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No. 26 (March 1959)
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The New World

the department of maori affairs MARCH 1959

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No. 26 (Vol. 7, No. 1)


The question whether Maori members should be included in the New Zealand Rugby Team visiting South Africa in 1960 has been debated more than any other Maori question over the last few months. If there had not been so much debate, we should not have devoted an editorial to the question. However, looking through literally hundreds of newspaper clippings from many prominent authorities throughout the land, we thought it worthwhile to add our own comments.

First of all, it is certainly gratifying that a Maori cause should receive such widespread publicity and support as we have witnessed. Not only football authorities, but also churchmen and public figures of all descriptions have stood behind the Maori footballers, emphasising that the whole world will be watching what New Zealand will do. There was a feeling that New Zealand should not compromise on the principle of racial equality.

Our own concern with all this is that in the heat of the Rugby argument we are in danger of losing sight of the main issues. The world is certainly watching carefully how New Zealand handles its race relations problems. The world is impressed that a Maori was chosen as High Commissioner in Malaya, gratified by the social and economic progress of the Maori people and their generally high standard of living; if over the next twenty years we manage to solve the Maori housing problem and the difficulties of large-scale Maori migration to the cities, then the world will be even more impressed.

How can we solve these greater problems? Partly we can solve them by Maori effort. European help and sympathy however are equally necessary. The Department of Maori Affairs, in its own work, has found that New Zealanders are generally sympathetic and prepared to give young Maoris a chance to do any work for which they are qualified. In the sphere of accommodation, a little more practical help would at times be appreciated. For instance, when it comes to selling building sections for Maori housing, any help given would be very valuable for improving Maori social conditions and thus overcoming what minor barriers there are between the races.

Let us hope that all the writers in newspapers, all sympathetic readers of the wide publicity about the Maori footballers, will use any available opportunity to help in a practical way. In that case, whether the footballers go or not, the controversy will benefit the future of New Zealand.

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Mr Takarua Tamarau, M.B.E., high chief of the Tuhoe tribes, died at Ruatoki last November at the age of 86. A son of Tamarau Waiari of Ngatikoura, a Tuhoe subtribe, Takarua Tamarau was born at Ruatahuna. With his father he assisted in the Government survey for roads in the Tuhoe lands; the very lands for which compensation has recently been allowed the Tuhoe tribes.

Takarua Tamarau was 10 when he went to live at Ruatoki. He was a Tolaga Bay rugby representative in 1900. In 1928, Takarua Tamarau was attached to Sir Apirana Ngata's scheme for consolidating all land titles at Ruatoki. He also supported Sir Apirana's development scheme in Ruatoki and was appointed to the minister's advisory committee in 1930. His influence greatly helped to bring the Tuhoe people under the scheme.

He was chairman of the Ruatoki School Committee for thirty years. He was a prominent spokesman for Ruatoki at all times.

He was head of the Ringatu church since 1928.


One of Rotorua's oldest identities, Mr William Boyle Bennett, died in Rotorua recently at the age of 86. he was a brother of the late Bishop Bennett.

Mr Bennett was recognised as one of the few who witnessed the Tarawera eruption and was still surviving.

He was one of the first to take tourist motor launches on the lakes.

Mr Bennett is survived by five sons.


Mr Raumaiwa Tihema, well-known Maori of the Horowhenua, Wanganui and Taihape districts, died at Hutt last October. He was the son-in-law of Rawiri Tatana, of Poroutawhao, the well-known Ngati Raukawa chief. He belonged to Ngati Whiti, Ngati Rangi and was closely related to the Wanganui tribes.


Mr Pouaka Wehiwehi died last September in Fiji and was buried at the Ngararatunua Maori Settlement cemetery. His grandfather was Te Tatua who in 1808 led an expedition to the Hauraki Gulf. Mr Wehiwehi, up to a few years ago, lived at Matarau, where he owned blocks of land. Since then, he mostly resided in Auckland.


A farmer on the Maungarangi development block and winner of last year's Ahuwhenua Cup, Mr Rehua Thomas Cairns died at Tauranga. He was 39 years of age.

He was a foundation member of the Rangataha Young Farmers' Club and was its first chairman in 1949.

He was a member of the Tuhoe tribe. He married Miss Ngawaiata Ohia, Ngapotiki, of Waitao. He is survived by his wife and two young children.


The Rev. Hemi Rihimona died at Ngaruawahia recently. He was aged 86. Mr Rihimona was known not only for his counsel to the late Princess Te Puea Herangi and to King Koroki, but as an elder who has welcomed prominent visitors to the Turangawaewae marae over the past 26 years.

He was recognised for his knowledge of the Maori language and arts, one of his chief studies being genealogy.

Mr Rihimona, who was a member of the Ngati-Mahanga, a sub-tribe of the Waikato, was the son of Terira Rihimona and Nganehu te Tana Ngatoki, and was the nephew of the influential chief of the Raglan and Whatawhata areas, Te Waitaia. His wife died 18 years ago.

Mr Rihimona trained at Three Kings, Auckland, where he was a student for seven years, and then spent 10 years with the Methodist Maori Mission in Hamilton, retaining his connection until his death.


An elder of the Ngapotiki sub-tribe of Ngaiterangi, Mr Paraire Pine, died at his residence, Kairua, aged 85 years.

Mr Paraire was the kaumatua of the Ngapotiki tribe and a recognised expert on genealogical lore and local history.

He was on the male line a direct descendant of Toroa of Matatua canoe. Through Te Uruhina of Romai-Noho-Hangi he traced to Ngatiawa tribe and through Tamapahore to Ngapotiki sub-tribe.

He was also related through Ngaparetaikinu to King Koroki.

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Haruru ana te motu i nga korero tautohetohe me haere ranei he Maori i roto i te tiima whutupaoro ka haere nei ki Awherika a te tau 1960 me kaore ranei. Na te nui o tenei take ko tenei upoko korero mo ta tatou pukapuka. Kua tirohia nga korero a nga nupepa na reira e tika ana me whai kupa hoki a Te Ao Hou.

Tuatahi he oranga ngakau te kite iho i te tokomaha o te hunga kei te whai kupu mo tenei take. Kua whai kupu te hunga tautoko i tenei takaro i te whutupaoro, kua whai kupu o tatou hahi na reira kei te tauwhanga te ao katoa he aha te whakautu a Niu Tireni Pakeha. Ko te whakaaro kaua e tukua kia takoto noa tenei take i runga i tera korero “Tatou tatou”

I roto i enei tautohetohe kei warewaretia nga tino take ara ia kei te matakitaki mai te ao ki te tauira o te noho pai a te Maori raua ko te Pakeha. Kei te mihi te ao i te mea kua whakaturia he Maori hei mangai mo Te Kawanatanga ki Malaya. Ka nui hoki te whakamihia o te pai o te noho ara te pai o nga ahuatanga katoa e pa ana ki te Maori. Mehemea i roto o tenei rua te kau tau e tu mai nei ka taea te hanga he whare totika mo te nuinga noa iho o te Maori, a ka kitea he rongoa mo te whati nui ki nga taone ka pera rawa atu nga mihi.

He aha rawa ra te rongoa mo nga makenu o te Maori? Kei te Maori tonu te nuinga o te rongoa a ko ta te Pakeha he aroha he awhina haere. Koia nei ta te Te Tari Maori tana kite, ngakau nui atu [ unclear: ] e Pakeha ki te awhina haere i te Maori tohunga ki te mahi. Ko te taha whare noho te mea uaua, mehemea e aro mai ana te Pakeha ki te awhina. ina noa ia ki te tuku mai he whenua hei tuunga whare e kei whea mai he huarahi hei whakamaheni i nga putiotio kei waenganui i te Maori raua ko te Pakeha.

Ko te tumanako kia mutu pai noa te tautohetohe mo te uru o te Maori ki te tiima haere ki Awherika a ko te hua nui he whakamatatau i a tatou ki te ao nui tonu.

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Tolaga Bay and its District High School by Dr D. Sinclair 6
How Our Great-Grandparents Lived by Tiniku Moore 10
Of Taniwha, Ngarara and How Paeroa Got Its Name, by Leo Fowler 12
Education in Two Cultures Can Be a Success by Frank McPherson 15
An Appreciation of ‘Maori’ by Allan Armstrong 18
Origin of the Polynesians by Peter Kaua 21
A Famous Haka, Edited by Rev. Tipi Kaa 22
East Coast Tribes Have a Modern Whare Wananga, by Leo Fowler 24
Tennis Comes to Life in the North by Antigone Kefala 28
Jim Morris, Gun Shearer of the Wairarapa by Wattie Carkeek 36
Pictures in our Heads, by Otto Klineberg 40
Frederick Augustus Bennett, by Hemi Matenga 44
The Concert, by Kate Shaw 47
Uenuku or Kahukura (The Rainbow God of War), by Tuta Nihoniho 50
Proverbial and Popular Sayings of the Maori by Rev. Kingi Ihaka 54
Maori Children Come to Life in Remarkable Novel, by E. G. Schwimmer 57
Crossword Puzzle 60
A Home at Last, by Nicky Barber 61
The egg and us 62

The Minister of Maori Affairs: The Rt. Hon. W. Nash.

The Secretary for Maori Affairs: M. Sullivan.

Management Committee: Chairman: B. E. Souter, Asst. Secretary. Members: M. R. Jones, W. T. Ngata, E. G. Schwimmer, G. H. Stanley, M. J. Taylor.

Editor: E. G. Schwimmer, M.A.

Associate Editor (Maori text): W. T. Ngata, Lic. Int.

Sponsored by the Maori Purposes Fund Board.

Subscriptions to Te Ao Hou at 7/6 per annum (4 issues) or £1 for three years' subscriptions at all offices of the Maori Affairs Department and P.O. Box 2390, Wellington, New Zealand.

Registered at G.P.O., Wellington, for transmission through the post as a magazine.

Editorial Address: P.O. Box 2390, Wellington

published by the department of maori affairs march 1959

printed by pegasus press ltd.

Brief Notices

Back Issues: Some back issues of the magazine have become very scarce, and it has been decided to raise the prices of these issues so as to eke out the supply for the benefit of collectors. Prices per copy are as follows: Issues 6, 9, 13, 5/-; Issues 8, 10–11, 14–17, 3/-; Issues 18–25, 2/-.

Renewal Stickers: If your subscription is expiring, you will find an expiry sticker on the wrapper of your issue. Please examine the wrapper carefully and if the sticker appears on it send us a renewal as soon as possible on the form enclosed with the issue.

Contributions in Maori: Ko tetahi o nga whakaaro nui o Te Ao Hou he pupuri kia mau te reo Maori. Otira ko te nuinga o nga korero kei te tukua mai kei te reo Pakeha anake. Mehemea hoki ka nui mai nga korero i tuhia ki te reo Maori ka whakanuia ake te wahanga o ta tatou pukapuka mo nga korero Maori.

Special Rates for Schools

A special concession is given to schools ordering at least five subscriptions for the use of pupils. The rate is 4/- per annual subscription.

Cover Photo: This young artist with the hula hoops comes from Punaruku, Northland. Photo: Peter Blanc.

Auckland Issue: We shall publish our special issue on the Auckland Maori in June (issue 27). It is fully described on the back cover. Contributions are welcome until the last week in March.

Literary Competition: A rich crop of contributions for the competition, both in English and Maori, reached this office before the end of January. The report by the judges, Messrs Jones and Campbell, and the winning entries, will be published in our June issue.

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The Tolaga Bay District High School stands on a historic site (Kandid Kamera Kraft, Gisborne)


A survey of the Tolaga Bay Community (Part 1)

Tolaga Bay is a pleasant little East Coast township that nestles snugly on a smallish area of flat dairy land which is almost completely encircled by a crescentic series of easy to rugged sheep hills. The horns of the crescent project far out into the sea as precipitous cliffs of soft sedimentary rock, forming a deep bay lined by a dazzling white sandy beach. The broad Uawa river curves gently around the south western limits of the township and discharges its blue green waters into the sea at about the centre of the bay. The whole aspect is dominated by the evergreen slopes of Titirangi Station whose grassy trig capped peak towers some nine hundred feet above the unique concrete wharf that abuts its base at the southern extremity of the bay.

The township serves the rich pastoral lands that comprise the Uawa County. Wool is king here, but cattle and dairy farming all contribute their quota to the community income. The bulk of the land is owned by the descendants of the early pioneer families whose original holdings were gained in the years following the Maori Wars. Many of the larger holdings were subdivided in the 90's of the last century and millions of superfeet of peerless native timbers that sheltered uncounted hosts of native birds gave way to rich grasslands. Military settlements followed the close of World War I and World War II saw an even more ambitious rehabilitation project carried through to a most successful conclusion.

In this article, I shall briefly record the history of the Maori people in Tolaga Bay, and describe their way of life today—the occupations they follow and the way many of them migrate to the cities. Of course all the changes that have occurred in the last century have been influenced deeply by education at the local school. In fact, without the

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school, the other things that happened could hardly be understood. After describing the life of the people I shall therefore give special attention to the history of education in Tolaga Bay and show its influence and the way the school has supplied the basis of the peoples success.


The close relationship between the school and the spirit of the community is symbolised by the beautiful site, adjacent to the Uawa River, on which the new school was built. This site is rich in Maori traditions and it was the marae of the Ngati Kuranui hapu for many centuries. The school derives a constant source of water from an old well that belonged to the ancestor Kuranui, many generations ago. The Auckland Museum is now the proud possessor of the wonderfully carved Te Kani meeting house that once graced the marae. An ancient totara whata kai once stood not far from the meeting house and there are still old people alive in the district who can remember passing part of their childhood in Te Kani. This house was erected about 1870 to commemorate the great chief Te Kani who refused the offer of Waikato leaders to make him king of all the Maoris, just as readily as he refused to sign the treaty of Waitangi. Maori middens, abundant shell heaps and an adjacent old cemetery bespeak the close association the school site has had with the original owners of the land. The surrounding hills abound with the evidence of a once numerous Maori population. Numberless house and store pits cover their ridges, while many still retain the ditches and ramparts of fortifications that surrounded the fighting pas. It is said that the preeuropeon Maori enjoyed a most excellent standard of health and we attribute that principally to his diet of sea foods and bird flesh, together with his habit of siting his houses on the ridges as before mentioned. When one inspects these old hill pas it becomes evident that the Maori sited his pas so that they would be warm and well drained. Each house would hold no more than four adults and even the larger houses would be strained to hold more than thirty persons. There may have been much larger houses on the flats but cattle and other stock have obliterated almost all the traces that may have remained. The fighting pas were built to withstand assault and their positions were often very exposed on the very summits of the high hills. Skilful use was made of the natural precipices and the further combination of ditch, mound and walls of pointed stakes made the attacker's task a difficult one indeed.

The advent of the European brought trade, muskets, rum, clothes and new diseases. The old Maoris of the district came down to live around the stores and the whaling stations. The threat of intertribal warfare with muskets as the weapons of death caused many of the hapus to aggregate for the common defence, and in the earlier life time of Te Kani a Takirau almost the whole of the people of the district, as far south as Whangara, were banded together at Tolaga Bay for their common defence. The Christian faith was brought to the Ngati Porou at the tribe's own request. A great convocation of the chiefs of the Waiapu sent a chief to the Bay of Islands to learn the new faith direct from the Mission stations there. On his return, four chiefs were selected to carry the word of the new faith to the main centres of the tribe. The Ngati Porou like many other tribes in that time, conducted their own conversion rapidly and effectively without the help of European missionaries.

The great majority of the Ngati Porou chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, although, as has been mentioned, their foremost chief, Te Kani a Takirau refused to sign away his sovereignty. Te Kani, however, was not hostile to the Europeans and indeed he extended his protection to the Rev. Baker when the inland hapus journeyed down the river on their canoes with every intention of attacking his simple little mission station.


The great majority of the local Maoris were intensely loyal to the Queen throughout the Hauhau Wars and they participated in the rapid mobilisation of the Ngati Porou at Gisborne and so staved off Te Kooti's threat to that infant city. As a token of their goodwill to the Queen they readily surrendered the rich hinterland of Tauwhareparae, Arakihi and other blocks to the Crown's accredited Land Purchase Officers. Many other blocks were also readily sold to promote European settlement among them, but the tribal leaders wisely retained several valuable blocks as adequate for their own needs.

The Maoris however soon found that it was not enough to own valuable tracts of land but that it was also necessary to find capital to pay off survey liens, legal charges, the cost of clearing, fencing and stocking, as well as current rates and arrears, on lands that they were unable to bring into production on a sound economic basis. The Maoris did not have the ‘know how’ that comes from a long acquaintance with the demands of competitive farming. For these, and many other reasons too many to enumerate, it was not surprising that they soon got themselves into insuperable difficulties.

The core of their difficulties was that they were unable to hold on to their land. The close of the Maori wars brought greater numbers of settlers from the South Island to settle in the district and by about 1870 the greater part of the lands around Gisborne were leased to settlers who would pay about £100 a year to a tribe for the grazing rights

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to their lands, which would perhaps average somewhere between five to twenty thousand acres. The Government Purchase Officers purchased millions of acres at nominal prices which were ceded as an act of good faith on the part of the Maoris who had remained loyal to the Queen. These lands were rapidly occupied and other settlers purchased blocks of land around this period.

The advent of R. J. Seddon as premier brought about the compulsory subdivision of many of the great estates owned by those who had been fortunate enough to have made their purchases when land was a cheap commodity. A wave of new prosperity came to Tolaga Bay when the new settlers came to take up the subdivided estates. The Wigan and Mangaheia schools were built to educate the children of these new folk and commercial life beat with a stronger pulse in the Tolaga Bay township. It was around this time that the Bank of Glasgow failed and many prominent landowning families lost all their holdings. The Maori people had become greatly reduced in numbers and formed a minority in the district. Their lands passed almost completely out of the [ unclear: ] r control because there had never been a policy to ensure that the several hapus retained sufficient lands for their present and future needs.

This was the period when the Maori as a race appeared destined for oblivion and the dominant causes were substandard living and working conditions. The more fortunate Maoris had fairly large rents to assist them, but, by and large, they became an agricultural labouring class. There was plenty of work in the district and the Maori folk earned their fair share of the annual wages bill, but, the Maori had not yet acquired the talent of accumulating capital, nor of putting his capital to work for him, in the way of investments, business practices and the progressive development of the lands that remained to him.


The Tolaga Bay Maoris saw a chance of salvation in the attempt of certain of their leaders, notably Sir James Carroll and Wi Pere among others, to launch a company called the East Coast Lands and Settlement Company, which had as one of its very laudable objects the desire to obtain adequate capital for the development of their own lands by raising mortgages through the Bank of New Zealand and issuing scrip. A vast area of Maori lands extending from Wairoa to Tolaga Bay became involved. The Company however was beset with difficulties as great as the ones it had tried to avoid, and the Maoris were soon struggling to save their lands from foreclosure. In 1901 the bank took steps to foreclose and several blocks were advertised for sale. Government intervention finally saved much of the land, although some fifty to a hundred thousand acres had to be sold to reduce the enormous debt of over £170,000 to manageable proportions. Some of the finest land in the now greatly reduced Tolaga Bay Maori reserves had to be sold to relieve their mortgage burden.

The East Coast Commission was established by the Government and brought the remainder of affected lands under efficient control, carried out its dedicated task so well that more than 150,000 acres have been handed back to the owners, in a solvent and productive state. The Maori owners in Tolaga Bay have resumed control of their ancestral lands and they are managing quite well. Two of the three blocks however will need to set a [ unclear: ] ide huge reserves if they are to be fully developed, and one of the drawbacks of the present system of committee management general throughout the many similarly administered Maori blocks is the fast that far too much emphasis is placed upon the payment of dividends that leave little or no funds for adequate development and investment reserves.

However, most of the lands that were not farmed by the commission had eventually to be leased to Europeans in order to ensure that the rates were paid, while many other holdings were taken over for the nonpayment of rates. In certain cases the fault lay in the multiplicity of ownership which led to undue restraints and impositions being practised upon those to whom the management was entrusted. Many of the ancient hapu names disappeared completely from the district and there are now only five maraes in the district. Certain hapus have become almost completely landless and yet they persist as a vigorous adaptation in a modern world.


It now remains to examine the reasons why the Maori folk, in this district at least, have now become once more, a vigorous and progressive element in the district and study the part the school has played and will play in their future progress.

Sir Apirana Ngata is regarded by the Maori people as the principal architect of the renaissance. His scheme for the development of Maori lands with capital provided by the Maori Affairs Department unlocked the remaining Maori lands throughout the country. European supervision brought innumerable Maori Blocks out of hitherto unmanageable debts incurred by litigation and the advent of the large incorporations brought improved and cheaper farming methods, while the development schemes worked miracles in building up a sturdy and dependable Maori farming community that rapidly gained their independence and their full share of what we like to term our ‘standard way of life’. The Ngati Porou north of Tolaga Bay had ample lands to derive the full benefit of Sir Apirana's enlightened policy, and the reason dates back to the time that Mokena Kohere refused to accede to Sir Donald Maclean's de-

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mands for the larger portion of their lands. Several hundred thousand acres were yielded but the greater portion of the land was kept inviolate from sale through the years that followed.

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Dr Sinclair, author of this article, in his surgery at To [ unclear: ] aga Bay (Kandid Kamera Kraft, Gisborne)

The Maoris of the Tolaga Bay district were apparently outside the ‘rohe’ or district. They therefore had no lands to develop under Sir Apirana's scheme but the remainder of their lands were mostly in either the Whangara Incorporations or the East Coast Commission and both of these concerns were brilliantly administered and began to pay increased dividends to the owners over the years. The Anaura Block was similarly administered by the Tairawhiti Maori Land Board and the trustees of the Waru Estate salvaged and successfully developed the lands under their control. The story of these people has been the story of their lands; as the lands disappeared so did the people, and as the lands prospered so did the people. Sir Apirana Ngata played his part in the district by religiously attending the annual general meetings held by the owners of the various blocks and his advice was in most cases regarded as an order. He gave great moral support to the people when he attended the various great huis held by the people. His personality was amazing and his talents unlimited. He was to be seen at his best when in the midst of his people, single-handedly coping with the mult [ unclear: ] tudinous affairs of Master of Ceremonies at some great hui wherein thousands of his Maori people would be continually de-lighted by his dry wit, kept applauding the excellence of the entertainment provided by his tribal teams, and stimulated by the general excellence of his own contributions, whether topical or traditional.

The Maori in Tolaga maintained a long tradition of mutually harmonious relations with the Europeans of their district, both at school and at work and they have benefited from this relationship. The principal reason that has prevented them from capitalising on these circumstances has been, fundamentally, the lack of sufficient land to maintain an independent and progressive rural farming community life. Inability to be able to create capital is a racial weakness and is amply demonstrated here. Once they have the land and the capital they are able to make progress in the modern competitive farming community. This is being fully borne out at Horahora and Manga-kino.

