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No. 24 (October 1958)
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The New World

the maori affairs department OCTOBER 1958

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No. 24 (Vol. 6 No. 4)


There was widespread satisfaction among the Maori people when it became known that the education authorities had organised a refresher course for teachers of the Maori language.

Few issues concern the modern Maori more than that the country at large should show an interest in and a respect for his language. The Education Department, by trying to improve and develop the teaching of Maori in the schools, has done just that and the Maori people are very pleased to see it.

There is no doubt that the refresher course, held in Rotorua last May, was a success. This was due to good organisation and full support from the authorities and—especially—to the competent and devoted teachers who went to the Course. There is hardly anyone teaching Maori in th schools today who is not an idealist, a brilliant improviser and immune from obstacles that would daunt the ordinary person.

Their main difficulties in the past have been of numbers, lack of training and lack of teaching aids. The course went to the bottom of the problem and undoubtedly members were taught many useful things about the structure of Maori and about how it should be taught as a school subject. The last few hours were given over to remits and from a very full heart, the course framed a long list of the things that are needed to make their teaching reasonably successful—textbooks, records, films and more adequate teacher training.

Two ideas from the refresher course are of special concern to this magazine. One of them was a remit approving th practice of marking long vowels in Maori and stating a preference for doubling the vowels rather than using macrons. This would enable us to distinguish between words like ‘tata’ (garment), ‘tatãT (to be inflammable) and ‘tãtãT’ (terrace). We find double vowels (like ‘tataa’, or ‘taataa’) in many of the oldest Maori manuscripts and many Maori proper names and borrowed words have double vowels. We are not opposed to adopting the Conference's proposal, but while the matter is still under discussion ‘Te Ao Hou’ will publish all Maori manuscripts in the spelling in which they are submitted—either with double vowels, or macrons, or without any marking of the double vowel, although we feel sure some form of marking is highly desirable.

The other point we wish our readers to consider is this: Teachers of Maori are badly in need of good modern Maori texts for their children to read. ‘Te Ao Hou’ is anxious to get such texts—interesting simple stories especially for our younger readers. I hope that the many people who could well write such stories will open the portals of their knowledge and send us what they have. Their children and grandchildren will be grateful for it.

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Mr Whakaririka Kiwa (Sandy) Te Maiharoa died at Glenavy, South Canterbury, on Wednesday, May 28th.

Aged 66, he is survived by his wife and a grown-up family. He was a rangatira of Ngaitahu and a grandson of the Ngaitahu prophet, Te Maiharoa.

Mr Te Maiharoa was a highly respected leader of his people, a farmer and Justice of the Peace. He was well-known on many maraes in both the North and South Islands.


A noted Maori wartime airman, Mr Utiku Albert Potaka, was killed in a motor accident on the night of Friday, June 6.

Mr Potaka, a farmer aged 40 years, came from Ohingaiti.

The heavy truck he was driving collided with the side of a concrete bridge on the Rongotea-Longburn highway, Manawatu. He died on the way to the Palmerston North Hospital.

Mr Potaka served in the R.N.Z.A.F. from 1942 to 1952. He was awarded the Queen's Commendation for services in the air. He served two tours of operations in the European and Middle East theatres of war.


The death occurred recently of Mrs Mei Peri at her home in Wairewa Pa, Little River.

Her death was a loss to the Ngaitahu people, as she was one of the few remaining elders of the tribe.

She was a very well known lady and had been associated with a large number of activities for the benefit of all whom she was able to assist.

Mrs Peri was a custodian of genealogy and had a great command of both English and Maori languages. She was a rangatira of her tribe and in her own right.


Mrs Taihape Te Hurahanga Pani Unahi passed away recently at Maxwell at the reputed age of 108 years. She used to tell many stories of the Maori wars and was a greatly respected figure at Maxwell.


Mr Oriwa Tahupotiki Haddon passed away in Taihape last June after a car accident.

Born 64 years ago in Taranaki he was the son of a well-known Methodist clergyman, the Rev. Tahupotiki Haddon, and a direct descendant of the chief Titokowaru who opposed British settlement in that district. As a young man he was ordained a minister of the Methodist Church, but subsequently became a qualified pharmaceutical chemist.

When a young man he was invited to the United States to join the Chautauqua circuit and remained in that country for some years. On his return to New Zealand Mr Haddon became closely identified with the Ratana movement, and for some time was secretary to his relative, the late Mr W. T. Ratana, who established the sect.

Mr Haddon also became one of the best known broadcasters in the country, speaking on Maori history, mythology and poetry. Being a brilliant marae speaker, he was subsequently appointed secretary and organiser for the Maori branch of the Labour Party and participated in several elections.

On retiring from the political field, he settled for some years in the Nelson district, where he turned his gifts as an artist to good stead by painting murals in different hotels. Though his preference was for Polynesian subjects, he also depicted the early history of Nelson on the walls of hotels in that area.

Of late, however, he had resided at Taihape.


The Death occurred in Aramoho last July of Mrs Raukura Te Mana, aged 86, who had endeared herself to many Pakeha people, and had numerous friends in Aramoho. When the news of Mrs Te Mana's death spread, her tribes began to converge on the old Pa site Aramoho, called Te Ao Hou whare, where she lay in state. They came from as far as Maniapoto and Taranaki. Two grandsons came from Auckland to attend the funeral. Before the church service on 30 July, three Maori elders delivered orations. They were Mr Wiremu Tauri (Putiki). Mr Tahu Aperahama (Aramoho) and Kereama Te Ugako (Tokorangi). The Rev. Canon H. Taepa officiated at the service at the Aramoho Cemetery.

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Puta ana tera te rangarangaihi ki te iwi Maori nui tonu i te korerotanga kei te whakaturia he hui hei whakatakoto kaupapa mo te whakaako o te reo Maori.

He mea tenei i hou ki te whatumanawa o te iwi te tahuri o te motu katoa ki te manaaki i tona reo. Ko te Tari o nga Kura kei te whakatakoto i tetahi kaupapa mo te whakaako o te reo Maori i roto i ana kura.

Ka mutu te tino hui ko tera i tu ra ki Rotorua i tera Mei ki te whakatakoto i etahi kaupapa hei whakahohonu atu i te matauranga o te hunga kei te whakaakoako i te reo Maori. I pera rawa ai te pai o taua hui he ngakau nui no te hunga i haere ki reira a no nga kaihautu hoki o te waka nei o Matauranga. Me nui te whakamoemiti ki te hunga e hautu nei te whakaako o te reo Maori notemea kei te kuhu noa atu tena, kei te kuhu moa atu tena.

Ko nga uauatanga, ko te tokoiti o te hunga whakaako ko te haua o etahi ki te reo Maori, a ko te kore pukapuka kore aha. I te hui i Rotorua ka tikina i te hohonutanga o te reo Maori nga korero hei whakamatakitaki ki nga kaiwhakaako, kia tahuri ai ratou ki te titiro i te kaupapa o te reo e whakaako nei ratou. Ka whakaotioti taua huihuinga ko te mahi whakakaupapa i etahi kupu tohutohu ki Kawanatanga. Ko etahi o aua kupu tohutol kia taia etahi pukapuka mo te kaupa whakaako o te reo, kia mahia etahi rekoata hei tohutohu i te whakahua o te kupu, a kia mahia hoki he pikitia hei tohutohu i nga ringa o nga haka me te tu a te tangata i te marae, ko enei mea katoa hei awhina i te hunga kei te ngak nui ki te ako i te reo Maori.

E rua nga kupu tohutohu o taua huihuin e pa nui ana ki ‘Te Ao Hou’, ko te tuhi o reo Maori a ko te whakakaupapa i etahi tu tuhinga hei korero ma te hunga kei te a i te reo. Ko te tohutohu a te hui me ata tuhi nga kupu whakahua, ara mehemea he to whakahua o te ‘a’ me tuhi penei ‘aa’, me ranei ã ara mo te ingoa manu me ‘kaakaa’ me kãTkãT ranei; mo te kakahu me ‘kaka’ ara atu ara atu. Kaore he he o tenei tu tuhi, mehemea ka penei te tuhi a te tangata i ana korero hea panuitanga ki ‘Te Ao Hou’ ka pera ano te mehemea he rereke ka rereke ano. E tika a ra me whakatakoto tetahi kaupapa kia ma ma ai te tauhou.

Ko te mea tuarua ko te whiwhi o nga kaiwhakaako i etahi tuhituhinga hei korero ma a ratou tamariki. Ko te inoi atu a ‘Te Ao Hou’ kia tuhi korero Maori mai koutou te iwi Maori hei panui ki ‘Te Ao Hou’, hei korero ma nga tamariki.

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Reed's Complete List

The Maori People have always been regarded as the finest of native races. They came to New Zealand with an age-old culture, which had a distinctive development in the isolation of the islands of Aotearoa. Then came the contact with the Pakeha, a gradual change in outlook and a merging with the white race.

The Maoris are still a fine upstanding race, with a great future. Their ancient culture and art is shared today by all New Zealanders. Maori and Pakeha alike are united in the pride and interest which springs from the preservation of this heritage.

New Zealanders and their friends will be glad to have this comprehensive list of books and material about the Maori available at the present time.


