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No. 33 (December 1960)
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THE ART OF ADZING

As taught by Eramiha Kapua, of Ngati Tarawhai, Te Arawa, to students of the Maori Arts and Crafts School, Rotorua. Part 1.

The text in Maori, readers will note is not an exact translation, word by word. The photographs in sequence of operations were taken earlier this year at the Waiwhetu Meeting House, Lower Hutt while work was proceeding there, by John Ashton, for Te Ao Hou. The carvers are Mr Pine Taiapa, the author of this article, his brother, Mr Hone Taiapa, M.B.E., Mr Rangi Hetet, Mr Ngata Ruru, and Mr James Ruru.

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Pine Taiapa.

KORERO ME TE TOKI KAPUKAPU

Te Rapunga i te mau o te toki Kapukapu He tino tohunga te arahi o te toki kapukapu ki runga whakairo. “Haere ki nga hapu maha o Te Tairawhiti, rapua nga morehu kaumatua mohio ki te mau toki kapukapu, ma ratau koe e ako, e tohutohu ki te tarai, katahi ka hoki mai ki te whakairo.”

Ko te whakahau tenei a Apirana Ngata ki au i te tau 1929 i Rotorua, i au e ako ana i roto i te Kura Whakairo. Kua pau ke te rua tau i au i reira e ako ana, a, ki taku mohio tonu iho, kua riro mai i au te matauranga o te whakairo, ka whai kuou mai nei a ia i nga kupu i runga ake nei. I korero ano ia, “Ko te whakatu o te whakairo kaore ano kia taea e koutou, no te mea ma te toki kapukapu tenei ahua ka taea, kei te ora tonu nga tangata mohio, haere ki a Ngatiporou.” Katahi a Apirana ka wananga i te ahua o nga whakairo kua oti i a matau. Ko nga whakairo nei he poupou mo te whare whakairo o Wiremu Potae, Tokomaru, takiwa o te Tairawhiti.

Tuatahi:

Ko te tarauma o te whakairo, kaore i atanga, no te mea na te whao anake i karo i tapahi i manihi, ko te hua tumaro te whakairo i te whaiti o te whao.

Tuarua:

Ko nga whakatara me nga haehae kaore i pai te huri haere i runga i ia wahi o

 
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The practical use of adzing, so common among the Maori, before and after the arrival of the Pakeha, firstly in the stone and greenstone period, then in the iron adze introduced by the Pakeha, was believed to have been lost about the year 1930. What little was known and practised by them was of a very low order, for the adzing was only confined to odd and infrequent jobs at rare intervals. This was brought about by the milling industry, the erection by Pakeha builders of homes, halls and even meeting houses. The old Maori craftsman's mana had so deteriorated in this direction, that his tools of trade, of which the adze is the most dominant, soon became obsolete and added to the decline in the erection and carving of meeting houses, and the art of adzing was soon neglected and finally ceased to have a place in community centres or pas. Thus, what little was known and practised was of very small value as there was no scope for an expert, but when the School of Maori Arts and Crafts was established in Rotorua in 1929 for the teaching and reintroduction of Arts and Crafts among the tribes of New Zealand, under the personal drive vision and enthusiasm of the late Sir Apirana Ngata, and after two carved meeting houses were launched by the students, the results achieved did not have the full desired effect of the rounded and flowing lines of the old masters and experts, especially when greater relief was to be desired.

This was brought about because the use of the paring chisel only shaped out in relief the different portions of the form of the figure desired, and this was found to be laborious and tedious. For instance, with chisel only it took eight weeks to carve a panel ten feet long by two feet wide by eight inches thick, whereas with the knowledge of adzing, the same panel only took eight days; the width of a chisel for this work would be an inch and a half, while that of an adze five inches. By the end of 1929 it became apparent to Sir Apirana that an expert on adzing should be found and his

 
 

te whakairo i te kaha rawa o te tapuku mai ki waho.

Tuatoru:

Te whakatu o te kape, kia wehi ai te manana o nga whatu; mutu atu ki te paka o te arero.

