Jersey, U.S.A., where he will spend two years with a firm of public accountants.

Mr Paul was educated at Rotorua High School and is a member of the Ngati Whakaue sub-tribe of Te Arawa, He is the son of the late Mr Retimana Paul and Rainga Paire.

mr bill kerekere, of Waihirere Concert Party fame, left Gisborne a couple of months ago to take up a position in Wellington with the Maori programmes department of the New Zealand Broadcasting Corporation.

Mr Kerekere was for eight years with the Maori Affairs Department in Gisborne. He is on the management committee of Mangatu 1, 2, 3 and 4 Blocks Incorporated, and has been a member for some years. He also served for several years on the management committee of the Waimata West, 1A Block.

As president of the Waihirere Maori Club he has been a strong guiding force in the running of the club since its inception.

He is also a talented pianist, and as well as having his own dance band he has made several recordings.

Mrs Kerekere has been well-known in many activities in Gisborne, including Maori cultural groups and the Red Cross.

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MAORI CLUBS

here is news of two more flourishing South Island clubs. Information about other clubs will be published in the next issue.

Arai-te-Uru Maori Club Dunedin

There are about 30 regular members of this group. Most are Maoris, but there are also Pakehas, Australians, Indonesians and Lebanese. The club has no religious affiliations.

Members learn Maori cultural activities: poi, action songs, hakas, stick games and waiata. They have their own piupiu and other equipment.

Concerts are given from time to time to raise funds for the Maori Community Centre it is hoped to build; this is planned as a cultural centre and meeting-place to be used by all Dunedin Maoris, and also by Pakeha residents. The club already possesses the section on which the centre is to be built.

They also give their services free of charge on many occasions, such as at civic welcomes and at charity performances.

The club meets every Sunday from 3 p.m. to 7 p.m. at the National Party Rooms, High Street, Dunedin. New members are always welcome.

President, Mr Witora Duff; Secretary, Mrs Diana Parsons, 25 District Road, Macandrew Bay.

Te Ropu Maori o Hoani Christchurch

This club was first formed in 1961. Its aims are:

(1)

To foster the revival of the Maori language, art and customs.

(2)

To strengthen and widen friendships with members of other similar clubs.

(3)

To assist existing Maori organisations in every way (for example, to help with the fund-raising campaign for the projected Maori Community Centre in Christchurch).

The club is an Anglican one, but membership is open to people of all denominations. Most members are Maori, but there are also some Pakeha members.

In 1961 and 1962 the club participated in the Maori Convention held on the marae at Tuahiwi, which proved a great success. Later it went on two Mission visits to the West Coast and Temuka, giving concerts while there. Last year, some members attended the Hui Topu at Ngaruawahia, which they found of great interest.

This year there are 34 financial members. Financial membership is 10s a year, though this is not compulsory. Money from this source, together with donations given by various organisations for which the club has performed, goes towards the purchasing of club equipment.

Meetings are held at St. John's Hall, Latimer Square. Practice nights are held on Mondays from 7.30 p.m. to 9.30 p.m., and before this, from 6 p.m. to 7.30 p.m., there are classes in the Maori language.

General meetings are held on the first Wednesday in every month.

President: Mrs H. Whisker.

Secretary and Leader: Mrs R. Mackie, 75 Rahera Street, Spreydon.

ngati poneke hall in Wellington is in danger of demolition. The Ministry of Works recently announced that a proposed Government centre will extend over an area which includes the present site of the hall. The Minister of Works, Mr Allen, has told the association that no space will exist in the new centre for a Maori meeting house, but that an alternative site will be made available.

a fabric design employing freely-interpreted Maori motifs has been chosen for use by the leading British fabricmaker Ziki Ascher. It is the work of Mrs Heni Sherratt, sister of Lady Pomare, who lives with her daughter, Mrs H. T. Fletcher of Te Awamutu. Her drawing, a black and white abstract pattern, was sent to Mr Ascher several years ago by Mrs A. M. Steven of Timaru, formerly an art teacher on the East Coast.

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SOME IMPRESSIONS OF INDONESIA—

Continued from page 23.

In 1942 the Dutch were defeated by the Japanese. The Japanese made greater use of Indonesians in government administration than the Dutch had done, and as the tides of war turned against them they were forced to accede more and more to the demands of the Indonesian nationalists. With the defeat of the Japanese, President Sukarno and other leaders pressed for full independence. Not all the indigenous folk were in favour of independence, in fact some fought on behalf of the Dutch. The Dutch, assisted by the British, attempted to regain control of Indonesia. The nationalists resisted, and bitter fighting followed. Eventually the nationalists triumphed, and on 17 August 1945, President Sukarno proclaimed the establishment of the Republic of Indonesia.