WONDER TALES OF MAORILAND, by A. W. Reed. A collection of happy stories from the rich store of Maori legend. Illustrated in colour and black and white by A. S. Paterson. In this book the story of the lives of a Maori boy and girl and their old-time village is related 12s. 6d.
MAORI TALES OF LONG AGO, by A. W. Reed. Illustrated by A. S. Paterson. This is a companion volume to WONDER TALES, telling more of the adventures of the little girl and boy, Hine and Rata, in the long ago. 12s. 6d.
HOW THE MAORIS LIVED, by A. W. Reed. A useful and very popular book which tells in picture and illustration of the lives of the early Maoris. Illustrated by Russell Clark. 6s. 0d.
LIVING IN A MAORI VILLAGE, by A. W. Reed and illustrated by Russell Clark. This is a book for younger children showing Maori village life as seen through the play and activities of two Maori children. Illustrated in black and white and colour. 6s. 0d.
HOW THE MAORIS CAME, by A. W. Reed. Illustrated by Harry Dansey. This is the story of how the first Maori explorers crossed the wide Pacific to New Zealand in their fleets of canoes. 6s. 0d.
GAMES THE MAORIS PLAYED, by A. W. Reed. Illustrated by Dennis Turner. A 1958 book, beautifully illustrated, with a full description of the games that were played by Maori children and adults. 6s. 0d.

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MYTHS AND LEGENDS OF MAORILAND, by A. W. Reed. Illustrated by George Woods and W. Dittmer. This book has become a minor classic, having appeared in many editions. It is recognised as the most readable collection of Maori folk tales to appear in print. Profusely illustrated. 15s. 0d.
REEDS' CONCISE MAORI DICTIONARY. Invaluable to all those who are learning or are interested in the language. This little dictionary has proved very popular. It contains about 6000 Maori words and thier meanings, and has an English-Maori as well as a Maori-English section. Also contains a collection of proverbial sayings in Maori and English. 10s. 6d.
HE KONAE ARONUI. Maori proverbs and sayings collected by R. T. Kohere. The text is given in both Maori and English, and there are explanatory notes. 7s. 6d.
MAORI PLACE NAMES AND THEIR MEANINGS. The meanings of most of the Maori place names in New Zealand are set out in this popular little book, which is illustrated with about fifty sketches of Maori life, native birds and plants. 6s. 0d.
TUWHARETOA, by John Grace. The author is a descendant of the famous Te Heuheu, and also of the pioneer missionary of Taupo, and is well qualified to undertake the arduous task of writing the history of his tribe, Ngati Tuwharetoa. The result will be a book which sands with “Tuhoe” and “Tainui” as a definitive tribal history—a 1958 publication. 30s. 0d.
REVENGE, by John White. A novel about the Mount Eden tribe, and a book of considerable ethnological value. Only a few copies remain of this limited, numbered edition. 30s. 0d.
MAORI CARVING ILLUSTRATED, by W. J. Phillipps. A profusely illustrated book which provides a simple pictorial introduction to a fascinating subject. 6s. 0d.
THE IMPACT OF CHRISTIANITY ON THE MAORI PEOPLE, by A. W. Reed. Issued in a limited edition, this little book tells of the equipment of the early missionaries, and the effect of their teaching on the Maoris. 7s. 6d.
THE MAORIS OF THE SOUTH ISLAND, by the Rev. T. A. Pybus. A survey of the Maori occupation of the South Island up to the coming of the whalers, and the impact of the white race on the Maoris. 7s. 6d.
THE MAORI AS AN ARTIST. An outstanding collection of lithographs of Maori art drawn by Dr. Renzo Padovan, a noted Italian scholar, who made a special study of the art of the Maoris while in New Zealand. This is a large book which must occupy an important place in the library of students of the Maori. 42s. 0d.

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(The following titles are now in short supply)

MAORI STRING FIGURES, by Johannes Andersen 15s. 0d.
THE CHANGING MAORI, by F. M. Keesing 15s. 0d.
THE MAORI PEOPLE AND US, by Norman Smith 15s. 0d.


THE MAORIS. A brightly coloured booklet showing many pictures of the Maoris of today. In full colour. 3s. 6d.
COLOUR VIEW CARDS. From a wide variety of Colour View Cards of New Zealand, the following are suggested as of special interest:
     Standard Series—5 ½ × 3 ½ each 4d.
          1 Hot Pool Cookery
          2 Maori Meeting House
          18 N.Z's Longest Maori Place Name
     Continental Series—6 × 4 each 6d.
          D37 Maori Gateway, Whakarewarewa
          D42 Maori Church, Ohinemutu
          D44 Maori Meeting House, Whakarewarewa
          D88 Maori Poi Dancers
          D89 Maori Guides
          D114 Guide Rangi and Pohutu Geyser
          D48 Maori Welcome, Whakarewarewa
          D113 Pania of the Reef (statue at Napier)
KIWI COLOUR VIEW BOOK—3 ¾ × 2 ¾, with 12 colour plates on hi-gloss cards. No. 3 Rotorua 2s. 6d.
KIWI COLOUR SLIDES—Packed in attractive boxes, each containing 10 different 35mm colour slides, each with complete commentary.
          Set M The Maoris 24s. 0d.
          Set BX Maori Carving 24s. 0d.
          Set ESQ Maori Portraits (from Angas's “New Zealanders”) 14s. 0d.
          Set ESR Maori Life (from Angas's “New Zealanders”) 24s. 0d.
          Set EST Maori Scenes (from Angas's “New Zealanders”) 18s. 0d.
MAORILAND COLOUR SLIDES—Supplied singly in clear plastic wallets. each 2s. 6d.
          B104 St. Faith's Maori Church
          C2 Pania Statue, Napier
          B106 War Memorial, Whakarewarewa
          B107 Rangi's House, Whakarewarewa

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          B109 Thermal Wash-house
          B112 Hinemoa's Pool
          B129 Hinemoa's Pool
          M1 Interior Meeting House
          M2 Entrance Meeting House
          M24 Children in Hot Pool
          M21 Maori Feather Cloaks
          M22 Maori Warriors
          M23 Warriors Fighting
     A Maori Pa, 5 sheets in monochrome 5s.
     New Zealand Models, in moonchrome 5s.
     Living in a Maori Village, 8 sheets in 2-colour 10s.


A charming and lifelike reproduction in plastic of a Maori Tiki, which is almost indistinguishable from the genuine article. This Tiki is mounted on an attractve card giving information about this prized possession of the Maori people. 4s.


     A wide variety of records of interets about the Maori are being produced by A. H. and A. W. Reed on 45 rpm extended play records—7” discs with a playing length of approximately 15 minutes per record. They are attractively enveloped, with a flap on back bearing the title, and are provided with adequate commentaries.
LET'S LEARN MAORI Series, by William Ngata
     Less One Pronunciation 14s. 0d.
          Two The Simple Sentence 14s. 0d.
          Three The Negative Sentence 14s. 0d.
          Four Counting 14s. 0d.
          Five The Noun and Pronoun 14s. 0d.
          Six The Verb 14s 0d.
LEGENDS OF MAORILAND Series, narrated by Kenneth Melvin.
     Number One The Story of Hinemoa and Tutanekai 11s 6d.
          Two The Story of Tinirau and his Pet Whale 11s 6d.
          Three How Maui Caught the Sun, and The Great Fish of Maui 12s 6d.
          Four Kahukura and the Magic Net, and Rua and the Sea Fairies 12s 6d.
MAORI ACTION SONGS, by the Putiki Youth Choir 12s 6d.
MAORI ACTION SONGS, by the Linton Camp Maori Choir 12s 6d.

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In addition to these records, a limited stock is available of the following 10″ 78 rpm records originally produced by the Maori Purposes Fund Board.

Record PR 9 The Voices of:
  The Voice of Sir Apirana T. Ngata speaking at a farewell function to Sir Peter Buck at Auckland, March, 1949.     Sir Peter Buck
    Bishop Bennett
    Te Puea Herangi
Record PR 10
  Sung by a Ngatiporou party
    Sung by Kura Tauranga of Ngatiporou
Record PR 11
    Sung by Ngatiporou party
    Sung by a Ngatiporou party.
Record PR 12
    Sung by a young group from Ngatiporou elders.
    Sung by a Ngatipooru party.
Record PR 13
    Sung by the Hikurangi Parish Choir (see Maori Anglican Prayer Book).
    Sung by the Hikurangi Parish Choir (See Maori Anglican Prayer Book)



A. H. & A. W. REED,

182 Wakefield Street,


(P.O. Box 6002, Te Aro, Wellington).

Please send supplies marked on this list.