Matakitaki atu ana ki nga tohutohu a Apirana, me te ui o te ngakau, i takea mia nga tirohanga a tenei tangata i a wai? Ka haere atu i a matau, kotahi tonu te whakatau a nga kaiako o te kura, maku e rapu te matauranga o te mau toki kapu a, i te mea ka tata tonu te Kirihimete, haere tonu atu au ki te kimi i tenei taonga.

Kimihanga i te tohunga mau toki Kapukapu i te Tairawhiti

Ina te wahi o tetahi waiata pirangi naku i mua tata atu o tenei wa, e whakahua ana au i au e arahi haere ana i taku whao i runga o te whakairo,”

“To Toki e hika ko Nui te rangiora,
To toki e hika ko Te Atua Hemata.
To toki e hika ko Te Rokuroku-a-Tawhaki”

Ka tae au ki taku kainga ki Tikitiki ka korero au ki aku matua, ki aku tipuna hoki, ki te whakahau a Apirana ki au, ka ui au me timata au ki whea kainga, ki a wai tangata renei. Ko te whakautu kaore ratau e mohio kei a wai e pupuri ana te mau o tenei momo toki i te riu o Waiapu nei, tena pea kei nga tangata o Te Aowera, kei a te Whanau-a-Iri ranei, kei a Te Whanau-a-Rua ranei, kei a Te Aitanga a Hauiti ranei, kei roto ranei o Turanga, kei raro ranei kei te Whanau-a-Apanui; no te mea i te mutunga atu o te mahi whare perana, tarai atamira hoki, ka mutu atu te kite i nga tangata mau toki kapukapu.

Tirotiro noa ana te whakaaro me haere ki whea, me kite i a wai; ko te rohe whanui tenei o Ngatiporou ka homai nei hei haerenga maku. Parihi i roto o Turanga, ki Tarakeha, ki Torere, a ko te nuingao tenei rohe ma runga hoiho haere ai.

 
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knowledge and technique adapted to suit the carving similar to those experts of old he saw adzing and carving the Porourangi Meeting House of Ngatiporou when he was a boy. So he instructed me to find such a person or persons in my own Ngatiporou people, learn all I could and apply it to the carving in the School.

My intensive search for such a person has already been written by me in Maori, not only of locating him but also of finding him, though 60 years of age, but active physically and mentally, an expert adzeman and carver and the carver of the Arawa people. He was Eramiha Kapua, a student under his uncles Neke and Anaha, famous Arawa carvers, noted for their work during 1890 to 1920, displayed in and outside Government buildings, carved meeting houses of Te Arawa in the Rotorua district, and were prominent in Exhibition displays in New Zealand associated with the late Augustus Hamilton, author of Maori Art published in 1896. When I interviewed him at Te Teko in January 1930, he was dairying and hand milking thirty cows. He was robust for his age and after a night session with his friends and neighbours he agreed to teach adzing and carving to the pupils of the school of Maori Arts at Rotorua. I soon found out that he was a craftsman and expert on culture and tradition, a leader of his faith, the Ringatu Church, and his acceptance and later appointment to the school gave great satisfaction to Sir Apirana and his Board and the pupils of the School. For here was the very last expert of the old Maori School of Arts and Crafts. He gave rhythmic motion and action to the adzing of the carving, interspersed by song and patere,

 
 

Kaore au i porua ki te kainga ka ki atu au ki aku matua kei te haere au ki roto o Turanga, tena pea te uri a Raharuhi Rukupo kei te ora i roto o Manutuke hei awhina i au. Ki whakaae ratau, ka tukua au i runga i te rangimarie, i te tumanako o aku tipuna o te Ringatu, a ka manakitia taku haerenga me taku hokinga mai.

Po rawa ake ka tae au ki Manutuke, a, ko te kupu mai o konei me haere au ki a te Wirihana, kei te Muriwai tona kainga, no te mea ko ia anake kei te mau ki te pito whakairo i roto o Turanga. Ka tae mai te manako ki au ka waiata, “To Toki e hika Hui-te-rangi-ora tae noa ki te mutunga, kei te tawata hoki a roto kia whiwhi i taku e kimi nei.”