The Revolution was against the Dutch colonialists in the first place, but it was also against the old traditional and feudalistic way of life represented by the princes and chiefs. Since 1945 the energies of the Indonesian people have been directed toward overthrowing the old feudalistic way of life, resisting colonialism in every form, and building a new nation. The tasks confronting them, then and now, are tremendous. Technicians, administrators, teachers and doctors had to be trained, for under colonialism few Indonesians had had the opportunity to acquire training. Furthermore the numerous ‘suku’ (ethnic groups) had to be welded into a single nation, and this is a tremendous task in itself.

Many Different Languages and Customs

Indonesia consists of many islands, and each island group has its own language, traditions and customs. For instance, in Sumatra there is a group of people known as the Batak peoples. Within this group there are five subgroups, each with its own language and customs. Besides the Bataks there are in Sumatra other ethnic groups, such as the Minangkabau and the Atjeh. These also have their own language and customs.

West Java (including Bandung) is the territory of the 15,000,000 Sundanese people. Sundanese language and customs and traditions

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differ from those of the people of Sumatra and also from those of the 60,000,000 Javanese. Altogether there are over 360 different ethnic groups or nationalities in the Republic. If you recall how difficult it has been for us Maoris to forget our tribal differences and work together, you should be able to appreciate the difficulties which confront President Sukarno and his advisers.

A New National Language

One of their first tasks was to choose a national language. This is Bahasa Indonesia, which is now used by the government and taught in all schools. Formerly the folk from different ethnic groups could communicate with each other either with difficulty or not at all, but today they can do this. Thus Bahasa Indonesia has been a means of knitting the peoples of the Republic together.

Bahasa Indonesia is a fairly ‘new’ language, and is still growing. Consequently there are some who find that it is inadequate to express their deepest feelings and thoughts. I was takling to a gentleman who said, ‘While we understand and speak Bahasa Indonesia, we like to use Sunda too. Sunda speaks to our heart, and is sweet to our ear’. His statement reminded me of comments often heard from our own kaumatua regarding the Maori language.

In Central Java I visited two ancient temples. One (Borobudur) is a Buddhist temple, and the other (Prambanan) is dedicated to the Hindu god Cewa. Both temples are colossal stone structures, intricately carved. And both temples were erected between 700-900 A.D., which is a very long time ago. Other ethnic groups have an equally long history behind them, so it is not surprising that there should be rivalries between them. Despite the differences, President Sukarno has welded the people of Indonesia into a nation, and he has done so with the minimum use of force.

Young People's Determination and Drive

The young people with whom I have contact are determined that Indonesia will become strong economically, culturally and militarily. In order that they may contribute to the building of their nation they seek education at the highest level with a determination and drive which puts us to shame. If we had half their drive, enthusiasm, and willingness to sacrifice, our universities would be crowded with Maori students. Economically the majority of New Zealanders, Maori and Pakeha, are better off than the average Indonesian family. It isn't opportunity or means we lack, but vision. These young people have a vision, and they are prepared to undergo all manner of privation that their vision may become a reality.

This doesn't mean that they are always serious and never gay—far from it. They are as gay and friendly a people as can be found anywhere. When we arrived in Bandung we were for a time in charge of a student hostel. In the evening the boys would sit out on the back verandah with their guitars, and sing the songs of Batakland, of Sunda, Java, and the Celebes, with a few of the latest American hits thrown in for good measure. They enjoyed teaching our two children to sing Indonesian songs and it sounds strange to hear our children bellowing the Indonesian national anthem at the top of their voices, when they do not know the New Zealand national anthem. I must confess that I cannot help them much in this matter, because I am not sure of it myself. It would be a good thing if we New Zealanders heard a little more of our own national anthem (I know we have one) and much less of ‘God Save the Queen’. Maybe we would then be able to persuade the peoples of Asia that we are indeed a people distinct from the English, with a mind of our own, and not simply errand boys for England.

However to get back to the subject, the boys also indulged in the more serious recreation of chess. They would sit for hours at the chess-board, pondering move and counter-move. Other sports were volley-ball, badminton and soccer — although I don't call playing soccer in this heat a sport.

Interested in the Maori People

Like all students, the boys liked to talk. They were interested in all we could tell them of New Zealand generally, and of ourselves in particular. Until 1945 the Indonesian experience of contact with Europeans was that of master (European) and servant (Indonesian). The students here asked me how we, the Maori, fared under ‘colonialism’. I've tried to be as honest as I know how, and have said that while some of us have certain grievances against our European countrymen, yet on the whole we have no pressing reasons for wanting to see them depart. Hope I'm right!

Bandung is sometimes called the ‘Paris of Indonesia’. The girls are graceful and very chic, especially the Indonesian-Chinese, who usually have the means to indulge their clothes-sense. All the students usually wear Western-

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style dress, but on formal occasions they do wear their national costumes, the sarong and kebaja. In the villages the women wear sarong and kebaja all the time.

