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No. 34 (March 1961)
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THE ART OF ADZING
As taught by Eramiha Kapua, of Ngati Tarawhai, Te Arawa, to students of the
Maori Arts and Crafts School, Rotorua
PART 2

The different types and methods of adzing: (a) The “Ara Haratua”, (b) Ngaotu and Ngaopae, (c) Poke, Poka and Ta.

7. (a) The “Ara Haratua”. The straight line or straight edge. When this stage begins in the learning period, the pupil really starts to learn how to handle and master his adze. The ara haratua is really the striking of a line either on the edge of the timber or on the centre. This can be achieved by two methods, one, working with the grain, and two, working against the grain. This is a very difficult cut to achieve, for the slightest miscut will reveal a flaw. However it is one where the learner gains further progress or otherwise, because of his previous exercises. A demonstration by an expert is very necessary.

(b) Ngaotu and Ngaopae. These two types of adzing are really the same, ngaotu being the progress of the adzing straight across the grain and timber, while ngaopae is that running across and diagonally on the timber. The former is used for straight and clean-grained timber, the latter for stringy, crisscross and knotted timber. But in both methods of adzing, the cuts by the adze are laid out in a pattern, width and spacing of adzing in perfect array, row upon row. Its achievement is gained by a learner only after months of adzing.

(e) Poke, Poka and Ta. Poke and poka are adzing terms applied to digging in and obtaining relief in carving, and ta, the meeting point of the adzing where the chips are finally released. These methods of adzing, the cuts by the adze are laid when figure adzing is described. The grain and easy cutting of the totara is experienced by the learner, but further holding cutting and eye concentration are essential to obtain desirable results.

 

Ka tutaki au ki a Eramiha Kapua i Te Teko.

No te 10 o nga ra o Hanuere 1930, ka hoki au ki Rotorua ki te Kura Whakairo. Ka tae atu au ki Te Teko, ka ui au ki te kainga o Eramihi, a haere tonu atu au na raro ki reira. Tae atu au e miraka kau ana a ia, ko au tena ki te awhina, me te ki atu, waiho taku take mo muri kia paenga tenei mahi, ka korero ai maua. Ka ki mai me moe au ki a raua ko taria kuia, ka whakae atu au, ka karanga atu ki tana kuia he manuhiri ta raua, ka moe iho ki a raua. Ka mutu ta maua miraka, wehe i te kirimi, whangai i nga poaka, ka ahu maua ki to raua whare, ko tana kuia hoki e nau mai ana. Ka hongi maua ka ki atu au no Ngatiporou au, taku ingoa, a e ahu ana au ki Rotorua, ki te kura whakairo, a peka mai nei kia kite, kia korero hoki ki a Eramiha i tetahi take nui e manakohia ana e nga kaiwhakahaere o te Kura Whakairo, a ko au ta ratau karere, he tangata hoki e ako ana ki te whakairo. Ka ki a Eramiha me waiho nga korero mo te po, kia mutu te kai me te karakia. Po rawa ake kua ki to raua whare-puni i o raua whanaunga e tata mai ana, na raua i karanga atu. He Ringatu te iwi nei, a mutu rawa te karakia, katahi ano a Eramiha ka manaaki i au.

He tohunga ki te korero, ki te whakatakoto i te kupu i te whakaaro, a ka mutu ana manaaki ka patai, he aha rawa ra te tino take o taku haere ki a ia, a he karere no te Poari Whakairo a tuarua he aha te wahi ka taea e ia e te kaumatua, kati, ka whanga ia mo taku whakautu. Muri iho ka tu mai te iwi ki te manaaki i au pera ano te wai o nga korero i ta Eramiha. Ka tu atu hoki au ki te whakautu. Ka mutu aku mini atu ki a ratau katoa, ka timatatia e au aku korero mai i te wa i whakaturia ai he kura mo te iwi Maori

 
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8. Preliminary adzing prior to carving: (a) Split Timber. (b) Milled Timber.

There are two types of totara timber used in carving. The first is that where milling is impracticable, and to obtain length, width and thickness, the timber is cut into lengths and opened by blasting or by wedges in half. By careful use of wedges, the width and thickness is obtained. This slab of totara is not square, but it has one pleasing feature and that is its greater resistance to opening up or developing cracks during its drying stages, than a squared slab cut by a saw at a mill. The reason for this is in the case of the former, the grain is intact; in the latter, the grain has been disrupted.

