Ina ra ko ta mua ture ko te ngaro whakarere o te tangata, he ngaro mo te toru whakatupuranga, ara he mate tonu atu te ritenga o tera ngaro, katahi ano pea ka kiia ko te ahi mataotao tera. Ko te wa i waenganui o te ahi ka—me te ahi mataotao ka kiia ko te ahi tere ara kei te ngaro te tangata tena ano te wa ka hoki mai ki runga i nga whenua o ona matua tipuna noho ai.
Ka whakaturia Te Kooti Whenua Maori ko te kaupapa o te ture kairiiwhi paanga whenua ko a te Maori ko ana ture. Otira kaore te tikanga o te ahi mataotao i uru ki roto i a te Pakeha i ana ture i waihanga ai. Na reira kaore he ture hei aruaru i te whakauru atu i te hunga kairiiwhi ki nga rarangi ingoa o nga poraka whenua na wai ra i tokoiti taua hunga ka tokomaha haere ke atu ka tokomaha haere ke atu. Ko te mutunga ko te mea kua whakaaritia ake nei kua tokomaha rawa nga tangata no ratou te whenua, kua mokamoka nga paanga.
Ko Ta Apirana Ngata, tera tangata rongonui whakaharahara, tera tangata whai whakaaro o Niu Tireni, te tangata tuatahi ki te mohio iho ko te noho mokamoka o nga paanga whenua tetahi mea hei patu i te tangata i roto o nga tau a ko ana mahi me nga mahi a nga Kawanatanga i whakarongo ki ana tohutohu taihoa ake nei te whakamarama ai.
KO NGA AHUATANGA I MUA ATU O 1954 TE WA I WHAKAMANA AI TE TURE MO NGA MEA MAORI 1953 ME NGA RONGOA A TAUA TURE
Ko tenei korero me nga korero a muri ake nei e pa ana ki nga mahi hei whakatikatika i nga taitara o nga whenua Maori. Me timata ake nga korero ki nga ahuatanga o nga tau i mau atu i 1954:
Ko Te Mahi Wira:
Ma te mahi wira ka whakatupato te tangata kei tuku maramara ona paanga whenua ki ona uri ara ka tuku ia i ona whenua ki te tamaiti kotahi ki nga mea tokorua anake ranei kia noho toitu tonu ai ona paanga. He tokomaha nga Maori kua kite iho ko te mahi wira te mea tika.
Ko Te tuku ko Te Hoko:
Mehemea kei te noho wehe nga whenua o te tangata nona motuhake te taitara e rua nga huarahi e mohio iho ai ia ka heke toitu aua paanga whenua ona, tuatahi me tuku aroha e ia, tuarua me hoko. Kua ngawari noaiho enei huarahi i raro i te Ture o 1953. Kei Tekiona 213–4 o taua Ture nga whakamarama a mehemea kei raro iho i te £100 te wariu o aua paanga kaore he utu taake.
Ko Te Whakawhitiwhiti:
E ahei ana te tangata ki te whakawhiti i ona hea motuhake i tetahi poraka mo nga
the person concerned returned to live in his tribal habitat.
When the Maori Land Courts were first established, it was intended that they should leave the principles of Maori customary succession unchanged. However, nothing in the European-made laws carried on the old principle of “ahi-mataotao”. As a result there was nothing to prevent the lists of owners of Maori blocks becoming longer and longer. Gradually, fragmentation became the major threat to Maori land.
Foremost among the Maori leaders aware of the disadvantages and the grave dangers of fragmentation was Sir Apirana Ngata, one of the greatest and most far-sighted of New Zealanders, and the outstanding contributions made either by him or by Government under his leadership towards practical solutions will be mentioned later.
By what means could this problem be combatted before 1953, in which year the Maori Affairs Act 1953 came into force, and what additional remedies did that Act introduce?
In this article, and the ones that follow, all the methods that exist to improve Maori titles will be reviewed. Let us first turn to the ones already in force before 1954.