Rice is the Staple Food

In West Java rice is the staple food, garnished with vegetable and spiced with sambal. Sambal is a concoction of various peppers and chilis which is guaranteed to bring tears to the eyes of non-Indonesians. Meat is available at a price, as is also fish, fowl and other temping morsels, but rice is the mainstay. With the increase in population (1,500,000 a year) rice supplies are becoming inadequate, and the government is trying to persuade people to accept such substitutes as corn. However it is not an easy matter to change the eating-habits of centuries. One man said to me, ‘We may have half-a-dozen tasty dishes, but without rice we don't feel as though we've eaten’.

An Enlightening Experience

Our stay here has been an enlightening experience. Until a year ago I knew Indonesia only through such sources as newspaper reports. The picture I had was of a strange, unpredictable people given to violence, living in a land of snakes, tigers and buffalo. Well, the snakes, tigers, monkeys and buffalo are here, and certainly the language and customs of the people are different. Indonesia is indeed a land of contrasts; out in the paddy-field one may watch a man ploughing with oxen and ancient wooden plough, while in the skies overhead jet-fighters dive and twist. Shepherd boys with their sheep hug the grass verge of the street, while Mercedes Benz, Chevs, Dodges and Chryslers flash by. Palatial homes cling to the cool slopes of the hills, while on the flats the poorer people crowd into one room or prepare to spend the night under a bridge. Yet despite all the differences, Indonesians are much like you and me; like us they desire a full and happy life, and the opportunity for all to use their talents to the fullest extent.

The Rev. Lane Tauroa was born in Russell. He obtained his B.A. degree at Auckland University in 1953 and later did some advanced study in New York. Before leaving New Zealand he was pastor in the King Country Methodist Circuit, living at Te Kuiti.

He and his wife, formerly Mavis Dickie of Dunedin, have two small children.

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Books

The Map Drawn by Tuki Tahua in 1793
Mangonui, 1964

Those who had the privilege of knowing the late Dr Milligan, remember him as a man of sharp-edged mind, great humanity, and endless critical curiosity. His unpretentiously titled posthumous monograph reveals all these qualities together with his own astringent wit, the quality which, above all, made those who knew him sharply aware that there was more than one way of looking at the matter under discussion.

This is what ‘The Map Drawn by Tuki Tahua’ is, another way of looking at an unsolvable puzzle; a door which cannot be unlocked because its maker never gave away the key. Dr Milligan's analysis is a long look through the keyhole, and a fitting of different keys, none of which works, but any of which may suggest something to the next key maker.

In 1793 Governor King asked the captain of the ‘Daedalus’ to bring two New Zealanders to Norfolk Island to teach the convicts there how to make rope from flax. It was not a kindly century. The captain sailed into Doubtless Bay (Northland) and invited the two chiefs aboard. While they were engaged with the wonderful and fascinating world below decks he set sail for Norfolk. The two men, Huru and Tuki, came on deck in time to see their land dropping out of sight.

At Norfolk the two chiefs were soon able to teach all they knew of rope making. Flax dressing was, for the most part, women's work, and no part of the duties of a young nobleman.

King now showed his own humanity. Ashamed of the way in which the two chiefs had been kidnapped, he entertained them as his guests, questioning them about their country and the ways of the Maori people.

It was in the course of these discussions that the idea of drawing a map must have occurred to Tuki. A room was set aside. Tuki drew on the floor with chalk and later made a copy on

Picture icon

The late Dr R. R. D. Milligan.

paper. King and his secretary Chapman, sat round the table with the two chiefs while, in a mixture of Maori and English, they named and explained the places on the map. Slowly the signs and notes grew. Not everything could be explained, and King was aware that he was receiving only a shadow of Tuki's knowledge.

If you look at the map and compare it with a modern map of New Zealand, you will find it very different. Mountains and harbours disappear, the shape is strange, names are not where they appear on official maps. Tuki is not drawing a map that a sailor or explorer might use, though it would do for the purpose, he is telling King about the places important to him; his tribe, its enemies and friends, and perhaps something of the beliefs of his people. Wherever he could, King has had Huru and Tuki's explanations written down, but there remain a number of unexplained signs. King has not noted them on the map though there may be some jottings among his papers which would help to explain them.

Dr Milligan explains the geographical map and clears up most of the difficulties. Tuki drew the parts of the map which he knew best clearly and boldly. ‘Here are the Three Kings,’ he says, ‘this is Oruru, my home, and Whangaroa, the home of Huru; here is the Hokianga; these are the chiefs whose pa are important in each district.’ To the southward

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the information grows vague. The Bay of Islands is an inlet, Waitemata, Kaipara and Hauraki disappear altogether, the South Island contains a few clear signs, that is all.