Name    ————————

Address  ————————



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Articles and Stories by Arapera Blank 6
Men in a Strange Culture by E. G. Schwimmer 8
The Knight Errantry of Tamahae by Leo Fowler 11
Maori Culture in Schools by K. I. Robertson 18
Maori Action Songs by the Rev. K. Ihaka 24
The Teaching of Maori 26
Lady Buck's Ashes Are Interred 31
Wakahuia or Papahou by W. J. Phillipps 32
Otago Maoris Build in the Old Style—With a Difference, by Teowaina 35
A Maori School for New Farms at Kuratau, by E. J. Crabbe 36
Austria and the Maori People by Walter Brookes 38
A Vienna Journal by Wiremu Toetoe Tumohe 40
The Tougher Repair Jobs by Des Mahoney 44
How We Built Our Homes by C. S. Williams 46
Games of the Old-time Maori, Part II by Hemi Bennett 52
Queen Victoria had a Maori Godson by Alison Drummond 60
Spring is a Special Time for Mats and Carpets 62
Ko Te Reo Maori Na Koro Dewes 17
He Reo No Te Ao Tawhito Na Piwai Toi 22
Ko Te Whakaako O Te Reo Maori Na Wiremu Ngata 24
He Whare Perehi O Te Kingi Na Wiremu Toetoe Tumohe 40
Regular Features Seasonal Work on the Farm 49
Sports: Maori Rugby in Australia by Elsdon Craig 50
The Home Garden: Supplementary Cropping on Dairy Farms by R. G. Falconer 54
Books 55
Letters to the Editor 56
Crossword Puzzle No. 23 57

The Minister of Maori Affairs: The Rt. Hon. W. Nash.

The Secretary for Maori Affairs: M. Sullivan.

Management Committee:

Chairman: B. E. Souter, Asst. Secretary.

Members: M. R. Jones, W. T. Ngata, E. G. Schwimmer, G. H. Stanley, M. J. Taylor.

Editor: E. G. Schwimmer, M.A.

Associate Editor (Maori text):

W. T. Ngata, Lic. Int.

Sponsored by the Maori Purposes Fund Board.

Subscriptions to Te Ao Hou at 7/6 per annum (4 issues) or £1 for three years' subscriptions at all offices of the Maori Affairs Department and P.O. Box 2390, Wellington, New Zealand.

Registered at G.P.O., Wellington, for transmission through the post as a magazine.

Editorial Address: P.O. Box 2390, Wellington



Maori Authors: In this volume (issues 21—24) we have published twenty-two authors of full or part Maori descent, as well as five Maori children from Oruaiti. Some of these authors published more than one contribution. Works included short stories, folklore, essays of Maori history and culture, and reportage. Eleven of the 22 authors wrote at least some of their contributions in the Maori language. Two of the authors (Wiremu Toetoe and Sir Apirana Ngata) age of a past generation. The others were: Hemi Bennett (Wellington), Arapera Blank (Punaruku), Wattie Carkeek (Wellington), Koro Dewes (Auckland), Rangimarie Hetet (Te Kuiti), Rev. Kingi Ihaka (Wellington), M. R. Jones (Wellington), Rev. Manga Kamarie (Waitara), Kathryn Leef (Mitimiti), Wiremu Ngata (Wellington), Rora Paki (Oparure), Paul Potiki (Wellington), Turoa Royal (Auckland), Kate Shaw (Palmerston North), Pine Taiapa Tikitiki), Teowaina (Dunedin), Ngaio Te Rito (Auckland), Ina Te Uira (Wellington), Piwai Toi (Opononi), Hohepa Topa (Auckland).

Cover Picture: This young musician is John Ryder, of Paparore Maori School. (Photo: Merv Holland.)

Renewal Stickers: If your subscription is expiring, you will find an expiry sticker on the wrapper of your issue. Please examine the wrapper carefully and if the sticker appears on it send us a renewal as soon as possible on the form enclosed with the issue.

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It is Summer and the sun beats down with stagnating insistence. Who would work on such a day? Ah!—the sea looks right for fishing. The blueness flashes a silvery invitation as tantalizing as the sheen of the paua must be to the kahawai. And with nostalgic yearning the men look towards the shore. They think of the days when grandfather would have dropped his spade and would have gone to catch fish, while grandmother remained behind to finish the chores.

Those days are gone now; and though allowed a certain latitude because of his self-employment, the Maori farmer must work to the clock. The clock says at 4.30 a.m., “Get up! Milk the cows! Take the cream to the road—it must catch the carrier! Weed the garden! Mend that fence! Cut the manukas!” The clock ticks on and each tick is a reminder that there is work to be done.

Summer, summer, summer—all summer, from dark to dark, in my little village, people and children bend with bottoms up. A sleepy looking village in a sleepy valley, a hot day, cows chewing contentedly in the fields—why such activity? Most city people are on holiday, enjoying the summer sun. It is heresy to forego such pleasure. But the Maoris still bend with bottoms up. They are weeding kumaras. They must “race the rain” before it sets in and the weeds get thicker.

Kumaras need lots of attention. They must be weeded carefully since excessive weed robs them of much of their nourishment. Warmth and moisture are needed for successful propagation, and hence the farmer is especially careful in the selection of his plot, which must be well drained and receive plenty of sun.

The crop must be good this year and the market offers good prices. So, with insistent attention work goes on. It goes on because from the sale, these people get a very welcome additional income.

It is noticeable to me that life is changing—slowly for the more conservative and rapidly for the far-sighted. The root of the change lies it the transference from a system of mutual reciprocity to that of a money economy. For the Maori people money has created a new pattern of values. Where once, without money, the Maori worked communally for a communal existenc, he is now obliged to work more or less by him self and for himself. Where once needs were very simple, they have become more complex. No-one, if he can, works for a mere subsistence level, Wants seem to accumulate endlessly, and they are stimulated by public opinion, which, by its subtle and implied compulsion, demands better education, more farm machinery, better houses and greater investments. For all these things more money is needed, and people are very conscious of this. They know that hard work alone will not do—they know that, in addition, there must be consistency and careful planning.

Most of the people in my little village on the East Coast are farmers. Some milk cows and rear pigs for the markets, while others are “big-time”

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sheep farmers. Nearly all of the farms were developed under the Maori Affairs Development Scheme in the late thirties. Many of the mortgages have been paid off, some still struggle under the burden—and for these the additional income from kumara growing is a definite advantage.

As elsewhere, our people believe in large families; and in many a house, mother cooks a meal for twelve hungry people. Somewhere, somehow an additional income has to be found to supplement the cream—or wool cheques which are neither consistent in amount nor regular in payment. Because of its isolation, people in the village cannot contemplate seasonal factory work. So, once more the Maori turns to the soil, and over the last six years this has been the case.

For quite a while now the markets for crops have been very attractive. Each farmer, if he can, does cropping as a side-line. Kumara growing has taken prominence. Isolation however is a curse, for transport is often so difficult. Rangitukia, for instance, is at least a hundred miles from the nearest market. Frequently people fail to catch good prices. So, with all the difficulties associated with kumara growing, everyone watches his crops meticulously. From December until almost the end of January everyone is out weeding. To me the task is one of pleasure. I come home from the city, with my shoes worn out from treading on pavements, with my hand quite weary from holding a pen— I am a school teacher home on holiday. It is good to take off my shoes and to walk barefooted between the rows. The turned earth has a softness that is sweeter than that of a thick-piled carpet. I love to take a hoe, watch it go in and see the weeds come out. Near the plants I use my hands and the warm soil feels wonderful. How neat a row looks when I reach the end of it. How soft the sunlight looks on the green-yellow leaves. But as I meditate, I realise that to the village weeding means something different—to them it is not mere respite from other chores; it brings an extra income. It is this knowledge which lightens their labours.

Because kumaras have become an attractive cash-crop, it is not so easy to ask one's neighbour for a kit without some feeling of embarrassment. I no longer say with a clear conscience, “I'll go over to Hori's place to get some to take back to the city; he won't mind. After all, he can always come to us when ours are ready.” Because I know that a kit of kumaras less means a few pennies less for Hori, I hesitate. And Hori needs that extra money, for the Pakeha has taught him that it is not an easy thing to live in his world if financial obligations cannot be met regularly and in time.

Whenever there is a hui, such as a church gathering or the opening of a meeting house, it becomes evident that it is now more difficult for

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people to give freely. Potatoes, kumaras and meat are supplied by few families. Sheep farmers are sometimes taxed varying amounts to meet the cost of the hui. Those who do give, are well aware that it gives them additional prestige. People say, “He pai era whanau, he mohio ki te whakaro.” Families in the village have a reputation either for meanness or for lavish giving. This reputation becomes almost a by-word in other villages. But even the lavish givers are becoming fewer. The markets offer prices, the hui offers only prestige—and in this clash of culture values the former is now taking precedence.

In spite of the money-conscious world in which the Maori lives, the village still tries to perpetuate its customs in a modified form. If an important person dies, almost everyone goes to the funeral. Parents can very often leave household chores and farm work to their children and spend a day at the hui. If the deceased is not particularly noteworthy, few attend apart from the close relatives.

It is interesting to note that waiatas once chanted by many at gatherings are now confined to few. Only some of the elders between the ages of 55 and 80 can chant. Of the women of the same age group only three or four can chant more than two. The younger age groups take little interest in learning waiatas, but usually enjoy listening to them. There is little incentive to learn since big huis have become rare. The adolescent age-group would rather listen to the hit parade than learn a chant, but then scarcely anybody offers to teach these people. There is still the superstition that it is bad luck to learn a waiata when there is no immediate occasion for it. The reason for the waning of this wonderful tradition lies mainly in the fact that social obligations are no longer as binding as they were when the Maori was not yet immersed in the pattern of a Pakeha economy. Now many a Maori has quite readily bartered kinship obligations and privileges for economic independence. Several families in the village, however, still remain as a co-operative unit for work and the planning of social functions.