I te ata-tu ka tae au ki Te Muriwai ma raro tonu haere ai, a, ohomauri ana nga tangata o tenei pa i te kitenga mai i au, ka ki atu au i haramai au ki a Te Wirihana, a ko te Wirihana hoki e karanga ana mai, haere tonu atu au. Ka mutu a maua mihimihi, ka korero atu au i te take o taku haramai, ka whakautu mai a ia kaore a ia e tino mohio ki te mau kapukapu, engari me haere au ki Whangara ki a Ruku Hinaki ma, me kore he korero a Ngati-Konohi. Ka hoki mai au ki Manutuke, a haere tonu atu ki Whangara. Ka tae atu ki reira ka peka au kia kite i a Riki Riiti, a korero tonu atu i te kaupapa o taku haere. Nana i ki mai kaore ratau e mohio ki te whangai i te toki kapu engari pea nga kaumatua o Te Aitanga-a-Hauiti i roto o Uawa, no te mea kei reira te whare wananga o Hingangaro, a Te Ra Wheora, a tena pea ma Timoti Maitai, Te Whainga Taumaunu, Te Wiriwiri Karakia, e korero, e waiata, e whakatu te mau toki ki au.

Ka ahu taku tira ki Uawa, ka tae mai te maharahara ki au mo te taonga e rapu nei au, no te mea kaore au i kite, i rongo ranei ki tetahi tangata mohio i au e tamariki ana, engari kua kite i nga toki kapukapu i tena kainga i tena kainga. Akuanei pea kua ngaro te momo tangata mau i tenei toki, mahue iho ko nga maramara, a ko wai hei kohikohi, hei whakatinana kia rere ano ai nga potapota me nga maramara a nga tau e tu mai nei. Tae rawa atu au ki Uawa, kua tae ke aku mahara ki nga waapu kani rakau, ki nga takiwa e tarai rakau ana mo nga huarahi rere o nga tereina (trains) ki nga waapu mahi kaipuke, a, tarai i nga rewa (masts), ki nga takiwa hanga piriti (bridges), no te mea koia nei nga wahi e whakamahia ana, tenei toki.

Ka peka au ki te marae ki a Timoti raua ko Te Whainga ka korero i taku haere. Ka mihi raua, a ka waiata i taku waiata kaingakau o nga toki onamata, mutu rawa, ka ki raua kaore he tangata i roto o Uawa hei ako i au, me haere au ki Tokomaru ki a Wiremu. Potae mana e tohu ki au taua tangata. Moe rawa au ki a raua i taua po, a ka korero raua i nga toki tapu a te Maori; a Te Awhiorangi ma, ki nga toki pou tangata tohu o te rangatira ki nga toki titaha, a mutu atu ki nga toki kapukapu i kite raua e

 
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where monotony and hacking was the chisel's way; he introduced new words, thoughts, enthusiasm and an awareness of the rapidly revealing shape of the different parts of the carved figure, he gave romance to the great adzemen of the Great Migration period and we seeped ourselves thoroughly in his approach to the great task set before us by Sir Apirana. The School had reawakened from amateurism to proficiency.

Eramiha Kapua taught adzing under the following progressive headings:

(1) Correct fitting of the handle. (2) Correct shape of the cutting edge. (3) Sharpening and daily maintenance. (4) Holding and swinging motion. (5) Use of feet and eyes. (6) The cutting and chipping. (7) The different types and methods of adzing—(a) the “Ara Haratu”; (b) the Ngaotu and Ngaopae; (c) the Poke, Poka and Ta. (8) Preliminary adzing prior to the actual carving—(a) squaring of the timber, sides and back direct from the bush; (b) rounding off of the sides and preparation of back of milled timber. (9) The art of shaping of a figure in sections by the adze—(a) the head, eyes, nose and tongue; (b) shoulders, hands, arms and body; (c) the legs, knees and feet. (10) Adzing a ridge pole or taahu, poutokomanawa, and poutaahu.