Are we to suppose that Huru and Tuki didn't know what they were talking about? This is too easy. Clearly the two chiefs are accurate in the areas that they know at first hand, and fall back on the tales of their more travelled elders when their knowledge runs out. Consider what kind of map most untravelled New Zealanders would draw of London! Even so there are some surprises. Te Reinga is not at the north end of Te Werahi beach as is shown on the official maps, but at Hooper's Point. Dr Milligan points out that Aupouri elders say that this is a mistake. Who is right? At first sight Tuki, so much better acquainted with traditional lore, seems dependable, but, on the other hand, d'Urville, who located Te Reinga at its present position and from whom official place names seem to be taken, was very careful in this respect. Nonetheless Huru was present to check Tuki's work. Is there another solution?

A re-orientation of the chart, (pointed out to me by Mr D. S. Walsh) so that Tuki's south

west point corresponds with Cape Maria, places Te Reinga at its ‘proper’ place and explains one other feature that Milligan found puzzling, a knob-shaped form between the two capes which can be accounted for by one of two prominent features, Herangi, (700ft.) about half a mile inland, or Te Kohatu, on the beach. This does not disturb the other identification.

The second, and more puzzling feature of Tuki's map, is the set of symbols which can be called, for want of better names, ‘houses’ and ‘trees’. Dr Milligan is certain that these are not mere doodles or decoration.

Tuki was unable to make his message clear to King, nor is it any clearer now. Dr Milligan suggests several solutions none of which leads to finality. The ‘trees’ and the ‘houses’ he thinks have genealogical significance. They are coded information and may have meaning at several levels. He is, I think, correct in looking for a way of relating them to whakapapa though the means at his disposal were too slender for him to do more than suggest some profitable lines of investigation.

Finally, we must ask, what made this failing old man devote the last years of his life to Tuki's map? The reasons are many, not the least were personal, they were in the nature of the man. These do not concern us. But there were others, good scholarly reasons, of which Maoris seem sometimes to be rather suspicious.

Tuki's map is New Zealand's first literary document. It is the focus for some of the traditional history and lore of the Ngati Kahu people. Its meanings, like those of other ancient literature, are hard but not impossible to discover. Fittingly, it is the work of a Maori.

Dr Milligan regarded it, therefore, as of prime significance to all New Zealanders to understand if possible what Tuki had to say, and as a matter of urgency. The stock of Ngati Kahu lore was, he knew, diminishing year by year. It took a long time to gain the confidence of the Ngati Kahu kaumatua and it is a measure of Dr Milligan's tenacity that he did so in spite of his own physical infirmity.

This book therefore, is more than a scholarly account, it is a documenting of part of Maori tradition and of a contact between four men of equal rangatiratanga: King, Huru, Tuki—and R. R. D. Milligan.

My response to a reading of this book, is to wish that there had been more such contacts, and that the present kaumatua will copy their ancestors, and preserve in writing their

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own knowledge. It is only by this means that an authentic Maori consciousness can develop and survive in the sick world of pop culture. In whatever Reinga he is now inhabiting, R.R.D. Millingan would rest easier if he knew that his book had started at least one Maori off on that inquiry into the nature of the soil in which he grows that is the necessary first stage in the development of civilization as opposed to mere comfort. This, I think, a reading of ‘The Map Drawn by Tuki Tahua’ must surely do.

Maori Myths and Tribal Legends
retold by Antony Alpers and illustrated by
Patrick Hanly

This is an excellent, authentic modern rendering of the Maori myths which is well worth adding to the bookshelf at home or at school. Sir George Grey would approve of this new edition of the ancient tales. It is written in modern English with an easy flowing style. The re-arrangement of the episodes into chronological sequence gives a continuity and completeness that contrasts with the disjointed ‘flashback’ technique of the original translations in ‘Polynesian Mythology’. Children will read it with enjoyment; adults will want to read it to their children, and, without doubt, for their own pleasure.

Many of the details that Sir George Grey omitted in his translations have been skilfully woven into the new tellings. There are other additions by Mr Alpers which do not fit so snugly into the Maori stories. There seems to be no need to import from another country the belief that Maui lost his maro as he lifted Te Ika from the bed of the sea. The significance of this is probably quite different in the two countries. In New Zealand working naked in the company of men was normal, natural and, so, insignificant.

The omissions of Grey, though, which Mr Alpers has striven to reinsert into the stories he has handled like the tohunga tauira he hopes to emulate. These passages were omitted because they would have offended the readers of those times. In the greater freedom of the present day it is more common to read and hear about acts and subjects which once were taboo. But usually we find, in the excess which comes with new liberties, an overstressing, a disproportionate emphasising of these subjects. Mr Alpers is to be congratulated on the way he weaves reference to cohabitation and acts of elimination into these stories to give them a naturalness in the telling which reflects the early casualness and lack of embarrassment with which the Maori refers to these things.