(To be concluded in our next issue)

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These reminescences were told to the author long ago by Mrs A. G. Hall who taught at Tolaga Bay School in 1883 and 1884.

I will try to tell you as well as I can remember the ways and customs of the Maoris of seventy years ago.

Along our stretch of country from the Kopuni end of the beach to Kaiaua, a distance of about two and a half miles, there were several native settlements; the main ones being located at either end of the beach. My own kin were settled at Kopuni and their ancestors had lived there for countless generations before them. My grandmother, uncles and aunts with their families and endless connections comprised our little community when my father built our home among them.

The other end of the beach was called Kaiaua, and Mr J. Morris now farms what was once the stronghold of the Tautau family.

We were also on the main highway, as all travelling then followed the Coast Road, except at points like Kopuni to Uawa, where precipitous cliffs forced the road to deviate inland for a few miles before re-emerging at the coast again.

All the kaingas were near the sea because much of the food was obtained from the sea. In the late summer and autumn months the settlements were hives of industry. Whenever the weather was favourable the men would all go out fishing in their canoes and mokihis. The settlements would be supplied with fresh fish and the remainder of the catches were dried for winter consumption. The women collected and dried pauas, and seaweed also in season. Kinas and pupus were also gathered and stored in bottles and jars.

The karaka trees grew in groves along the hillsides facing the sea and the ripe berries were gathered in great quantities. We children loved to help to gather the Karaka berries as we liked to eat the outer part; while the inner part or nut was cooked, either in a hangi, or boiled in a large iron pot, taking all day to cook. The cooked berries were then put into kits and left to soak for a few days in the creek until the wall of the outer flesh was soft enough to soak off. The process was completed by spreading the nuts on mats to dry in the sun and then collecting them again in the kits and storing in the storehouses.

When the kumara crops were dug the largest were carefully stored in the ruas or kumara pits, while the seconds were scraped and the smallest fed to the pigs. The women used to scrape the kumaras until there was a small hill of kits filled with the scraped tubers. These were now washed and put out on mats to dry. This drying out sometimes took several days to accomplish. A long hangi was then made with the object of thoroughly cooking the kumaras before they were again spread out to dry. When the womenfolk were fully satisfied with their handiwork the dried kumaras were collected into kits and packed away. If the kumaras were not properly dried and went mouldy before the next spring then the women would have a subject for their gossip, and the woman concerned would feel very much ashamed.

There was a turnip that was cultivated but also grew wild on slippery places on the hillsides. Its shape resembled a parsnip but it tasted like a swede. These were prepared and dried like kumaras and stored for winter and spring use.

There were always numerous pigs around the settlements. Some were sold to the trading vessels that called every few months and others were cooked in their own fat and packed into calabashes. The young gourds tasted like marrows, when boiled. The young gourds with the best shapes were allowed to grow to their full size and were left out in the fields until their shells had hardened and the flesh inside had dried away. A neat hole would then be cut in the top so that the seeds and dried flesh could be scraped out. A flaxen webbing with handles would facilitate their transport and stoppers were cleverly made to plug the holes in the top. A large calabash would hold about two or three gallons of water. We used to carry drinking water in them and with care they lasted for years. Others were used for storing cooked foods such as pork, both wild and domestic, pigeons and other birds that teemed in the bushes were most esteemed delicacies. In those days the bush was all around us and when we were short of meat our father would take his gun and return with six or more fat pigeons.

When we were children we used to wander about the hills with our elders, collecting the berries of tutu and pressing the juice into calabashes. We ran our hands down the sprays of berries and then squeezed the juice through our fingers into the calabashes, or taha as we called them, until they were full. Before sheep and cattle were intro-

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duced the hillsides were covered with tutu. The juice is very sweet and purplish red in colour, and although the seeds are poisonous, the juice is not. We used to squeeze the juice into our mouths and when we had finished we were smothered with it. The juice of the tutu was used to preserve sea weed of the large flat kind that most people have seen attached to rocks. I think that kelp is the name it is commonly known by. The weed was taken from the sea cut up into pieces about three inches square, washed and dried, cooked in the hangi and then filled into the calabashes, and stored. I remember that it was very good to eat as it had absorbed the flavour and sweetness of the tutu juice.

The women took great pride in ensuring that the family pataka or storehouse was kept well filled. The men too did their part by preserving pork, birds, dried fish, eels, crayfish and also assisting in the ohu or working bees.

In those days the methods of cultivating the land differed a great deal from the ways we know today. All the digging had to be done with the spade and all the neighbours came and helped with digging, planting, sowing and so on all round until all the maaras or plantations had been done. This was one reason why it was so necessary to lay in such large stores of food.

Quite a lot of wheat was grown on the Wharekaka flats and it all had to be transported from there to the beach, a distance of some six miles

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Miss Winnie (Tiniku) Moore in her seventieth year.—Kandid Kamera Kraft.

over steep hill tracks, that the feet of generations of my ancestors had worn until there were high banks on either side which were very handy to rest their burdens on, particularly when going up hill. The heavy packs often galled the shoulders of the men and women who backed the wheat over in the closely woven flax kits that the women, young and old, had woven throughout the winter months in readiness for the next years harvest. My father told me that the kits held sixty to seventy pounds of wheat.

When I think of those sturdy old people my heart swells with pride in them. White people may call them savages as they may have been in times of strife and war, but in times of peace one could not meet a more industrious and hospitable race. I look back to the time when they lived on the products of the land and the sea, and they were never in want. Their only needs that were supplied by the traders were iron implements. Most of the old men still wore the korowai and the pake which were their traditional flax woven clothes. The trading vessels had already begun to make their periodical visits and wheat and pigs were the principal items in demand.

The women had begun to wear print and dungaree petticoats and jackets. I had not seen the Maori use soap. When their clothes required washing they were taken down to the creek and there rubbed with a blue clay that could be found under the side of the creek banks. This clay had a sticky substance in it and the clay was rubbed onto the clothes which were then pounded on round stones in the creek. When the children required washing they were also rubbed with this clay and after a good ducking they came out clean.

My father had a steel mill which had to be turned by hand. He would bake our own bread from the wheat that the Maoris would give him in payment for grinding their wheat.

The only trade in the way of foodstuffs in my time was in big boxes of dark brown sugar; cases of hard biscuits, tea in boxes and salt. My father made his own candles and soap. Of course we had to buy the material for our garments. Our father had been a sailor and so knew how to make all his own clothes. Until we went to live at Poverty Bay I had not seen him wear anything he had not made himself.

The Maori women when meeting visitors of importance from a distance, donned all their petticoats and brightly coloured skirts so that they looked to be wearing crinolines. There would be not less than four widths, often six or more, so that when they had them all on they were the envy of their less fortunate women friends. I heard my father tell of an occasion when my mother, after a tangi, when the feast had been consumed and the speeches interchanged, stood up and took off her skirts and presented one to each of the six women present in the party. This was considered the proper thing to do as my mother was the wife of a white man.

– 12 –


I had always thought that the town of Paeroa got its name from the long ridge of hills behind it pae-roa. But I was wrong. I found that there was another and older meaning to the name. There is a very old, old story about the naming of Paeroa. I learned the story first, many years ago, from Hoane Te Huia of Paeroa, and later heard other versions from other old Maoris of my acquaintance.

I don't know what the name of the place was before it was called Paeroa. Some have told me it was Ruawea, some Ohinemuri, but these are district names, as far as I know. Anyway, in a cave near the hill now known as Turner's Hill, near the present town of Paeroa there lived a taniwha, or ngarara, named “Urea.”

I have no certain knowledge as to what was the form in which this taniwha liked best to manifest himself. Most accounts agree that it was in the form of a gigantic lizard. Ngarara, or taniwha, are queer creatures and are apt to change their form in a most haphazard and perplexing manner. The Ngati Tamatera had another taniwha named “Tupe to Tauhai” which, when it wished to warn the tribe of impending invasion, would take the form of a dolphin and gambol in the river until its movements had been reported to all the chiefs. But when the Ngati Tamatera went forth to war, this same taniwha appeared as a blue cloud, and, in that form, led them to battle, and invariably (they claim) to victory. There was yet another taniwha in the Ohinemutu district called “Pukeko” which always took the form of that bird and gave mournful cries throughout the night when the death of a chief was imminent.

Personally, I have never seen a taniwha, nor I expect have readers. I have met some who told me they had seen one, and they were people I had every reason to respect and to believe. My old friend Nepia Pomare, (a Ngapuhi and my Maori godfather) once told me that the taniwha on our gold sovereigns was not unlike a taniwha he had once seen.

This taniwha, whose name he could not utter, (so tapu was it) had a body very like that of the taniwha on the sovereign, but the wings were only partly formed and the head was the head of a manaia. Some of my older Maori friends have told me that the manaia itself was, originally, a taniwha. Others will say that manaia is simply a carved representation of a human head seen sideways, such as a “koruru” or “ruru.”

Colonel Jim Ferris once told me that, during World War I he and his platoon were led out of danger, on one occasion, by a taniwha which appeared as a small cloud of smoke. He was a very practical and hard headed man, and a great friend of mine and I believe him. Princess Te Puea told me that, as a girl, she had seen taniwha in the Waikato and had also seen fairies. Riki Kereopa, of Cape Colville; Kapa Potae of Kennedy Bay,

– 13 –

Coromandel; Te Kanawa of Kawhia, and an old tohunga friend of mine in Otakau (who asked me never to write his name, though I might speak it freely) all these have told me of ngarara or taniwha, which they themselves have seen, in various shapes. They were all my friends and they were all truthful men. Some taniwha, they said, were good, others were bad. “Urea” the taniwha of our story, was not only bad, but, like the little girl in the nursery rhyme, he was horrid. Not only was he horrid but he was very, very cunning. He had several smaller taniwha around the district who acted as sentinels and kept him well informed of what was going on. One of them, named Hotaiki, lived in a pool which is to be seen to this day, close to the bridge just outside present day Paeroa. Another of Urea's many sentinels was named Waikino, and gave his name to that village half-way between Paeroa and Waihi. These sentinels kept a very good lookout indeed, and warned Urea whenever any Maori of that district set out to travel to the East Coast. Whatever the purpose of their journey, Urea would go after them, swift and terrible as fire, and gobble them up. Urea, the taniwha of Ruawea, was especially fond of pretty young maidens—as an article of diet.

It was this very weakness for gobbling up young maidens which led to Urea's downfall. There was a young tohunga named Hamea who decided that Urea's taste for tasty young ladies was becoming a serious embarrassment to the tribes around that district and it was time he did something about it. It not only made wives scarce for their young men, but that very scarcity made such competition among the remaining maidens as to give them ideas, far above their station. Hamea was a young and ambitious tohunga, with many weighty matters to occupy him. Instead of devoting his time to those matters he was continually being bothered to waste his time in the recital of “atahu” or love charms, a form of karakia or incantation, very much sought after by young men in love when their fancied maiden was playing “hard to get.’ I never found out, to my complete satisfaction just what kind of tohunga Hamea was. Hoane Te Huia says he was a ‘tohunga tatai aorangi’ whose duty it was to read and interpret the stars and their omens, and to guide their navigation when they went to sea. Others said he was a ‘tohunga makite’ or a seer into the future. One chief claimed that Hamea was a ‘tohunga makutu’ who dealt with black magic, and who would, for a consideration, put a fatal spell on anyone who happened to incur your displeasure. As Hamea is held in some veneration by the tribes which knew him best, we could charitably class him as a tohunga of the higher class who dabbled in makutu, if at all, merely as a sideline and to increase his knowledge and his mana.

Anyway, I have no doubt that when Hamea set out to put an end to Urea the taniwha, he was glad to have every trick of every grade of tohunga at his command. Urea, as we have already said, was a taniwha of fearsome reputation, and considerably cunning. His motto was, if we may put it in the terms of a famous pakeha proverb, “He who fights not, but runs away, lives to eat maidens another day.” So he withdrew to his cave and sat patiently upon his magic perch to wait until Hamea's other pressing duties drew him away from this particular hunting trip. This is not to say that Urea was a coward, but merely that he realised that what was good clean fun for the tohunga, was not always fun for a taniwha.

Hamea the tohunga, in the course of his search, came to that part of the Waihou river where Hotaiki, the sentinel, lurked in his pool. Hotaiki being a minor taniwha, was no more anxious to meet a hostile tohunga than was Urea, but, unable to resist the power of Hamea's magic, he came reluctantly to the surface. “Where is Urea, the greatest of all Taniwha?” asked Hamea. Hotaiki, the sentinel, made the historic reply, “Urea ke nga rua i tana paeroa.” ‘Urea’ is on his long perch’—the long perch of Urea, or in its shortened form, the pae-roa or Paeroa of today.

In the course of becoming a tohunga, Hamea had learned many proverbs. One was the “He who eats the kumukumu, (or gournet) in too much of a hurry, is liable to get bones in his throat.” So instead of dashing in to beard the ngarara in its den, he set about thinking up a stratagem by which to lure Urea from his magic cave into surroundings where he would be more vulnerable. By reading the stars, and (some say) by dealing in blacker magic, Hamea conceived a great idea. Knowing Urea's appetite for toothsome young maidens and knowing too that the local supply was becoming daily scarcer, he thought to draw the taniwha away by offering a particularly luscious bait. He caused word to be spread freely around the district that there was a growing superfluity of young and tender maidens among the Tainui people of the Waikato.

So, one by one, Urea's sentinels reported to him that everyone was going around saying, “Ka nui te pai te waihine to Waikato” (how fair are the women of Waikato). Urea swallowed the bait hook line and sinker. He decided he would slip across to Waikato, escape this busybody of a tohunga, and try out these reputedly luscious morsels of feminity in the kainga of the Waikato.

Now, for some reason or other which was never explained, Urea the taniwha started his journey by following the course of the Waihou river to its mouth, which discharges into the Hauraki gulf at what is now Thames. I have no doubt that he had his own reasons for doing so. Perhaps he thought his departure in an almost opposite direction would conceal his true destination. Or it may have been that he intended to invite some of his fellow taniwha down river to accompany him. Whatever the reason, it died with him. Hamea the tohunga, either by black magic, or white magic, or just everyday observation and common sense, had learned of his route and lay in wait for him

– 14 –

downstream. Hamea, of course, slew the taniwha, ngarara or dragon, after a fearful struggle. Details of this battle, of the weapons of offence and defence, of the tactics employed and other data which would be extremely valuable to an historian, are sadly missing from all accounts I have heard. It has been recorded, however, that the death struggles of the taniwha were terrific and protracted. As, at last, his corpse stiffened in rigor mortis, his tail stood stiffly upright like a “taia” or the post of a palisade, and is to be seen there, to this day, in petrified form. Hence the name of that place “Hiku Taia” from Hiku (tail) and Taia (the post of a palisade.)

There are some folk, of course, (there always are) who offer a more mundane explanation. These folk say that “Hiku-taia” means simply the tail of the t [ unclear: ] de” and refers to that part of the river where the actual flow of the tide ceases.

Anyway, that is the story, as well as I understand it, of how Paeroa got its name, and how Hiku Taia and Waikino got theirs. Moreover, I have been to Paeroa and have been shown the cave of Urea and the pool of Hotaiki; and also to Hikutaia where I have been shown the rock which they claim is the stiffened tail of Urea the taniwha.

I have mentioned the other meanings which some folk attach to the names, and you can take your choice. All I can say is that I would take an exceedingly poor view of anyone who would prefer a ‘long ridge’ to a ‘taniwha's perch’ or the mere ‘turning of the tide’ to the ‘death throes of a ngarara.’


At a historic ceremony held in the Te Kao Hall last October, electricity was switched on for the first time after many years of waiting.

Mr Rikihana Etana, Chairman of Te Aupouri Trust Board, presided and welcomed the visitors: Mr Riddell, Chairman, Members and Executive Officers of the Bay of Islands Electric Power Board, Mr J. A. McKain, District Officer, Maori Affairs Department, Whangarei, and his Deputy, Mr H. F. Waetford.

Two elders of the tribe, Messrs Karena Wiki and Pako Heka, also added their welcome and their remarks were ably interpreted by Mr H. R. Hadfield, Welfare Officer, Kaitaia.

Speakers dwelt on the efforts made to obtain electricity over the years, originally started off by the late Judge Acheson and his successors including Judge Prichard.

Mr Riddell, Chairman of the Bay of Islands Electric Power Board, explained why it had taken so long to bring power to Te Kao but the link-up had at long last been achieved as a result of the recent extensive Land Development throughout the area by the Maori Affairs Department.

Mr McKain, District Officer, mentioned that large investments by the Tai Tokerau and Te Aupouri Maori Trust Boards in the Bay of Islands Power Board construction loans had undoubtedly spurred matters along and he expressed the hope that many of the younger people who had left the district would now be persuaded to return to their homes and farm lands now enjoying the benefits of electricity.

Mr Dan Simeon (Te Ngapuhi), foreman in charge of the construction gang then gave instructions by the radio telephone for the high tension switches to be closed to liven the line.

Mr Riddell then escorted Mr and Mrs A. H. Watt, who for many years taught the children of Te Kao, to the main switch in the hall and the lights were switched on.

A great cheer went up from those present and the women burst into a beautiful hymn of thanks. A prayer by Mr Hadfield concluded the ceremony.

Everybody adjourned to the dining hall where a truly marvellous meal was served by the women of Te Kao.


In order to foster the teaching of the Maori language, the Minister of Education, the Hon. P. O. S. Skoglund, has established a committee to advise the Department of Education on how the language should be taught in schools. It will also study the problem of providing suitable textbooks for use in post-primary schools, make recommendations on the content and form of such textbooks and assist in assembling and preparing for publication Maori literature for use in the schools.

Dr K. J. Sheen, senior inspector of post-primary schools, Wellington, is chairman; the members are: Mr H. R. Waititi, St Stephen's College, Bombay, Auckland; Mr S. M. Mead, head-teacher at Waimarama Maori School, Hawkes Bay; Dr B. G. Biggs, lecturer in Maori Studies, Auckland University; Mrs E. B. Ranapia, Correspondence School, Wellington, and Mr W. T. Ngata, secretary of the Maori Purposes Fund Board, Wellington.

– 15 –

Picture icon

St Stephen's College today: view of the main block and eastern dormitory. (Thorpe Studio, Pukekohe)


A trust was established by Bishop G. A. Selwyn in 1848 ‘for the education of children of both races of New Zealand and the islands of the Pacific’. The school began operation in 1849 on a site at Taurarua (Parnell) in what is now St Stephen's Avenue, and was the first New Zealand school to celebrate its centenary.

Through its long life the roll of the school has been predominantly Maori, but there has always been a sprinkling of island and pakeha children.

Instruction, after the passing of the New Zealand Education Act (1877), followed fairly closely the state primary school system, and most pupils gained the Proficiency Certificate some of them staying on for a year in Standard VII. About 1910 a few pupils were entering for the Public Service Examination, and regularly winning Makerini Scholarships for advanced secondary schooling at Te Aute College. Numerous well-educated Maoris thus became old boys of both schools.

In the 1920–30 period, St Stephen's slowly developed its own secondary department, and after 1931, when the school moved to the beautiful Bombay site, the secondary roll grew steadily. Pupils stayed on for University Entrance Examination and further study in Form VI. The move to the country also allowed the development of an agriculture course.

During the 1939–45 war the school was requisitioned as a hospital, and its senior pupils went to Te Aute and Wesley Colleges, but without losing their St Stephen's identity.

The school opened in 1949, as a purely academic type post-primary school, and without the 230 acres of farm, which were still under lease. The rising cost of living brought suddenly a heavy increase in fees in 1953, and the roll dropped quickly in 1953 and ‘54.

With the appointment of the present Headmaster Mr L. E. Lewis at the beginning of 1954, it became the policy of the school to try to carry out the original aim of Selwyn for the education of the Maori, Pacific Islander and Pakeha side by side. It was also decided to terminate the farm lease, to start anew the Agriculture course, to run

– 16 –

parallel to the state schools in staffing and salaries, and to build up the work of the senior school to VIA standard. At the same time work began on the improving and extending of the playing fields.

The results of the new policy over these last four years show a record of achievement probably unequalled in present day New Zealand. On 3rd February, 1954, the roll stood at 31; on the same date in 1958 it had reached 125. There was no sixth form in 1953, but in 1958 there are 14 in VIb and four in VIa, the latter all intending to proceed to university courses. There are five now at University from the two previous years.

The library has been completely reorganised, and restocking proceeds rapidly, to keep pace with the revised and modern [ unclear: ] sed curriculum. Revision of the curriculum has been reflected in the great increase in School Certificate passes, and since 1957 the school has become an accrediting school for University Entrance.

Maori language study is compulsory for a [ unclear: ] l pupils to the end of Form IV, and in 1957 and 1958 the School has had pakeha pupils presenting Maori as a subject for U.E. Maori concert work, shared by all pupils, and developed in co-operation with the girls of Queen Victoria School, has reached a very high standard. The combined senior concert party has roamed as far afield as East Cape and Hastings in 1954, Masterton and Palmerston North in 1956, Northland and Waikato in 1957, and this year, the boys only to the South Island.

In rugby union football the record of St Stephen's 1st XV has probably not been equalled by any New Zealand School over the past four seasons. In that time the 1st XV has played 109 matches, won 104, drawn 2, and lost 3, and has journeyed as far South as Christchurch and Hokitika.

In its hundred odd years St Stephen's has served New Zealand well, and numbers among many of its great sons the two Bishops of Aotearoa. Many leaders in the Waikato have been pupils of the school, and the new scholarship system, now being operated by the Waikato Diocese, will provide St Stephen's with fine material to be moulded into the leaders of the future.

Hence we have here an establishment, catering for the education of Maori, European, and Island boys, an example of a mixed community living in harmony.

Following are accounts in Maori from boys from St. Stephen's College, telling something about themselves and their homes.



I haere mai au i Tawhiti-nui
  • i Tawhiti-roa

  • i Tawhiti-pamamao,

i te hono-i-wairua, i Hawaiki; ko toku waka ko Horouta. Ko te kapene o te waka nei, ko Pawa.

Ko toku ingoa ko Whare Ahuriri Waiti. No te rohe o Ngatiporou au, engari ko toku iwi motu-hake ko te Whanau a Tuwhakairiora; a e noho uri ana matou katoa, nga whanau me nga hapu o Ngatiporou, no te waka nei no Horouta. Ko te ingoa nei ko Ngati Porou i huaina hei ingoa mo Porourangi, engari i haere mai ke tenei rangatira i runga i te waka i a Takitimu.

E ki ana etahi tohunga, kahore tahi a Horouta i haere mai i te taha o nga waka nunui, otia kahore tonu tatou e tino mohio ki nga nekenekenga a nga waka nei i aua ra.