1. Fitting of handle on to adze

Eramiha Kapua repeatedly instructed that the adze and the timber should not force one to any unnecessary stooping or unnatural positions, thereby developing rounded shoulders, slow progress, and a limited view of the whole work in hand, but to use the adze freely in a natural standing position by having the work positioned in

 
 

tarai ana nga tangata mohio o roto o Uawa, engari kaore raua e mohio ki te tarai, ki nga korero tarai ranei.

I te ata ka mihi atu au ki a raua, ka ahu taku tira ki Mangatuna ki a Tutekohi Rangi, a, taku taenga atu ko tana korero me ahu au ki Waiapu, ki tatara e maru ana, ahakoa taku ki atu i hara mai au i reira, kotahi tonu tana whakahau, ara ko tenei, “Kei Tikapa, kei a Te Whanau a Pokai te hui nui a te Ringatu, a te tahi o Hanuere, ka mene katoa ki reira nga kaumatua o Tokomaru tae atu ki Waiapu, haere ki reira, kia rongo ai koe i te korero. Kaore matau o Mangatuna nei e mohio ki te mau toki kapukapu.” Kei runga au i taku hoiho ka maro taku tira ki Hiraharama, ki a Te Aowera.

I rongo korero au mo tenei hapu o Ngati Porou, ko ratau nga iwi noho i raro i te maru o Hikurangi, ko ratau hoki nana i ngaki nga ngahere o te take o Hikurangi, a he iwi tohunga ki te mahi kainga ki rongahere mo nga tangata tope rakau, te ataahua o te tupunitanga i o ratau wharau, te mahorahora me te mahana hoki, ano te rite ko nga wharepuni tonu o ratau marae, ina hoki, ka tae ki nga ra i manakohia e ratau, ka pohiritia tona tini o nga ropu tope kanataraki hei manuhiri ma ratau, a, he manu, he hinu, he poaka puihi te kai, apititia ki te pikopiko ki te nikau hei peehi. No reira ahakoa te tawhiti o Hiruharama i Mangatuna, koemi ana te haere a taku hoiho, tae atu hoki ki aku tumanako, no te mea, mehemea ko ia nei nga mahi a te Aowera, ki taku whakaaro nui atu nga tamariki tane i reira kei

 
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a practical manner, and this can only be achieved by the correct fitting of the handle, whereby the expert becomes master of the adze and timber. When correctly fitted it will be found to be perpendicular to the blade and head. If it is found to be too much or not enough, then a leather wedge is to be inserted to correct this. This fitting ensures sure and easy cutting, whereas if the handle is more to the blade, stooping develops, while the opposite cant makes the adze cut into the timber too much, resulting in the adze sticking in. These two results are often caused by a faulty and loose wedge.

2. Correct shape of the cutting edge of an adze.

Most adzes when newly bought have a slight arc along the cutting edge, so to obtain a good cut, this arc should be more pronounced and this is obtained by grinding more at the corners than the centre.

3.Sharpening, daily maintenance and care.

Section 1. The common practice is to take the handle out by slight taps at the rear of handle and grind the adze on a grindstone. The adze is first laid on at an angle so that the grinding process is from the centre of the blade to the edge, making sure during the grinding that the outside edge is ground more than the centre, and when this has become pronounced, slightly cant the adze to the other side of the grindstone with the angle of holding also vertically opposite. While holding the blade against the grindstone the fingers of one hand should be spread over the back of the blade and the other hand holding the head of the adze, both hands with a firm grip to ensure no wobbling or sliding from side to side of the grindstone by the adze. The hand spread over the back of the blade controls the amount of grinding required. Water in a steady trickle should fall on the grindstone throughout the operation. When both sides appear to be evenly ground, after taking out any, gaps, the blade is then held squarely on to the grindstone and a light token sharpening is all that is necessary. It is imperative that the grinding of the edges is effectively done; if this is not adhered to then the cutting and slicing on timber is impeded by the corners or edges. When the grinding is finished a distinctive pattern of bevelled cutting angles is displayed; this pattern distinguishes the expert's sharpening from the learner's. A slight touch with an emery stone then follows by having the blade in one hand and the stone in the other, and while the stone is drawn in a circular motion along the cutting edge, it is closely followed by the eyes.