Only here and there does the modern style and idiom go too far. ‘Heavens!’ seems an incongruous exclamation for a mythical Maori to make, especially when the original is ‘E tama!’ an almost universal exclamation. The text has its sprinkling of Maori terms. ‘Hokowhitu’ is translated in half a dozen ways but Mr Alpers neglects the obvious ‘seven score’.

Names like Hine-nui-te-po and Ruru-mahara can be translated and perhaps should be. The difficulty is in deciding which to leave untranslated. I think Mr Alpers stretches Maori grammar and phraseology a little far in deriving some of his translations. However, many people play this game—and one guess is as good as another.

These, though, are minor points and detract little from the overall excellence of the text.

There are three important parts in this book. First, of course, the myths, and legends of the canoes. All New Zealanders should read, or have read to them, this easy flowing narrative. The second important part is the preface, a valuable short essay on the value of myth to all peoples of all times. Thirdly, the appendix gives the sources and background of this collection, something of the history of the publication of the myths, some arguments on validity, and poses some pertinent questions whose answers are still locked in manuscripts all over the country.

There is one major defect of this book—the illustrations. In the preface and appendix Mr Alpers makes clear that the Maori, like most other peoples, had a body of myth which explained for them the world they lived in. The myths give an orderly and concise explanation of the apparent disorder of the world. Maori carvings, which depict many of the legends, have symmetry and clearly defined shapes. Tukutuku, tuhi and taniko are neat and precise. Do vague asymmetrical figures, blotchy lines and clumsy imitations of spirals and haching ‘capture the spirit of the myths’? Do puerile bird and fish shapes emphasise the beauty of the birds Maui branded, and the

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bounty of the sea of Tangaroa? And who would want to claim descent from one of the inkblots on page 168?

Clear-cut, well-defined explanations for natural phenomena demand clear-cut, well-defined illustrations.

Is the distorted spiral on page 69 to represent the ‘threshold of life and death’? One presumes so, from the text. Yet there are many ‘vagina dentatus’ in carvings easily accessible for Mr Hanly to copy. The vital part of Hine-nui-te-po had symmetry and power to the Maori mind. This illustration has neither.

The use of an art form symptomatic of the unsure, uncertain modern world to illustrate the fully explained orderliness of the Maori mytholigical world is a mistake.

Mr Alpers has worked valiantly to give these myths the immortality they deserve, but, like Maui, he has chosen the wrong travelling companion. Mr Hanly is your tiwaiwaka, Mr Alpers.

Washday at the Pa

From cover to cover the reader is constantly aware of the fine photography of Ans Westra. She has artistically portrayed her subjects. However, one wonders if the author really understands the background of Maori life, necessary for sympathetic and understanding treatment of such subjects.

The author has not taken into account the fact that many Maoris still cling to some of the old customs. For example, a child is shown standing on the stove—this is almost a violation of the law of tapu.

Presumably this revised version is now intended more for adults' reading than for children's education. If this is so, then the partly revised text in this edition is not really suitable for adult readers.

In the publisher's note accompanying this new edition, it is said that in the controversy caused by its original publication, ‘several factors caused the discussion to be confused’. One of these factors, the note says, is that some readers experienced ‘a difficulty in separating artistic truth (photography employed as art) from objective fact’.

‘Washday at the Pa’ was published in the first place as a primary school bulletin for standards two to five. Children of this age-group do not usually note the artistic value of photography. They accept what they see and read as the truth.

The publisher's note explains that the word ‘pa’ is loosely applied nowadays. However the title ‘Washday at the Pa’ still seems to be a misnomer, for only one house appears in the text and photographs.

From an artistic point of view one cannot fault Ans Westra's fine photography, but the accompanying text needs reconsideration in many of its aspects. Miss Westra must decide for whom her book is intended: for adults, or for children.

this april 28 members of the Rotorua Maori Golfers' Association are to tour eastern Australia.

mr d. n. perry of opotiki, an adviser to the New Zealand Maori Council, recently became moderator of the Presbyterian Church of New Zealand. At the induction ceremony Mr John Waititi, representing the Maori people, paid tribute to Mr Perry's many years of work for the Maori people by placing upon his shoulders a korowai cloak. This was in the place of the usual academic robe.

The cloak was lent for the occasion by the Governor-General, Sir Bernard Fergusson.

the uptown gallery in auckland recently held successful one-man exhibitions of the work of the Maori artists Para Matchitt and Selwyn Muru, and also of a Cook Islands artist, Paul Tangata, and a Samoan painter, Mrs Teuane Tibbo.

Paul Tangata, an honours student at Elam School of Art, paints freely-interpreted tree and flower forms which reflect his memories of the tropical landscape of his home. Mrs Teuane Tibbo, who is aged 70, began painting only last year. Her paintings of the remembered landscapes of her youth have an innocence and directness of vision and a strong natural sense of design.