By making a will an owner can pass his interest on to one or some of his children instead of to all of them, or to one person instead of to all those who would normally succeed him. Maoris are showing a growing appreciation of the advantages of making wills.
By Gift or Sale:
If an owner wishes to dispose of freehold land interests to one or more persons during his lifetime he can avoid fragmentation on succession by gift or, if he wishes to receive payment for the whole or part of its value, by sale. It is much easier and less expensive to do this since the 1953 Act came into force than it was earlier. Sections 213–4 of the Act provide a simple means for this and no stamp duty is payable if the value of the land sold is £100 or less.
The freehold interests of one person in one block can be exchanged for those of another in another block. A good and simple example of this occurred in the Court at Hawera recently where two brothers who had succeeded equally to two adjoining sections, exchanged interests and each became the sole owner of one block. Exchange can, of course, be used in much more complicated cases than that one. Any inequality in values resulting from an exchange can be compensated for by payment of money or by a charge on the interest of the person benefiting as ordered by the Court.
hea motuhake i tetahi tangata ke atu i tetahi atu poraka. I Hawera inatata nei i peneitia e tetahi tokorua nga whenua i mahue iho i to raua matua ki a raua. Ka whakawhitia e te taina tona hea i tetahi poraka ki te tuakana a ka peratia ano e te tuakana ona ki te taina a ka noho motuhake no te tuakana tetahi poraka no te taina tetahi poraka. He mea hanga noaiho tenei i te tokorua o Hawera nei, tera atu nga mea uaua ake a mehemea kaore e orite nga wariu ma te moni e whakakapi, ara ma Te Kooti Whenua Maori tenei e whakatau.
Ko Te Whakatau a Whanau:
Ko tenei huarahi ma te hunga no ratou te whenua, mo ratou ranei te whenua. He penei na, ka hui taua hunga no ratou ra, mo ratou ra ranei te whenua, ka korerorero ka whakaae mo mea nga paanga o to ratou matua i mea poraka, mo mea i mea poraka, kia noho toitu tonu ai nga paanga i tena poraka i tena poraka. Ko te kaupapa tenei o nga mahi whakatopu paanga a whakawhitiwhiti paanga hoki.
Ko Te Whakatopu Paanga:
Ma te Minita Maori e whakaae enei tu mahi kia manai ma Te Kooti Whenua Maori e whakahaere. Kei te Tai Tokerau kei te Tairawhiti e mahia nuitia ana tenei mahi te whakatopu paanga. Kaore noaiho he whenua o Aotea, o Ikaroa a o Te Waiponamu i te peneitia. Na Ta Apirana Ngata tenei kaupapa kia noho whaiti ai nga paanga whenua tena o tena kia taea ai te whakamahi hei oranga. Ka whaiti nga paanga ko te painga tena, engari ia kaore e pumau tonu te pai motemea ka matemate te hunga i whakaurua ki te taitara o te whenua ka heke o ratou paanga ki nga uri a kaore e roa kua noho maramara nga hea kua marara te hunga no ratou nga paanga. E kore e whakamahia nuitia tenei kaupapa ka riro ma te ture hoko i nga paanga maramara e whakatikatika haere nga taitara o nga whenua mehemea ra ka whakamahia tera kaupapa.
Ko Te Whakakaporeihana:
Ko tetahi ano tenei o nga kaupapa a Ta Apirana Ngata hei whakamama i nga huarahi whakamahi i nga whenua Maori. Ko te whenua ka peneitia te whakahaere i nga kamupene hokohoko taonga nei. Ko te hunga no ratou te whenua te hunga kei roto i taua kamupene a ma ratou e whakatu he komiti hei whakahaere i taua kaporeihana. Ka noho topu tonu te taitara o te whenua Maori engari i raro o tenei kaupapa ka mama te whakahaere. Kei te Tairawhiti tana 100 pea, te nuinga o nga kaporeihana he mahi paamu hipi te mahi. Kei te Rohe Potae ko nga kaporeihana kani rakau.