(a) Split Timber. First, the learner will note that it will not lie squarely on the floor; the corner of one end is up and the same with the vertically opposite corner at the other end—in other words it wobbles lengthwise and across. A good way to obtain quick results is to mark out the maximum space of the wobble at the corners, steady the slab, and draw a line right round the ends and sides of the slab, and then adze down to the marks. This adzing is known also as ara haratua. It is of the greatest importance to know the right side of the slab to carve on, so before drawing a line on the sides, look at the ends and you will locate radiating lines; these are the annual rings. If they work up and outwards then go ahead and draw your line, if downwards then turn your slab before drawing. There is a reason for this. By carving on the outer surface, you further minimise the cracking or opening of the surface of your carving, but when you carve on the inner surface this tends to increase the openings on the carved areas particularly the bulky rounded forehead, shoulders and body, all being in high relief.

Let me quote Eramiha. “Kaua e whakairo e taraitia ki runga ki te puku o te totara, e ngari hei runga i te tuara, ka ngawha hoki te puku, engari te tuara, toitu tonu.” “Do not shape your carvings by adzing on the stomach or inside of the annual rings, but do so on the back or outside

 
 

hei ako ki nga taonga mahi a ringaringa a te Maori, te whakairo, te tukutuku, te kowhaiwhai, mo nga tau tuatahi, a muri iho ko era mahi a te wahine. Na Te Arawa i ki hei Rotorua te kura, kei a ia hoki nga tohunga mohio ki te whakairo hei ako i nga tamariki tane o te motu ina kowhiria. Kua whakaeke o Waikato, a ko au to Ngatiporou a kua rua tau te kura e whakairo ana. I Tihema o tera tau ka tae mai a Apirana ki te kura kia kite i a matau, i a matau whakairo hoki mo te whare o Wiremu Potae o Ngatiporou. Ka korero au mo tana titiro ki a matau whakatu i te whakairo, a ka whakahau ia i au kia hoki ki te Tairawhiti ki te rapu i te matauranga o te whiu i te toki kapukapu, hei whaka-atanga mai i te wehi o te whakairo, ka mohio ra au, ka hoki mai ai ki te ako ano i te whakairo, mo katoa ano hoki tenei korero.

Kua tae au ki Ngatiporou, ki ona marae maha hoki, ki te rapu i te taonga nei, kua pataitia e au nga kaumatua o te takiwa mai i te Muriwai tae noa atu ki Raukokore, ko te hua, kua ngaro te mohiotanga i a ratau, engari no Raukokore te korero nana taku tira i mau mai ki konei, ara, “haere ki te Teko kei a Eramiha Kapua te mauri o tenei taonga e pupuri ana. No reira ka korero au ki a Apirana i Poneke i mua atu i taku haerenga mai, ko tana whakahau tenei ki au. “Tikina e koe tenei tangata, e mohio ana au ki a ia, mauria ki Rotorua hei ako i a koutou katoa o te kura whakairo. Ma taua a ia e manaaki e atawhai, ki atu ki a ia, kei te karanga te rangatahi o te iwi Maori ki a ia hei kai-ako hei matua, hei kaiarahi i a ratau ki nga whare whakairo maha o nga marae nunui o te iwi Maori e taria mai nei e nga iwi ma te Kura e whakairo.”

“No reira Eramiha ko te tumanako tenei o Apirana, tae atu hoki ki a matau katoa, nga tamariki tane o te motu kei Rotorua e tatari mai ana. Me aroha mai koe ki a matau. Kaore e rere te wehi o te whakairo i te purupuru anake, kua tino kite taku hinengaro me aku kanohi i nga whakairo o te Tairawhiti, poka ke te kororia o nga whakairo na te kapukapu nana i waihanga i

 
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of the annual rings, the stomach or inside will contract, the back or outside stays permanent.”