Articles on the work of Selwyn Muru and Para Matchitt appeared in recent issues of Te Ao Hou; two of the illustrations in this issue (pages 13 and 15) are by Para Matchitt, whose strongly individual work re-interprets the classical Maori forms.

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Records

‘Maori Music From My Films’
Compiled by Robert Steele

Prestige PEP 2089 7in 45 EP

Robert Steele of Auckland is a well known producer of documentary, industrial and travel films. Over the last twenty years he has made some one hundred and fifty films, many of them dealing with his own country as well as the surrounding Pacific Islands. In many such films the background music has featured Maori songs and hakas, and from these Robert Steele has made a selection for this record.

The famous Ngati Poneke Young Maori Club of Wellington feature first with one of their best known numbers, ‘Haere Mai Poneke’. This group is the most durable concert party in New Zealand. It has been in existence and performing publicly without a break since 1936 and its ‘old boys’ and ‘old girls’ are spread throughout the length and breadth of the country. Those who have seen Ngati Poneke on stage will attest to the consistently high standard of their work (they won the Dominion Maori Choir championship in 1963). Strangely enough they have seldom featured on record so this brief offering is most welcome. ‘Haere Mai Poneke’ is performed out of doors but the verve and precision of the performance is still obvious. It is a great disappointment that the full song is not included—there is an abrupt termination half way through. Ngati Poneke also feature the famous Poi Waka. Again this is performed with strength and colour. Another group called Ngati Kauri (unfortunately there is no indication of their origin and composition) perform two spirited haka taparahi without the incoherence which mars many recorded haka. There is also a pleasantly sung ‘Hoea Ra te Waka nei’ from their group.

Also in the disc is an attractive canoe song from a Cook Island group featured in the film ‘Children of Aitutaki’. Actually this gave me a nasty shock. Owing to a mislabelling of the record, this track is billed as Ngati Poneke's ‘Poi Waka’. For a horrible moment I thought Ngati Poneke had gone mad!

‘Maori Music From My Films’ is attractively packaged in a folder-type cover with full explanation of the items (unfortunately with several mis-spelt Maori names) and three photographs. As a ‘souvenir of New Zealand’ type of record it has much to commend it.

‘Temple View Maori Concert Party’

Zodiac ZLP 1015 12in 33⅓ LP

This concert party was formed some years ago when the Mormon temple was built at Hamilton. The present disc is produced under the direction of the temple's Maori Culture Director, Anaru Kohu, with Joan Pearse as Choral Director. For some unexplained reason some of the tracks in this album were recorded in Waitomo caves. A romantic thought perhaps, but the record neither gains nor loses from the fact.

This group unfortunately cannot help being compared with the Te Arohanui Party (mentioned above) because of its Mormon origins and the fact that a number of members are common to both groups. Of course such a comparison is unfair because the Temple View group lacks the intensive training which the other party received before going on its tour of the United States.

The choral work is the best feature of this record and its version of ‘Pokarekare’ will stand out as easily one of the best recordings of this much used and abused song. This is a most attractive setting with some lovely harmonies. ‘Whitiki Taua’ starts most promisingly with a sensitively sung solo and then degenerates into a strict tempo pop tune with guitar accompaniment when the choir comes in. I also find fault with the group's pronunciation in the final line of this song. There is one haka taparahi—a remarkably dispirited rendition of ‘Ka Mate’ which has my vote as one of the most spineless haka renditions on record. ‘Tohu Aroha’ stands out as the best of the solo and trio items.

The record has a very attractive cover photograph, reasonably adequate notes on the reverse, and of course the usual crop of mis-spelt titles without which no self-respecting recording company today thinks of issuing a Maori record.

the pukekohe maori school has been transferred from the Education Department's Maori School Service to Auckland Education Board control. The chairman of the school committee, Mr W. Proctor, says that following this change the school will become inter-racial.

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Picture icon

Solution to no. 46.

Crossword Puzzle 47

DOWN

1. Evening.
2. Fat, oil.
3. Canoe with outrigger.
4. Flea.
5. Beach.
6. It were better.
7. Laugh.
8. Here, near me.
9. Sun, day.
10. Poor land; shrub used for hedges.
11. Near the one speaking.
12. Giddy; aching (head).
19. Rat.
20. Boundary.
21. Obstacle; blind. curtain.
22. Chief, leader.
24. Cask, barrel; batten, rail.
26. Shield.
27. Light.
29. Away.
31. August.
32. Summer.
33. April.
37. Screening, protecting.
39. Rain.
41. Rocky coast.
42. Like, similar.
43. Brains, marrow.
44. How many?
46. Morning.
52. Yours, belonging to you.