By Family Arrangement:
This can be either among actual owners or among potential owners on succession. The object of most family arrangements is to reduce the number of owners in all the blocks concerned so that each one takes a reasonably large interest in one or some blocks instead of a number of small interests in several blocks. This is the essence of consolidation of titles, and exchanges are also included in the process and also, very often, gifts.
By Consolidation Schemes:
These were initiated by the Minister of Maori Affairs and prepared and carried into effect by the Maori Land Court in consultation and collaboration with the owners. Very large schemes were completed in the northern parts of the North Island, notably in North Auckland and on the East Coast. There have never been any such schemes on a large scale in the Aotea, Ikaroa or South Island districts. Consolidation of this kind was originated by Sir Apirana Ngata and its aim has been stated to be to ensure that Maori lands are held by their owners in suitable and convenient areas that may be properly used to the best advantage of the owners and in the public interest. The advantages of consolidation of this kind are very solid ones, but its weakness is that it can be reduced in effectiveness and ultimately defeated by continued fragmentation on succession, as more and more owners die. Much has been achieved by it but it seems unlikely that it will be used very extensively in future because the new process of conversion can achieve much the same ends, if fully availed of, and is simpler.
By the Incorporation of Owners of Blocks:
This is another of Sir Apirana's innovations to overcome the difficulties of using land under multiple ownership. The block and its utilisation becomes a business project after the style of a trading company. The owners become shareholders in proportion to the size of their interests and the block is controlled by a Committee of Management. Incorporation in itself does not affect the ownership of lands but it assists very greatly towards their utilisation for the purpose for which they are suited. Most incorporations, about 100 of them, are in the Tairawhiti district and are sheep farming concerns. There are a number of timber incorporations in the King Country.
By Land Development:
This process also owes its genesis primarily to Sir Apirana. The operation of the development legislation does not affect the
Ko Nga Mahi Ahuwhenua a Te Kawanatanga:
Na Ta Apirana Ngata ano tenei kaupapa. He kaupapa tenei kei te whakahaerea e te Kawanatanga. Kaore e whakararurarutia te taitara o te whenua engari kua hanga he ture hei huarahi atu mo nga moni a te Kawanatanga a ana oti nga whakapai ka wariutia te wahanga o enei moni hei whakahokitanga ma te whenua. I te wa kei te ringa o te Kawanatanga aua whenua kaore he mana whakahaere o te hunga no ratou nga whenua.
Ko Te Tuku Whenua hei tunga Whare:
No 1938 ka puta tetahi ture e ahei ai te tangata Maori ki te tuku i tetahi wahanga paku o ona paanga ki tetahi atu Maori hei tunga whare mona. Kei te whakamahia nuitia tenei ture ara ia e nga matua kia whai tunga whare ai a ratou tamariki ana moemoe tane moemoe wahine.
Kei te whakamahia katoatia enei ahuatanga e nga Maori whai whenua hei pupuri i te toitutanga o te whenua.
No 1953 ka hanga e Te Paremata Te Ture Mo Nga Mea Maori a whakaae ana nga kaihautu o nga waka ki nga ahuatanga o taua ture. Tena te wa ka mohio whanuitia tona kaupapa whakatikatika i nga taitara o nga whenua Maori. Taria te roanga o enei korero.
legal ownership of land but it enables the Department to develop and settle lands through the expenditure of State funds which are gradually recovered to an extent based on the final value of the developed land. The State holds these lands during development and later during the supervision of the occupier as trustee for the owners, their rights of ownership and control being suspended in effect during that period.
By the Vesting of Small Areas for House Sites:
In 1938 a simple procedure was evolved to enable small areas of land to be vested by owners in other Maoris to provide house sections. This has been used very frequently and to good effect, especially by parents who wish to provide their married children with sections for building.
All these provisions still exist and most are used quite often by Maori landowners (but still by no means often enough), to combat the growing threat of fragmentation.
In 1953 by the Maori Affairs Act of that year Parliament with the general concurrence of Maori leaders, approved several additional provisions which as they become better known and used must necessarily go a long way towards curing the title problem. A summary of these provisions will follow in our next issue.