Ko Wharekahika taku marae, engari i ahau e tuhituhi nei, kei roto ke au i nga pakitara o Tipene e whai haere ana i te mea e kiia nei ko te matauranga, a i ahau e noho nei kei te whakaaro au ehara i te mahi tatakimori tenei te rapu, te kimi haere i tenei taonga, i te matauranga. A tera tau ko taku tumanako kia haere au ki te whare wananga o Poneke ranei, o Akarana ranei. Ko taku nei mahi e h [ unclear: ] ahia ana au ko tenei ko te mahi kura-mahita; otia kia riro rawa mai i ahau nga taonga hei whakatu i ahau ki tetahi tunga totika i roto i te ropu kura-mahita, ka mutu ai taku kura.

Ko te take i pirangi ai au ki tenei mahi ko tenei, I ahau e ako ana i nga tamariki, ka ako tonu hoki au i ahau. He penei hoki te korero a nga tohunga me nga tangata mohio: “E kore hoki tatou e tae ki te mutunga o te ara o te matauranga. Ana atu pea tetahi take e hiahia ai te tangata ki tenei mahi, ara, ka taea e enei tu tangata te haere ere ki nga marae katoa ako ai a matakitaki ai i nga ahuatanga o nga tangata o tena marae, o tena marae, o tena marae.

Hei whakamutunga maku i aku kupu, me maka atu e au tetahi patai ki a koutou. “He aha tatou i kaha ai ki te whai haere i te matauranga me te mohio? Hei painga mo tena tangata mo tena tangata anake?

Ko taku hei whakahoki ki tenei patai e penei ana. Kei te kimi tatou i te matauranga hei whakanui i a tatou i te iwi Maori, kia whai tunga ai tatou i te ao hou nei; a tena ano tetahi, hei whakahonore, hei whakaororia i o tatou tupuna kua ngaro atu nei ki te po.

– 17 –


Ko au tenei ko Hare Paniora he uri no te waka no Ngatokimatawhaorua i tau mai ki Niu Tireni nei. Ko toku iwi ko Ngapuhi. Ko te ingoa o te wahi i whanau ai au ko Waimamaku, tetahi wahi iti i roto o te rohe o Hokianga. I nga ra o mua ka tapahia e nga toa etahi mamaku e tupu ana i te taha o te awa ka meatia ki roto o te wai kia whiti ai ratou; na i tera tonu ka huaina tenei wahi ko Waimamaku. Ko nga mahi nui o tenei wahi ko te mah. miraka kau ko te mahi hipi; a ko te nuinga o nga tangata he Maori, engari tokomaha nga tamar [ unclear: ] ki o tenei wahi kahore i mohio ki nga t [ unclear: ] kanga Maori, me to ratou reo Maori. Ko tera te take i tonoa mai ai ahau e oku matua ki tenei kura ki Tipene.

I timata au ki tenei kura i te tau 1957, a i taku haerenga mai ki konei ka kite au ko tenei tetahi kura tino pai. Ko tenei kura hoki i hanga mo nga tama katoa o tenei whenua me nga tama hoki o nga motu o te Moana-nui-a-kiwa.

A no te mea kua riro mai i ahau toku kura tiwhikete e hiah [ unclear: ] a ana au ki te haere ki te Auckland Teachers' Training College mo te rua tau, a ki te puta au i nga whakataetae o te Training College ka haere au ki nga kura maha noa atu ki te ako tamariki. Ko te ako i nga tamariki Maori ki to ratou reo tetahi o oku hiahia. Engari e kore e taea e au tenei mahi kia puta rano au i nga mahi o te Training College.

Ko te reo Maori hoki, kei te ngaro haere i roto i nga kura o Niu Tireni no te mea e haere ana te nuinga o nga tamariki Maori ki nga kura Pakeha; a ko ene. kura kahore ano te reo Maori kia akona ki reira. Ko tenei tetahi take i hiahia ai au ki te haere ki tenei mahi kia kore ai e ngaro te reo me nga tikanga a te Maori.


  • “Ko Ngongotaha te maunga

  • Ko Rotorua te awa

  • Ko Tama-te-kapua te tangata

  • Ko Te Arawa te iwi”

Ko au tenei ko Pohiri Hamiora, koia nei toku pepeha…… ko te Whanau o Tuhourangi, ko Te Arawa te iwi.

I nga takiwa o mua i te tauranga o Te Arawa ki Maketu, i te “hekenga mai o nga waka” katahi ka marara atu nga tangata ki nga rohe katoa. Ka haere atu ki te raki, ki te tonga, ki te rawhiti, ki te hauauru. Koia nei toku kainga ko Rotorua, na ko Ihenga tetahi rangatira no Te Arawa i whakaingoa, no te mea e rua ano nga roto i kitea e ia.

I muri iho ka marena a Hinemoa ki a Tutanekai; anana ko au ano tetahi uri o Hinemoa. Ko toku matua tane ko Kapiti no te motu o Kapiti.

Ko Kapiti ano te ingoa o taua motu. Ko te kaumatua o toku matua tane i mate ki taua motu i nga whawhai a Te Rauparaha. I mate ia i te wa i whawhai ai tetahi ope o Mokoia (te motu i waenganui i te roto o Rotorua) me te iwi o Te Rauparaha. I mua i te matehga o te kaumatua nei i ki ia i a ratou e mahi hoia ana, i kite ia i taua rangatira rongonui i a Te Kooti. I tetahi wa, i roto i te rohe o Te Urewera, ka kite ratou i taua tangata i a Te Kooti, kahore ratou i tawhiti mai i a ia. Katahi ka ki mai te rangatira o taua ope kia puhia taua tangata. Kaore i tawhiti rawa; katahi ka puhia. anana. kahore i mate a Te Kooti. E wha nga kariri i puhia engari kore rawa a Te Kooti i mate. Katahi ka korerorero tana ope ki a ratou, ka ki mai tetahi.

“E hika! He aha tenei? He atua hoki tenei tangata!”

I mua ake nei, i haere au ki te kura o Rotorua; kahore au i pai ki tenei kura notemea, he kura tenei mo nga wahine me nga tama tane hoki. Ko tetah [ unclear: ] ano take, he nui rawa aku haerenga ki te kanikani ki te pikitia. Na reira i haere mai ai au ki tenei kura ki Tipene.

E tino whakahonore ana ahau ki toku haerenga mai ki konei, notemea, he kura Pakeha, a he kura mo nga tama o nga motu o te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa. Ko etahi take ano, he kura rongonui tenei. He maha nga kura Maori i Niu Tireni nei. Ko etahi atu ko Wikitoria, he kura mo nga wah [ unclear: ] ne kei Akarana, ko Te Aute, he kura mo nga tane kei Pukehou, ko te Waipounamu he kura mo nga wahine kei Otautahi.

Ko tetahi take ano he kura rongonui tenei mo te takaro hutu-paoro. Engari i haere mai etahi o nga tangata rongonui ki tenei kura ko Pihopa Panapa, ko Te Rangihiroa.

  • “Hinga atu he tetekura

  • Ara ake he tetekura”

Ko tenei taku whakatauki i tenei wa, he whakatauki tenei i rite tonu mo tetahi tangata Maori ki te mau tonu ki te Maoritanga a ki to tatou iwi Maori.

A ko toku hiahia ano e pirangi ana ahau ki te haere ki te whare-wananga ki te whakawhanui i toku matauranga mo nga mahi Maori. Ka whakakaha tonu au, kia puta au i te whakataetae “B.A. Degree” ki te kaha tonu au ka whakakaha au mo taku “M.A. Degree”. E hiahia ana au i tenei kura, ki te whakaako i te “Reo Maori me te Anthropology.” Ko te take i pirangi ai au ki tenei mahi. ko te ahua mate haere rawa o te Maoritanga.

– 18 –


I haere mai oku tupuna i Ingarangi, i Koterana, i Airana.

Na, me whakarongo koutou ki tetahi tama pakeha. No Te Kauwhata au.

Kei te haere ahau ki te kura o Tipene mo tetahi tau.

I haere mai nga matua o toku matua tane ki Aotearoa i roto i tetahi kaipuke, i te “Ionic”.

Ka tiaki toku matua he mara hua, he paamu kau, he kerepi. I haere atu au ki te kura o Te Kauwhata mo te whitu tau.

He wahi rongonui a Te Kauwhata no te mea he nunui nga kerepi, nga waina, me nga hua. Kua tupu i Te Kauwhata tetahi taone. E whitu rau nga tangata kei reira. I te tuatahi ko Wairangi te ingoa o taua wahi engari i whaka-ingoatia nga tangata o te Poutapeta ko Te Kauwhata te ingoa tuarua. Ka tata a Te Kauwhata ki te moana papaku o Waikare. I ngaki nga eka e rua mano he rakau (wattle i te tau 1898. Ka hanga te huarahi tuatahi i te tau 1895.

Ki au, he wahi pai tenei kainga mo tenei mea te mara, te hua rakau, me nga kerepi.

Kia ora koutou katoa.

Note: He pakeha tenei tamaiti.


“MAORI’ certainly is the best of entertainment. It is a show which should make us proud that Maoris are New Zealanders.”

So stated the Otago Daily Times of Dunedin when the show visited that city. This is typical of the comments by press and public alike all over the Dominion. Too often in the past Pakehas have had their views on Maori music and culture coloured by ragged improvised performances which only reflect poorly on the race as a whole and on the things they are trying to portray. “MAORI” should set a standard to be aimed at by all future concert parties. I personally have seen Maori concert parties which are as talented as this but I have never seen a Maori concert group which recognised, as this one does, that 50% of the success of any stage show lies in the attention given to presentation.

Good lighting, good movement on and off stage, confident mein of soloists, good costuming, teamwork—these are the things which make for a polished show and “MAORI” has polish. The teamwork for example was shown by the lack of extravagant posturing amongst the male performers in the action songs. This often mars concert performances because it attracts attention to a few at the expense of the overall effect. The individualist who makes funny faces from the second row of the group was also refreshingly absent.

The two major faults with the show at present are the introducing of the items and the printed programme. The former is too sketchy but an improvement in the latter would make further verbal introduction superfluous. At 1/- the programme booklet was very poor value. A golden opportunity was lost to produce something of souvenir value with the items fully explained and the origins and significance noted. Six pages (2 ½ of them advertisements) for 1/- is quite exorbitant and it can be argued that an audience which pays a fairly high admission fee has the right to know, without further charge, just what it is going to see for its money. Something much better than this will have to be produced for overseas audiences.

It was possible to feel some misgivings on looking at the programme and finding out that a portion of the items would be popular pakeha “hits”. Fortunately these fears were groundless. These items were quite short and were particularly well received. Indeed they successfully illustrated an important facet of the Maori character—their flair for imitation and for ebullient good spirits. One Wellington critic however cavilled at the use of the guitar to accompany many of the songs and dances. This surely is a case of just not facing the facts of life! The guitar is as much a feature of the modern Maori musical scene as the koauau was of the old.

“MAORI”, whilst primarily an entertainment, also has a secondary aim—that of presenting the Maori race to the audience. On both counts it is singularly successful. “MAORI” is good entertainment and good public relations for the Maori race. We wish it every success for its performers are ambassadors for the whole country.

– 19 –


The winner for 1958 of the Ahuwhenua dairy farming trophy, competed for annually by Maori farmers under the control of the Department of Maori Affairs, was Mr T. Haeata of Mangakino.

Second place was gained by Mr W. J. Swinton of Whangamata, Thames district, who gained fourth place in the 1957 competition.

Mr J. Peterson of Mangonui, North Auckland, was placed third.

The Ahuwhenua trophy — a magnificent silver cup—was given in 1932 by the then Governor-General, Lord Bledisloe, as an incentive to better farming of newly developed Maori lands.

Again in 1953, when the difficulty of judging between the merits of the different types of farming such as dairy farming, sheep farming and mixed farming was brought to his notice, Lord Bledisloe generously gave a replica of the original cup so that the competition could be run in two sections—one for dairy farming and one for sheep and cattle farming.

Unfortunately, on account of the lack of suitable Maori settlers who were willing to accept nomination in the sheep and cattle section, only the dairy farming section of the competition was run.

The judge of the competition was Mr A. V. Allo, Instructor in Agriculture, Tauranga. In his report Mr Allo commented that the competitors were doing a fine job on their properties.

The winner, Mr Haeata of Mangakino, was settled some five years ago on a property of 133 acres which was formerly part of the Pouakani Development Scheme. Since he took over the farm Mr Haeata has provided a number of excellent shelter belts, all of which have been well fenced from stock. The farm carried a first class Jersey herd in excellent condition. The house is extremely neat and well laid out in lawns and courts, with all buildings in excellent order.

The second place-getter, Mr Swinton, of Whangamata, is an ex-serviceman of the Second World War who is farming a property of 108 acres, 80 acres of which are used for dairying, the balance carrying some sheep. Mr Swinton has proved a keen and energetic farmer with up-to-date ideas and prepared to make considerable personal sacrifices for the sake of his farm. Since he was settled five and a half years ago, he has carried out a sound programme of further improvements to water supply, planting fencing lines with barberry and other worthwhile improvements.

Mr J. Peterson, of Mangonui, who was third, actually has the smallest farm of the 14 entered in the competition. Mr Peterson has transformed his 50 acres from a run-down, uneconomic unit into one that is yielding a good living and is a credit to any man. All the buildings, fencing, water supply and many other improvements have been constructed by Mr Peterson himself and the work carried out to date is a remarkable achievement.


The Maori Purposes Fund Board, at its annual meeting last August, resolved to grant £500 to go towards the cost of carvings in the new dining hall at Omarumutu, a further £250 towards the Opotiki Community Centre, a further £300 towards the Motueka Community Centre, £250 towards Maori art decorations in one of the classrooms at the Tokomaru Bay Maori District High School, £250 for a swimming pool at Hukarere Maori Girls' School, £50 for carved gates at Mahia Maori School and £800 towards the work of the Polynesian Society.

The Board also continued its support to the Investment Societies movement. Help had previously been given to the community development work both at Panguru and Te Kaha, but fresh resolutions changed the conditions of this assistance, so that there will now be no further difficulty in taking up the money. The £4000 loan to the Te Kaha Community Development Investment scheme has now been granted without security. It is also free of interest. The newly formed Taitokerau Maori Investment Society has been given a straight donation of £1000 to help its initial operations. This takes the place of the earlier grant for community development in Panguru.

Subsidies were granted for the publication of Te Ao Hou (£1000), Maori Life and Culture’ by W. J. Phillipps (£450), ‘How to do Maori Carving’ by S. M. Mead (£200) and ‘Maori Action Songs’ by Allan Armstrong and Reupena Ngata (£200). This last book is an interesting attempt to show through drawings and instructions all the actions used for Maori songs.

Grants were made to the following persons: Mr J. B. Palmer (co-editor of the Journal of the Polynesian Society), for studying moko designs, £100; Mr J. E. Nelson, to encourage dramatic work among Maori groups in the Wanganui district, £100; Dr Maharaia Winiata, towards preparing the publication of his thesis on ‘Changing Leadership against the Background of Maori-Pakeha Relations, £100; Mr W. J. Phillipps, to assist him in making a detailed study of Maori artifacts, carvings, etc., in overseas collections, £250.

– 20 –


Squadron Leader A. L. Tauwhare, M.B.E., recently paid his first visit to New Zealand in six years.

He was here as chief navigator of the Royal Air Force jet Comet 2, which visited New Zealand while making a world survey of Air Force transport.

Squadron Leader Tauwhare is believed to be the highest ranking Maori in the R.A.F.

He had no sooner stepped off the tarmac at Ohakea than he was greeted by his two sisters, Miss Hira Tauwhare of Wellington and Mrs W. Minchin of Wellington. After a speedy check through the customs office, he was on his way to Feilding to see his mother for the first time in six years.

Squadron Leader Tauwhare is the navigational leader of the entire Comet fleet of 10 aircraft operated by the R.A.F. He has flown the Atlantic on several occasions and in recent years has made a number of flights to Christmas Island in connection with nuclear weapon tests.

A married man—he married an English girl—with a son aged 15 months, Squadron Leader Tauwhare is an old boy of Wairarapa College. He served with distinction during the second world war with the 488th New Zealand night fighter squadron in Europe and after 18 months in “Civvie Street” he enlisted with the R.A.F. He was awarded an M.B.E. in the 1956 New Year Honours.

* * *

Miss Ivy Rodan, a part-time Maori girl descended from the Arawa tribe is at present making a big impression as an entertainer and singer in England. She is commanding audiences of nine million as a television star in London.

Miss Rodan, who is 23, had earned much prestige as a singer before going to England through winning major competition events in Auckland and Australia.

She has had a meteoric rise in the London entertainment world since arriving there a few months ago.

It is through her mother that she is descended from the Arawa tribe. On her father's side she is of Fijian descent.

When Miss Rodan was 12 years old her voice was heard by the famed singer, Gladys Moncrieff, in Suva, Fiji. On her advice the girl was given the opportunity to take up singing seriously.

Miss Rodan's repertoire ranges from grand opera to popular songs.

She hopes to establish herself abroad as a star entertainer, and then return to Auckland to open a night club.

Mr Ian Hugh Kawharu, returned from three years study in England, has taken up a position with the Maori Welfare Division.

Mr Kawharu holds a B.Sc. from Victoria University College. In England he first of all did his B.A. at Cambridge.

While at Oxford he has been studying for the Bachelor of Literature degree in anthropology, at the same time completing residential qualifications for a Doctorate of Philosophy which he can complete after his return to New Zealand.

The research project which he has completed at Oxford and which he has submitted for his degree discusses Maori Land Tenure in the 19th Century.

Mr Kawharu married a girl from Amsterdam, Holland, whom he met while on the continent during the university vacation 1956. A daughter was born to him this year, and baptised at the Exeter College chapel at Oxford by Bishop Panapa, who just happened to be in England at the time. Godfather was Mr Charles Bennett, now Ambassador in Malaya.

Mr Kawharu is a member of the Ngati Whatua tribe of Auckland—North Auckland. He was a New Zealand University Blue in shooting and an Auckland University College blue in athletics. He was at different times a regular member of both the Auckland University College and the Victoria University College senior [ unclear: ] rugby fifteens.

* * *

K. R. Davis, the All Black and Maori half-back, has announced that because of a recurring leg injury he is retiring from first-class rugby.

Davis has played in ten test matches for New Zealand and his 130 first-class games include many for New Zealand Maoris, three for the North Island and 54 for Auckland.

He said that he might play for his club, Marist, as a “fill in” next season.

* * *

Mr G. K. Koea, chief reporter of the ‘Taranaki Daily News’, has been awarded the 1959 Imperial Relations Trust bursary for New Zealand journalists. He will be given a free passage by ship to and from England and during the year he spends there, will travel extensively.

* * *

One of the highest qualified of Maori nurses, Sister Ane Ngata, recently gained further distinction when she received her Post-Graduate Diploma in Medical Social Work at the nurses' postgraduate school, Wellington.

Having completed the course, Sister Ngata will resume duty as District Health Nurse, Whangarei.

Sister Ngata is a daughter of Mr and Mrs Paratene Ngata, Gisborne, and a grand-daughter of Honi Ngata, an elder brother of Sir Apirana.

– 21 –


A very successful week end school on the origin of the Polynesians was held under the auspices of the Regional Council of Adult Education, Auckland, in Te Poho-o-Rawiri Carved Meeting House, Kaiti, Gisborne. About 100 people both Maori and Pakeha attended the two days, 27 and 28 September 1958.

The students were welcomed to the marae by three of the kaumatuas in the persons of Herora Kaa, a former Judge of the Maori Land Court and Chairman of the Trustees of the Poho-o-Rawiri Marae, Hetekia te Kani te Ua and Kahutia te Hau both highly respected citizens of the district. Representatives of the Welfare Section of the Department of Maori Affairs were also in attendance and in co-operation with the members of the Turanganui Maori Women's Welfare League looked after the arrangements regarding the school and acted as hosts and hostesses in providing sumptuous morning and afternoon teas.

The panel of lecturers consisted of Dr M. Winiata of Auckland, Dr B. Biggs, lecturer in linguistics at the Auckland University, Mr J. Golson, Senior Lecturer in Archaeology at the Auckland University, Mr V. Fisher, ethnologist at the Auckland Museum and Dr J. Stavely, haemologist at the Auckland Public Hospital.

The purpose of the school was to evaluate the evidence provided by modern science concerning the probable origin of the Polynesian peoples.

Dr Winiata restated the evidence from Polynesian traditions and showed that three areas have been suggested by interpreters of traditions as a home for the Polynesians—Asia, the North West Coast of Canada and Peru. Mr Percy Smith and Sir Peter Buck working through Polynesian traditions traced the Polynesian migrations back westward along the Malayan Archipelago to India. Thor Heyerdahl on the other hand interpreted Polynesian and American traditions as locating the homeland of the people in Pre-Inca Peru and on the West Coast of Canada. Dr Winiata observed in conclusion that it was possible the Pacific was peopled from both the West and the East at different periods in history.

Dr Biggs suggested that the regular existence of sound-meaning correspondences between languages would justify belief in a genetic relationship between those languages. However, one cannot be absolutely certain on these grounds that the speakers of the languages concerned were necessarily racially connected. He cited White and Negro Americans speaking a common form of English as examples. Dr Biggs traced definite links between the Polynesian languages and showed the genetic links with those of South East Asia, while no evidence was present so far for links with the languages of the Americans.

Mr Golson dealt at length with Thor Heyerdahl's theory of American origins. Heyerdahl showed a methodological weakness in assembling his material, in that he selected cultural aspects that backed his own scheme. Mr Golson suggested that any truly scientific work must consider all the evidence. He then proceeded in a positive way to demonstrate from the types of adzes and fish hooks found in the Pacific a probable link with sources in Siberia. The conclusion was the existence of a central dispersal point in that area and movements of people over thousands of years both Westward to the South through Asia, and Eastwards to the South across the Behring Straits to the Americas. The Polynesians were the evident product of migrations from the West.

Mr V. Fisher dealt with a material culture and plant life. He stressed the difficulties of migrations from the East because of vast distances. He pointed out close similarities between the material artifacts of the Polynesian peoples and suggested migrations from the West. Speaking about the kumara, Mr Fisher stated that botanists are definite that this staple Polynesian food plant originated from South America. He thought that the kumara was fetched by Polynesian navigators from America and dispersed in the Pacific area.

Dr Stavely, dealing with the distribution of blood groups in the Pacific area, stressed the value of the work done in this field in the last year or two. His own researches among the Tuhoe people, when combined with the findings from other world regions showed a definite link between the Polynesians and the tribes of the North West Coast of Canada. He suggested, following the Siberian source proposed earlier by Mr Golson, a direct entry of migrations into the Pacific from that area.

Mr S. R. Morison, Director of Adult Education, was a very competent chairman of the school.