ACROSS

1. Although.
7. Call.
13. Hymn.
14. Only.
15. When?
16. The.
17. Interjection in poetry.
18. Toss, writhe.
19. Food.
21. Throw away, reject.
23. Fish.
25. Start suddenly.
28. Day after tomorrow.
30. His, hers.
31. Australia.
34. Shag; chattering; it is I.
35. Dash; breathe.
36. Perhaps.
37. Bilge of canoe; valley.
38. Stand.
40. Holiday.
45. Malaya.
47. Dash, beat, pound.
48. Generous, abundant; dying speech.
49. Descendants.
50. Wait for.
51. Star in the Milky Way.
53. Alas; cry.
55. Fish.

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– 63 –

HAERE KI O
KOUTOU TIPUNA

Mrs W. T. Ngata

Mrs Nancy Maraea (Peach) Ngata, wife of Mr William T. (Bill) Ngata, private secretary to the Minister of Maori Affairs, died last November, after a long illness, at the Home of Compassion, Island Bay.

Mrs Ngata had a distinguished career as a stenographer to successive Ministers of Maori Affairs, including the late Mr Peter Fraser. She was also secretary to Mr J. K. Hunn when he was Secretary for Maori Affairs.

Mrs Ngata was a member of a prominent family of the Ngati Raukawa tribe of Otaki. She was the eldest daughter of the late Tiemi and Bridget Rikihana. Her first husband, Mr Ehae John (Ben) Ropata was killed at El Alamein in the Second World War while serving with the Maori Battalion.

Most of Mrs Ngata's interests concerned Maori welfare, for which she had a deep concern. As a pianist she was much in demand for various Maori social functions. She was a member of the N.Z. Art Gallery Society and a former Wellington executive member of the Consumer Council.

A large number of Mr and Mrs Ngata's friends and relatives from Wellington, Otaki, Levin, Gisborne, Rotorua and Bay of Plenty districts attended the funeral. Mr Ngata is a son of the late Sir Apirana Ngata.

Mrs Ngata is survived by her husband, a son, two sisters, a brother and a niece, who formerly lived with her.

Mr Robert Tangiono Tapa

Mr Robert (Bob) Tangiono Tapa, of Ranana, prominent leader of the Maori people in the Wanganui River district, died at Wellington last December. He was aged 65.

Born in Wanganui, he spent most of his youth in Rata and Parikino.

After serving in France and Gallipoli with the New Zealand Maori Pioneer Battalion during the first world war, Mr Tapa settled in Ranana. For a time, he worked on Morikau Station under the late Mr Gregor McGregor. Later he bought land of his own which he farmed until his death.

In 1929 he acted as foreman of the Ranana development scheme and later, when Morikau was incorporated, he became a foundation member of the committee of management. He also served as vice-chairman and chairman of the advisory committee of Ohorea Station on the Parapara Road, and was a member of both committees at the time of his death.

An executive member of the Wanganui River Settlers' Association, Mr Tapa was very active in all tribal affairs.

He was a life-long supporter of the Roman Catholic Mission in the Wanganui River area.

Mr Tapa was related to every hapu from Taumarunui to Wanganui.

Mr W. U. T. Wakarua

Mr William Uru Teangina Wakarua, secretary of the Taranaki Maori Trust Board, died on 25 October at Hawera. He was aged 57.

Mr Wakarua had been secretary of the Trust at Hawera since it was founded in 1932.

Born at Nukumaru, Mr Wakarua studied at Te Aute College and later gained the diploma of agriculture at Hawkesbury College, in New South Wales.

He married Miss Queenie O'Connor and settled at Hawera.

Mr Wakarua was a keen member of Rotary International and a former secretary of the Hawera Club.

He is survived by his daughter, Mrs Sullivan, of Hawera.

Mr Teone Wiwi Taiaroa

On 29th December, the Ngaitahu people lost one of their best known personalities, when Mr T. W. (Wiwi) Taiaroa died at Otakou on the Otago Peninsula. He was aged 62.

Mr Taiaroa, who was born at Otakou, was a son of the late George Taiaroa and his wife Margaret (nee Parata) and a grandson of the Hon. H. K. Taiaroa and the Hon. Tame Parata, both South Island Maori Members of Parliament and Members of the Legislative Council.

Apart from some years spent in Canterbury, Mr Taiaroa spent most of his life on the Peninsula as a commercial fisherman and a sheepfarmer. One of the founders and directors of Otakou Fisheries, Ltd., and for a time the Chairman of its Board of Directors, he fished for a number of years around the Otago and Southland coasts. In addition he managed the family property, Akapatiki ‘A’ Block, Incorporated.

Mr Taiaroa took an active interest in community affairs, being for many years a member of the Otakou Maori Committee, and in addition representing the Otago Heads Riding on the

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Peninsula County Council. He was also active in Masonic affairs.

In his youth he was a well known Rugby player, being often included in southern Maori representative teams.