Section 2. In an emergency a nine inch file can do the sharpening or the taking out of a gap on the cutting edge, but later the adze must be sharpened as in Sec. 1.

N.B. After grinding when not required for immediate use, the adze should be oiled, otherwise rust will develop. Ensure that the grindstone's surface retains its flat surface. The adze is severe on it.

 
 

te kite i o ratau matua e hanga ana i o ratau wharau i ro ngahere, i te tarai perana mo nga taha me era atu mahi e taea ana e te toki kapukapu, a tona ritenga penei ano i au nei to ratau pakeke. No reira ka ngahau taku haere, ka poto te huarahi, a po rawa ake kua tae au, a peka tonu atu ki te kainga ao Heneriata Makarini, wahine tohunga o Ngatiporou ki te takitaki haka taparahi, haka pohiri a nga wahine; wahine hoki nui ana tamariki tane toa ki nga mahi tope puihi, mahi taiapa, kuti hipi. Te tino take i kowhiria ai a ia e au, he wahine kaingakau naku, mo tona pono, mo tona ngakaunui ki nga taonga a te Maori.

Ka mutu tana mihi me tana whangai i au, ka ui mai, “Ina to tira e tama?” Ka korero au ki a ia i te whakahau a Apirana i Rotorua; taku haere ki roto o Turanga, a peka mai nei kia korero ia mo tona iwi tope kanataraki mai i te take o Hikurangi tae noa atu ki Hore Hore, kainga e tata tonu atu ana ki Raukumara, ara tauhanga i o ratau wharau, mehemea he toki kapukapu nana i tarai nga pakitara, nga poupau, nga heke. Ka tangi a Heneriata mo aku korero, ka ki mai, “E tama kaore i te ora he tangata inaianei hei ako i a koe, o matua, o tipuna o Te Aowera he tohunga ki te tarai rakau ma te toki kapukapu, kua riro ratau me te mohiotanga, kaore i akona e nga tai-tamariki he wetiweti koi pahika ka motu.” I taua po katoa he korero ia mo nga tarai waka, wharenui, whare karakia, whare perana, a tenei hapu a Te Aowera i hanga ai, ko au kei te whakarongo kei te miharo, kei te haku hoki, i te moumou o tenei taonga ki te ngaro i tenei iwi. I te ata ka hoki au ki Waiapu

 
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4. Holding and swinging motion

Holding an adze by the handle and swinging it looks simple, and it is simple once you are shown, and it is simply done by being pointed out that all cutting implements held by two hands achieve certain results by applying them in their correct method and use. As the adze is only meant to cut while it is brought downwards by two hands, then holding it calls for two muscular reflexes by the arms, an upward and downward holding control. This calls for the swinging motion as well. The control therefore of holding and swinging is governed by the grip on the handle by the hands. If you are right-handed, the right hand should be in front of the left and midway of the handle. The grip should not be taut, but there should be a tightening and loosening of the grip while lifting and swinging, the grip firm as the adze strikes the timber.

5. How to use the feet and eyes

Good balance when adzing is paramount and accidents are due to the bad placing of the feet prior to lifting the adze. The feet placed in line and a few inches apart is the common practice and when relief from arms and body weight is necessary, work should cease and the feet and arms should rest. When adzing a ridge pole relief from fatigue is obtained by placing one foot on the ridgepole, and then the other, but to make this a habit is not recommended. One must stand firmly on both feet. At first this tires the arms and feet, but after a week's tuition, this is not so severe.

 
 

ki taku kainga, me te whakamau atu tena pea kei te hui a te Whanau-a-Pokai te korere hei whakamaaha i taku ngakau.