– 22 –


This famous haka has been edited for us by Rev. Tipi Kaa, of Te Kaha who used a translation and brief commentary given to him by the late Sir Apirana Ngata.

Te Kiri Ngutu is still frequently performed by East Coast groups on important occasions. Although the text, taken strictly, would suggest that the performers are hostile to the European, the Maori does not really feel the haka in that way. For instance, it was performed before Lord Bledisloe when the Waitangi Treaty House was opened in 1934; then, it undoubtedly symbolized deep gratitude. When performed before Prime Ministers on East Coast maraes, Te Kiri Ngutu is felt as a respectful greeting. It expresses the proud and defiant spirit of Ngati Porou.



Kaea: Ponga ra! Ponga ra!
Katoa: Ka tataki mai Te Whare o nga Ture!
Ka whiria te Maori! Ka whiria!
(E) Ngau nei ona reiti (E) ngau nei ona taake!
A ha ha! Te taea te ueue! I aue! Hei!
Kaea: Patua i te whenua!
Katoa: Hei!
Kaea: Whakataua i nga ture!
Katoa: Hei!
Kaea: A ha ha!
Katoa: Na nga mema ra te kohuru
Na te Kawana te koheriheri!
Ka raruraru nga ture!
Ka raparapa ki te pua torori! I aue!

Te Tinana

Kaea: Kaore hoki te mate o te whenua e
Te makere atu ki raro ra!
Katoa: A ha ha! Iri tonu mai runga
O te kiringutu mau mai ai,
Hei tipare tana mo te hoariri!
A ha ha! I tahuna mai au
Ki te whakahere toto koa,
A ki te ngakau o te whenua nei,
Ki te koura! I aue, taukuri e!
Kaea: A ha ha!
Katoa: Ko tuhikitia. ko tuhapainga
I raro i te whero o te Maori! Hukiti!


Translation by Sir Apirana
(The Rising)

S: The shadows fall! The shadows fall!
Ch: The House which makes the laws is chattering
And the Maori will be plaited as a rope
It's rates and it's taxes are biting!
A ha ha! its teeth cannot be withdrawn! Alas!
S: The land will be destroyed!
Ch: Hei!
S: The laws are spread-eagled over it!
Ch: Hei!
S: A ha ha!
Ch: The members have done this black deed,
And the rulers have conspired in the evil;
The laws of the land are confused,
For even the tobacco leaf is singled out! Alas!

The body of the haka

S: Never does the loss of our landed heritage
Cease to burden our minds! A ha ha!
Ever it is upon our lips, clinging
As did the headbands of the warriors
Arranged to parry the enemy's blow!
A ha ha! I was scorched in the fire
Of the sacrifice of blood, and stripped
To the vital heart of the land,
Bribed with the Pakeha gold! Alas! Ah me!
S: A ha ha!
Ch: Was it not your declared mission
To remove the tattoo from Maori lips

– 23 –

A ha ha! Na te ngutu o te Maori, pohara,
Kai kutu, na te weriweri koe i homai ki konei
E kaore iara, i haramai tonu koe
Ki te kai whenua!
Pokokohua! Kauramokai! Hei!
Kaea: A ha ha!
Katoa: Kei puta atu hoki te ihu o te waka
I nga torouka o Niu Tireni,
Ka paia pukutia mai e nga uaua
O te ture a te Kawana!
Te taea te ueue! Au! Au! Aue!


Relieve his distress, stop him eating lice
And cleanse him of dirt and disgust?
Yea! But all that was a deep-lined design
‘Neath which to devour our lands!
Ha! May your heads be boiled!
Displayed on the toasting sticks!
S. A ha ha!
Ch: How can the nose of the bark (canoe) you give us
Pass by the rugged headlands of New Zealand,
When confronted with the restrictive perplexing laws
Obstacles that cannot be removed! Alas! Ah me!

Commentary by Sir Apirana

This Composition has come down the generations and had its greatest revival with topical adaptations in 1888, when the Porourangi meeting house was formally opened. Led by the late Tuta Nihoniho, a noted chief of the Hikurangi sub-tribes, a section of Ngati Porou registered their protest against the rating of their lands and the taxation of articles of every day consumption, specifying the “pua torori” or the tobacco plant. It was revived again at the Waitangi celebrations in 1934 and was adopted by the men of the 9th and 10th Maori Reinforcements as the “piece de resistance” of the recent celebration of the opening of Tamatekapua at Rotorua. Its main theme is not outdated, the complementary, yet seemingly, contradictory features of civilisation with the still novel but bitter pill of taxation. In the circumstances the vigour of the recitative and concomitant actions may be appreciated.

Commentary by Tipi Kaa (Te Kaha)

In Tuta Nihoniho's original composition the word “Kamupene” was used instead of “Hoariri”. Tuta was referring to the British Land Company which came out to New Zealand for the purpose of buying whatever land was available. It was eventually brought to Turanga, now known as Gisborne, by the late Mr Wi Pere who later became M.P. for the Eastern Maori Electorate. They bought quite a lot of land and Tuta viewed their activities with some apprehension. This actuated him to compose this haka we now call “Te Kiri Ngutu”. All the words which follow give vent to his feelings towards that company or towards the pakeha for that matter.

The haka was and still is used by the Maori as a means of expressing his approval or disapproval. Even among the tribes or sub-tribes this was and still is done and they enjoy doing it.


During celebrations held at Turangawaewae pa, Ngaruawahia, to mark the 25th anniversary of the accession of King Koroki, hundreds of young Maoris competed enthusiastically for the sports trophies.

Wednesday, October 8, the actual anniversary date of King Koroki's accession, was set aside for more formal events and discussions involving largely tribal elders and leaders.

A long and varied list of matters was raised by the Maori speakers. The matters raised included Maori land laws and Maori housing. Speakers also spoke against the principle of sending a rugby team to South Africa from which Maori rugby players were barred.

The Acting Prime Minister and Acting Minister of Maori Affairs, Mr Skinner, attended on that day. Speeches of welcome were given by the Rev. N. K. Kukatai (Lower Waikato), the Rev. Heemi Rihimona, Ngaruawahia, and Mr H. Piahama, of Tauranga, following the traditional reception.

There were no fewer than 42 basketball teams, 24 rugby teams, four rugby league teams and 200 competitors in the indoor bowls section. On the marae there was a display of hakas, poi dances and action songs, with a special programme by students of the Auckland Training College which lasted for an hour.

Results were: Basketball—A grade, Coronation Cup final: Aotearoa (Auckland) 15, Rotorua 6. B grade, Te Puea Cup final: Pirongia 57, Taniwharau 7. C grade: Whakarewarewa (Rotorua) won the Taupiri Coronation Cup.

Rugby — Seniors, Coronation Shield final: Rangatahi (Tuakau) 35, Taranaki 5.

Rugby League—Final of Tonga Mahuta Memorial Shield: Waikato 8, Tahamoana (Auckland) 6.

Hakas, Pois and Action Songs—Kaitaia College won the Te Rauangaanga Trophy for youth clubs.

– 24 –


When Rongo Whakaata Halbert stood up before a large gathering at G [ unclear: ] sborne one sunny Saturday afternoon last November, and declared open the new Maori Wing of the Gisborne Museum, he was performing what may well turn out to be one of the most significant rites of the transition of the Maori from the old order to the new.

Even from the viewpoint of tangible realities this opening was significant. It represented many angles of Maori interest. For one thing the money was raised by a Maori Museum Committee which is, so far as I know, the only one of its kind in New Zealand. Furthermore it has an advisory status protected by special minute of the Art Society Council which is the governing body of the G [ unclear: ] sborne Art Gallery and Museum. But, before I go into all that, it might be as well to tell you about the Maori Wing and its relation to the Gisborne Museum as a whole.

The Art Gallery and the Museum were set up a little over four years ago by the Gisborne Art Society. The Society bought the old Lysnar home, itself an historic building, and vested the ownership in the City Council. It then set about the formation of an Art Gallery and a Museum. The Art Gallery was founded under the directorship of Mr Alan Barnes Grahame and has since become a model of its kind and the focal point of art in Gisborne.

Early in 1954 the Art Society entrusted me with the establishment of a Museum. I immediately gathered together a small committee of people willing to work on the complicated project of setting up and organising a museum. Mr Rongo Halbert was elected to the committee to represent the Maori people and has been a stalwart supporter and member ever since. He was later appointed to the Council of the Art Society in the same capacity.

It was apparent from the beginning that a Museum serving Gisborne and the East Coast would not be truly representative unless it was largely Maori in character and from the first it was planned with this fact in mind. About this time, May 1954, we heard of a maori house in the Canterbury Museum which had East Coast associations. Mr Vic Fisher, ethnologist at the Auckland Museum furnished me with something of its history. It was originally planned for the East Coast chief Henare Potae of Tokomaru Bay. The carvings for it were begun in the late 1850's and completed during the period 1866–69. Some of them were destroyed during the Te Kooti troubles and the remainder were acquired by Mr C. S. Locke of Napier for the Canterbury Museum. I wrote to Dr Roger Duff, director of the Canterbury Museum who agreed to let us have it for the sum paid for it in 1872, an extremely generous offer. He warned us at the time that it would cost us at least another thousand pounds to transport it to Gisborne and re-erect it there.

By this time we had got other members of the Maori community interested in the project. A few of us got together to discuss the acquisition of this house as a purely Maori project. As a result of this discussion a Maori Museum Committee was formed. It held its inaugural meeting on the 25th of March 1955, the original members being Rongo Halbert (Chairman), Pahau Milner, Reta Keiha, Hira Paenga, Tawhai Tamepo, Eru Ruru, Hiwi Maynard, Kahu Te Hau, Judge Howard Carr, R. J. Wills and myself as director holding an ex off [ unclear: ] cio position and acting as secretary to the Committee. We were able to record in the inaugural minutes that £700 had already been raised toward the purchase and erection of the house.

Through the assistance of Mr Peter Kaua of the Department of Maori Affairs who was coopted to the Maori Committee I was able to attend meetings of some of the tribal committees up the Coast and each of them appointed an Associate member, giving representation among Maori communities up as far as Te Kaha. Original associate members included Ropata Kingi and Te Tane Tukaki, W. Potou, D. George, Enoka M. Potae and H. Te Kani Te Ua.


Our next step was to send a member of our Maori Committee to Christchurch to examine the house. Mr R. J. Wills, who was given this task, reported that the house was not in a sufficient state of repair and was otherwise unsuitable. The

– 25 –

Picture icon

This display shows how the ancient Maori caught and stored his food. (Gisborne Photo News)

committee was left with no option but to accept this report and abandon the idea of purchasing this house. We decided to aim at building a concrete wing to house the Maori collection and set out to raise the estimated cost of something like £2500. It took a long time, but aided by a grant of £1000 from the Maori Purposes Fund Board the objective was finally achieved and the building erected and opened.

It is interesting to relate that almost every member of the original committee was present at the opening. In addition to Mr Halbert the speakers at the opening function included Dr P. B. Singer, President of the Art Society, His Worship the Mayor of Gisborne, Mr H. H. Barker, Mr Reg Keeling, M.P., and Mr Hira Paenga. The catering for the afternoon tea provided was done by the Maori Women's Welfare League so that the whole function was pleasingly Maori in character.


Largely through the generosity of the late W. D. Lysnar, the Museum started off with an enviable collection of Maori exhibits. These have been added to during the past three years by loans or donations of artifacts, pictures, photographs and documents all having some place in the long history of the Maori.

These things are important, but a museum such as the Maori Wing financed, administered and supported by the Maori people of a district is much more than a mere collection of casually acquired relics. It is, and will become even more, a central point of Maori culture and Maori history for the whole East Coast. It is in fact the modern whare wananga the repository of all those outward, tangible and visible things which are the material basis of what has come to be summed up in the word Maoritanga. The old time pattern of community living, centred around the marae, tends to become dissipated with every passing and changing year. The prized relics of tribe and hapu become more and more restricted to the keeping and to the possession of family groups and individuals. The opportunity of sharing these things, of restoring them to their proper place in communal culture, becomes distressingly restricted. There are even occasions when they become a cause of embarrassment and ill-will instead of being a source of pride and inspiration. Too often they are buried away in safe-deposit boxes in a bank or lawyers office, even worse they are lost, sold or otherwise pass out of the possession of their former owners. Other and more highly prized more tapu objects, entrusted to the keeping of one or two elders are secretly hidden away and all too often the hiders take their knowledge with them

– 26 –

Picture icon

The Maori wing has a beautiful collection of East Coast stone tools. (Gisborne Photo News)

to Reinga rather than leave them to less hallowed keeping. When such things are lost, or even with-held, something very precious and important is lost or with-held with them. These relics, and especially the history which so often surrounds them, are the very mauri, the pou manawa of Maori tradition, of tribal cultural heritage and of all that is summed up in the word Maoritanga.


What is so important about such a repository as the Maori Wing of the Gisborne Museum is that in placing their treasured heirlooms there for safe keeping the ownership need not be lost to the tribe, the family or the individual. They are placed there ‘on deposit’ and may be removed at will. Two of the many instances of this which have already highlighted the short history of the Maori Wing give fine example. In May of 1956 the elders of the Whangara marae entrusted to their Maori museum a highly prized relic which had stood for years on a concrete plinth in the centre of their marae. This was a piece of puriri, all that was left of a once huge tree trunk which was the timanga or food-storage place of the great East Coast chieftainess Hine Matioro. The story of this relic was told in an earlier issue of this journal. More recently the people of Whanau Apanui, at Te Kaha entrusted to the Museum a whaleboat which had figured in the later history of their people. On this occasion there was some difficulty in transporting the whaleboat to Gisborne and the Royal New Zealand Navy came to the rescue by making H.M.N.Z.S. Endeavour available to bring the relic down from Te Kaha to Gisborne.

Before the erection of the new wing Maori owners of valuable relics had some hesitation in entrusting valuable heirlooms to a wooden building. This was kept clearly in mind in the planning of the new wing, which is not only built of concrete but which is fitted with a fireproof door. In addition the Art Society in its alterations to the main body provided a fireproof vault in which especially precious relics may be kept. In the few weeks since the opening of the new wing many Maori families have expressed their intention of entrusting to it mats, greenstone and other heirlooms of priceless value and ancient lineage.

There is another, and possibly even more important function which will continue to be discharged by the Maori Wing, indeed increasingly so throughout the generations to come. This is the function of preserving the knowledge, the mataura-tanga which will justify the claim that such an institution will indeed be the whare wananga of

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the Maori of the future. For here are collected, and preserved, classified and explained, all those artefacts which were once the everyday things of Maori usage and way of life. Here are collected and classified the adzes (both of greenstone and common stone), the fish-hooks, weapons, tattooing chisels, ornaments, weapons, agricultural implements, cloaks, canoes, anchors, carvings and innumerable other relics of a way of life that is no more. Already there is a research collection which future generations of Maori scholars will find invaluable in explaining to their generation the way of life of their remote ancestors.

The founding of this Maori wing was a project noble in conception and impressive in its fruition. I hope that before very long a tablet will be placed in the building embodying the names of every member and associate member of the first Maori Committee of the Gisborne Museum so that Maori generations to come will know to whom they owe the preservation of so much of their racial heritage.

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An interesting display in the new Maori wing of the Gisborne Museum is this model of a popular method of felling trees. By looking at the model carefully, the student can see easily just how the ancient Maori, with dreadfully slow stone tools, managed to cut down even the largest trees, such as were needed for canoe building or meeting house ridge poles. The cutting tool is a large and heavy chisel-shaped stone, lashed to a long, stout shaft. This shaft is moved backward and forward over two horizontal timbers lashed to supporting posts. The three workers used this tool like a battering ram, first punching one horizontal groove, then another slightly higher up, after which the block of wood between the two grooves was chipped out. The remarkable thing about this way of cutting trees was the use of a bow behind the tree to help to add force to the thrust of the tool. The Maori did not use the bow as a weapon, but he did evidently understand the principle of the bow. (Gisborne Photo News)

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Miss A. Emery from Hamilton, and Miss Ruia Morrison receive a cup for winning the Ladies' Doubles from the Mayor of Whangarei, Mr J. F. Johnson. Next to the mayor is Whangarei's lady warden, Mrs Iritana Rangikamaea Randall, whose untiring efforts greatly helped the success of the tournament. (Photo: Peter Blanc)


The rain poured down hitting the pavement in large bubbles, a curtain of water coming down continuously through which you could hardly see.

Inside the marae everybody was up. Women passed in pyjamas and housecoats going to the showers, men in shorts with towels around their necks and children with large, dark bewildered eyes followed their mothers not knowing why they had to get up so early or what was this huge hall decorated with greenery.

The cooks at the back of the dining hall, three tall monumental figures, were preparing breakfast.

In the small office at the entrance of the marae —actually the Winter Exhibition Hall transformed into a marae for the four days of the tournament—the brains of the organisation were at work. The president of the Taitokerau Branch of the N.Z. Maori Lawn Tennis Association, Mr Lou Davis, with the secretary, Mr R. Kake, were busy ringing up to arrange accommodation, giving orders while at the other table the manager, Mr S. W. Maioha,

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and the treasurer, Mr N. Pirihi, made their way through a pile of papers scattered on the table, their activity interrupted at short intervals by a voice booming over the loud speaker making some announcement or giving some orders. In spite of Northland's large Maori population, but probably because of the lack of adequate facilities to cater for such a large group of people, the tournament has never taken place in Northland before. It needed courage to take up the challenge in September of this year, and within such a short time, put in motion the huge organisation that functioned well enough during the four days of the tournament in spite of all the special difficulties of rain and floods.

Help was received from all sides—the Agricultural and Pastoral Society put at the disposal of the committee their Winter Exhibition Hall—and private individuals and different firms in Whangarei donated the different trophies.

Invitations were sent to all the Maori centres in the North Island and to King Koroki, who was unable to attend because of illness. A party of five led by Dr M. Winiata arrived as his representatives, the other members of the party being Mr T. Katipa, Rev. Mutu Kapa, Mr P. Herewini, Mrs T. Hira and Mr Potana Hira. Visitors and players came from all over the North Island from Waikato, Wairoa, Kaitaia, Auckland, Te Kao, Karetu, Hamilton and even as far as Wellington.

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Miss Ruia Morrison (Photo: Peter Blanc)

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Prominent tournament personalities watching the proceedings are, left to right, Mr J. F. Johnson, Mayor of Whangarei, Mr S. M. Maioha, tournament manager, and Mr Riri Maihi Kawiti, O.B.E., senior chief of Ngapuhi. (Photo: Peter Blanc)

After the mihis the opening ceremony took place, the Mayor of Whangarei, Mr J. F. Johnson and other officials being present. Later, the prominent leader Te Riri Kawiti arrived, delayed by

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At the back of the dining hall are two of the cooks—Messrs Dick Shortland and J. Kaukau expertly carving the meat for the hundreds of visitors. (Photo: Peter Blanc)

the bad weather. In his welcome speech, he doubted the wisdom of a tennis tournament being held when the moon was dying—according to Maori tradition, this might well be the cause of the rain.


She came down in slacks moving freely in the familiar atmosphere of the tennis courts, a slim small figure with a serious face—Miss Ruia Morrison. Unaffected by her success you feel at ease with her almost immediately.

Sitting under a tree near the tennis courts waiting for the rain to stop I asked her what was she going to do next year. She told me laughing that at last after three years of interruptions she managed to finish Training College and was going to teach in Auckland.

“How does it feel to be a national figure?”

She considered the question for a moment and then answered seriously:

“It carries a lot of responsibility, because you see, they look up to you (and ‘they’ she meant the Maori people) and you have to prove yourself every time. I know, because as a child I used to look up to those who were better or older than myself and try and follow their example.”

I watched her playing; it was a pleasure to watch the seriousness and concentration and at the same time the ease and elegance of every stroke. What is she going to do in the near future? Practice next week and then down to Christchurch to take part in the National Championships. Annlock Emery who played against her in the Ladies' Singles is a shorthand typist from Hamilton. Born at Otorohanga, where her father owns a [ unclear: ] arm, and educated there, Miss Emery has played tennis for quite a number of years. She was very happy that she had reached the point of playing against Ruia and although she knew beforehand that she was going to lose, at least she said. I can say that I have played against the best.

Most of the players knew each other. Annlock and Ruia are friends and while we were watching the Men's Single Championship I discovered that Moses Harvey was also one of her friends.

Moses Harvey lives in Auckland, is married and has a baby boy. He comes from Ruatoria and was educated there at the District High School, has been playing tennis since he was 11. On the surface a calm player, he leaps up with some amazingly good shots. He intends to compete in next year's tournament.

It was good to watch the juniors, eager and serious, some promising players among them. E. Neho who won the Boys' Singles and I. Morunga who won the Girls' Singles.


At night the concert hall was always full. The visitors performed and the hosts performed; talent quests followed. A group of young boys and girls from Kaitaia college performed almost every night. A homogenious, well trained group, they will throw themselves into the rhythm and movement of the action songs with such pleasure and enthusiasm that it was a feast for the eye to watch them.

An Auckland group from Queen Victoria College, under the leadership of Mr H. R. Waititi, gave us a double poi dance and haka which made the audience wildly enthusiastic. But the highlight of the concerts was a long poi dance performed by one of the boys from Kaitaia. Suddenly all the lights in the large hall went out and in the darkness we could see only the dark figure of the boy and the two pois, which had been lighted, moving sensuously like red lines tracing fantastic patterns in the air to the beat of the guitars.


In spite of Dr Winiata's assurance that the Maori people regard rain as a good omen, rain interrupted most of the matches, harassing the players, the organisers and the public. Yet the tennis played was of a good standard. The Ladies' Singles match between Miss Ruia Morrison of Auckland and Miss A. Emery of Hamilton was a

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Part of the delegation from King Koroki (unable to attend through sickness) were, left to right, Mr P. Herewini, Mr P. Hira and Mrs T. Hira. Spokesman for Waikato was Dr Maharaia Winiata (not shown). (Northern Advocate Photograph)

good one, Ruia stroking her shots through definitely showed the experience gained overseas and the superior net playing that gave her victory. The score was 6–1, 6–1.

The Men's Singles between Mr Moses Harvey of Auckland and Mr B. Harris of Wellington was a less friendly match, Harris attacking at every point, Harvey more calm and showing superior net playing, beat him 8–6, 6–1.

Some very good matches were played among the juniors. Miss N. Davis proved a strong competitor for the Girls' Singles Championship, but was beaten by Miss I. Morunga (Whirinaki), the score being 4–6, 11–9, 7–5. The following is a list of the winners and runners-up in most of the events:

N.Z. Maori Men's Singles Championship—

  • Winner: M. Harvey

  • Runner-up: B. Harris.