Always a lover of horses, Mr Taiaroa in his time raced a number of horses, the best known perhaps being Royal China and Pudechan. He was also, in his younger years, well known as a show rider and trainer of show horses, being the original owner and trainer of (among others) the very successful jumper, Viking.

Mr Taiaroa's funeral, which took place at Otakou on New Year's Day, was attended by several hundred mourners, not only from all parts of the South Island but from the North Island as well.

Mr Taiaroa leaves a widow. Raukawa (nee Ellison), four sons, two daughters and eight grandchildren.

Mr Hohepa Te Rake Te Kiri

Mr Hohepa Te Rake Te Kiri, of Rotorua, died last October, aged 70.

A son of Te Ngahoa Te Kiri, a leader of the Ngati Rangi Teaorere sub-tribe, and Mariana Teoha of Ngati Whakaue, Mr Kiri was born at Te Ngae.

He lived all his life in Rotorua, except for a period during the first world war when he served overseas as a sergeant in the Second Maori Reinforcements.

At the time of his death he was a member of the Arawa Trust Board.

Mr Te Kiri is survived by his wife, three daughters and a son.

Mr Albert Horsfall

A prominent Gisborne Maori, Mr Albert Horsfall, died last January, at the age of 61.

Although part European, he had tribal connections in the Gisborne district and was a leader of the Mahaki and Rongowhakaata tribes.

In his younger days he was noted as a sportsman, particularly in rugby. He was a Poverty Bay representative and played in New Zealand Maori teams. Until recently he acted in an administrative capacity for several football associations.

For the past seven years he was a member of the management committee of the Mangatu blocks incorporated.

He leaves a family of 13 children. His wife, Mere Tahuta Pere, predeceased him.

Mr George Hiorangi Te Whaiti Mrs Meri Raita Te Whaiti

The deaths occurred at Greytown Hospital last December, within two days of each other, of Mr George Hiorangi Te Whaiti, aged 74, of Greytown, and his wife, Mrs Meri Raita Te Whaiti, aged 70.

Mr Te Whaiti, who was the surviving son of the late Mr Iraia Te Whaiti and of the late Mrs Maikara Te Whaiti, was born at Pirinoa and was educated at Hikurangi Maori College, Carterton.

He was for many years a trustee of the Koukirikiri Trustee Board, administering the Church of England Papawai farm (400 acres) and a member of the management committee of Mangakino Township Incorporated and Pouakani Block, Taupo District.

He was awarded the Jubilee Medal in King George V's jubilee year. He was a prominent New Zealand rifle shot, and for some years was president of the Papawai Rifle Club.

He was also active in Masonic affairs.

Mrs Te Waiti, who was a daughter of Mr and Mrs Hemi Enoka of Pukio, was educated at the Greytown School. She was a popular member of several Greytown organisations and she and her husband were faithful adherents of the Church of England.

The funeral services were held on the Tuhirangi marae, Kohunui Pa, in the presence of a large number of mourners, Maori and Pakeha, from Hawke's Bay, Otaki, Wanganui and Wellington.

Mr and Mrs Te Whaiti are survived by one son, Mr Iraia Te Whaiti (Greytown), five grandsons and three granddaughters.

Mr A. Te A. Rotohiko (Mr Sammy Haupapa)

The death occurred at Rotorua several months ago of Mr Amahia Te Aurei Torohiko, often known as Sammy Haupapa. He was aged 87.

Mr Haupapa was a son of Rotohiko Haupapa, a leader of Ngati Tunohopu, a sub-tribe of Ngati Whakaue.

Born in Ohinemutu, Sammy Haupapa served overseas in the first world war as a sergeant in the First Maori Contingent.

A tailor by trade, he served his apprenticeship in Rotorua and later worked in Otaki, Cambridge and Wellington.

In his younger days he was a keen Rugby foot-baller and later became one of Rotorua's best referees.

He is survived by a brother, Heke Rogers.

Mr Tuhuru Tainui

Mr Tuhuru Tainui, one of the best-known personalities on the West Coast and an elder of the Maori people of Arahura, died last January in Christchurch Hospital. He was aged 67.

He is a descendant of the paramount Chief Tuhuru of the Ngaitahu tribe.

At the age of 17 he went overseas in the first world war, and served in France, Germany and Gallipoli.

Until four years ago he was chairman of the Arahura tribal Committee.

Mr Tainui is survived by his wife, six sons and three daughters.

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TOHUNGIA NGA MANU MAORI

Picture icon

M. F. Soper

Ko tenei manu te Korimako ko te tahi o nga tino manu a he manu whakapaipai hoki. Kana e patua. Awhinatia mai matou ki te tohu i tenei manu kia kore e whakangarahia rawa atu i te mata o te whenua.

Na Te Tari Kaitiaki o nga Manu.