No te ata o te 31 o Tihema 1929 ka tae au ki Tikapa, marae o Te Whanau a Pokai, he kainga kei te taha tonga o te ngutuawa o Waiapu, ki te hui a te Ringatu. I reira nga kaumatua o tenei hahi o te Tairawhiti, mai i Tokomaru tae atu ki te Whanau-a-Apanui, a, i taku whakamohiotanga atu ki te tangata whenua kei te hiahia au ki te whai kupu ki nga iwi whakaeke, ka whakawateatia he wa hei korerotanga moku. Ka tae ki taua wa ka tu au ka mihi ki te tangata whenua ki nga manuhiri hoki, a, ka korero hoki i te kaupapa o taku haere i te rohe o te Tairawhiti. Ko taku kupu whakamutanga ko tenei, “Ki te kore i a taua i te Tairawhiti, i te Whanau Apanui tenei matauranga, ka haere au ma te Pakeha au e ako ki taua whiu toki, a, ka matau ra au, ka huri ai ki runga whakairo tarai ai.” Katahi au ka waiata: “E hika to toki ko Huiterangi ora.”

Ko Wiremu Potae te kaumatua i korero tuatahi. “E tama rereke ta te Pakeha i ta te Maori, ma te Maori tonu koe e ako, kaua e mutu mai to rapu i o iwi anake, tomokia nga rohe o ia iwi, o ia iwi, a whiwhi noa koe i tena taonga. Na to matua na Apirana koe i whakahau, a, ki te kore i a ia taua taonga, mana e para he huarahi mou ki nga iwi. Whaia tenei taonga ma te iwi Maori, ina hoki, kei te korero a Apirana he whare whakairo ki nga marae nunui o te iwi Maori. Hara mai haere ki te Whanau-a-Tuwhakairiora i roto o te Kawakawa, ki te kore i kona e ahu ki te ra to ki te Whanau-a-Apanui, ki a Ngaitai, ki te Whakatohea, waiho te Pakeha mo muri rawa.” Ara atu ana korero mo nga tangata rawe ki te mau toki kapu, mania ana te haere a te toki, o tena hapu o tena hapu o te Tairawhiti, mohio katoa ia ki a ratau, ki a Tamati Ngakaho, ki a Te Kihirini, nga tohunga arahi i te taraitanga i te whakairotanga o nga rakau mo Porourangi, wehi ana nga tangata matakitaki, no te mea ko te mata o te toki kapu takamiri ana I raro o te tokonui o te waewae o te tohunga. He hanga parekareka ki te ngahoro mai te taitea kia tu ko taikaka. Ka mutu ana mihi, ka whaikupu hoki etahi o nga kaumatua o te Whanau-Apanui, pera ano te wai o a ratau korero i te mea kei te korerotia he whare whakairo mo ratau ki te Kaha tu ai.

Ka hoki mai au i Tikapa me te koa ki nga kupu i rangona ra e au ki a Wiremu Potae, taitea, taikaka; no te mea he kupu hou enei ki au, a, e pa ana ki te tarai a te toki kapu. Naku matua i whakamarama, ko te Taitea ko te wahi kiko ma o te rakau tere ki te popo, a, kainga ai e te huhu, tena ko Taikaka ko te taiho, ko te wahi pakari o te rakau.

Ka huii te tau tawhito ka haere au ki te Kawakawa, a ka peka au ki a Te Aramakutu, he kaumatua tarai rakau, engari ehara i te tohunga rawa; a nana i ki mai kaore he tangata i tua atu i a ia o Te Kawakawa hei ako i au, engari me

 
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The eyes control the cutting depth and the correct angle of adzing. The eyes do not follow the upward and downward swing of the adze, but are glued on the immediate area for adzing; further, it controls the bite and force of the adze into the timber and pattern of cut desired.

6. The cutting and chipping of the adze

Prior to the cutting, it is necessary for the beginner to feel the adze, its weight when in motion upwards or downwards, to stand firmly on his feet, and to acquire the gripping and slight relaxing of the handle. A firm and bulky totara log is the best timber to practice on as it cuts easily because of its close or short grain. First lift and bring the adze on to the log trying not to cut it, but to strike it with that part of the blade at the back of the cutting edge maintaining a firm grip by both hands on the handle. Don't attempt to cut until you have practiced in this manner for some time, at the same time watching the spot you are striking, and when your feet tire, rest, then on again. By and large, you will constantly strike your adze into the log, and this is a progressive sign for it indicates that the adze can cut, and with constant practice cut precisely and accurately. Then by degrees you will experience a thrill to see a fine shaving appear now and again; this is the real purpose of the exercise, this fine shaving and chipping. To see the expert doing this at every blow is the incentive to greater effort on your part, for it is the key to accurate adzing. Take note also of the polished back of the adze caused by the constant striking on to thhe log. After a period of swinging and striking, the next step is the cutting and chipping of the timber.