N.Z. Maori Ladies' Singles Championship—

  • Winner: Ruia Morrison

  • Runner-up: A. Emery

N.Z. Maori Men's Doubles Championship—

  • Winners: T. Eru and B. Corbett

  • Runners-up: M. Harvey and M. Herewini

N.Z. Maori Ladies' Doubles Championship—

  • Winners: Ruia Morrison and A. Emery

  • Runners-up: H. and P. Rika

N.Z. Maori Combined Doubles Championship—

  • Winners: B. Maihi and Miss N. Smith

  • Runners-up: Ruia Morrison and B. Harris

N.Z. Maori Boys' Singles Championship—

  • Winner: E. Neho

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Presentation of a trophy to Mr Moses Harvey, of Auckland, winner of the Men's Singles Championship.
(Photograph: Peter Blanc)

  • Runner-up: P. Brown

N.Z. Maori Girls' Singles Championship—

  • Winner: I. Morunga

  • Runner-up: N. Davis

N.Z. Maori Boys' Doubles Championship—

  • Winners: L. Watene and R. Wilcox

  • Runners-up: R. and R. Allison

N.Z. Maori Girls' Doubles Championship—

  • Winners: M. and N. Davis

  • Runners-up: I. and E. Morunga

And so we came to the end. Everybody was tired but happy. After four exhaustive days of work and play, of concerts and singing and dancing, the people of Tokerau had shown themselves splendid hosts and young and old had been held together in a common bond.

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Six ways of looking at a photographer, Punaruku. (Photo: Peter Blanc)


The Maori child is always the photographer's favourite subject, and each time for a different reason. Sometimes it is just the beauty of a child, sometimes the free expression of a mood, joyful or serious; while adults mask their moods more or less, it is usually possible to read a child's face. It is certainly easy to read the faces of the children we have pictured here, in four quite different situations.

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Concentration, Paparori. (Photo; Merv Holland)

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Water and Sun, Te Kaha (Photos: Peter Blanc)

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Ingenuity: a football from a pig's bladder, Te Puke.

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First Maori professional boxing champion of New Zealand is Sonny Pehi of Tokoroa, who won the heavyweight professional title from Roy Stevens in Kaikohe last August. Sonny Pehi, aged 24, won the amateur heavyweight title in 1956, then turned professional. Since he became champion, he defeated Peter Schmidt in two successive fights. (Photograph: C. Christesen)

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Mr T. P. Paikea, M.P. for Northern Maori, with the Minister of Marine, the Hon. W. A. Fox, during an inspection of rock oyster beds at Kaipara Harbour and the Hauraki Gulf. The New Zealand rock oyster is also found at the Bay of Islands, Great Barrier Island and Coromandel. The oysters are virtually wholly protected except that some of the northern beds are open for Maoris to secure oysters for their own consumption only, in season. (National Publicity Studios Photo)

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This is one of the very few genuine portraits of Te Kooti in existence today. As far as we know it has never been published before. The original painting hangs in the Otago Early Settlers' Museum, Dunedin, and we are indebted to that institution for permission to copy and reproduce it. The painting portrays the defensive campaign fought by Te Kooti Rikirangi Tunuki in the Urewera and King Country in 1870–71. In this classic campaign, Te Kooti managed successfully to elude capture by a large and persistent force of picked colonial troops assisted by loyal Maori forces under Major Ropaha Wahawaha.

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Jim Morris doing the last side of a lamb. Unlike many shearers, Jim likes his lambs small, like this one. (Photo: Times-Age, Masterton)


Trained by his father Mr Hipa Morris of Okautete, Homewood, the 32 year old gun shearer Jim Morris spent most of his earlier years in the atmosphere of the shearing sheds. Hipa was himself a shearer of distinction who, in his day often shore as many as 340 big sheep per day. He had learned from hard earned experience that a shearer could be forced to retire from the game too soon through over fatigue if he consistently aimed at high tallies while still very young, and for this reason Jim was kept in check, being permitted to shear only a certain number each day. As his ability developed and a clean accurate technique was acquired the number was gradually increased.

Although he had been shearing in the Wairarapa for several years Jim was only a weekend shearer when he decided last year to attempt a world record for shearing fat lambs. An extremely high tally of 464 was claimed during the 1957 season by G. Hawkins, and it was the newspaper report of this achievement which first gave him the idea. He joined his brother's gang for the attempt which was made at the Korarau shed of Messrs N. and W. Beetham near Homewood. In spite of an injury to his right hand which was bandaged and gloved throughout the whole day he managed to equal the tally set by Hawkins. “He shore very freely,” said Mr E. P. Riley, Federated Farmers secretary. “A very creditable performance, and he was hampered by his cut hand which upset the feel of his handpiece. At the beginning of the last run he was five ahead and I was convinced he had it in the bag”. It was thought immediately after the last run that Jim had beaten Hawkins tally by one but a recount showed that he had only equalled it.

The disappointed shearer was not satisfied with what had been accomplished. Both he and Hawkins had set their record during an ordinary working day and the result was not recognized as official. According to the Wool Board no official attempt to set a record for shearing lambs had previously been made. It was not until the 1958 season, however, that Jim Morris was able to establish what is now claimed as the first official record for lambs. This attempt was carried out at the Wairere shed of Mr J. Daniels, where

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Mr Hipa Morris, Jim's father, keeps tally during the first official attempt at the record for lamb shearing. A J.P. and a time-keeper are not shown, but work in the background.
(Photo: Times-Age, Masterton)

Jim who is now a contractor with his own gang happened to be shearing. The run totals and times were checked throughout the day by a J.P., Mr J. H. Macdonald, and a stock and station manager, Mr E. C. Barraud who acted as official timekeeper. The final tally of 424 was disappointing and it was therefore decided that yet another attempt at breaking the 464 record would be made about a week later.

The shed selected this time was that of Messrs J. and G. Moore at Eparaima 36 miles from Masterton on the Homewood Road. As in the previous attempts the lambs were well grown Romneys and regarded as typical hill country sheep. With his elder brother Jack Morris to pace him Jim was confident that he could better 464. Although a very fast shearer and the holder of the Wairarapa and Hawkes Bay open championships Jack was no match for his younger brother on lambs. Shortly before the commencement of the first run a startling report was conveyed to the shed. G. Horsfall another Maori shearer near Gisborne had just broken all records by shearing 470 lambs in an ordinary 9 hour working day. But this news only provided added incentive and towards the end of the day as tension mounted, and before a large crowd of spectators, Jim Morris shore his 474th lamb of the day while his workmates broke out into a cheering haka.

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The fleecos are kept busy at the table. Workers in the Jim Morris gang are, left to right: Mrs N. Manning, Mrs R. Waaka, and Mrs B. Edmonds.
(Photo: Times-Age, Masterton)

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This strange little container was used as a skull box. The peg below was used to stand it upright on the floor of the cave where it was hidden. Maori skull-boxes are rare; the one pictured here is now in the Auckland Museum, with two similar boxes, all from Whangaroa.

It may seem strange to place the skull of one's ancestor or dead relative in a carved container, but this was a widespread custom in Indonesia and many Pacific islands. It is not therefore surprising to find evidence of this practice in the Polynesian islands of New Zealand. We must also remember that in Polynesian belief the head was an especially tapu part of the body.

This skull box provides us with an example of the distinctive North Auckland carving style, artistically advanced and somewhat similar to Hawaiian image carving. Basically, this style is akin to the more familiar forms of Maori carving. The simplicity of form and lack of surface decoration are particularly attractive features. (Photo: Peter Blanc)


There is so little ancient Taranaki carving in existence that when new pieces are found, this is quite an event for admirers of Maori art. About a year ago, two very impressive ‘epa’ were found at Waitara. Both are genuine stone-age pieces and among the finest Maori pieces in existence. Dr Roger Duff, Director of the Canterbury Museum, has stated they are right-hand ‘epa’ from two different pataka, found half a mile apart in the same swamp. On the left: Panel of female figure, 3ft × 1ft, with four fingers on the hand, four toes on the foot, evidently incomplete. On the right: Another female figure, 3ft × 10 ½in, three fingers and three toes. (Photographs: George Walker)

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It is not only the white races who have stereotyped ideas about other peoples; coloured races are just the same. In Africa, where the white man used to appear almost entirely as a master, the Negroes had their stereotyped notions of the European, and they were not always flattering. Look for instance at this West African carving of a European corporal, obviously the Negro sculptor's idea of the white man, proud and powerful, but by no means very likeable. Only better mutual understanding can remove such stereotypes.
(Berkeley Galleries, London, reproduced from
UNESCO Courier)


One of the world's great evils is prejudice between nations and races. But just what is prejudice? How does a prejudiced mind work? In this essay the famous American psychologist Otto Klineberg explains it in very simple and clear language. It gives all of us, Maori as well as Pakeha, a chance to look into our own minds to see whether the pictures of other races we carry in our heads are based on prejudice or really correspond to the truth.

In my hotel, I heard someone say, “Oh, she has that Scottish stubbornness, you know”. A book review in a newspaper used the phrase, “With true Gallic wit”. At the theatre during the interval, I caught part of a conversation in which a pretty girl said to her escort, “I know that all Americans have a ‘line’”; and in a mystery story that I read before retiring, there was a reference to “typical German thoroughness”.

These are all instances of those “pictures in our heads” to which Walter Lippman gave the name of stereotypes. They are typical of the ease with which most of us generalize about peoples, usually without even stopping to think where such “information” comes from, and whether it represents the truth, the whole truth, or anything like the truth.

There are certainly very few, if any, among us who have not succumbed to the temptation to stereotype nations. One might almost describe the tendency as inevitable, or at least very nearly so. We know that Englishmen are reserved, and Irishmen pugnacious. We have heard it all our lives; besides most people agree with us. If we are asked, however, how we know, we would not easily find a suitable answer.

One of the earliest careful studies of this tendency was made by Katz and Braly, in 1932, in connexion with the stereotypes held by Princeton University students. The technique was simple.

Each student was given a list of traits, and a list of nationalities; from the first list he chose

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the five traits which he regarded as characteristic of each national or racial group.

The results showed a fair degree of unanimity, e.g. out of 100 students 78 described the Germans as “scientifically minded”, and 65 described them as “industrious”, 53 students used the adjective “artistic” for the Italians, the same percentage described the English as “sportsman [ unclear: ] ike”, 79 agreed that the Jews were “shrewd” and 54 stated that the Turks were “cruel”, 84 regarded Negroes as “superstitious” and 75 described them as “lazy”.

On a more extensive scale, a study conducted in 9 countries under the auspices of Unesco in 1948 and 1949, showed that such stereotyped thinking could easily be found almost anywhere.

The British, for example, thought of Americans as primarily progressive, conceited, generous, peace-loving, intelligent, practical. The Americans regarded the British as intelligent, hardworking brave, peace-loving, conceited and self-controlled. The Norwegians described the Russians as hardworking, domineering, backward, brave, cruel and practical.

The Most Peace-Loving Nation? Our Own Of Course

The “self-image” is also revealing. The British saw themselves as peace-loving, brave, hard-working, intelligent; the French saw themselves as intelligent, peace-loving, generous, and brave; the Americans saw themselves as peace-loving, generous, intelligent and progressive. All the groups agreed on one item: their own nation was the most peace-loving of all!

Few people realize how much the existence of stereotypes may colour our relations with other people, even to the extent of seeing them differently as a result.

What we see is determined in part by what we expect to see. If we believe, for example, that Italians are noisy, we will have a tendency to notice those Italians who are indeed noisy; if we are in the presence of some who do not fit the stereotype, we may not even realize that they, too, are Italian. If someone points that fact out to us and says: “Look, those people are Italians, and they are not noisy”, we can always dismiss them as exceptions.

Since there is no limit to the number of cases that can be so dismissed, we may continue to cling to the pictures in our heads, in spite of all the facts to the contrary. This does not always happen. Stereotypes do sometimes change in the light of new experience, and evidence for this is presented later. If we have had them for a long time, however, we surrender them with great reluctance.

The Razor Moves from the White Man to the Negro

A number of significant investigations have shown in a very dramatic manner how our stereotypes may determine our perceptions. Some years ago Allport and Postman, psychologists at Harvard University (Cambridge, U.S.A.) showed a picture to one student, and he described to a second student what he saw in the picture. The second then told the third what the first had told him; the third told the fourth, and so on, through a series of 8 to 10 reproductions. Then a comparison was made between the final result and the original presentation.

One of the pictures used in this investigation showed a scene in a subway in which, in addition to a number of people seated, there were two men standing, one a white man, the other a Negro. The white man was dressed in working clothes, with an open razor stuck in his belt. It so happens that the stereotype of the Negro held by some people in the USA includes the notion that Negroes carry with them an open razor, of which they make ready use in an argument.

The psychologists were able to demonstrate that in half of the groups who served as subjects in these experiments, before the end of the series of reproductions had been reached, the razor had “moved” from the white man to the Negro. In some instances, the Negro was even represented as brandishing the razor violently in the face of the white man. This does not mean that half of the subjects in the experiment saw the Negro with the razor, since if only one person in the chain “moved” the razor to the Negro, the error would naturally be repeated by those that followed. Interestingly enough, this did not occur when the subjects were Negroes (who rejected the stereotype), or young children (who had not yet “learned” it).

Another study conducted by Razran in New York points in the same direction. A group of college students in the USA were shown photographs of 30 girls, and asked to judge each photograph on a 5 point scale, indicating their general liking of the girl, her beauty, her intelligence, her character, her ambition, and her “entertainingness”. Two months later, the same students were again shown the same photographs, but with surnames added. For some of the photographs Jewish surnames were given, such as Rabinowitz, Finkelstein, etc.; a second group received Italian names, such as Scarano, Grisolia, etc.; a third group Irish names such as McGillicuddy, O'Shaughnessy, etc.; a fourth “old American” names like Adams and Clark.

The investigator was able to demonstrate that the mere labelling of these photographs with such surnames definitely affected the manner in which the girls were perceived. The addition of Jewish and Italian names, for example, resulted in a substantial drop in general liking, and a similar drop for judgements of beauty and character. The addition of the same names resulted in a rise in the ratings for ambition, particularly marked in the case of the Jewish surnames. It seems clear that the same photographs looked different just because they could now be associated with the stereotype held by these students.

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If a great many people agree that a particular trait is associated with a particular nation, does that make it true? There is fairly widespread theory to the effect that “Where there's smoke there's fire”, or, in other words, that the very existence of a stereotype is, to some extent at least, an argument in favour of its truth. Otherwise, the argument runs, where does the stereotype come from? How would it come into existence.

There is, however, a good deal of evidence that stereotypes may develop without any kernel of truth whatsoever. We all know how widespread is the notion that intelligent people have high foreheads, yet scientific investigation has failed to reveal any such relationship. The stereotype of the criminal as bearing in his features the mark of his criminality is widely accepted, but it is equally without foundation.

The stereotypes frequently change. In some cases it may be argued that this corresponds to a real change in the people; in others, however, it seems much more likely to be due to circumstances which have little or nothing to do with the group concerned. The Dutch sociologist, Schrieke, has for example studied what people have said about the Chinese during the course of their residence in the state of California, U.S.A.

People Stay the Same but Their Reputation Changes Completely

When the Chinese were needed in California, in order to carry on certain types of occupation, they were welcome there. During that period newspapers and journals referred to them as among “the most worthy of our newly adopted citizens”. “the best immigrants in California”, they were spoken of as thrifty, sober, tractable, inoffensive, law-abiding. This flattering picture prevailed over a considerable period of time, but around 1860, presumably because economic competition had grown much more severe, there was a marked change in the stereotype of the Chinese. The phrases now applied to them included: “a distinct people”, “unassimilable”, “their presence lowered the plane of living” etc. They were spoken of as clannish, criminal, debased, servile, deceitful, and vicious.

This startling change can hardly be accounted for by any real modification of the characteristics of the Chinese population of California. The most acceptable explanation is that when it became advantageous to reduce the competition from the Chinese, the stereotype was altered in a direction

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This sculpture of Lord Kitchener, done by a West African, is another example of the white man seen through the eyes of a coloured race. As in the photograph on page 40, we see a majestic, almost godlike figure, more feared than loved. (Berkeley Galleries, reprod. from Unesco Courier)

which would help to justify such action. In this historical case it seems reasonable to conclude that the change in the characteristics ascribed to the Chinese throws doubt on the notion that stereotypes must necessarily contain some truth.

Brave and Chivalrous — Savage and Lazy

Another Dutch sociologist, Den Hollander, has studied the historical changes in the stereotype of the Hungarians in Europe. He points out that

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for centuries after the migration of Hungarians to Central Europe, they had a bad reputation, and were regarded as culturally different, and therefore inferior to Europeans generally. During the 15th and 16th centuries, however, when they joined in the war against the Turks, they were pictured as a brave, devout, and chivalrous people.

By the second half of the 18th century their popularity had again declined, and they were described as savage, lazy, egotistical, unreliable, and tyrannous. This picture changed again a little later, when the Hungarians became romanticized and idealized. Den Hollander believes that the image followed the pattern of political inter-relationships; it seems unlikely that there was sufficient transformation in the character of the people to justify the change in the national image.

One significant study may be cited which demonstrates the manner in which stereotypes may develop without any basis in truth. The American sociologist, La Piere, studied the attitudes of residents of California towards first and second generation Armenian immigrants in Fresno County in that state. There was almost complete agreement that these Armenians had more than their share of faults, and the general attitude towards them was relatively unfriendly.

La Piere proceeded to question non-Armenians as to the reasons for their [ unclear: ] antipathies, and he was able to classify the answer into three stereotypes. In the first place, it was stated that Armenians were treacherous, lying, deceitful. In actual fact, when measured by the criterion of business integrity the Armenian merchants turned out to be equal and frequently superior to others. In the second place, they were alleged to be parasites, making excessive demands upon charitable organizaions, free clinics, etc. Actually, such demands by them were less than half of what would be expected in terms of their proportion of the population.

Finally, it was said that they had an inferior code of morality, and they were always getting into trouble with the law. In fact, police records showed that they appeared in only 1.5% of Police Court cases, although they constituted approximately 6% of the population. La Piere concludes that all of these stereotypes have one factor in common, viz. that they are definitely false. This does not mean that stereotypes never contain any truth. It does mean that they can develop without any truth whatsoever.

There is, however, the possibility that a little truth may enter into a stereotype through the back door, so to speak. A Frenchman, with considerable experience of international meetings once said that when he had occasion to address such a meeting he usually did so in a rather oratorical, flowery, “Latin” style. He said that otherwise his Anglo-Saxon colleagues would be disappointed! When he was with other Frenchmen he reverted to a quieter, more matter-of-fact, [ unclear: ] “un-Latin” manner, which really suited him personally much better.

In this case, the stereotype itself determined his behaviour under certain circumstances, and undoubtedly reinforced the conviction of the Anglo-Saxons that they really knew what Frenchmen were like.

More rarely, the stereotype may operate in reverse. A member of a group with the reputation for frugality, may go out of his way to spend freely, and tip lavishly; if the stereotype calls for lack of punctuality, he may make it a point to arrive at his destination well before the hour specified. Since, in that case, as was indicated before, he will probably be regarded as an exception, the stereotype will still prevail.

How Prejudice Can be Removed

In London a Unesco study conducted by H. E. O. James and Cora Tenen, showed how personal experiences might affect the nature and content of stereotypes. What they did was to obtain from schoolchildren their opinions of other peoples, particularly of African Negroes, and bring them into contact with two able African women teachers, who spent a few weeks in the schools.

The “before and after” picture is very striking. As an example, a child before the experience stated that “I do not like black people; it's the colour; it makes me nervous; they might be savage, they are different in nature to us, more savage and cruel sometimes, so you don't trust them ever”. The same child after the experience said: “Miss V. and Miss W. were nice people. There does not seem any difference between them and [ unclear: ] s except the colour. I think the Negroes are like that—just like us, except for the colour. I like them. They are nice people”.

The authors give many examples of similar changes that occurred. Stereotypes cannot always be modified so strikingly nor so fast, but the fact that they can be changed at all as a result of experience is itself encouraging.

An important first step will be taken if we treat “the pictures in our heads” with a strong dose of scepticism, and if we keep our minds closed to stereotypes and open only to facts. No one is denying the existence of national characteristics.

A knowledge of them can aid our understanding of people, as well as our enjoyment of the varieties of behaviour and personality that are found in different parts of the world. We need to make sure, however, that the “pictures in our heads” correspond as closely as possible to reality.

(From an article in Unesco Courier)

– 44 –


The Bennett family has a tradition for “firsts”.

John Boyle Bennett, a Doctor of Divinity and a Doctor of Medicine, emigrated to New Zealand at the invitation of Sir George Grey, to become the first Registrar General of New Zealand. He died in 1880 and is buried in the Bowen St. Cemetery, Wellington.

His grandson, Frederick Augustus Bennett, became the first Maori Anglican Bishop when he was consecrated in the Napier Cathedral in 1929. His brother, Henry, was the first deputy Mayor of Wellington.

Paratene, a son of Bishop Bennett's, obtained his commission in the Royal Navy, becoming the first Maori to do so.

Now Charles Moihi Bennett, a brother of Para's has, with his appointment as High Commissioner for New Zealand in Malaya, become the first Maori to enter the diplomatic field.

Fred Bennett spent his childhood at a little place called Te Mu, at Wairoa in the Rotorua district. His Irish father, Jackson Bennett, married Raiha Ratete, a high chieftainess of Te Arawa and from this union, the boy Fred received a thorough grounding in both English and Maori. As a mere child of nine or ten years of age, Freddie, as he was affectionately called by all who knew him, acted as interpreter to the elderly Maori folk who, in most cases, had no English. One can picture this child, surrounded by his tattooed elders, teaching them as best he could the rudiments of English. It is also possible to picture the older folk, sitting round in a semi circle, drinking in the pearls of pakeha wisdom that fell from the child's lips. This was to prove a great training ground for the able speaker and church leader he was later to become.

One day, Bishop Suter, who was the Bishop of Nelson, accompanied by Archdeacon Chatterton, paid a visit to Te Mu after sending word that they intended holding a service there on the following Sunday. Freddie had never seen a pakeha Bishop, and, full of excitement, gathered the people round and announced the news of the Bishop's pending arrival. Immediately after the announcement, preparations were put in hand for the feast which would, as a matter of course, follow the service, conducted by such a celebrity.

The eagerly awaited Sunday duly arrived and found young Freddie speeding along to ring the Church bell which was one of his self-imposed tasks. He became very attached to the little bell.