At the celebration of weddings and birthdays relatives voluntarily come forward to assist. It is the one time when people relax completely from their rigid work-a-day routine. Everyone gives freely and everyone helps willingly with the preparations—there is no need to requisition help. Cooks appear from nowhere, waitresses bound in with alacrity, and invitations are understood things. The Maori in the village is at his best, feels his best and gives with generosity.

But in spite of all this the people will become more careful, more individualistic, though not nearly so much as the Pakeha. For he still recognises that he has many relatives and that he is part of a wide kinship group. As long as he is conscious of his kinship ties, the Maori will never become as truly individualistic as the Pakeha. To me, this, more than the retention of the language, is what constitutes Maoritanga, and it will, in my opinion, be the only permanent trait which distinguishes him from the Pakeha.

It is summer, and the sun beats down with stagnating insistence—on the backs of people, men and women, young and old. The Maoris are weeding their kumaras.

This is the text of a talk given over the YC stations last May, dealing with Maori-pakeha relationships.


One may divide New Zealanders into three groups: A European group, a Maori group and a small group (partly European, partly Maori in descent) with access to both worlds. Naturally the European group meets Maoris in shops, factories, offices, schools and hotels, but most of the important features of Maori life remain closed to them. The same thing can be said of Maoris: to the great majority the real core of the European culture remains quite unfamiliar.

My first contact with the real Maori world was when I attended a ceremonial gathering. It was one of those affairs where Ministers of the Crown talk, where a whole row of prominent visitors sit at the top table and where the hosts dash about in outward calm but inward trepidation as any mistake in the proceedings would blot the tribe's mana for a generation. It was with some alarm that I met the stern uncompromising marae police at the ceremonial gate; when I saw the huge semicircle of visitors face the defiant figures on the carved meeting house. I felt in a strange country.

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The hakas, the gesticulations of the orators speaking in an unknown tongue, the punctilious ceremonial could not readily be associated with the Maori people I had met in the city. Many of the public were Maori city workers. They all fitted perfectly into this new world; so profound was the difference that thoughts and speeches appropriate and fully accepted in their city life had now become anathema. Everything that was said in public—and much that was said in private—revolved round the well-being of the tribe, and the only sort of fact that was worth reciting related to the tribe's history. The walls surrounding the marae kept out nearly all the world I had previously known and when later I in turn had to speak to a tribal meeting, I was bound also to fit my speech into the same pattern.

The Maori feels the same way when he steps into one of the sanctuaries of the European world—be it the local repertory society or professional women's club. Of course a few Maoris do it, but not the majority; no more than the majority of Europeans feel comfortable sleeping in a Maori meeting house.

I don't think there is any particular harm in the condition I have described, but it shows that the relationship between the races is to a very great extent dependent on a small group of people who are at home in both worlds. Of necessity they are a minority, but they are a most important minority.

One finds similar groups all over the world; for instance, in our relations with Asia we are helped greatly by the small number of people who are equally at home in East and West—it is through them that the East may get some understanding of our way of life.

I like to call them the mediators. They may be migrants, teachers, traders, doctors or missionaries. Others are students or simply travellers. The first characteristic of the mediator I have already mentioned. If he is a European in a Maori environment, he must have a definite function to fulfil, close to the tribal sphere. Yet not every teacher or official can be a mediator. He must also set up a warm mutual relationship with the Maori group. This only happens if the European feels some definite need to belong to and be identified with the Maori group. Some people become mediators largely because of the isolated places in which they live, but more often the mediator is a person who feels some attachment to the Maori way of life.

One of the greatest dangers of some European mediators is that they tend to regard themselves as benefactors. Such an attitude is fatal to good relations and never leads anywhere. The only right attitude for a mediator is to ask himself frankly: why have I come here? It is either because he liked to or because he had to. So there is absolutely no reason for gratitude. In fact the expectation of gratitude from another race just because one happens to spend one's time in its midst is very poor race relations. Quite on the contrary, it is the people amongst whom the mediator lives who make the most valuable gift. Right from the first meeting, it is the hosts who have to show the hospitality, spend endless hours telling the newcomer all about the history and the culture, and if the mediator is successful he will begin to suggest changes, according to the particular function he fulfils. If he is a farm supervisor, he expects changes in farming; if he is a teacher, parents and children have to adjust themselves in his demands. Admittedly, the community may ultimately benefit, but that is only afterwards. The period of change itself means upset and dislocation, based fundamentally on the trust of the people in the mediator. That is perhaps the greatest gift of the people: their confidence. The old men of the community have to make way for him, the stranger, so he can take over part of the leadership and modernize the village. It is a hard wrench, but for the sake of progress and the future it is done. The mediator should realize the great weight of responsibility that rests upon him.

Many hundreds of Europeans are working in this way among the New Zealand Maori. Their influence is of course only one of many that determine the Maori situation. One could mention the films, the hotels, the whole of our money economy. The difference between all these and the mediator is that the latter works from within, from and understanding of the community and with its active consent. If there were no mediators, there would still be culture change, but it would be uncontrolled; social and economic evils would not be checked except by pure accident. Mediators can help the community find a way out of the dangers of a changing culture; their knowledge of European culture will suggest to them remedies that may not be known to the Maori leaders.

I have already stressed that not all mediators

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working in Maori communities are Europeans. Many are Maoris with a European education. It would be hard to assess the influence of these Maori mediators, these men-of-two-worlds, who have been the main Maori leaders for the last two or three generations, but undoubtedly it has been immense. Obvious examples are Sir Apirana Ngata and Sir Peter Buck. In the life of Ngata one can distinguish three important phases: in the first phase, he is given a good European type of education. In the second phase he advocates health reforms and modern farming methods among his own people. He encourages the Ngati Porou to take up sheepfarming and organizes institutions like co-operatives, all on European lines. He launches land development as Minister of Maori Affairs, makes pleas to all tribes to utilizeland along mainly European patterns. The third phase, starting in late middle life, was to champion the revival or preservation of the traditional Maori culture.

We see a similar pattern with Sir Peter Buck who started off by working on health reform, then took up anthropology and in the evening of his life was concerned only with the study of Polynesian (traditional) cultures.

Obviously in these cases and many others less eminent, the Maori mediator begins by absorbing some aspect of European civilisation fairly deeply and then returns to his people to impart this knowledge which will help their progress. Such Maori leaders are naturally very influential because of their knowledge of the Maori mind and their clear sense of the sort of reforms that may be needed. In fact they have all the advantages over European mediators except that of number: it is impossible to find enough Maoris even today for the many tasks demanding the services of mediators. It follows that the European mediator becomes less important, as progress of other races is accelerated. This is true for Asia as well as for the Maori people: at the outset the European is indispensable, but gradually the intrinsically more suitable native mediator can take over.

What is, then, the best way of improving race relations in New Zealand? I would say it would be fruitful to concentrate on the comparatively small group, both Maori and European who are likely to act as mediators between the two cultures. This means that Europeans who may teach Maoris or work among them as officials, social workers or any other way should be given the best possible preparation to understanding the Maori, and therefore other races in general. New Zealand has produced several brilliant anthropologists—even before any New Zealand University offered a degree course in the subject. Yet it is surprising how little the average man knows about other societies. Courses now introduced into the teachers colleges will bring some of the necessary knowledge to school teachers which is a necessary first step. Nonetheless, I think that more effort could be made to increase the sophistication with which the average person moves into a Maori—or other alien—community.

The important problem of increasing the number and efficacy of Maori mediators is more complex. The raising of Maori educational standards would naturally be a great help. It should be realised however that many of the more talented children will not, on leaving school, be particularly interested in returning to their own communities for any purpose whatever. Many desire nothing so much as to become absorbed in European life, learning the necessary skills and rising beyond the limitations of their childhood environment. The lives of most of the important Maori mediators contain a phase, sometimes of many years, dedicated solely to this purpose. There is of course a place for Maori youth clubs and similar organisations, and it may be valuable to many to attend huis and similar gatherings. None-theless, many talented young Maoris will wish to keep their distance from this side of life, at least for a time.

Past evidence shows that these young people are not necessarily lost to the race. I have heard Maori elders say that it is futile to give their young people a good education for they will only drift away and be no help to the tribe. On the other hand, if they were not so well educated, they would stay.

Fortunately this is not typical of the attitude of Maori parents. In any case, taking a long view it is not true. It is really surprising how few educated Maoris do not at some phase in their life feel a strong urge to return to their own people. Once they have assimilated as much as they want of the European way of life, they gradually take up the old contacts again. They look for an opportunity to meet their kinsfolk and gradually let themselves be drawn into community activities. In old age, this atmosphere becomes more and more attractive and there is an unpleasant saying that a “Maori will always go back to the mat”. If this means anything at all, it means that one cannot have one foot in two cultures for ever, one must in the end make a choice. This choice is for most mediators—both Maori and European—to go back to their own people.