Having thus inscribed the lines, turn the slab over, secure it by blocks, take your upper garments off, for now the learner begins to appreciate the handling and use of an adze. Check up on the following points: Is the handle correctly fitted and firm, the cutting edge sharp, your boots lightly laced up, your belt fixed at the correct hole, your brain and muscles in tip-top order? Then start by cutting down to the inscribed lines and adze along the edge your ara haratua, with the block of the adze against the grain and the adze applied at an angle. From one end to the other you will come across light and heavy adzing, uncut chips will accompany you all the way, big and small—you've had experience before with them, and pride and exhilaration flow through you as you confidently deal with them. You repeat the same operation on the other side and when you have finished that, you will then proceed to count the number of cuts of each side and compare the results. Say the slab is ten feet long and your adze four inches wide; if you are a learner with about 160 hours of adzing to your credit or four weeks, then the cuts should average 40 to 60 per side, but if you had 6 months' teaching, then the cuts will average between 25 and 30. I have done this in 20 cuts a side in my normal adzing time.

Having outlined the ara haratua, the next step is to adze right across from edge to edge, allowing in the process the centre of the slab to sink down about an inch. A straight piece of timber laid across will help to judge this. This hollowed effect is to allow the slab to fit snugly on to the wall later.

You will next proceed to apply the ngaotu and ngaopae method of adzing—chips wide, long, thin, of all shapes and sizes, will now appear; you will be instructed to form a pattern of adzing, and if your rating is 50 cuts for a length of 10 feet, go ahead and produce 50 series of regular and uniform patterns across the slab throughout the whole length. It is during this preliminary adzing that you will appreciate the first lessons, the holding and swinging, the ease with which the chips fly out and how the grain of the totara runs, thus making adzing easy. Now turn the slab over and you are now ready for the final preparation of the area to be carved. You will note the square sit of the slab on the floor and it is at this stage the expert will instruct the learners how to eliminate all waste timber, thus paving the way for easy working of the different sections of the figure to be carved. Having finished this part of the adzing, the exact width is marked out and adzed and planed to the marks.

(1) First, a centre line is marked out throughout the length of the slab, then lines are drawn about one to two inches from the floor line, thus indicating the death of the carved relief.

(2) Secondly, an arc is drawn at the ends to illustrate the extent of the timber to be adzed

 
 

nga whakairo na te purupuru nana i karokaro, nana i manihi. Ma te tohunga anake te mea tuatahi, ka taea e te kuare te mea tuarua, a, kei te whakairo tuarua tonu nei matau inaianei, a. ki te kore he kai-ako ki te mau kapukapu, kaori te kura whakairo o te iwi Maori e haere whakarmua, engari ka noho tonu i kona karokaro ai, rapirapi ai. Ka hara mai korua ko te kuia, ka haere tatau ki te karanga a Apirana me nga tamariki tane wahine hoki o te iwi Maori. Ma maua ko Apirana, tae atu hoki ki nga tamariki tane wahine o te motu korua e atawhai, i Rotorua, a, tae atu ki nga marae maha o te iwi Maori e karanga whare whakairo mai nei mo ratau. Ano tenei tono ki a korua, ka mate atu korua ki nga marae maha o te iwi Maori, ina hoki te kaupapahaaro o nga whare a Ngata e korero nei a ia, huri noa te motu, me te Waipounamu. Kua tae taku wahine i tenei po ki Rotorua, kei te whakamahana mai i te kainga mo kurua, kei te taha tonu o to maua. Hara mai e hika ma tatau ko haere ki te motu ki te awhina i a Apirana ki te hanga hou i te iwi Maori kia tu poupou, ai i te taha o te Pakeha, ki te waihanga hoki i ona taonga hei pupuri i to tatau Maoritanga,” ka mutu ka timata au i taku waiata: “To toki e hika.” A, kaore i roa ka tu mai ratau ka hapainga te waiata nei tae noa ki tona mutunga. Te mutunga ka mihi atu au, kua mene atu aku korero i whakaarohia e au, ka noho au.

Ka whakae a Erumiha Kapua ki te ako i roto i te Kura Whakairo.

Noho ana au ka tu mai tetahi o nga whanaunga o Eramiha, ka mihi mai mo aku korero, me taku

 
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off. To guide the learner further, lines are drawn on either side of the centre line, two inches away, from which the learner is shown the best way of cutting away the timber. The slab is then raised to a convenient height off the floor, six inches being the usual, making sure it does not wobble.

(3) Thirdly, the expert stands at the left edge of the slab and starts to adze from the line drawn next to the centre line, all the timber indicated by the arc at the end, towards the line marked for the carving relief, maintaining the width of cut from top to edge. He will proceed like this along the length for about a foot, then he is confronted by too much timber that sometimes does not break off conveniently. This always happens. So by quick cuts of his adze at right angles, and about six inches away, the chips and timber are easily broken off. The cut thus used to obtain this release is the poka. After a demonstration of about three feet, the pupils then begin to try their hand.