Even as a youngster, Freddie had a sweet voice, an asset which he possessed to the end of his days and which was to change the whole course of his life, for when the Bishop and the Archdeacon heard his voice singing lustily a hymn called ‘Oti rawa’ they immediately began an unsuccessful search for the singer. Finally they departed, but the Bishop, as if drawn by some spiritual impulse, returned unannounced, and held another service. The same hymn was sung and on this occasion the Bishop managed to locate the singer. At the conclusion of the service the Bishop asked Freddie if he would like to go to Nelson with him and receive a pakeha education. Freddie quickly agreed but stipulated that it must be with his parents consent and forthwith, in his excitement, ran most of the fourteen miles to obtain it. This being granted, they eventually made their way down to Nelson. The Bishop, however, was faced with a problem, for he realised that he would have to notify Archdeacon Chatterton of his impending arrival and that he was bringing Freddie with him, but the Archdeacon was not aware of the boy's name. Finally he compromised by sending a wire saying that he would arrive on a certain day and that he was bringing ‘Oti rawa’ with him—the name of the hymn they had been singing at the service when they had first noticed the boy.


At Nelson, Fred Bennett first attended the Bishopdale School which was conducted by the Bishop, and later attended Nelson College, applying himself diligently to his studies, and also excelling at sport, particularly swimming and rugby.

When Bishop Suter died in 1891, Fred Bennett went to Wanganui where he worked as a lay evangelist. There he was very happy to renew his acquaintance with his beloved mother tongue. In 1896 he returned to Nelson to be ordained deacon, and was priested the following year.

– 45 –

From Nelson he moved to Taranaki and later, to his old home at Rotorua where he spent many happy years. From Rotorua he moved to Hawkes Bay where he supervised the Maori Mission work.


While stationed at Taranaki, he found it increasingly difficult to combat the influence of the prophet Te Whiti who, with his followers, wanted to isolate himself entirely from everything pakeha. Fred Bennett found the work most frustrating. The people would not permit him to even take a baptismal service. Then, one day, in the midst of this opposition, he was told that he might conduct a funeral service. At last, he felt, he was making a little headway. A total abstainer through the conviction that the people

Picture icon

The Bishop in Rotorua

were not ready for liquor and that its consumption would play havoc with the spiritual welfare of the race, Fred Bennett had been very bitter in his condemnation of strong drink. From the depths of despondency his spirits rose at the thought of being of some use to his people, even though it were through the holding of a funeral. When the day of the ceremony came he was amazed to find that, not only that there were no mourners present, but that the coffin was surrounded by full bottles of whisky—a jibe at his preaching against liquor. His tormentors expected him to abandon the funeral and were surprised to find that, after smashing the bottles, he conducted the ceremony. This proved to be the opening for which he was in search. Though at first he was barely tolerated, he soon found that he was being consulted on all sorts of matters.

At Rotorua, he continued his campaign against liquor. On one occasion out of respect for this young man, all hotels closed their doors for the duration of a conference among the Maori people.

One of the finest orators in New Zealand, Fred Bennett was, during the past half century, possibly the greatest single influence upon the Christian outlook of the Maori people. Equally at home in either English or Maori, his eloquence was such that he invariably held his audiences and congregations enthralled.


In 1929, Fred Bennett was elevated to the episcopate, becoming the first Anglican Maori Bishop.

A few years later, when on a voyage to Rarotonga to recuperate after a severe illness, the ship Tahiti, upon which he was sailing, sank in mid-ocean. There is a belief among Maori families of distinction and importance than an influence guards and watches over them. This belief goes back into antiquity. The Bishop's family influence was symbolised by the shark and on looking over the side of the sinking ship, sure enough, there was a huge shark swimming to and fro along side.

On his eventual return to New Zealand, he was told that Mita Taupopoki, Arawa chieftain, lay dying at Rotorua. The Bishop immediately set out from his home at Kohupatiki, Hawkes Bay, for Whakarewarewa. The old chief said that he was not going to pass on until he had seen ‘his boy’ as he called the Bishop, and heard all about his adventure on the Tahiti. When the Bishop duly arrived and began his tale, Mita showed his interest by questioning him closely. When Bishop Bennett admitted that he was more than a little scared at the thought of the huge shark which appeared to be patiently waiting for a Maori meal, the old, dying chief perked up and began to chuckle. “You should not have

– 46 –

been alarmed,” he said, “Had you forgotten that the shark was there to protect you?”

Bishop Bennett was born at Ohinemutu, Rotorua, on the 18th November, 1872, in a little raupo whare beside the lake on Te Arawa's sacred marae.


It is difficult to imagine what such an opportunity as was presented by Bishop Suter, meant to the boy. He once confided to the writer that, as a child, he considered himself very fortunate to have a seat to his pants. It is a matter of conjecture as to what would have become of the lad had not the kindly Bishop shown an interest in him and provided an opportunity which was to permit him to climb to the top of his still-to-be-chosen profession. In those days it was the exception rather than the rule to find a Maori working at a ‘white collar’ job. In any case, less than a month after the boy had accompanied the Bishop, adjacent Tarawera literally blew its top, burying the village and destroying the church which had been the scene of Fred's encounter with the Bishop of Nelson.

On one occasion when visiting Rotorua, Bishop Bennett met a man who claimed to be able to locate metals by ‘divining’. The Bishop had never forgotten the little bell belonging to the Church at Te Mu and had always entertained a tender feeling for this bell which he had rung as a child. Thrilled with the prospect of finding the bell which had lain hidden all these years the diviner set to work and paced off first in one direction, then in another, with the rod always dipping over a certain spot. The men began digging through layers of earth, mud and stone, legacy of the Tarawera eruption. Their disappointment at finding, not the bell, but one of the huge, old fashioned, wrought iron hinges which were the vogue of the day, can be left to the imagination. Their surprise and delight can also be imagined at finding a wire running alongside the hinge, which the Bishop knew led to the bell. Feverishly they renewed their digging and soon unearthed the bell which had remained buried under the debris from 1886 to 1934.

The bell was removed to Whakarewarewa and deposited in the church there where a most uncanny atmosphere was created by the elders of the people, some of whom had been living at Te Mu at the time of the eruption, while others were their descendants. While yet far off, they began wailing and keening as though addressing a person recently returned from the dead.

One of the most brightly glowing jewels in the scintillating crown of Bishop Bennett's achievements was undoubtedly the invitation he received to preach in Westminster Abbey and St Paul's Cathedral, on the occasion of his visit to England in order to attend the Lambeth Conference. Both the Abbey and the Cathedral were packed and, as usual, his moving sermons held the congregations spell bound.

Bishop Bennett was held in such high esteem that at his death on the 16th September, 1950, he was mourned by many thousands of people, both pakeha and Maori. Freezing works near his home in Hawkes Bay ceased work and shops in Napier city closed their doors, as a mark of respect.

Arawa tradition lays it down that a body may not be brought on to the marae after sundown. The Bishop's cortege was held up all along the route between his home in Hawkes Bay where he died and Rotorua, by the many hundreds who wanted to pay their respects. As a consequence, it was nearly ten o'clock before they arrived on the outskirts of the town. Special dispensation had to be obtained before the coffin could be received on Te Arawa's marae.

Frederick Augustus Bennett, First Bishop of Aotearoa, lies buried in a vault beside the beautiful little church of St Faith's which he built as a young man, alongside the lake he loved at Ohinemutu—a fitting memorial to a great spiritual leader.

* * *


After three years of litigation, the Court of Appeal has decided on the distribution of the profits from the Ngatiawa Maori Land Development scheme. Maori owners of the land are entitled to one-twelfth of the profits from the scheme.

The origin of the Ngatiawa scheme lay in the confiscation of Maori land after the murder of Rev. Volkner in 1865. Some of this land was later returned to Maori owners, and this land has been developed and farmed under Maori Land Development since 1930. However, along with the Maori land, the department farmed a further 4600 acres bought by the Crown.

When the Maoris in 1955 started their Court action, they contended that the land bought by the Crown in the 1930's had only been held in trust for the Maori owners, and that they were therefore entitled to the profits from that land. With this, the Crown did not agree.

In the end, the Court of Appeal decided against the owners for various reasons. The decision will be of interest to owners of other blocks in similar circumstances, for there have been more cases where the Crown bought and developed land along with Maori land development schemes. This not only helped to make development economic, but also provided work for Maori unemployed in years of depression.

In these cases the Maori owners are entitled only to such part of the profits as has been made out of their own lands.

– 47 –

Second of a series of bedtime stories for young and old, describing the eventful friendship between Tu and the Taniwha. Mrs Shaw, who is of part-Maori descent, lives in Palmerston North.


One day Little Tu went for a walk in the bush. “I like this,” he said to himself, “It is nice and warm in the sun but the bush looks very interesting. I might find a new playmate in here.” He loved the soft green coolness of the bush. The trees were so tall, the ferns so green and the leaves were so thick and rustly on the ground.

He went along for a time, then stopped to rest. He could hear Tui a long way above him on a tall tree. Tui was chuckling because he had just had a very good meal. He was making up a song about it. He sang:
  • Chuckle chuckle it was good

  • Sweet and sound and lovely food

  • Never had such food before

  • I must look for more and more.

“Oh the greedy thing,” Tu thought, “Fancy singing about food.” Then he called, “Hey Tui, come down and talk to me.”

Tui flew down with a rustle of his black wings. “Hullo Tu, what are you doing in the bush? I thought you loved the sunshine.”

“Yes, I do, but I like to find new places and new friends. I like ADVENTURE!”

“Oh yes,” said Tui. “Yes indeed. Well, what do you want to talk about? Food? Now that's a good subject, Tu. Let's talk about food.”

“Oh no, Tui. Can't we talk about something more ro-man-tic. Like finding a new world or flying up to the clouds, or” …… Just then a voice said “Flying to the clouds! What a silly idea! Who wants to fly at all? Let alone fly to the clouds!”

Tui jumped and Tu jumped. They didn't know anyone else was there. “Who are you?” they both said. And they looked about but they couldn't see anyone. Then there was a long beak sticking out from behind a tree fern trunk and they said again “Who are you? Come out [ unclear: ] o we can see you.”

The beak moved and the rest of the person followed. “I am Kiwi,” he said. “I simply hate flying. Why do you keep on talking about flying?”

– 48 –

“How strange,” said Tu. “You look as though you should be able to fly. Why do you hate flying?”

“Because I tried one day and couldn't do it. I climbed up on a branch and tried to fly and only flopped down to the ground instead. It hurt quite a bit.”

“I'll teach you to fly,” said Tui.

“Oh no,” said Kiwi. “No, thank you. My mother said nobody could teach me.”

“Why?” said Tu.

“Because my great-great-great-great-great grandfather was so lazy he forgot all about flying and none of us has remembered ever since.”

“All right,” said Tui. “But you miss a lot staying on the ground. I like the tree tops where I can be happy and sing all day long.”

“Yes, sing about food,” said Tu and he grinned as he said it.

“Oh I have other songs,” said Tui—“Listen.” Kiwi and Tu listened and heard a twittering sound that wasn't at all like Tui's usual chuckle. “We can hear fantails,” they said, “Where are they?”

Tui laughed very loudly. “That was me,” he said, “Listen again.” This time his friends heard a shrill whistle. It sounded like “twee-twee-twee-ti-o-ti-o-.” “That's Pipi, the shining cuckoo,” said Tu.

“No,” said Tui, “You're wrong again, Tu. I was whistling.”

“Oh Tui,” said Tu and Kiwi together, “How clever you are.”

Tui looked very pleased and was more pleased than ever when Tu said “Let's have a concert. Tui can do Im-per-son-a-tions, I can dance and Kiwi can recite.

“But we will need an audience,” said Tui.

“No audience,” said Kiwi, “I am very shy. [ unclear: ]

“Don't be silly Kiwi,” said Tu, “I'm shy too but I won't mind an audience. Tui is right. We must have one. Suppose you ring a bell Tui. That will call the people.”

Tui lifted his head and out pealed the sound of a deep bell. Three times he rang the bell and soon the people began to come. The first one to arrive was Wini Weka. “I came as quickly as I could,” she said. “What is happening? Tell me quickly. I must know.”

“Just take a breath. Wini,” said Tu. “We're giving a concert that's all. You are the audience. [ unclear: ]

“Oh,” said Wini, “I thought it must be something exciting.”

“It will be exciting, you'll see,” said Tu.

Then everyone heard a great rustling of leaves and in stalked Tiki Moa. He said “Tu, Tu, what's to do?”

“It's a concert Tiki, you are the audience.”

“Not a performer?” asked Tiki, “I have a very fine deep bass voice you know,” and Tu could see he was very disappointed.

“Not today Tiki, but you can make as much noise as you like applauding the items,” he said.

“Perhaps we can have another concert later on, then you can perform.” Someone else spoke, “I am the one with the deep bass voice,” he said, “Boom, boom.”

“Hullo Tuku,” said Tu. “Sorry there are no bitterns on the programme today. You won't mind being audience old chap, wi [ unclear: ] l you?”

“Not at all, not at all,” boomed Tuku, “But the items must be good.”

Suddenly the air was bright and golden as Pepe and all her brother and sister butterflies fluttered in to make the audience larger. [ unclear: ] pe went past Tu and whispered, “We'll be quiet as quiet and just look and listen.”

Others were coming now. Among them were Kere the pigeon and Pipi the shining cuckoo. The audience was growing quite big.

“Now we need someone to announce the items,” said Tui. “Mr Kaka would be splendid. Where is Mr Kaka?”

“Here I am,” said a gay voice and there was Mr Kaka, looking bright and beautiful and pleased with himself.

“And here am I,” said another voice that was harsh and shrieking. “I'll announce the items. I can do it miles better than Mr Kaka.” It was Old Koe the long-tailed cuckoo and everyone could see he was in a quarrelsome mood. Kiwi and Tu and Tui thought Oh dear, they didn't want any trouble and Oh dear, what could they do to make it right and Oh dear, they would never get on with the concert now. Mr Kaka thought Oh dear he wanted to do the announcing.

Old Koe kept shrieking and grumbling. “I want to be the announcer” and everyone was wondering how to keep him quiet and yet not let him be the announcer. [ unclear: ] Then there was a kind of roar and a loud voice said, “I am the Taniwha; I want some food; and the food I like best is long-tailed cuckoo!”

Everybody looked startled and Old Koe stopped right in the middle of a shriek. Then they heard the voice again, “I am coming nearer,” it said, “I want long-tailed cuckoo for dinner.”

Old Koe shrieked louder than he had ever shrieked before and in one second he had disappeared. Everybody still looked startled except Tui and he was laughing so much he just rocked backwards and forwards. “That wasn't really the taniwha, people,” he said. “That was me pretending to be the taniwha. Old Koe is so frightened he won't come back and now we can get on with the concert. Mr Kaka, please announce the first item.”

Mr Kaka stepped forward and turned his head from side to side. Then he said in a loud important voice: “The first item will be a dance by Little Tu.”

Tu came forward and he bowed to the audience on the other side. Then he looked rather upset and he said, “There's no music, I can't dance without music.”

– 49 –

When he stopped speaking he heard the cicada family on the trees overhead. “We will give you music, Tu,” they said. So they began to play and Tu began to dance. He swayed from side to side and he moved forward and back with great dignity and grace. Then he turned quickly round three times in time to the music and the audience thought it was a lovely dance. When it was over they clapped and cheered and stamped their feet. So Tu danced again. This time it was a comic dance. He slithered about as though he didn't know what he was doing; he stood on his head; he rolled over several times; and he ran up to Tiki Moa and danced in and out of his big feet. The audience cheered and clapped until they couldn't cheer and clap any more and Tu bowed and made room for Mr Kaka to announce the next item.

Mr Kaka said, “The next item will be a recitation from Mr Kiwi.”

Kiwi walked over very slowly and very shyly and he bowed until his long beak touched the ground. This was his recitation:

I'm very shy, I'm very shy
I go abroad at night
I cannot fly, I cannot fly
Tho’ I've tried with all my might.

Kiwi's voice wasn't very strong and he looked so shy and sorry for himself that everybody c [ unclear: ] apped and cheered to make him feel better. And they called out “Encore, encore.”

Kiwi looked shyer than ever. “I don't know anything else,” he said.

“Never mind,” shouted the audience, “Never mind, say the same one again.”

So Kiwi recited the same piece and everybody clapped and clapped. He bowed standing on two feet and bowed standing on his right foot, then as he tried to bow standing on his left foot he tripped and fell. He looked so surprised and so funny that everyone laughed but they raid his item was very good indeed so he didn't mind.

Now Mr Kaka said, “Attention everybody. The last item is Im-per-son-a-tions by Mr Tui. This is something you will enjoy very much.”

Tui flew up and sat on a low branch. He cleared his throat and suddenly the audience heard a croaking like a lot of frogs in a pond. They looked all round because they didn't think there was a pool near. Tui laughed and said, “No frogs, ladies and gentlemen, I did the croaking.” Then they heard a gentle “Ku, ku, ku” and thought Kere was speaking when she should have been quiet, but she really was quiet. It was Tui again saying “ku, ku.”

They said, “You are clever Tui, give us some more. So Tui twittered like a fantail, whistled like a cuckoo, screeched like an owl, rang like a bell, creaked like an old branch of a tree, and sang like a cricket. Then he was quiet while everybody clapped and called for more.

Then they could hear a roar in the distance and they laughed thinking it was Tui pretending to be the taniwha. But Tui said “Run home quickly everybody. That wasn't me; it really is the taniwha this time.” Everyone was scared and everyone went off as fast as possible except Tu. “The taniwha is my friend,” he thought. “He won't hurt me.” Presently the taniwha arrived looking very fierce. But when he saw Tu he didn't look fierce any more. He smiled his queer taniwha smile and said, “Hullo Little Tu.” Tu said, “Hullo Mr Taniwha.”

– 50 –

Being advice to young soldiers when going into action (Part I)

We are reprinting here a remarkable but little known essay by Tuta Nihoniho on Maori methods of bush warfare. Augustus Hamilton, who edited and translated the essay, called it ‘a mixture of exceedingly good advice to young soldiers and explanations of curious Native beliefs in divers omens’. It was published by the Government Printer in EFEA, along with an account of the Hauhau wars on the East Coast. Tuta Nihoniho was an officer in the Ngati Porou Native Contingent during these wars and therefore had plenty of personal experience of bush fighting.

He pukapuka hei tirotiro, hei whiriwhiringa, a hei ata whakaarotanga ma nga tamariki Maori o nga wa a muri ake nei, a tera pea te wa e whakaa-kona ai ratou ki nga huarahi o te pakanga. No konei ra, e nga tamariki Maori, mehemea ka uru koutou ki roto o nga pakanga a muri ake nei, kei wareware i a koutou to koutou tupuna, a Uenuku, te atua o o koutou tupuna, i kauria mai ai te Moana Nui a Kiwa e takoto nei.

1. Tuatahi o nga tohu hei tirohanga; ko nga whakahaere o nga mahi, me nga ahuatanga o te tangata i nga awatea; ko nga whakahaere o nga mahi me nga moemoea o te po; e kiia nei e te Tuaiho—E puaki mai ana te reo o tena rangi, o tena rangi, e whakaatu mohiotanga mai ana hoki tena po, tena po. I mua o to haerenga atu ki te whawhai, me whakaatu te waewae ki o wahine, ki o tamariki, ki o koroheke, ara he tutu ngarahu tona ingoa. E kore e ngaro i o wahine te titiro to waewae, te atatutanga, te korapatanga ranei; ka kitea e koe o wahine e ngangahu haere ana i te taha o to matua, o nga matua ranei, te hapaitanga a Tu-te-ihiihi, a Tu-te-wanawana, ka mohio tonu koe ka kai to waewae ki te whetu, ka ngau ki a Papatuanuku e takoto nei. Ka he ano to waewae, e kore koe e kite i o wahine e rere ana ki te nga-ngahu, no te mea kua tae ke te wai-mate kei a ratou, no ratou hoki nga toto i nga tane ka kawea ra ki roto o te pakanga riringi ai ki te whenua. Kaati, ka mohio koe kei te he to waewae, kia tupato, he atua, he taitahae, me tatari te wa me kore e pahemo taua he, a me ata titiro ranei ki to tupuna, ki a Uenuku, mana koe e whakahau, mana ranei koe e pupuri. Ki te kitea ia e koe ka tu ki muri o to huarahi atu ki to hoariri tiwhana mai ai, haerea, ko te wa tena e homai ai e te atua


This chronicle is intended for the perusal, study, and consideration of Native youths in the future time, for the time may come when they will be trained in the paths of war. Therefore, o ye Maori youths, should you take part in the wars of the future, be careful lest ye forget your ancestor Uenuku, the god of your forefathers, by whose help they crossed the Great Ocean of Kiwa that lies before us.


The first item for consideration as an omen is in regard to the direction of affairs and the appearances or manifestations of man in the daytime, also the conduct of affairs and dreams during the night. For the Furthest One has said that wisdom is uttered by the voice of each day, and that each night declareth knowledge.

Ere you go forth to fight display your legs to your women, young folk, and old men in what is termed a war-dance. Your women will never fail to observe the omens of the dance—the correctness of attitudes or mistakes committed. When your women are seen by you advancing with distorted faces by the side of your column, or columns, the rising of Tu-te-ihiihi, of Tu-te-wanawana (the war god), you then know that your legs will assail the stars in the heavens and the earth mother below.1 But should you commit errors and not deport yourself correctly, then assuredly you will not see your women dancing and grimacing, because apprehension has seized them, for from them comes the blood of the performing men that is to be borne into the fray and poured forth upon the land. So then you are aware that an error has been made in your dancing, therefore be cautious

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to hoariri ki tou ringa. Kia tere to haere, ahakoa po ua, huka ranei, haerea, kia mau ra ano ia i a koe. Tena ki te tiwhana mai to tupuna i mua i a koe arai mai ai, auaka rawa koe hei takahi atu i a ia, me hoki koe. Ki te kaha tonu to hiahia mo te haere, auaka koe hei tomo atu i tona tiwhana-tanga mai, engari me huri to haere ma to taha maui haere awhio ai; kia rua, kia toru ranei nga ra e haere awhio ai koe, ka ahu ai ki te aronga ki to hoariri. Engari kia mau tonu o kanohi ki te titiro i nga putanga mai o to tupuna ki a koe, i te awatea ranei, i te po ranei; ko Tukorako hoki tona ingoa ki te po, ko Kahukura ki te awatea. Ki te arai ano ai ia i a koe, me tino hoki rawa koe. Ki te tiwhana mai hoki ia i mua i a koe, a ka tomo tonu atu koe, he aitua mou kei tua i a ia; he whakaatu kau mai hoki tana ki a koe, no te mea koia te kawenata mau tonu i waenganui i te atua me te tangata.