For nobody is really at his best in a strange culture. For instance there are few Europeans who can emulate the Maori in oratory or action song; there are few whose minds function as elearly and brilliantly on Maori issues as they would in the context of the culture in which they were brought up. The foot one sets in the strange environment is always the weaker foot. And it is wise for the European watching his Maori compatriot to realise that he has not really seen the Maori's strongest foot, that this strongest foot is in the Maori's own environment about which Europeans know so very little.

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Once upon a time, somewhere, I should judge, about the time that Queen Anne sat on the throne of England, there lived on the East Coast of the North Island, three brothers. They were great-grandsons of that Apanuiwaipapa who gave his name to the great tribe of Whanau Apanui, which, in the days I am speaking of, occupied the East Coast from Te Kuri a Whare (the Watch-dogs of Whare) which are two small islands off the coast near Tauranga, right down to Tikirau which Captain Cook was later to rename Cape Runaway.

The names of these brothers were Kaiaio, Te Ehutu and Tamahae and all of them became famous in one way and another. We are concerned in this story with but two of them, the eldest, whose name was Kaiaio and the youngest who was called Tamahae.

You could not imagine two brothers more different in character.

As the elder Kaiaio was the upoko-ariki or paramount chief of his tribe. Indeed so many illustrious lines of descent converged in him that he started off a new tribe of which he became the eponymous ancestor. To be an eponymous ancestor is a great thing in any man's language for it means that your name goes down in history almost forever. Put more simply it means a man who gives his name to all his descendants. The original Scotsman named Donald was the eponymous ancestor of all the McDonalds, the original Irishman named Suanassey became the eponymous ancestor of all the Irishmen named O'Suanassey. So Kaiaio, when his descendants became so numerous that it was necessary for them to break away into a sub-tribe, gave his name to them. They became known as the Whanau-a-Kaiaio, or the family of Kaiaio, a name they still bear.

In addition to becoming an eponymous ancestor Kaiaio became moderately famous in another way. Had he been one of those stalwarts who love fighting and destroying their fellow men he might have become even more renowned. As it was, he was only a peaceful man whose interests tended to be useful rather than destructive, and this, naturally, tended to limit his fame.

Among the useful arts he practised was the pursuit of agriculture and, in particular, the cultivation of the kumara. He had what the pakeha calls a 'green finger', and what the Maori calls ringaringa makura. He became widely known as one who had skill in developing bigger, better and more prolific types of kumara. Not being averse to talking about his exploits and achievements he left behind many sayings of which one of the best known is “ko tahi taku huata, ki runga hauruia

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te mano, te mano, te mano”. A free translation of this would be to the effect “for every kumara I plant in my garden at Hauruia there follows a progeny of thousands”.

It may well be admitted that Kaiaio was not much different from you and from me in his fondness for talking about his hobby. As his hobby was connected with food he had some justification for considering it important. Food was probably the most important single thing there was to the Maori of that day.

Tamahae, the youngest brother, was interested in the kumara only as an article of diet. He sometimes became bored with Kaiaio's talk about the kumara he had planted, was planting or intended to plant. “It that all you can talk about?” said Tamahae one day when Kaiaio was talking about some new strain he was developing. “Kumara? Pah ….! Food? Bah ….! You talk about nothing but food.” And he spat disgustedly.

Kaiaio paused in his discourse and looked tolerantly at his youngest brother. “My dear Tamahae”, he said gently, “do not scoff at food. When you go forth to your glory in battle remember it is food which ensures your conquests. Battles are not won by starved men. Indeed it could be said that the victories of Tamahae were planted with the kumara of Kaiaio.”

Tamahae was silent for awhile. The chiefs waited anxiously for his reply. The Maori of old, like the pakeha of old, were a touchy people. Bitter and lasting feuds had started from much smaller differences of opinion. They had heaved a sigh of relief when Tamahae, at length, answered his brother in equally gentle a tone.

“You are right, my elder brother,” he said, “I will remember your words. Every time I win a battle I will remember your kumara.”

Tamahae, though the youngest brother, was most noted as a warrior. He was a doer of doughty deeds which are preserved in the memory and story of his people. He is remembered as among the greatest of all the warriors of Whanau Apanui. From his earliest boyhood he delighted in practising his weapons. Like the European knights of the previous centuries he was always looking for trouble. Whenever he heard of a warrior who had a reputation for skill with any particular weapon he would seek him out to master his skill. He became expert in the use of patu, or short club; he became noted in the employment of the hoeroa, or throwing club, and he became, above all, renowned as the wizard of the taiaha, the favourite fighting weapon of chiefs. He became, in fact, so expert that no one in his neighbourhood could stand up to him.

Tamahae had a purpose in acquiring these skills. He had a great and growing injury to avenge. His grandmother, Kahukurahihiata, had been slain while on a visit to Mahia by the Ngati Rakaipaaka. His uncle Kaimatai had been killed while on a visit to avenge the death of Kahukuramihiata. Tamahae yearned for the day when he would go south and wipe out this insult. But Kaiaio made him wait until he, the elder brother, thought the time was ripe.

“But, Kaiaio,” complained Tamahae, one day, “My skill is becoming blunted for lack of adequate practice.”

“Well,” replied Kaiaio, slyly, “if you have really exhausted the taiaha, you could turn to the mastery of the ko.”

The ko is a digging stick, and Kaiaio was gently hinting that work is always a substitute for boredom. Tamahae pretended to consider this advice seriously.

“Thank you, no,” he said after awhile. “You,” Kaiaio, are so completely the master of that weapon that it would not become me to challenge you.”


As time went by Tamahae's fame increased. His impatience to avenge the death of his grandmother increased with it. Observing this Kaiaio one day said to him.

“I hear that one Kuri Teko of Rongowhakaata is a noted expert of the taiaha. It is said that no man could defeat him.”

“It is wrongly said, then,” replied Tamahae. “I could beat him. Indeed I would have done so long ago, had you not held me back. It is high time that I set out to avenge the death of my grandmother.”

“Remember,” enjoined Kaiaio, “that many warriors have set out on that errand, and have not come back. There was Kaimatai, there was Kurautao and there was Hikawhakama. None of them returned. If however you believe you can do what they left undone, I will no longer hold you.”

Tamahae jumped with joy. He twirled round, whirling his taiaha and making furious passes at an imaginary enemy.

“Give me a supply of those famous kumara you are always talking about,” he said, “and I will go down and settle our score with Ngati Rakaipaaka. And on the way I will call on this Kuri Teko and pin his ears back with his own taiaha.” With this modest statement he gathered a great following and set off down the coast. He made pacts with the tribes of Ngati Porou, whereby they let him pass unchallenged through their territory. Eventually he came to Turanganui (which the pakeha calls Gisborne.) Here he met many chiefs of those parts, though Kuri Teko was not among them.

“So, you are Tamahae?” said an old chief of Aitangaamahaki on whom Tamahae made a call. “Men say you are a mighty toa, a warrior of the highest repute.”

With his customary modesty Tamahae admitted that such reports were but the truth, though there might be, he said, an element of understatement about them.

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“Well, well,” said the old man, rubbing his chin reflectively, “I was just another in my day. I might have become even more famous than I am, if that were possible, but I allowed myself to become side-tracked. One of my wives got me interested in growing hue (gourds). Every time I went out on a little fighting expedition I got home to find I had missed the most interesting point in one of my experiments.”

“You don't say?” remarked Tamahae, without much interest. “What was your weapon?”

Patu,” said the old man, shortly. “As I was about to tell you, I got the idea that if I took a bud from a good strain and ….”

“I daresay,” interrupted Tamahae. “What type of patu did you favour?”

“Greenstone,” replied the old man. “But not for its snob value. I found that it kept its edge better than onewa, which is inclined to chip. Whalebone, of course, has its points, but I found it liable to warp when twisted under strain. Now, getting back to those experiments in budding …”

“Why?” persisted Tamahae, “why would you want to twist a patu under strain?”

“Because,” said the old man, who was getting a bit sour at being interrupted in his story of his experiments with the hue, “because, in the days before I discovered what a waste of time all this fighting was, I spent some time to perfecting a thrust to the temple, a little trick of which you may have heard. You strike just above the right ear, with the blade of the patu held parallel to the ground. If you hit at the right place, with the right strength, you can lift the whole top of the skull with a flick of the wrist. Pretty; but only really successful with a greenstone mere. Nowadays, however, I devote my time to more important things. For instance this grafting process …”

“Ah!” Tamahae regarded the old man with increased respect. “You must, indeed, be none other than Te Putangamaiiro. I have indeed heard of that thrust.”

“I am he,” admitted the old chief, “As a result of these grafts I perfected I managed to breed a hue which grows so big that it is the largest obtainable receptacle for the preserving of rats, pigeons or tui. But you must be careful when tying the bud into the graft ….”

“You should speak to my brother, Kaiaio, about these things,” Tamahae told him. “As for me, my only interest in food receptacles is in the emptying of them. If, however, you care to demonstrate your thrust to me, I have a slave or two whom I could easily spare.”

But the old man had lost interest in weapons and warfare and turned to asking Tamahae about the experiments his brother Kaiaio was making with kumara. Tamahae became bored and soon they parted.