With totara, a knowledge of its grain cutting technique is necessary, for the grain of all timbers governs the method of adzing. The totara has a very close grain, easy to cut, and the chips break off easily (an exception being mountain totara), and must be well seasoned before it too will cut easily. There is no other timber to equal it for clean and easy adzing, and the best method generally is to cut against the grain. This may appear difficult but by cutting it diagonally with the adze and at the same time proceeding at each cut straight across the timber, the chips come off easily.

Now let us have a look at the cutting edge of the adze now that it has made a cut into the timber with the chip lifted but not cut off. Note the thickness of the chip at the centre of the cutting edge of the adze and the thinness of the outer edges of the chip; note too, that the width of the chip is greater than the width of the adze. The lesson learnt is that the centre of the adze cuts first because of its forward projection, and furthermore, if the sides were in line with the centre they would invariably stick into the timber and retard depth and progress of cutting.

In learning how to cut with the adze it is preferable to start by trying to obtain a flat surface on an uneven piece of totara. First begin by only

 
 

haere au ki Potaka ki a Wiremu te Whare kei a ia pea e mau ana, haere tonu atu au, a moe rawa atu ki Wharekahika. Pera ano to reira korero me haere ki Potaka, no reira ko ana nga kopara ka haere au, a ka tata atu ki te marae ka waiata au, “To toki e hika ko Huiterangiora. Ka puta mai hoki a Te Whare, me te karanga mai i au, me te ki mai i a maua e hongi ana, kua tae ke atu nga rongo kei te haere atu au, no Tikapa mai te korero. Ka mutu ta maua parakuihi, ka mea mai a ia kaore he korero i a ia mo taku take, mutu tonu ko tenei, “Ko te whare e tu nei a Te Pae o te Pakanga, no Te Arawa te tangata nana i whakahaere te taraitanga me te whakaaratanga, ko te Whare Moana o Raukokore tetahi o nga tangata awhina i te taraitanga tena pea kei a ia te mohiotanga e kimi nei koe. Haere ki to papa mana koe e arataki. Ko au tena ki runga ki taku hoiho haere tonu atu ki Raukokore, me te koa kei te tata haere atu au ki taku i tumanako ai. Ehara po rawa ake kua tae au, a ko te whare e karanga ana mai, “E tama kaore i po tahi te korero, ko koe e tu ana”. Ka hotu te mauiri i roto i au mo ana kupu, a i taua po ka korero ia ki au.

“E tama kaore koe e taea e au te ako, aha koa i te taha au o te tino tohunga mo te mau kapukapu, i te hanganga o te wharenui o Te Whaaka i Potaka i te tau 1912, i te aha, i toku kuare tonu, i te wehi hoki ki taua momo toki, engari ko taua tangata arahi i te mahi, a Eramihia Kapua, no Te Arawa, parekareka ana i a ia te haere a te kapukapu, apitia ki te patere, ki te nguha ki te waiata, ki te whakairo, e tama, hara mai haere ki a ia, kei te ora tonu ia kei te Te Teko tona kainga. To ahua, me o korero, ki tonu i te rapu i tenei matauranga, ka taea e koe, ko to papa hoki ko Apirana kei te tena mai i a koe. E hoki ki to kainga, hei to haerenga atu ki te kura whakairo i Rotorua, ka peka atu ki a ia. Ko taku tenei ki a korua ko to matua ko Apirana, tikina tenei kaumatua hei ako i nga tamariki tane o te iwi Maori i roto o te kura whakairo, manaakitia tenei tangata, kei a ia hoki te matauranga o te mau o te whiu, nga korero, me te arahi i te toki kapukapu.