2. Tohu tuarua hei tirohanga; kia ata titiro ki te hiko, haunga ia te uira me te kanapu, ko te hiko hiko he toto rangatira e hinga i te parekura, i te waka tahuri, i te whare wera ranei, i te mate tupapaku ranei, a me whakamarama ake mo [ unclear: ] e taha parekura. Mehemea kei te noho rite nga taha e rua mo te whawhai, a ka tupono te hiko ki te puta, kia marama to titiro. Mehemea kei te wa ki to hoariri te hiko, a kei runga ranei kei nga maunga nunui o te taha ki te hoariri te hiko, a kei runga ranei kei nga maunga nunui o te taha ki te [ unclear: ] oariri te hiko, a kei to taha katau te rua o te hiko [ unclear: ] rere ai, ka mohio koe nau taua hiko i tuku


—it is a malignant demon (the devil to pay)—wait and see if the evil omen does not pass by; or look carefully at your ancestor Uenuku, who will urge you on or restrain you. Should he be seen by you standing in the form of a bow over the track behind you as you face your enemy, go on, for that is the time when your enemy will be delivered into your hand by the god. March swiftly, even though rain or snow assail you; go on, that you may lay hold of your enemy. But if your ancestor be arched in front of you to block your advance, do not by any means disregard him, but retire. If, however, you still have a strong desire to advance, be sure not to enter within his arched form, but turn to your left and proceed in a circuitous manner, taking two or three days to make such a detour, before you turn to advance in the direction of your enemy. Be your eyes steadfast to observe all the manifestations of your ancestor to yourself either by day or night; his name being Tu-Korako at night, and Kahukura in the daytime. Should he again block your passage, then you must absolutely return. If his bow appears before you and you adavnce and enter it, then misfortune awaits you beyond him. He is just showing himself to you, for he is the abiding covenant2 between the god and man.


The second token to be studied is this: to carefully view the hiko (distant lightning), besides the uira and the kanapu,3 for the hiko betokens the blood of chiefs who are to fall in battle, or be drowned, or burnt to death, or die a natural death; hence it will be well to explain as to the field of battle. If the two sides are about equal for the coming fray, and the hiko lights upon the field, examine it clearly. If the lightning is in the region of your enemy, or on the great ranges in his vicinity, and the source from which it emanated is on the right hand, then you know that you yourself sent that lightning as a sympathetic greeting for the high caste blood; your enemies will soon fall beneath the shining sun.

But if the lightning is on the side toward you, or over your great ranges or sacred places, remember that you will fall before your enemy; therefore reflect and be wary: follow not the precepts of the ignorant, but rather those of the thoughtful; rearrange your affairs and postpone your attack, for you have chanced upon evil days.


The third sign to be considered: Study carefully the flashings of lightning and the gleaming of the horizon, and list carefully to the sound of the thunder, whereby you will be able to detect the lucky sounds and the ominous ones, the hoarse rumbling sound, the sharp crackling sound, or the low continued muttering.4 If the thunder commences to sound above you and rumbles towards the region of your enemies, you know that it is your thunder directed by you. If the thunder gives

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atu hei mihi, hei tangi ki nga toto rangatira; o hoariri meake ka hinga i a koe i te ra e whiti ana. Tena mehemea kei te taha ki a koe te hiko, a kei runga ranei i ou maunga nunui, i ou tuahu ranei, e hiko ana, kia mahara ka riro koe i to hoarir [ unclear: ] , no reira kia mahara, kia tupato, auaka hei ta nga kuare, engari hei ta nga whakaaro nui, hokona te taima (wa) ma koutou, he kino nga ra.

3. Tohu tuatoru hei tirohanga; kia marama to titiro ki te rere a te uira me te kanapu, me to whakarongo ki te tangi a te whatitiri; e kore e ngaro i a koe te tangi kino, te tangi pai, te tangi pohutu, te tangi pakee, a te ngaruru-mai-rangi ranei. Ki te timata te tangi a te whatitiri i runga i a koe, ka haruru atu ki te wa ki o hoariri, ka mohio koe nau taua whatitiri. Mehemea e pakee ana te tangi a te whatitiri, e akiaki ana kia tere [ unclear: ] e whakaoti i nga mahi kua rite. Mehemea ranei e tangi pohutu ana, kei te ata haere te wa e whakaotia ai nga mahi. Mehemea ranei ko te ngaruru-mai-rangi, ara ko te tangi haruru anake, ka mohio koe kei te ata whakahaere te runga rawa i nga mea e whakaotia, he pai ranei, he kino ranei; no reira kia mohio koe ki te tangi a te reo, he pai ranei, he kino ranei. Ka pai te tangi a te whatitiri, he pai; ka kino, he kino, ahakoa mo te pakanga, mo te aitua, mo te tau, mo te wa ranei. E kiia nei e Hemi—No runga nga homaitanga papai, nga mea katoa e tino rite ana, he mea heke iho no te matua o nga whakamarama, kaore nei ona putanga-ketanga, kaore hoki he atarangi o te tahuri: e rite ana te rere a te uira, me te kanapu, ki nga whakahaere o te hiko, ka whero te kanapu, he parekura; ka ma, he mate tupapaku.

4. Take tuawha hei tirohanga: kia marama to whakaaro ki tenei taonga, ki te takiri. Mehemea ka makaia, ka whiua, ka ahatia ranei, to ringaringa, o ringaringa ranei; to waewae, o waewae ranei, to mahunga ranei, ki waho o to tinana, ka karanga koe ki o hoa, “E hoa ma! He tamaki toku.” Ka ki nga hoa, “I ahu ki hea?” Ka ki koe, “I ahu ki te maunga e tu mai ra.” Ka ki nga hoa, “Kei reira to taua hoariri.” Kaati, me ata tatari te whakahoki o to tamaki i muri mai. Ka kapu mai nga ringaringa, te ringaringa ranei; te waewae, nga waewae ranei, te mahunga ranei, o taua tangata, o ana hoa ranei, ngawari ana te kapunga mai ki roto, kua pai, kua pehia te tamaki; ka kiia tera he hau korero. Tena ki te mea ka riro ra te tamaki, i muri mai ka whakahokia kahatia mai te ringaringa, nga ringaringa ranei; te waewae, nga waewae ranei, te mahunga ranei, ki roto i a koe, i ahu mai i te aronga i haere ai te tamaki, ka karanga taua tangata, “E hoa ma! Kua hoki mai taku tamaki, he kaha, na te rae tangata i pana mai.” … Kia tupato, ka huaki i te ata, i te awatea ranei. He nui hoki nga tu ahua o te takiri; ka kaha, he tamaki; ka hotu whakarunga te tinana, he hotu; ka kokiritia tetahi mea i te Reinga, haere tonu atu hei takiri, ka kiia tera he tuhi. Mehemea ranei ka makaia e koe tetahi mea i a koe e moe ana, a haere tonu hei takiri mou, ki kiia tera


forth a crackling sound, it is urging the hasty completion of all matters agreed upon or arranged for. If its sound, however, is a loud booming or crashing, that counsels delay in the carrying-out of arranged plans. Or if it is merely the low rumbling sound, then you know that the Most High is carefully directing the conclusion of affairs, and the result may be good or evil; therefore be diligent in detecting the meaning of this sound—that of the good omen and that of the bad. If the sound of the thunder be propitious, then all will go well; if ominous, then misfortune is indicated, whether in regard to war, or omens, or the year, or a season. James says, “All good gifts come from above; all things really suitable emanate from the parent of enlightenment, who is changeless and casts no shadow.”

The flashing of the uira and kanapu is equivalent in meaning to that of the hiko—if the glare be red (vivid), it betokens death on the battlefield; if pale, a natural death.


The fourth subject for investigation is this: Study carefully the subject of twitchings (convulsive starts, as of muscles of the limbs and body. If your arm or arms, your leg or legs, or your head be jerked or thrown outwards from the body, you at once call out to your companions, “O friends! I have had a tamaki.” Whereupon they will inquire, “In which direction?” You may reply, “Towards the mountain yonder.” Then your companions will remark, “Our enemy is at that place.” Now, after such an occurrence, wait quietly to see if your tamaki will make a return manifestation. If the hand or hands clutch, or the leg or legs, or head of that person, or of one of his companions, is jerked somewhat gently inwards, that is a good omen: the tamaki is repressed, and such an occurrence is termed a hau korero (the enemy is talking about you and discussing plans to attack you).

Now, if you have an outward tamaki (start), which is afterwards returned in a somewhat violent manner, whether by the arm or arms, leg or legs, or by the head jerking inwards from the direction in which the first convulsive start was directed, then the person experiencing such will cry, “O friends! my tamaki has returned in a vigorous manner, impelled by the brow of man.” Be cautious, at dawn or later the enemy will attack you.

There are many different manifestations of the takiri: a vigorous one is a tamaki; if the body heaves upwards it is a hotu; if one dreams of the throwing of some object (such as a spear) and it developes into a takiri, such an incident is termed a tuhi.5 If you dream that you throw an object, and have a takiri at the time, that is termed a maka, and it foretokens that you will soon go to the place you dreamed of as having been at when you threw the object. There are a number of takiri and taha kapakapa (the latter expression is applied to a twitching of the muscles of the side,

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he maka, a mea ake koe ka haere ki te waahi i makaia ra to maka i te Reinga. Ka nui nga takiri me nga taha kapakapa e pa ana ki te tangata; e kore e puta noa enei tohu, ma Tu-ka-riri ra ano, ma Tu-ka-nguha e whakaoho enei taonga, ka ara ai. Engari, e nga tamariki Maori, kei nga pakanga tuatahi he akonga mo koutou ki nga taha kapakapa e pa ki to taha maui, ki to taha katau ranei, ki o takiri ranei; ma tenei ka mohio koe ki nga putanga mai ki a koe a muri atu. He tangata ano kei te taha maui te taha waimarie; he tangata ano kei te taha katau te taha waimarie; no reira ko nga tangata tonu nona nga takiri, me nga taha kapakapa hei whakaatu i te tika, i te pono o o ratou takiri, me o ratou taha kapakapa.


or thigh, or shoulder) that affect man. These signs do not appear at random: it is only the prompting of Tu-ka-riri and Tu-ka-nguha (god of war) that causes such manifestations. But, however, my sons, in your first campaign you will acquire knowledge concerning the taha kapakapa, which may affect your left side or your right, as also in regard to your takiri: by experience shall you learn the meaning of these things as they affect you in the days that lie before. With some persons the left side is the lucky one, with others it is the right side that is lucky. Therefore it is meet that the persons who have the takiri and taha kapakapa should explain the correctness and truth of such things.

(To be continued in our next issue)


1 Your waewae (legs) will assail or overcome the stars and the earth. A curious expression meaning: On account of the correct deportment of those performing the war-dance (tutu waewae or tutu ngarahu), and the absence of any evil omens caused by errors of movement, &c., while dancing, victory is assured, the unattainable (by ordinary means) shall be attained. The stars in the heavens—not to be reached by human legs—are mentioned in a paraphrastic manner as equivalent to a numerous or brave enemy of the genus homo on earth. Neither can be conquered under ordinary circumstances, but the performance of the war-dance with absolute correctness and lack of all bad omens will mean that the gods are on your side, and that all things are attainable by you—heaven and earth are at your feet.

“Display your legs to your women”—i.e., strip and perform the war-dance.

2Te kawenata mau tonu.” The writer here makes use of the English word “covenant,” whereas he might have employed a Maori word that would have served much better. He means “the changeless sign,” or token. Tu-Korako is a pale (koma) bow seen at night.

3 Hiko, distant lightning seen flashing in space or darting from a mountain range in one bright flash or a blaze of lightning; kanapu, gleaming electric light at the horizon or on a range, giving two or three flashes in succession; uira, ordinary forked lightning.

The hiko is a token that, ere long, a chief will die. The place or direction from which the light flashes is termed the rua o te hiko, or the pu o te hiko. Compare the terms kotua, rua koha, and rua kanapu, used by some tribes. It is the uira that destroys man or tree, the hiko never does so. When the latter was seen, the old men would inquire, “Where is the rua of the hiko?” One would answer, “At such a place.” Then the old folk would say, “Alas! A desolate land,” and they would wail over the misfortune so soon to afflict the district foredoomed to disaster.

4 The writer gives three descriptive or onomato-poeic names for thunder, as folows: Whatitiri tangi pohutu, hoarse or crashing thunder, the sound of which seems to fill space; whatitiri tangi pakee, thunder giving a sharp, crackling sound; ngaruru mai rangi, low continued muttering or rumbling sound, seemingly afar off. In addition to such expressions as these, there were concrete special names for divers kinds of thunderstorms, and these are o used as to give the impression that each form of thunder was personified by the Maori.

5 Tuhi — to point out, show, &c.

A new branch of the Maori Women's Welfare League was recently established near Tauranga, called Ngaitukairangi league. President is Mrs Marama Dickson and secretary-treasurer Mrs Takahi Pene.

* * *

Who wants to have a penfriend in Nigeria? We received a letter recently from Anthony A. Hok-unboh, c/o Mr S. O. Oke, Telephone Exchange, Post and Telegraph Department,. Badagry, Nigeria, asking our help to find him penfriends. He is very interested in the Maori people.

* * *

The trend to learn the Maori language is rapidly on the increase. Adult education tutors report remarkable attendances, with 200 at Rotorua probably a record. Wellington stood at 120, Auckland at 110 last year. These figures were all great improvements on previous years.

* * *

Two Taranaki primary schools celebrated their centenaries this year. They were the Bell Block and Omata schools, both established before the Maori wars. During the wars, both were closed for a while, but re-opened soon after.

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Ko te amorangi ki mua, ko te hapai o ki muri.

He whakatauki tenei e mohio whanuitia ana. Ko te “amorangi” he tohu atua. Na, ki te whaka-hokingia mai ki nga tikanga o tenei ra, me ki e penei ana te whakatauki nei: “Ko te Atua ki mua, ko nga kai ki muri.” I te taenga tuatahi mai o te Whakapono ki Aotearoa nei, e mau tika ana tenei whakatauki. Ka mahingia e nga kaumatua e nga kuia hoki a ratou mahi katoa, tae atu ki te tunu kai, i nga ra o te wiki, mutu atu ana i te Hatarei, kia noho tapu ai te Ratapu; kia kore ai he mahi, he aha. No roto i enei ra, kua tahuri nga tikanga katoa; kua waihongia ko nga kai ki mua, ko Te Atua ki muri rawa-

Ko te tui whakapahuhu a Kahukura.

E ai ki nga korero, ko Kahukura te Maori tuatahi i mohio ki te raranga kupenga ika. Tera tetahi ropu turehu, e mahi ana i ta ratou kupenga i te po, i te mea, he po anake hoki nga wa e puta ai nga turehu ki a ratou mahi. Na, ko Kahukura, kahore i tawhiti mai i te ropu nei. Ko ia, kei te whakapapa i te mahi nei. Katahi ka toko ake te whakaaro, pai ke tana whakauru atu ki roto i te ropu turehu nei, kia ata kite ai ia he aha ta ratou mahi. Ko tona taenga atu, kei te huhuti te iwi ra i ta ratou kupenga ki tonu i te ika. Ka khakaaro a Kahukura me tahae e ia te kupenga ra. No ratou ka timata ki te tuitui i nga ika, ka tukuna e Kahukura kia taka atu nga ika ki te moana. Ko tana hiahia kia mau nga turehu nei i te awatea, kia whakarerengia ai e ratou te kupenga. Na wai ra, ka puta mai te ra, me te hohoro hoki o te whakangaro o nga turehu i a ratou, mahue ake te kupenga. Koia nei te putake mai o te whakatauki nei “Ko te tuitui whakapa-huhu a Kahukura, hei whakamaharatanga ki te mahi tinihanga a Kahukura.

Nga uri o Whaitiri, whakapaparoa kai.

E korerotia ana, i nga wa o mua, ki te tae ana tetahi rangatira nui ki tetahi kainga, i te nui o te mana o taua rangatira, korekore ana he kai; ara, ka ngarongaro katoa nga ika, nga manu me era atu. Na ko Whaitiri, me te mea nei, he tohunga nui, i whakahuangia ai hoki tona ingoa ki roto i tenei whakatauki.


The emblem of the god in front (first), the food bearers to the rear (last).

This is a well-known Maori proverb, and when given a modern version, it reads: “God first, and food last.” When Christianity was first introduced into this country and until recent times, this proverb as appertaining to God was strictly observed. The elders did all their manual work during the week, on Saturdays the meals for Sundays were cooked in order that Sundays could be kept holy. In recent times, however, the order has been reversed—Food first, and God after—well after!

The disengaged thread of Kahukura.

It is said that Kahukura was the first Maori who knew the art of making fishing nets. He acquired this through bribery. A group of “turehu” (light skinned fairies) were seen making nets during night time for it was only during night time that the turehu attended to their work. Kahukura happened to be near at hand. He decided to join the band and to ascertain what the turehu were doing. On his arrival, he was amazed to find the group hauling a net full of fish. It was then that he decided to plan for the theft of the net. Whilst they all proceeded to tie the fish in bundles, Kahukura purposely caused some of the fish to slip back into the sea. By this means, he delayed the departure of his friends for should daylight arrive they could immediately disappear and the net would be left behind. Eventually, daylight arrived and in their hurry the turehu forgot the net. Hence the origin of this proverb, in memory of the trickery of Kahukura.

The offspring of Whaitiri who caused the scarcity of food.

Whenever a person of importance visited a village, their ‘mana” was said to have a strange effect and banished food supplies. Food products, such as birds, fish, etc. deserted their usual haunts and disappear for quite a time. Waitiri apparently was noted for his “mana” and his descendants acquired this unusual “gift” and wherever they went, food became scarce!

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He waka eke noa.

I nga wa e mau tonu ana te mana o te Maori, ko nga taonga katoa, he taonga na te iwi, na te hapu ranei. Kahore he taonga na tetahi ake tangata, otira, e ki penei, he ruarua nei nga taonga e aheingia ana te ki, na tetahi tangata ake. Ko nga whare, no te iwi; ko nga waka, no te iwi, a me etahi atu ahuatanga hoki. Na, ko te nuinga o nga taonga Maori, he tapu. Ko te whakatauki nei, mo tetahi taonga kahore ona tapu. I whaka-ritea ki tetahi waka, hei ekenga mo nga tangata katoa, haunga ia nga rangatira, nga tohunga me nga tangata whai mana. “He waka eke noa”, ara, he taonga ma te katoa.

He kura tangata, e kore e rokohanga, he kura whenua, ka rokohanga.

He kura kainga e hokia; he kura tangata e kore e hokia.

E rua enei whakatauki, he rite tonu, engari ko te whakatakotoranga o nga kupu, he rereke. Ko tetahi ano rerenga o enei whakatauki ko tera e mohio whanuitia ana, ara: “Whatu ngarongaro he tangata, toitu he whenua.” He maha nga whakatauki mo te whenua te take. Ki te kore he whenua o te tangata, kahore a ia e kiia he tangata. he rite tonu te hingahinga a te tangata. I tena ra, i tena ra, ka mate mai he tangata; engari ano te whenua, tu tonu. Na te whenua nga pakanga nunui o te motu nei, he tohe no te iwi Maori kia mau tonu o ratou whenua, ake tonu atu. Kua tuhia nga haka mo nga ture whenua. Kei roto i aua haka e mau ana nga korero teitei mo te kaika o te iwi Maori kia mau pumau o ratou whenua. E ki ana ano hoki tetahi korero, ki te ngaro te whenua, ka ngaro te mana.

He potiki whakarihariha.

Ki te korero a etahi, ko te tamaiti whakamu-tunga a te tangata, te tamaiti, tutu, hianga a, mohio hoki. Mona te korero nei, “he potiki whakarihariha”, a, ko tetahi rerenga ano o te korero nei, “He potiki whatiwhati toki” mona i tutu ka tahuri ki te toki a tona matua, ka tapahi noa, na wai ra, puhuki te toki!

Ehara ta te tangata kai, he kai titongi kaki; e kore e rite ki tana ake, tino kai, tino makona.

Ko te kai na te tangata ake i mahi, makona ana a ia; tera ko te kai i te kai a tetahi atu tangata, timotimo noa te kai, kahore he reka, kahore e makona.

Kai kino ana a Te Arahe.

Ko Te Arahe, he kuia amuamu, na ko nga korero mona, ka kai ana i ana kai, ka riro i a ia nga kai ataahua katoa. Ko nga kai kore take, ka hoatu e ia ma tana tane me a raua tamariki. I etahi wa, ka kainga hunangia e ia ana kai, kei kitea mai a ia e te tangata e kai ana. Ko tenei whakatauki inaianei, mo tetahi tangata amuamu.


A canoe for everyday use.

Ancient Maoridom lived a communal life. A house, a canoe and other treasured possessions did not belong to an individual but to a tribe or sub-tribe. There were very few personal possessions. A majority of these possessions, however, were regarded as “tapu”.

This proverb refers to those objects without any “tapu” or real value attached to them. Unlike the prized war canoes and other important types of canoes, this canoe (or object, or any article) is for general purposes only, and one that can be used by all and sundry except those of high standing.

A loved man will be overtaken; a treasured land, never.

A treasured home can be revisited; not so, a loved man.

These two proverbs, although in Maori they are worded differently, are similar in meaning. Another similar proverb is, “Man disappears, but land still stands.” There are several proverbs in connection with the land. A landless person is regarded as an unworthy citizen. In all instances, the meaning of the proverbs is apparent. Man dies; the land lives! Land has caused most of the wars in this country and several hakas have been written which express disgust with any legislation concerning Maori lands which the Maoris themselves are not in agreement. According to another Maori belief, when land disappears, a person's ‘mana’ (prestige) also disappears.

A self-extolling (or ambitious) child (or last born).

Some claim that the youngest child of a family is often the most pert or most capable. This proverb is meant for such a child! A similar saying is: ‘An adze-breaking child”, as denoting a mischievous young brat who gets possession of his father's stone adze and ruins the cutting edge.

Food provided by another merely tickles one's throat; it never equals that gained by one's own exertions, which is the best and most satisfying.

The meaning is obvious and needs no further explanation.

Te Arahe eats greedily.

Te Arahe was a noted selfish old woman. According to stories related about her, she always ate the choicest food and gave to her husband and children whatever remained over from her plate. At times, she even ate in secret, else others would see the quality of her food. This proverb is obviously meant for selfish persons.

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In a recent issue you refer to the “first member of the Maori race to be elected to an Education Board”. I wish to state that I am a Maori and I served on the Hawkes Bay Education Board from 1946 to 1950. After serving for four years, I feel that there was a definite need for a member of the Maori race to be on an Education Board and I am very pleased that Dr D. Sinclair has been elected to the Board.

Geo. Brown (Whatatutu).



There are still among the kaumatua a number who remember personally Feehi (Elsdon Best), the Fakeha who did much to record and preserve the culture and traditions of the Maori people. As a mokopuna of Peehi I am compiling the story of his life and work and wish to obtain information, particularly that contained in letters and other documents. Much of his life was spent among Tuhoe in the Urewera Country, where, unfortunately, his diaries were lost when he moved from Ruatoki to Wellington. Will any readers of Te Ao Hou who may have information concerning Peehi please communicate with me at the address below or tell me where the information may be obtained.