On his way down the coast from his home at Te Kaha Tamahae had passed unmolested through the territory of Ngati Porou, having concluded non-aggression pacts with Rerekohu of Waiapa and with Konohe of Uawa. His initial friendly relations with some of the chiefs of Turanga led him to expect that he would be given free passage through the territory of Rongo Whakaata and Aitangaamahaki tribes, so that he was somewhat surprised when, on the morning following his discussions with Te Putangamaiiro, he found his progress blocked by a large force of warriors of the Ngai Tawhiri, a sub-tribe of Rongo Whakaata.


When I say he was surprised, you must not understand that he was taken unawares. Any Maori or party of Maoris travelling through the territory of another tribe had constantly to be on the alert for hostility. Tamahae, on this occasion however, appears to have been taken somewhat less prepared than his usual wont. The Ngai Tawhiri attacked from ambush and the Whanau Apanui contingent were put to it to hold their own. The main brunt of the Ngai Tawhiri attack seemed to centre round a gigantic man easily picked out, not only from his size and his adept use of his taiaha, but also from the fact that he was extremely light in colour, so as to be almost an albino. This huge warrior carried all before him and one after another of Tamahae's stalwarts went down before the deadly stroke of his

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weapon. Fearing that this man's prowess might dismay that wing of his own force which was sustaining his attack, Tamahae forced his way through the melee in order to match himself with the giant.

As they matched weapons Tamahae realized he had met a master of the weapon and no doubt he “felt that stern joy which warriors feel in foemen worthy of their steel”. If he did, however it was not in Maori tradition to show it, for his was a punitive expedition and on such occasions the victory was not complete with the mere taking of an enemy's life, but only with the destruction of his mana as well. So when, after a keen bout, Tamahae succeeded in disarming his enemy he laid aside his taiaha and drew his greenstone mere to administer the death-blow.

“What a pity,” he said in an insulting tone, “that I must sully so noble a weapon with the blood of a low born slave.”

The fallen warrior drew himself up, proudly though with difficulty, on his elbow. “Who says that Kuri Teko is of low degree?” he demanded. “I am of the same blood as you. In all the many generations of my whakapapa there is not one ancestor who was not bred on the chevroned mat of chieftainship.”

“Ah!” said Tamahae. “So you are the famed Kuri Teko. Well, if it is any satisfaction to you, I will concede that you are a passable performer on the taiaha. Under other circumstances I might have spared you, but I took a great oath on Mount Maramaramaterangi that I would spare none of my enemies.” Whereupon he slew Kuri Teko.

The loss of their chieftain disheartened the Ngai Tawhiri and they fled. Among those who lived to fly was a great chief of Ngati Rakaipaakka named Te Huke, the same Te Huke of whom it was later said that his relationship to so many chiefs of exalted rank was as the posts upholding the net of mana over the East Coast.


Te Huke was overtaken and slain at the crossing of the Te Arai river at a point near to where the Manutuke Bridge now spans the main highway between Gisborne and Wairoa. Te Huke's head they cut off, and left it on a pole at te Karaka. The spot is still known as te upoko o te Huke, and is just north of Te Karaka, on the Otoko road, at a spot where rail and road converge.

They took with them back to Te Kaha te Huke's famous greenstone toko-pou-tangata which bore the name of Te Waiwharangi. It was deposited in a secret cave, and for all I have been able to learn to the contrary it may be there still. So great a warrior was Te Huke and so high stood he in the aristocracy of Ngati Kahungunu that

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his death was accepted as sufficient utu for the murder of Kahukuramihiata and for the loss of those other chiefs who fell while trying to avenge her death.

Tamahae is still remembered in the Turanga district by the saying “Ka hika putanga, ka kumara Kaiaio, ka rehu Tamahae”, which might broadly be translated as meaning that the skill of Putanga in the short jab of the mere and the great strength contained in the kumara of Kaiaio, both contributed to the famous sweeping blow of his taiaha which enabled Tamahae to win so many victories.

It was the memory of Kaiaio, and especially of the tasty kumara which came from his gardens which finally set Tamahae's feet on the homeward journey. He did not reach home, however, without further adventures.

At Tatapouri, some miles north of Turanga he met a nameless chief who aspired to gain renown by impeding the progress of the famed Tamahae. The nameless one proved unequal to his ambition and achieved only a new understanding of the full name of his locality, Ta-ta-po-uri-taanga, or the place where darkness falls quickly. Darkness fell quickly indeed on that luckless chief and it remained over him eternally as Tamahae proceeded victoriously and joyously on his way.


Toward twilight Tamahae came to the creek called Pouawa from the circumstance that a post, or pole, had been erected in the bed of the creek. It was the custom of travellers camping there for the night to hang their kits of food on this pole in order to keep them above the reach of rat or dog. Here he encountered that famous chief of Whangara-mai-tawhiti named Konohe. To him Tamahae related the story of his epic contest with the forces of Kuri Teko and gave a demonstration of the famous rehu or sweeping blow with which he had demolished their chieftain.

“It is, indeed, a shrewd blow,” admitted Konohe, “but it is one I could counter, I think, though I prefer the shorter weapon to your taiaha.” Where-upon he threw himself into a posture of defence and soon they were at it. Practice play warmed into real conflict and in the heat of the contest each set himself out to destroy the other. It was indeed a contest of giants, but so expert were they both that neither could prevail. In the end they broke off the affair by mutual consent. It is said by some that it was on this occasion that they made their famous pact, which was framed by Konohe in the following saying:

“Ka tu te kohatu ki Wahakino

Ka tu te kohatu ki Takore.”

which means.

My stone stands steadfast at Wahakino

Your stone stands steadfast at Takore.

On up the coast journeyed Tamahae, seeking fresh adventures to beguile his homeward journey.

He and his men came at dusk to a small village where they became embroiled in a fracas with the local inhabitants. Hine Tapora, wife of Rangikaputua, chieftain of Whanau Umuariki, and herself a woman of great rank, came amongst them commanding that they desist. It is said that Tamahae, in the confusion of the melee and in the gathering of the dusk, mistook her for a man. In any case he slew her. Discovering who she was he took her body and hid it in a disused storage pit which appears to have been under the care of a slave named Torea. For ever after that village bore the name of Rua-a-toria, or the Pit of Torea. The name endures to this day and no doubt will endure long after the circumstances of its naming have been forgotten.

Following this incident Tamahae moved on again. At Waiomatatini he crossed taiaha with one Makahuri in an epic contest of many bouts At Tikitiki he had words with a small man named Hikitai, who was moved to anger and flung a spear at Tamahae, but missed him. Tamahae taunted him with his small stature, but Hikitai reminded him that even a small axe could fell a large tree if the axe were of greenstone. And from that reply has come down the saying, “He iti ra; he iti mapihi pounamu”. Tamahae

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accepted this as a fair reply and they parted on amiable terms.

At Rangitukia he encountered a man named Putanga who was noted for his lack of beauty. Tamahae made some disparaging remark about Putanga's ugliness whereupon that worthy replied that though he might lack in good looks he belonged to the deep pool below the rapids, where only the largest eels are found. Hence another Ngati Porou saying, “He kino ra, he kino no tau o te wai”.

Tamahae had not long been back with his own tribe when they were attacked by Ngati Porou in retaliation for the killing of Hine Tapora, the Queen of the Waiapu. In this attack Ngati Porou had enlisted the aid of Ngati Konohe, and this aid was given in spite of Konohe's pact with Tamahae. This occasioned Tamahae's famous parody of Konohe's saying earlier mentioned. Tamahae remarked, “Ka taka te kowhatu i Wahakino, Ka tu te toka i Takore.” Wahakino is a rock at Whangara which symbolises Konohe, and Takore is a rock at Te Kaha symbolizing Tamahae. The saying implies that Konohe's rock shifted from its pledged purpose but Tamahae's remained steadfast to his promise.

As far as I can ascertain, Tamahae, in spite of being so fond of fighting and of knight-erranting, died peacefully in his bed of a great old age. His fame has come down through the centuries in far more glowing terms that of his brother Kaiaio, though both were famous men in their own right. But though Tamahae's fame as a warrior appears to have exceeded that of Kaiaio's as an agriculturist, I am assured that Tamahae laid aside his beloved taiaha long before he lost his fondness for Kaiaio's kumara.

And of all my Maori friends I know not one who can claim to be as skilled with the talaha as Tamahae, but I know quite as many who can do full justice to the onslaught on the kumara of Kaiaio.

In any case, on all their bones be peace.

Some time ago, when I was journeying in a bus I met a very, very old kuia. Our talk touched on many things, including the story of Tamahae. She told me, and I was glad to learn, that the variety of kumara perfected by Kaiaio was a white kumara and was known as uti-uti.

This then is the story of the knight-errantry of Tamahae as I have been able to piece it together from the fragments gathered from many Maori friends. I shall not mention their names for fear I should leave someone out, and indeed, I am not sure I can remember them all. I know that there are as many versions of this story as there are people who tell it. If my version does not appear equal in all things to yours, all I can say is, “Pardon the poor pakeha”.