Ka tutaki au ki a Eramiha Kapua, tohunga ki te mau toki kapukapu.

E toru enei wiki i rapu ai au i tenei taonga i te mau toki kapukapu i waenganui o nga hapu maha o Ngatiporou, a ko nga kupu o ia marae, hara mai haere, tena pea, kua ngaro ke, kua mate nga tohunga, ka waiho enei mea hei hoa hoki mai moku mai i Raukokore tae noa mai ki Tikitiki i te ra kotahi, na wai i koemi te haere a taku hoiho, kua toitoi kua tarutu haere, ka pera ano hoki aku whakaaro mo te taonga e whaia nei e au. Ka kimi taku hinengaro i te ahua o tenei tangata o Eramiha Kapu, te tangata i tohia nei e Te Whare hei ako i au. Me pewhea taku tono ki a ia mo tenei taonga; a, ka eke mai taku tira ki Toka ka titiro atu au ki te akau o te Kawakawa, a ka whakamau atu aku kanohi ki te pa o Tuwha-

 
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allowing the centre of the cutting edge to cut and try this along the surface of the log working to the right or to the left; I prefer to work along to my right, others like it better to the left, and some either way. When greater confidence comes to you, try cutting a little deeper, at the same time giving your swing and downward movement of the adze a slight angle of cut. You will immediately note that instead of chipping as in the first tryout, quite a large piece of wood has been cut and broken off. Now, and forever afterwards, remember that if a chip is broken off and still lies on the timber, brush it off with your hand or adze, and when a chip does not break off smack it off with the side edge of the adze; for a chip lying on the timber causes severe and painful cuts, for it will get in line with your next cut, catch the centre of the cutting edge, thus preventing it from cutting, and cause the blade to glide without control to your feet. More experience will always find one looking for greater uneven surfaces than the previous ones. The greatest incentive to learn and acquire adzing can only be brought about in a group of learners under the tuition of an expert. The expert's example is readily seen and copied and corrections of holding, swinging, placement of feet, angle of cut, periodically made, corrected and adjusted by him, tends to make light of the strangeness of the adze, posture and at first attempts arm weariness; then too, the expert will break into a chant, and with rhythmic blows, the passages of his waiata are severed realistically, like the severed chips falling from the log after each descending blow of his toki kapukapu or adze.

(to be continued)

 

kairiora, ki Okauwharetoa, kite tonu atu au i te whakautu mo taku patai. Ma Apirana e para he huarahi moku. No tuaki po rawa atu ka tae au ki Tikitiki, te kau ma ono haora ki te huarahi waea tonu atu au ki a Apirana i Poneke, a ka eke mai a ia ka korero maua. Ka whakaatu atu au i te hua o taku kimi i roto o Te Tairawhiti o te Whanau-a-Apanui, mai i te Muriwai tae noatu ki Raukokore, i te kore kaumatua, tangata ranei mohio ki te mau toki kapukapu, a na te Whare Moana te korero me te wawata mo Eramiha Kapua o Te Teko hei whiriwhiri mana, ka mutu, ko tana whakahau tenei.

Tikina e koe a Eramiha, e mohio ana au ki a ia. Mauria ki Rotorua hei ako i a koutou katoa o te Kura Whakairo. Ma taua a ia e manaaki e atawhai, ki atu ki a ia, kei te karanga te rangatahi o te iwi Maori ki a ia hei kai-ako hei matua hei kai-arahi i a ratau ki nga whare whakairo maha o nga marae nunui o te iwi Maori e taria mai nei e nga iwi ma te kura e whakairo. Ka mutu a maua korero ka maringi mai ki runga ki au te koa, te hau-ora me te manawa-reka, ka makere atu ki raro te awangawanga mo te taonga e kimihia nei e au, ka makere atu hoki te mauiui o te haere i runga hoiho o nga ra tata nei. Ka pupu ake i roto i au te tumanako, tena te wa kei te haere mai maku e whakahoki mai ki te Tairawhiti te matauranga me te mohio ki te mau toki kapukapu.