Thanking you for permitting me to make this appeal through your columns.

Elsdon Craig,

149 Mount Albert Road,

Mount Albert,




In the July (1958) issue of your excellent magazine mention was made by Piwai Toi in his article “Opo, The Gay Dolphin” of “te toka o Mapuna”. Some months ago you also published a version of Kawiti's Lament or “Te Takuate A Kawiti”. Again there was mention of “te ripo haranui e waho o Mapuna”.

I am interested to learn just where this rock (obviously it is a rock) is to be located. Is it in the Hokianga Harbour? I ask this question because on the East Coast between Matauri Bay and the Cavalli Islands there is also a Mapuna which is held in deep reverence by the older members of the Ngapuhi sub-tribes in that area.

I am keenly interested to learn if possible whether there are two Mapunas or whether in each case they (the articles) refer to the same.

I have seen the the Matauri Bay version of “te kare o Mapuna” and viewed from the lofty hills of the mainland it is a really magnificent sight and yet viewed close-up, especially in a dinghy—and at night—it is an awe-inspiring spectacle.

Heoi nei ra. I do think your magazine is a wonderful effort except for one thing—It should be a monthly publication.

“Curious” (Manaia, Taranaki)

* * *


Conferences on Maori education were held at Rotorua, Auckland and Whangerei last October between school teachers, Maori welfare officers and some Maori leaders. The purpose of the conferences was to bring about closer co-operation between schools and Maori communities in the education of Maori children.

Conferences were attended by Mr K. I. Robertson, Officer for Maori Schools, and Mr W. Herewini, Acting Controller of Maori Welfare. Head teachers of many primary and secondary schools took part, as well as other educational experts.

As a result of the conferences, the Department of Maori Affairs has issued a bulletin to welfare officers, giving guidance in this educational work. Among the suggestions are:

Encouraging the election of Maoris to school committees, also in Board schools.


Encouraging Maori parents to go to school meetings.


Encouraging invitations to school teachers to visit Maori communities.


Encouraging Maori participation in kindergartens.


Encouraging the formation of liaison committees bringing together staff from a post-primary school, teachers of contributing primary schools and local social workers. Such committees should try to improve homework facilities for the college pupils, bring more reading matter into the community and discuss future jobs with the pupils.

Not all the suggestions in the bulletin are new; in fact, welfare officers and teachers have been doing this work for many years. However, the conferences and the bulletin should strengthen the effort.

It is hoped that at a later stage the Departments of Education and Maori Affairs will issue a joint statement about this aspect of Maori education.

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This book is about Maori children. There has not been such a book before, in which Maori children really come to life in the way they are. ‘What is it, what is it, Little One?’ starts the novel. And the answer comes ‘That's why somebodies they tread my sore leg for notheen. Somebodies.

Miss Voffa,’ inquires Twinnie, ‘how do you spell ‘boko’?

What are you writing?’

My twin she dong me on the boko.’

* *

I'll shoot that ghost,’ Matawhero assures us, ‘It jumps on my back.’

* *

What's the matter with her face?’ asks Mohi when teacher has had a great disappointment.

Her nose it's got long’, observes Seven.

Her hair it is curly like a circus,’ noted Bleeding Heart. ‘Tinga-aling.’

Her eyes they's like a morepork.’

Her mouf is too big.’

She got fox teef.’

Her ears they flap.’

Course. She got ghost flesh. Miss Vontopop.

The children make up the core of this wonderful book—Whareparita, Matawhero, Hinewaka, Seven, Waiwini all stand out as full-blooded characters with their love, their fears, their violence, and all the storms of their family background. There has not been such a novel before. No Maori has yet published a novel and no pakeha, until this book, has really understood the Maori child. One moment they are embracing, the next they are kicking each other ‘in the stomat for nutteen’. There is no sentimentality, no caricature, but the humour and understanding that comes with love.

The whole book plays in a school and the main character is a school teacher, Miss Vorontosov. Surrounded by death, love and violence, she lives her quiet life, absorbed in her flowers, her children, her lover of many years ago—a spinster. Painting and music are her great comforts. Out of this remote world she steps every morning to face the children in the school ground (Miss Pop-off. Seven he's trying to kill us all with the axe for nutteen)—‘the jagged-edged world of rough reality’. And she loses herself in the personalities of these children; they sit on her knee; even the bully Seven is loved: ‘How I respect all this force in him and how I understand his violence.’

This unusual school teacher is a remarkable character of fiction: a naive and innocent spinster with a very shrewd eye: does she realise the intrigue between the teacher Paul and the beautiful schoolgirl Whareparita? Yes and no. And these inspectors she worships and fears so much: does she really take them as seriously as she makes out? Who can tell; the reader is certainly left with the impression that these inspectors live on pretence and make-believe; they may fool her with false flattery, hurt her deeply by their contempt of her unconventional teaching methods, but the joke

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somehow always is on them, in this novel. The all-powerful Director, of whom everyone speaks in awed tones is highly praised by one of the visiting educationists: ‘He is a man of sensitive principle’, are the words he uses. Here the tongue is dangerously close to coming out of the cheek.

Naturally, much energy is wasted on unsatisfied love—her memories, the Senior Inspector, the feeble Paul all manage to sap her and weaken her. But she is always sustained by the children, admires the core of their Maori character—the ever present aroha in their lives:

What are you crying for, Very Little One? I tip her chin.

That's why Wiki she's cheeky for me. Wiki.

It's always relationship they cry over ….

* *

…. Livers, all of them, in full measure. Not too much of what is commonly known as work, but oh, the living they accomplish. Because of this preoccupation with the personal relationship the work of many of them doesn't get done. But I cultivate and honour it ….

The few European children at the school, on the other hand, she pities: ‘I call white Dennis, a very obedient and clean little boy, who already at five has had a serious nervous illness … Such a little thing with such a big unknown burden.’

That just about sums up Miss Vorontosov's picture of her own race. She is not content with this idea of hers develop through all its stages: her own civilization, she sees in the Maori children a life force of which she wants to be part. She says: ‘…. I am as clay in the hands of this force, this something that told my delphiniums when to bud; this will that is frighteningly present in my infant room, deeply at large beneath the lid of orthodoxy and discipline …’

What does she give in return? A wild sort of motherly love; how much she would have liked to be the mother of all these children.

‘By the time the six lovely simple weeks of the summer holiday have drawn to their conclusion, my arms have become itchy on the inside to hold children. From the wrists on the inner side along the skin right up to the shoulders and across the breast I know a physical discomfort. If ever flesh spoke mine does; for the communion of hands, the arms stretching round my waist, and black heads bumping my breasts.’

But she has, in addition, a special gift of her own to offer them: the gift of reading. An astonishingly large part of this novel is simply about Miss Vorontosov teaching the children to read, and that is not a dull part: It is the most exciting adventure in the book. Teaching becomes, in her hands what it was in the beginning of the world, when the old men showed the young the sacred mysteries of the tribe; it becomes revelation. This is how she teaches:

What is Rangi's background?’ I ask the Head.

His father is a pugilist who runs a gambling den at the pub.

What are you frightened of, Rangi? I ask as he sits in a knot of others. (No artificial discipline in this class, only companionship)



P'lice they takes me to goal and cuts me up with a butcher-knife.’

I print these words on separate cards and give them to him. And Rangi, who lives on love and kisses and thrashings and fights and fear of the police and who took four months to learn ‘come’, ‘look’, ‘and’ takes four minutes to learn:

butcher-knife Daddy
gaol Mummy
police Rangi
sing haka
cry fight

So I make a reading card for him: out of these words, which he reads at first sight, his first reading, and his face lights up with understanding.’

She calls this the ‘key vocabulary’, and we see how she gets the idea, how she explains it to the Senior Inspector, to all the curious prominent visitors, and so forth; how she makes a vividly

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illustrated reader out of the children's own stories and vocabulary; how the children themselves are allowed to create everything they are learning.

Her teaching scheme becomes her life—‘my precious work guards me everywhere’, she says, and ‘I have built my tower of song’. Being a woman, of course, she does not do the scheme only for the children. Her other inspiration is the Senior Inspector, the tall grey-trousered immaculate father-figure who turns out to be such an unworthy recipient of the scheme. When he disillusions her, she is very sad for a while; does not even go near the children—‘I have to wait until my grand rules of loving flow back into me once more’. Finally she leaves the school, back to her old love of many years ago. And she in turn can be the child whose sore leg has been trodden ‘for nutteen’.

What are we to make of this unusual book? It has been very well received in England; in New Zealand, it is undoubtedly one of the best novels so far written. It is explosive, passionate, exciting all the way. There is a grand informality, a total absence of nonsense. There is nothing ponderous, heavy or abstract. Only love and ghosts are taken seriously. The language is simple, precise, sharp and evocative.

Unlike most New Zealand novels, it comments not only on private life, but also on work for a community. The Maori influence can take much of the credit for that. The idea of the ‘key vocabulary’ should be some challenge to educationists, even though the author's soft irony may sometimes tease their self-esteem. Her image of the teacher could certainly be an inspiration. (Still, what would happen indeed, as one of the Inspectors says, if all teachers suddenly turned ‘irreducible’).

In addition this book is the best study I have seen of the mediator—the person who has moved away from his own civilization to find comfort in another culture. The author describes such a woman in all her isolation.

Do I have any reservations about the book? Only this: that the field of vision of the novel is rather narrow. The main figure stands out clearly, but where is her background? European society becomes a caricature, shrewd and amusing but not fully acceptable. The beautiful descriptions of the Maori children, of Whareparita and her dead-born twins, of old Rauhuia who so loves his grandson,—they are all brief episodes and one feels that even this very sensitive pakeha could penetrate no deeper—the task of portraying Maori people as full major characters (in the way the Spinster herself is so excellently portrayed) must remain for a Maori author. Miss Ashton Warner is on dangerous ground standing between two cultures; no wonder that at the end of the novel Miss Vorontosov rejoins her own people.



The Maori People (Te Iwi Maori) by F. M. Pinfold, Social Studies Activity Book, A. H. & A. W. Reed, Wellington, 1958, 3/-.

There have been many school bulletins about Maori history and customs, but this is the first ‘activity book’. Activity books are a modern teaching device: they contain lots of quizzes to be filled in, space for drawings to be made or coloured by the children; what might be boring memory work is made into a pleasant game. (Here are three forest giants; please untangle: UAIRK, ATAROT, MUIR). There are many excellent illustrations and interesting diagrams; the book provides its own stories; the children have to add others of their own. In the end they have a book of their own which they will treasure, and if they are European, they will know more about Maori things than many of their elders.

This book has been designed for the Social Studies syllabus. Being the work of a private publisher, teachers are not compelled to use it, but we hope that many will.

Mr Pinfold, well-known to readers of this magazine was an excellent choice of author. The ‘activity book’, in the way he designed it, will be very suitable indeed for Maori children, and just as good for the European ones. It is gratifying to see the pages devoted to the pronunciation of Maori.

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1. Fairy; spirit
11. A gorge; put together
12. Hunger
13. Sinew; muscle
14. Annoy; fuss
16. Slave; to seek
18. Look
19. Gleam; shine
23. Murmur (as wind)
24. Lead; conduct
27. Adorn by sticking in feathers
28. Bust
29. Verbal particle for completed action
30. Blow gently
31. Bosom; chest
33. Floor mat
37. Used sometimes for raua
38. Former times
40. Seat; stool
41. Shrink; recoil
42. Sand
43. The
44. Key
45. Land
47. Shake; earthquake
48. Avenged; paid for
49. Drive; urge
50. Day following; day before
Picture icon

Solution to Crossword Puzzle No. 24


1. Root of tree
2. Tomorrow
3. Cabbage tree
4. Payment; revenge
5. Beg
6. Nose
7. Trouble; accident
8. Ribbed; furrowed
9. To carry; show gladness
10. Interjection used in poetry
15. George
17. Embrace
18. Charles
20. Don't know
21. Way; path
22. Year
25. Warm; comfortable
26. Peaceful; beautiful
27. Wound
28. Stomach
29. Sledge
30. Chick
32. Dawn
34. Fault
35. Pity; compassion
36. In full supply
39. As if; as it were
43. Cook in an oven
46. Rain

The new powers of school committees for Maori schools were called ‘a very good move’ by Mr W. S. Bestic of Rotokawa, chairman of the Maori schools' committee of the New Zealand Educational Institute. He made this statement during a recent visit to Auckland when he made representations on behalf of the teachers in Maori schools. Among the things the teachers want is official recognition of the Maori language as a school subject in Forms I and II. The committee wants the language taught in Maori schools wherever there is a competent teacher.

* * *

Development of a historic block of Maori land known as Pukerewa (Waikaretu, Waikato) has begun recently. By next March the Department of Maori Affairs expects to have 1500 acres out of a total 2700 in grass.

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Some ideas on how to get a good home with little money. The author, who lives in Wellington, is describing her own experiences, and her eventual success.


The conditions in a transit camp are all right as long as they are temporary.

That is how things were with us, but we did have a car on which we had spent our savings.

Some sickness of the children decided us some months ago that a move was essential. Bearing in mind that one cannot live in a car, especially with three young babies as we have, we sold it in the hope that the money would serve as a deposit on a house.

We managed to get £350 for the car. Even with that, it was out of the question to buy even the most dilapidated of dwellings in Wellington.

We then thought of building and approached the Department of Maori Affairs. This department advised us, because my husband is pakeha, to go to State Advances where we were told we would first need a section preferably freehold. We were very lucky to get an almost flat section near a suburban station with our savings.

We then applied for a S.A.C. loan, but were told it was necessary to have an approved plan and a firm building quote for erecting and completing the house. We soon found that these quotes were always well beyond the State Advances limit of £2,300.

I had heard from a friend about some pre-cut houses which were being mass-produced in Putaruru and freighted throughout the North Island. I obtained some descriptive pamphlets about them. I considered that being pre-cut, they would save a builder time and labour and should therefore be cheap to build. A pre-cut house with three bedrooms and a floor area of 925 square feet cost only £707 and the price included all framing, all weatherboards, all flooring, all roof trusses, all inside partition framing, all architraves, all external joinery (unglazed) and all the timber treated against borer. But when we went to a builder with our pamphlets and the plan, we were quoted £2,800 for the complete job. I asked the builder what he expected to spend nearly £2,100 on and he blandy replied ‘things …’.

Picture icon

Mrs Barber and her five-year-old daughter Angela in the kitchen of their new home.
(Dominion Photograph)

I went back to the State Advances Corporation and asked if one could build and just hire the labour. They said we would have to work out a costing sheet with written quotes and if it budgeted within the loan it would be satisfactory.

So off we went once more and managed to get a builder for £495, a plumber for £45, an electrician for £68. These prices were for labour only and meant we would have to do all the ordering of materials we would require. Now this may not sound a difficult task, but it does require patience to obtain various prices and then buy the best that the £2350 budget will permit. Also my husband built our fireplace which is of glazed brick and did the plastering. Another saving we made was in digging our own drains so the drainlayer only had to lay them. We dug out 190 feet of them, including the stormwater. We did a lot of manual work. But it was worth the effort. Now, with the last coat of paint going on, the ultimate cost of the house is £2,380.

One lesson we have learned from our experience is the disparity between our own weekly outgoings of £2/18/- for a new home of this size, and the exorbitant rents being demanded by grasping landlords for dingy rooms. Being the first pre-cut home of this type in the Wellington area, it was put on public display for a short while after it was finished and I hope it has encouraged other people to do likewise.

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An egg is such a useful article it deserves respectful handling, but of all foods it is the one that suffers the most by cookery.

A fresh egg is heavy in proportion to its size and becomes lighter as it ages. A fresh egg sinks in cold water whilst a stale egg floats. This is partially due to evaporation of the water content of the egg through the porous shell, the air space becoming relatively larger, and also because in the staler egg, gases are formed within the shell due to decomposition of the contents. Eggs are often graded for freshness by a process known as candling. This consists of looking through the egg against a bright light when the size of the air space is clearly visible. When freshly laid there is a protective film over the egg which prevents this evaporation, so it is preferable that eggs should not be washed nor wiped.


Eggs stored for a short time should be kept in a cool dry place, and as they rapidly absorb odours, away from strong smelling foods. Broken eggs should be kept in a tightly covered container as should egg whites, eggs rapidly “dry up” if left uncovered. Egg yolks, provided that they are unbroken, are best covered with cold water. In all cases a cool place is essential for storage, a refrigerator is excellent, but shell eggs must be placed so that air can circulate around them freely. Eggs should be removed from a refrigerator some time before cooking and allowed to come to room temperature.

Eggs remain fresh for long periods providing the shell is made air tight. There are several ways of achieving this seal; the simplest are with a solution of waterglass (Sodium silicate) which deposits a film of lime on the outside of the egg shell, or by using a grease which is rubbed over the shell. Ordinary lard or vaseline can be used for this, but the special greases sold for this purpose are less likely to impart a taint to the eggs. Eggs greased should be stored in a perforated box without packing, and in both methods eggs should be placed for storage with the pointed end downwards. In this position the air space is in the correct place and the yolk is floating and will not stick to the side of the shell. Whatever method of preserving is used the eggs should be fresh, preferably not more than twenty-four hours old, infertile and unwashed.

The food value of eggs is not diminished by preserving, and preserved eggs can be used for egg dishes as well as baking.


When an egg is beaten it forms a foam of many bubbles that have the ability to hold air. When these bubbles are incorporated into a mixture they lighten it—if the mixture is subsequently cooked the heat applied makes this air expand. Providing the heat is applied gradually the tiny walls of each bubble coagulate and the finished product does not collapse when it is cooled.

Whole eggs can be whipped to increase their volume about 6 times, egg whites will increase in 7–8 times and egg yolks about twice. Once eggs are whipped to their maximum volume they cannot expand further. Continued beating will then reduce the volume! Fresh eggs beat more easily than stale ones, but not too fresh 2–3 days old eggs give the best volume. Eggs also need to be cool to beat well, but not too cold; eggs from a refrigerator should be removed at least one hour before they are beaten for good results. Use the correct shaped bowl to suit the beater—if the bowl is too shallow the egg white will not cover the blades of the beater and beating will be a tedious process.


Eggs facilitate so many things in cookery that would otherwise be difficult or impracticable, such as making meringues or cream puffs or sponges or even a mayonnaise dressing.

Eggs set or coagulate at a temperature well below boiling point (212°F.), in fact eggs heated to 160°F. go tough and hard. This is important to know because eggs sometimes need to be added to a hot sauce or to hot milk for custard. When this is done the liquid must be below boiling point or the egg will set in hard bits and “curdle” the mixture. It is safer when adding egg to hot liquids to beat the egg first with a little of the hot liquid and then add this mixture to the remainder, than to add egg directly to the hot liquid. A sauce or custard must not be allowed to boil after eggs are added, but should be heated gradually until it thickens: if such a mixture shows signs of “curdling” (due to overheating) plunge the saucepan immediately into cold water, and beat the mixture well.

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When beaten egg whites are used to lighten a mixture, they should be folded into the other ingredients, and never beaten, as this causes the egg white to lose the air it previously held. Folding in is best accomplished with a metal spoon using a figure of eight movement.

Meringues, which are a combination of sugar and beaten egg white, sometimes go flat. This is due to the incorrect proportion of sugar and egg white (2 ozs sugar to each egg white) or by beating the sugar into the egg whites after they are fully beaten. When egg whites are beaten stiffly the sugar should be folded in, but sugar may be added a little at a time during the beating process—this latter method gives a closer textured meringue.

Baked or steamed custards that show holes in them mean that the eggs have been beaten too much, or that the custard has been cooked too fast. Custards or other egg dishes that are shrunk or weeping indicate again over fast or too lengthy cooking. Whenever eggs are one of the principal ingredients in a dish the cooking must be slow and gentle.

Cream puffs that flop, sponges that sink, or souflées that shrink down when taken from the oven all indicate too fast cooking, and that the egg isn't sufficiently coagulated, so that the shape is lost once the air contained in it contracts.

A variety of dishes are served under the name of scrambled egg, true scrambled egg should be very lightly beaten and cooked slowly. The mixture needs stirring to prevent it sticking and overcooking at the bottom, and is ready when the whole mass is almost set. It must not be fully set, or dry, or worst of all have reached the watery stage.

Eggs which have a tendency to crack when boiled may do so because they are taken straight from the refrigerator,—always run warm water over very cold eggs before plunging into boiling water. The greenish tinge that occurs round the yolk of hard boiled eggs is a sign that the eggs are over cooked, or have been cooked at too high a temperature or that they have not been cooled sufficiently quickly. For fast cooling crack the eggs immediately they are cooked and plunge into cold water.

Contributed by the Home Science Extension Branch, Adult Education Department, University of Otago.

* * *

The boys of Rehua Maori Boys Hostel, Christchurch, have contributed their share in the raising of funds to enlarge the hostel. They formed a concert party and have raised hundreds of pounds through performances in Christchurch, Nelson, Timaru, Temuka and other places.

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The Gisborne Jaycee is taking an active interest in the teaching of the Maori language, and are planning publications that may help the teachers and pupils. The branch has recommended that Maori should be taught to all pupils in all schools on a voluntary basis ‘provided that the problem presented by lack of qualified teachers can be overcome’.

* * *

An interesting example of Maori school visits to distant localities, which are now becoming common, was the trip made last October by pupils of Wairau School (Marlborough) to Rotorua to get ‘a fuller Maori background’. Billeting was with children of the Whakarewarewa Maori School. Geography as well as Maori culture was taught during the trip.

* * *

Matakitaki Pa, a great Tainui fighting pa at the close of the eighteenth century, has been selected as the first site in Waikato to be marked with the plaque of the National Historic Places Trust. The pa, which is near Pirongia, was deserted after Hongi Hika's attack in 1822.

The New Zealand Broadcasting Service has begun a course for announcers to instruct them in the correct pronunciation of the Maori language. The course is a result of representations made by the Hon. E. T. Tirikatene during the last session of Parliament. The course, already approved in draft, will take the form of a cyclostyled manual and a tape recording, to be sent to all radio stations. A similar course already exists for French.

* * *

In Martinborough a youth club has been started with the name ‘Waihenga Maori Club’. It consists of some fifty Maoris living near Martinborough. Until a few months ago, there was no cultural activity in that area. Then Mr W. Parker, Maori tutor of Adult Education was invited to organize tuition. Mr Anania Amohau was called in as teacher for the group. Soon, a successful concert could be held. Piupiu-making was also introduced. The learning of the Maori language is another ambition of the group.

* * *

As from the beginning of this year, a Maori Welfare Officer has been stationed at Taupo. He is Mr John Rangihau, who graduated in Social Science recently. Mr Rangihau, of the Tuhoe Tribe, was educated at Waikaremoana, Ruatahuna and St Stephens College and was welfare officer in Whakatane before he did his diploma course.

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