He whakaatu tenei ki te hunga e manako mai ka timata te tuawha o nga whaataetae tuhituhi a Te Ao Hou. Kauaka e heke iho i te 1000 nga kupu o nga korero a te hunga whakataetae. Kei te tangata tonu te whakaaro mo tana kaupapa korero engari ko te tumanako me Maori te kaupapa o etahi o nga tuhituhi. Me korero purakau me korero tika ranei nga tuhituhi.

Me tuku mai nga tuhituhi ki Te Etita, Te Ao Hou. P.O. Box 2390, Wellington i mua mai o te 31 o Tihema. Ko nga kai whakatau o te whakatau ko Mr Alistar Campbell, he kaituti no Poneke mo nga tuhituti Pakeha a ko M. R. Jones mo nga tuhituhi Maori.

Ko nga paraehe £10. 10. 0 mo te tuhituhi Pakeha tino pai a £10. 10. 0 mo te tuhituhi Maori. Ka taia enei tuhituhi ki Te Ao Hou a mehemea i neke atu i te 2400 kupu te roa ka utua te puhaketanga atu. Ka ata tirohia ano etahi o nga tuhituhi a ko nga mea e rorotu ana ka taia ki Te Ao Hou.

Entries are invited for the Fourth Te Ao Hou Literary Competition. Stories must have a length of at least 1,000 words. They may be on any subject of the author's choice, although it is hoped that many of the contributions will be related to some aspect of Maori life. Persons and places may be either true or fictional.

Manuscripts should be sent to the editor of Te Ao Hou, P.O. Box 2390, Wellington, before December 31. The judges will be Mr Alistair Campbell, a Wellington poet and writer, for the English contributions, and Mr M. R. Jones for the Maori contributions.

The prizes will be ten guineas for the best story in English and ten guineas for the best story in Maori. The prize stories will then be published in this magazine. If they exceed 2,000 words, a contributors' fee will be paid for the balance. Other entries of enough merit will also be published at our usual contributors' rates.

– 17 –


Ko te maori te tino kaupapa o nga tikanga Maori e kiia nei ko te Maoritanga: ko te ara nui hoki tera mo te hinengaro, mo te taha ngahau o te ao, o nga mahi, mo te whakatatara, mo te whakatoi, mo te tangi, mo te manaki tangata. “Mo te hanga nei mo te whaikorero kaore he taonga i tua atu i nga waiata Maori.” Kei reira e takoto ana te reo rite mo ia ahua, mo ia ahua o te tangata Maori. Kaore he take i rere ai ki te reo Pakeha tango mai ai hei kakahu mo nga whakaaro o te hinengaro Maori. Ka nui kei tona ake reo, engari na te mea he reo i whakaititia e te whakatipuranga tangata e kapo nei ki nga mea a te Pakeha.

Ka korerotia te reo Maori kae rere mai ona hoa, a ko te hoa nui o tera reo ko te wahi i tau hei koreretanga mona: ko te huihuinga tangata a korero whakatu ai, ana ko te marae, ko te whare runanga. Ko te whakahuihui te hoa nui o te reo Maori. Me te aha e mau ai nga waiata hei hoa i nga haere, i nga tu marae? Ma te aha e taea ai te whakaahua ki te hinengaro tamariki te wa i o ratau tipuna? Ma te mau ki te reo nei, ki nga haka, ki nga waiata, ki nga whakapapanga taonga tuku iho a nga tipuna. Ka kore taua reo nei, ka rite tonu hoki nga tamariki nei ki te Pakeha, ka awhi noa mai i waho, kaore e uru ki roto.

He patai mahara mo te reo Maori, ka mau ranei? Mehemea e kaha ana te hinengaro ki te mea, kia mau tona reo, ona tikanga, nga mahi a ona tipuna, me te whakapiki i tona Maoritanga, ka mau tonu. Ki te anga nga whakaaro o te tangata, tona hinengaro ki a mea, kaore he raparapa mana. Kei tona taha tonu te tangata hei tohutohu i a ia, hei korero ki a ia, hei waiata ki a ia. Apopo aua tohunga Maori ona ka ngaro i waenganui o te iwi, i nga marae, i nga nohoanga tangata. Ko aua tangata hoki he tere ki te mohio ki te aro atu te tamariki ki a ratau, kaore ranei. Ka arotia ka hihiri ratou ki te mahi i nga mahi e minaia ana e te tamariki, a kaore e arotia ka nohopuku. Na, e nohopuku nei te tini o te tohunga i waenganui i nga tamariki whakaaro kore o te iwi Maori. Ka mohio mai koe hei to ao tamariki nei te kaha e mau ai te taha Maori.

Ko te reo te kaupapa o te Maoritanga. Ka mau ranei? Kei nga koka o nga tamariki te whakautu mo tenei. Ka hoki rawa te whakatikatika mo tatau ki nga kohanga o nga tamariki. Ma nga koka e whakaatu te reo Maori ki a ratau tamariki i te wa e kohungahunga ana, i te wa ngawari ai te hinegaro ke te pepehi. Ko etahi e ki ana kei te morimoria e nga koka hei Pakeha: ka Pakeha i muri atu nei. Haunga te mau o te kakano Maori i nga kanohi, engari etahi ahua katoa Pakeha i muri atu nei. Me tipu ake te tamariki me te reo i waia ki o ratau taringa. Hei reira tona pupri mai ai i te reo Maori. Ka tukua kia Pakeha, ka uaua te hoki mai ki te taringa te tika o te reo Maori.

Na kaore taua reo e taea te whakaako ki nga kura katoa o Niu Tireni. Engari ka taea te whakahohonu e te kura te matauranga ki taua reo. Ma te kura hoki e whakaako te reo Pakeha e wehe i roto i te hinengaro nga huarahi whakaputa i te whakaaro: kia motuhake ko te reo Pakeha hei huarahi mo nga mea o tona taha, ma te reo Maori nga mea ki tona taha. Tirohia nga tangata kura i kaupapatia mai i te reo Maori i o ratau na timatanga. No muri i piki ai ki te reo Pakeha. Pai tonu ki tetahi reo, pai tonu ki tetahi, ka powaiwai i waenganui.

Engari kei te tipu ake etahi o nga taitamariki a, kei te hoki haere nga whakaaro aroha o te iwi ki nga taonga tuku iho a o tatau tipuna. Ko tetahi wahi o te mea nei kei te tipu whakahawea ake o tetahi momo taitamariki ki tona taha Maori. Ka kite etahi he taha nui no ratau te taha Maori, a ka timata te whakapiri mai. Ma wai e whakatikatika? Ma te Pakeha pea. Ko ratou hoki kei te whakanui i nga mea a te Maori, ma ratau e whakatipua te Maori kore mohio ki tona ake reo, ki tona ake taha.

Apopo pea ka kiia e kore te tangata e whiwhi ki nga tuunga i te taha Maori ki te kore e mohio ki te reo Maori. Kei te nui nga mea i timata i te whakahawea, kua hoki mai ki tona taha. Ko te tumanako ia mo nga taitamariki e puta i nga kura nunui hei reo mo to tatau nei whakatipuranga.

Biggest Adult Education class ever held in Rotorua was the recent Maori language course for which enrolment was 90. Tutor is Mr A. Awatere, former Colonel of the Maori Battalion and now District Welfare Officer, Department of Maori Affairs, Rotorua. Most of those joining are Pakehas.

– 18 –

The place of Maori culture in the schools is a much debated subject today. We are therefore glad to be able to offer readers this authorative statement from the Officer for Maori Education.


Maori culture is part of the birth-right of every Maori child. This article will give some first-hand account of what is being done in Maori education to help the children acquire a knowledge of their own cultural background.

The school can never keep alive any phase of a national culture without some support from the homes of the people. The schools alone cannot save the Maori language, Maori arts and crafts or Maori song and dance. The Maori people themselves as a race must take the prime responsibility for the perpetuation of their culture or for its passing. This does not however mean that the schools have no responsibility in the matter; their responsibility is very real and policy indicates this in the following resolution passed at the first meeting of the National Committee on Maori Education (1955):

“The teaching of Maori culture, including Maori history legends, songs and arts and crafts is necessary for the full personal development of the Maori.”

“The Committee supports the teaching of the Maori language and recommends that everything possible be done to implement it.”

This policy has been endorsed by the Government. Here is an outline of what is being done.


Among the most valuable contributions made towards a knowledge of Maori history and Maori living is that of the School Publications Branch of the Department of Education. Bulletins issued to all primary schools include:

Ruatahuna, by Ray Chapman-Taylor,

Life in the Pa, Pts 1 and 2, by Ray Chapman-Taylor,

The Maori and the Missionary, by Harold Miller,

The Coming of the Maori, by Roderick Finlayson,

The Coming of the Musket, By Roderick Finlayson,

The Coming of the Pakeha, by Roderick Finlayson,

The Golden Years, by Roderick Finlayson.

The Return of the Fugitives, by Roderick Finlayson,

Changes in the Pa, by Roderick Finlayson,

The New Harvest (in preparation), by Roderick Finlayson,

The Treaty of Waitangi (in preparation), by Ruth Ross.

The series of bulletins by Roderick Finlayson describe, taking as an example one Maori family, how the changes of the nineteenth century affected the Maori people. They explain the facts about the changes in Maori culture almost like a novel, and so simply that children can without difficulty understand what happened. Life in the Pa outlines traditional Maori custom, and Ruatahuna describes the life of a present day Maori community in the back country.