The elevated position of the slab is soon appreciated, for this allows natural and free adzing movements; there is hardly any stooping, the feet are better braced to carry the swaying body, and the arms rise and fall naturally, and physical fatigue is reduced by the flying chips and every increasing pattern of the ngaotu stage by stage. It is a remarkable fact that at this stage of the learner's period of adzing, his eyes are particularly quick to detect any variations in the depths of his adzing, whether digging in too deeply or

 
 

kaupapa ki a Eramiha raua ko tana kuia. Katahi ka huri ana korero ki te tokorua nei. “E Miha, e Wai, ina tenei taonga kua homai nei e to tatau matua e Ngata ki a korua. Titiro atu tatau ki tana kaupapa kua whakaaturia mai nei e tana karere. Ahakoa i roto i to korua kaumatuatanga, e Miha, horahia nga taonga kei a koe. Tuatahi ki nga tamariki tane o te iwi Maori, te mau kapukapu, te whakairo, te waiata, te haka, te patere, te tu marae. Tuarua, te kaupapa o te Maoritanga ki nga marae maha o te iwi Maori. E Wai, pera ano koe, akona nga wahine ki nga taonga hei uhi, hei whariki i nga whare ka hanga nei e to tatau matua e Api. Hara mai haere korua, hei ringa, hei reo, hei kanohi mona ki tena iwi, ki tena iwi. Kaua e maharahara ki muri nei.” Ka mutu ana mihi, ka tu mai hoki tena tena o ratau a mene katoa ratau ki te maioha atu ki a Eramiha raua ko tana kuia ko te Wairata pera me ta te kai-korero tuatahi, apiti atu hoki ki te whakaaro o tena o tena o ratau. Ka mutu ratau ka tu a Eramiha ki runga ka waiata i tana oriori ka tu katoe hoki te whare: “Popo e tangi ana a Tama ki te kai mana.”

Ka waenganuitia te hari a ratau i te oriori nei, ka maringi mai ki roto ki au tetahi wairua hou, te koa, te hanga reka, te ngakau papaku, me te miharo, pera tonu me ta ratau hiki haere i nga kupu o te oriori, he wana hoki, ano ra, i ia hikinga o ratau reo, ko au tena e tarai ana me taku toki kapukapu, a ko nga maramara o taku taraitanga e makere ana pera me ta ratau hiki haere i te oriori nei. He tino mohio au ki tenei oriori, no te Tairawhiti hoki, engari mai i taua po, te 10 o Hanuere 1930 tae mai ki tenei po 21 o Hune 1959, kaore ano au kia rongo i tetahi ropu kia pai ake i a ratau. No te mea e waiata ana ratau katoa, he tangi he koa, he poroporoaki, he aroha kei roto i o ratau ngakau mo Eramiha raua ko te Wairata. Ka mutu ta ratau waiata, ka ki mai a Eramiha. Ina ka rongo atu nei i te take o to hara mai, apiti ki nga korero a te whanau kua korero mai nei, kei te hari te ngakau mo tenei taonga nui ka homai nei e koe hei whiriwhiri, hei whakaaro maku. Kei te tangi ki nga korero a to tatau matua a Ngata, tae atu hoki ki nga tamariki tane o te motu. Kua he ke nga ra o taku tinana me aku kanohi, engari ia ko te wairua kei te koro ingo tonu, waiho ra me huri ake au ki taku rangatira, mana e whakatau te tono a Apirana ki a maua.” Ka huri ia ki a te Wairata ka ki atu, “E Wai ma taua a whiriwhiri te whakautu tika, pono hoki, mo te tono a Ngata, mau e ki kua pu te raha, he oi ra, mau e ki ka haere taua, kua tau ki tena. Homai he korero ki te karere nei, kia wawe te mohio mai a Apirana.” Ka mutu ana korero, ka noho ki raro.

He roa te nohopukutanga o te whare, katahi ano a Te Wairata ka tu ki runga, ka ki, “E hika ma katahi nei te taru kino, ka riro ma te wahine e whakatau tenei tono ataahua a te iwi Maori, a Ngata, a te rangatahi. E Miha na to waiatatanga i te oriori na i a Popo, mohio tonu atu au kua

 
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too lightly and taking notice too of the work and progress of the other learners. When a learner has completed a ten foot long slab from start to finish and it is reasonably done, he shakes off adze shyness, and nervousness, and he will do another slab with confidence and with a will. One of the surprising features of adzing is that at the end of the day there is no body fatigue, and I put this down to the fact that as each section of the work is completed there is a pattern left by the adze worked out in an orderly and regulated manner.

We have now completed the preliminary adzing prior to carving of a non-milled slab, now we will take a milled log and prepare it like the first slab.

The learner will consider the following points: (1) The correct side to carve on. (2) Scribing the edge to indicate the depth of relief in the carving. (3) Adzing out the back. (4) Marking out the centre and guide lines. (5) The actual adzing which follows on the same lines as the previous unmilled slab.

9. The art of shaping a figure in sections

When the learner has acquainted himself with adzing, his next step is adzing out of the different portions of the carving to give the greatest relief possible to those features he or his employers desire. The chisel cannot compare with the adze in finish and symmetrical balance, the lowered slanting eyes, the raised defiant eyebrows, the bold sweep of the head, all three features that enhance and make more prominent the gaping mouth with protruding tongue thrust boldly on to the breast, all these features easily, quickly and smoothly executed by the adze in the hands of an expert, and a learner must go through his paces before he too can do likewise. Once again the learner must watch the expert carefully in all the phases of cutting that he employs, furthered by repeated personal guidance, for not all carved figures are identical in adzing detail.

(a). Adzing the head, eyes, nose and tongue.

After the preliminary adzing, the figure or figures for carving are drawn out on the timber and these are then chiselled in with a v-shaped chisel as a guide for adze and chisel. The carver then starts to form the brow and eye on one side until completed. before starting work on the other side to balance it. He will adze out between the eyebrow and upper lip. If the relief allowed by the timber is six inches, then the adzing is at least three to four inches deep near the centre (i.e. the bridge of the nose) and as it slopes off to the edge it eases up to an inch. The cut employed at the eyebrow is poka, and at the upper lip ngaopae. The area for the eyes, after taking out quite a bit of timber, is then plotted and marked, and, by alternate use of adze and chisel, this is gradually separated from the brow and upper lip.

The greatest concentration of effort and work is that of the eyebrow, and the finished product has a slightly curved result. There is a feeling of satisfaction in doing and completing this part, for

 
 

whakae to wairua me to ngakau me haere taua, ahakoa kua koroheke ke taua. Waiho i ta te oriori i korero ai hei whakatau ma taua, Ka haere taua ki te mau i te wai-u mo nga tama maha o te iwi Maori, e tangi mai nei ki te kai ma ratau.” Ka mutu, ka noho.

Katahi ka tangi te titihaoa o roto o te whare, ka tu katoa, ka waiata ano i a Popo. Ki taku mohio tonu i taua wa, kei taku taha katoa aku tipuna mohio ki te mau kapukapu o te Tairawhiti, kua mate noa atu ra, kei taku taha e korero ana mai, awhitia enei kaumatua, akona a puritia ta raua taonga ka homai nei ki a koe, manaakitia, mauria kia kite te iwi Maori. Kei te miharo hoki ki tenei wahine, nana nei te whakaetanga mo taku tono, engari ia i te wa e tatari ana au kia tu ia ki te korero kei te kuku te po i au. Ina koa kei te ngangahu a, roto i au, kua ea taku powaiwai haeretanga i te rohe o Ngatiporou, kua rite ki ta Wiremu Potae i whakahau ra, “Tomokia nga rohe o nga iwi a whiwhi noa koe ki te tohunga mau toki kapukapu;” Kua tomokia te rohe o te waka nei o Mataatua, a kua whiwhi.

Te mutunga o te oriori nei ka mihi katoa matau ki nga tokorua nei, a e hia hoki nga waiata nga patere, i waiatatia, ko tona manaaki hoki tera i nga taonga a taua a te iwi Maori.

Ko Eramiha te whakamutunga ki te korero—ka mihi ia ki tana kuia, ki ona whanaunga, a ki au hoki, katahi ka ki mai. “E tama, ko au no Ngati Tarawhai, no Te Arawa, e tika ana ma Te Wairata maua e tuku i runga i te rangimarie, kaati kua puta mai etahi kupu ataahua mo te tono a Ngata ki a maua. Hoatu ki to taua iwi ki a Te Arawa, he ngahuru tenei, ka paenga ra nga hua o te tau ka whaiti, ka hara mai koe ki te tiki mai i a maua. Te ahua nei mate atu maua ki kona, ina hoki te kaupapahaaro o nga hiahia o nga iwi puta noa, a tae atu ki te Waipounamu. Kaati e pai ana, ko to tatau matua ko Apirana kei te matau ki te arahi i te iwi Maori, kia tipu ai, kia pakari ai i roto i te maru o tana kupu e rangona ake nei i te Maoritanga.

Ka akona matau e Eramiha Kapua i roto i te kura whakairo ki te mau kapukapu. No te wiki tuatahi o Pepuere 1930 ka tae mai te karanga a

 
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the learner will be told that all other portions are much easier to do. Stroke after stroke of the adze is struck, shaving this more or less straight up and down cut, until one is satisfied, or the expert, that the result is good, then the opposite side is to balance and coincide. It often needs a further touch up before the work is done.

When the eyebrows and eyes are finished, the adze and chisel shape off the nose. Similarly with the top of the head, a slight rounding off at the top end of the timber, finished off by marking out the centre position of the topknot with bevelled chisel and adze.

Then follows the deepest adzing on the whole figure, that of bringing into relief the mouth, the tongue, the lower jaw and the shoulders. This adzing is somewhat easier than the previous adzing, for the angle of cutting is not so pronounced. In this adzing the lower jaw is recessed, the tongue cut wedged-shaped on to the chest and the shoulders deeply swept back to the base of the lower jaw. Actually a few strokes bring all parts at once into high relief, and by use of the paring and bevelled chisels, except for deepening the mouth cavity, the whole operation is simple. The ease in obtaining this result, of course, is due to the previous training, and the eyes soon detect and correct any off balance.

(b) The shoulders, arms, hands and body.

Now that the head is completed, the learner will immediately see that, because of the previous adzing, the shoulders, arms and body are almost shaped, only a few cuts at the armpits, at the base of the forearm and downward adzing at the navel to form the body. The final placing of hands and fingers is done with a chisel.

(c) The legs, knees and feet.

Here again no special technique is required, except careful adzing, and if there is to be a figure below the feet then you just do preliminary adzing here and your main concentration will be on top of the head, eyebrows, eyes, mouth and tongue.

Comparison in Output

I have stated at the beginning that it is the normal output of an expert to complete a carved panel 10 feet long 2 feet wide 8 inches thick in 8 days. My own output is one in 5 days or 40 hours. The learner must know this from the very first lesson. As he progresses with his adze on carving, he will be constantly reminded that only those portions of the carvings not covered by surface decorations are to be cleanly adzed, for far too much time is wasted by unecessary adzing. This of course is not discouraged, rather one is weaned off gradually.

The learner will take seven to eight weeks to finish a panel. He will require a year to reduce this down to four weeks, and at the end of two years take two weeks to complete one, and that is an excellent rate of progress. Very few pupils from the Maori School of Arts have attained this standard and those that have are now the leading carvers of the Maori people. By and large, adzing

 
 

Eramiha kia tikina atu raua. Kua mohio a Apirana kua whakae a ia ki te ako i a matau, a kua rite te kainga, te taha oranga mo raua tae atu ki te waka tiki i a raua. Ka tae atu au ki tona kainga ka utaina ana taonga, a ka ki mai a ia kei te pa i Kokowhinau, kei roto i a Ruataupare whare whakairo te po poroporoaki i a raua a te iwi, a mo te ata matau ka haere ki Rotorua. Kua mohio katoa nga hapu maha o te Teko e haere ana raua ki te Kura Whakairo i Rotorua ki te ako i nga tamariki tane o te motu ki te mau toki kapukapu hei arahi i te whakatu o te whakairo kia atanga, kia rere te wehi. Te unga atu ki Kokowhinau ki tonu te marae i te iwi e pohiri ana mai i a matau, a ka tuku matau ka whai-korerotia mai au i te tuatahi, a muri iho ki aku kaumatua, kei te tu tonu kei te tangi. Ka mutu nga whakahoki a matau ka hongi, ka haere ki te kai, ka mutu, kai uru ki roto o Ruataupare whare. Tuaki rawa ake te po, ki tonu to matau whare i nga iwi o Matatua. Ka mutu te karakia Ringatu, ka tu te iwi ki te poroporoaki i nga kaumatua nei. Etahi korero ataahua i puta mo raua, a ko taku marama taka mo Pepuere 1930 ki tonu i a ratau kupu mo raua, te pono, te ngakau whakaiti, te hapai i nga mahi a te iwi, te pupuri i te whakapono, to raua matau ki nga waiata, ki nga oriori, ki nga patere, te matau o Eraminha ki te hanga whare, ki tarai waka, ki te whakairo, ki te mahi kai, ki te miraka kau, a to Te Wairata ki nga mahi a te wahine, ki te raranga takapau, kete me era atu mahi. Kaore o ratau awangawanga mo ta raua haere, mo te mea

 
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is merely employed to expedite the cutting to achieve high relief and more rounded and flowing lines of the carved figure. The Maori student excels in adzing, and very few have failed in excellent work, but it is the surface decoration and finish in carving that is so hard to obtain.

 

ma Ngata raua e tiaki, a ma te mate rano raua e whakahoki mai, ka haere raua hei matua mo nga tamariki o te iwi Maori. Katahi ka tapaea ki te taonga. No tetahi rangi mai ka haere matau ki Rotorua, ko nga tangata ako ki te whakairo o te Kura e tauwhanga mai ana, a, ka manaaki ratau i nga kaumatua nei. No muri noa mai ka manaakitia raua e nga kaumatua o Te Arawa.

Kaore i ra tahi te whakanohanga o Eramiha ki to raua kainga kua ki mai kua hiahia ia ki te timata ki te ako i a matau. Ka koa katoa matau. Mai i te whakakoi toki tae noa ki nga ara maha o te tarai ki runga porototara, tae noa atu ki te tarai ki runga whakairo, apiti ki nga kupu e tika ana mo tena wahanga mo tena wahanga, ka piki haere ke atu to matau kaingakau ki ta matau mahi, ia ra, ia wiki, ia marama, a ka kite ka mohio hoki au ki taku kuaretanga ki te whakairo.

Ehara a Eramiha i te tangata whakatapu i tana mahi tarai ki runga ki te whakairo, ko te hua, ka tauwhawhainga matau ki te whai o ana tohutohu i ana hanga, a pau rawa ake te tau, i mua i to matau haerenga ki Ngapuhi ki te whakairo i te Tiriti o Waitangi Whare mo te rau tau o Niu Tireni, ka whaikupu a ia ki a Ngata, kua taea e te kura te mau o te toki kapukapu ki runga whakairo, kei te koa ia ki tena ki tena o nga tamariki, haere rawa ake ki runga ki nga iwi ma ratau tonu e ako nga mea e pirangi ana ki te ako. Ka mihi hoki a Apirana ka ki atu, “E Miha ina a taua tamariki, haere koutou ki nga iwi o te motu.”

Tekau tau maua ko Eramiha e mahi tahi ana i runga i nga marae maha o te iwi Maori, a, i roto i ena tau e rua tekau ma wha nga tangata nana i ako no nga iwi katoa o te motu, no Ngapuhi, no Ngatiporou, no Waikato, no Ngakikahungunu, no Ngati Raukawa, no Taranaki, no whanau-a-Apanui. Ko Eremahia te tohunga whakamutanga o te oa tawhito, ka waimarie nei matau, nana hoki i whakaatu te huarahi ki te tarai i te taitea o te rakau kia tu ko taikaka, ki te whakatakoto i te ara haratua, ki te mau haere i te ngaotu i te ngaopae, ki te poka hoki kia tarewa ai te poka o te arero i runga i te whakairo, a haere atu he whare whakairo i runga i te motu ko te ha o tona akonga i a matau e waitohu ana.

Haere e Miha, kei muri nei to taonga e takoto toitu ana i roto i nga ringa o tamariki maha puta noa te motu, engari haere atu korua ko te Wairata me a korua patere, waiata, oriori, whakakoemi, whakangahau i te paopao a te patupatu ki runga i te whao, ko enei a korua taonga kaore i taea e te rangatahi—Haere korua haere.

Pine Taiapa 21.6.59