These booklets, together with the bulletin on the Treaty of Waitangi yet to come, present a good and lively historical background for Maori as well as European children.

They do not, of course, cover the facts about Maori culture in any comprehensive way, but it seems to me such a historical background is an excellent basis for other cultural reading, and further bulletins are being planned.

– 19 –


An in-service training course we held at Ardmore Teachers' College in September last. Those invited had recently been appointed to schools where for the first time in their careers they would be teaching Maoris. It was a windy spring afternoon and 500 young teachers in training were entering the College grounds after the spring vacation. Here and there an obvious stranger felt his way towards the administration building till the whole twenty teachers of the special Maori course, from schools as far apart as Te Hapua and D'Urville Island gathered for the Principal's welcome and the opening session. They were a diverse group from the beginning, but one in their enthusiasm to gain a better knowledge of the cultural heritage of the children they had to teach and of the most effective approach to that teaching.

Eight mornings were spent in lectures and vigorous discussion on the teaching of English and its problems, the background of the Maori five year old and infant method, arithmetic in the Maori school, social development and health of the Maori child, a study of the Maori community. Discussion ranged from the infant class to the difficulties encountered at school certificate level. There was much pointed argument. The points of view of the tentative theorist and those of the forthright practitioner were all heard and debated and time was all too short.

There were eight afternoons of carving and tukutuku and taniko work. Everyone actually participated in the craft work and took samples of his work away with him. Song and dance and poi and haka all were made real to these teachers at the Maori colleges they visited. And eight afternoons were far too few.

The evenings provided intellectual fare that was a challenge to people interested in racial relations and national cultures. And the result of it all was an insistent demand that the same twenty people meet again in the near future. Up till now the Maori people owe a great deal to teachers of the Maori service for keeping alive much in their national culture, from now on their indebtedness will be extended to an ever widening group of teachers in the schools of New Zealand.


Maori culture is part of the ordinary classroom teaching of many an isolated Maori school. Let us describe a typical scene in such a classroom. Two Maori assistant teachers are in attendance and in front of the class is a Maori elder explaining the connection between a certain waiata and the historical event with which it is associated. The children are intent, their faces show it; they forget that they are the children of modern millworkers, but become conscious of their inheritance, of belonging to a proud race.

Such a race must not discard its language and again Maori District High Schools, Maori Colleges and one or two post-primary schools have done much to encourage Maori children to a knowledge of their native tongue. A new and more vigorous approach to the teaching of of Maori is necessary. The Refresher Course held at Whakarewarewa in May has helped to show the way. (This Course is described on page of this issue.) To a great proportion of Maori people their native tongue can no longer be the

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At refresher courses, teachers exchange notes on Maori crafts. Here carving designs are copied, to be later used in classroom work in Maori schools. (Photo: Peter Blanc.)

– 20 –

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One part of Maori culture now widely taught in Maori schools are stick games. Sticks, often made by the children themselves, are a popular part of this Northland school's equipment. (Northern Advocate Photograph)

everyday means of communication but it will remain part of their cultural heritage.

In another corner of the North Island a small group of people is at work—some are Maori, several are European. A piece of their work is before me. It consists of instructions designed to enable any teacher to give guidance in the performance of several poi dances. Illustrated and very clearly set out it should enable many more Maori children and indeed Europeans too to participate in this most graceful, most relaxed rhythmic dance.

Among these efforts is one that reaches schools and children indirectly—it is the excellent point of view and background expressed in the pages of Te Ao Hou. Indeed the actual work of children from the schools is given a place in these pages and the magazine is greatly valued in many of our schools.

The graciousness, warmth, and strength of Maori personality are revealed through many of these cultural activities. As happens in Teachers' Colleges and in Maori schools where European joins Maori in cultural activities, could not all European children learn something of Maori culture, not through history alone, but through direct participation in song and dance, in art and craft? In this way they could absorb something of the best that an older Maori culture can give to a developing New Zealand culture.


Maori action songs were not known to the Maori of fifty years ago, but nevertheless their popularity since their introduction into Maori culture is obvious from the number of songs composed throughout the years by such persons as the late Sir Apirana Ngata, the late Paraire Tomoana, and a host of others. Songs to honour a person, to commemorate an event, to farewell and to welcome people, and indeed songs which cover various phases of life, have been composed by numerous artists. It is the writer's intention to select two songs per issue of Te Ao Hou to avoid their being completely forgotten. Such songs of course, could well be used by Maori Youth Clubs and will augment their library of songs. The English translations are free

– 21 –

and rhythmical. ‘Te Wai o Whanganui’, a song composed by Mr Ope Whanarere, of Kaiwhaiki, Wanganui, is my first choice. For years, the question of the ownership of the Wanganui River has been a matter of several Court proceedings and is today still undecided. On 6th January 1939, Mr Whanarere was in bed ill. His late father, Mr Rama Whanarere, who was prominent chief of his tribe, was one of the elders who urged the Wanganui tribes to unite in their efforts to claim and retain the ownership of the river. This inspired Ope and while ill he composed this song which has been adopted by the Putiki Maori Club of Wanganui as its theme action song.

Te Wai o Whanganui,
E heke atu ra,
E tere atu nei,
Te moana e!
Te wai tuku kiri
O te iwi kua ngaro,
E pakangatia nei,
E matou e.

I haere mai ra koe,
I runga o Tongariro,
I te maunga huka ra
E rere nei e!
Te wai etc.

E te iwi o Whanganui,
Pupuia tatou,
Kia kotahi te reo,
Kia oti ai e!
Te wai etc.

That rapidly descends,
The river of Wanganui,
And gaily wends its way,
To the ocean deep;
The one time bathing waters,
Of our elders now departed,
For which we'll always fight.
Unto the end.

From Mt. Tongariro,
Did thou originate,
A snow-capped mountain,
From whence ye came:

Ye tribes of Wanganui,
Let us with one accord,
Unite, and with one voice
Proclaim, ‘tis the end!

From the pen of the greatest literary artist in Maoridom, the late Sir Apirana Ngata, comes an old favourite which was sung extensively during both World Wars. This song was first presented in public by the Hukarere girls, and was later sung by the Takitimu and Horouta parties at the reception to the Maori Battalion, at the ‘Hui Aroha’, Gisborne in April 1919. This song was also one of the favourites of the Tairawhiti Kiwi Club of Gisborne during 1939—45. ‘Kia ora ra koutou’ is the title of the song.

E ta ma! he marie,
Na te Ariki
Koutou i tohu,
Kia ora tonu.
Na te aroha o te Kaihanga,
Kia ora ra koutou!

Nau mai, e te iwi
Ki te marae
Pae o te riri
Mai onamata.
Whiua te aroha
Ki nga hoia,
Kia ora ra koutou.

E te iwi, kia toa,
Whaia ko te kaha,
Whiua te aroha
Ki nga hoia.
Kei wiri ra ‘hau,
Kia tangi tatou,
Kia ora ra koutou!

Ye brethren assembled
Through our Lord's mercy,
Ye have been spared
In safety to return;
‘Twas the abounding love.
Of thy Creator:
Greetings to one and all.

Welcome, ye assembled tribes
To this, our ‘marae’,
Whereon we've sheltered,
Warriors of old.
And ever shed afar,
Love to our noble men,
Greetings to one and all.

All tribes, be always brave,
Seek only what is mighty,
And ever shed afar,
Love to our noble men;
Cast aside anxiety,
But in our mourning,
We greet you, one and all.

– 22 –

The life of a sanitary inspector in bygone days, described by his son


Tenei reo no te pukapuka ripoata a Taurau Toi ite wa iaia etu ana hei Kaitirotiro marae. Tona ingoa tuturu Ko Wii no te matenga o tana tuakana o Taurau ka huaina tona ingoa ko Taurau mate noa ia.

Ko ahau tana tamaiti potiki tekau aku tau ka mate taku matua. Ka kaumatua ahau ka rongo ahau i te mohio o nga kaumatua o nga takiwa tawhiti ki toku matua.

Ki toku whakapae a Taurau i kura ki te kura Maori o Waimamaku. He Kainga o Inaia Toi no tana matua i reira. Ko tana kainga tuturu i Waiarohia, e rua pea maero te tawhiti i Opononi i te taha o te moana. E rua ona whare, engari ko tenei te whare i tika te oti. He tino whare atahua. E rua pakeha i reira e noho ana. Te tuatahi Ko Mr Hargraves, i te wa i a ia e taka ana i te mate i mate ai ia i te Hune 1914. Ko Mr Laing he mahita kura i reira e noho ana.

E mahara ana ahau ko a te Maori tuatahi i roto o te Taitakerau i whakatungia hei kaitirotiro marae No Oketopa 10 1908 Ka whakamana e te Tari O Te Ora. No Noema 15 ka timata ki taua mahi. No taua marama (Noema) ka utua e te tari mo te marama tuatahi ko te utu £:18:3.

Ko te tuhi o ana ripoata he mea tuhi ia marama ia marama. I te 12 o Noema 1908 ka timata ki te tirotiro i nga marae no Hanuere 15 1909 ka mutu te rauna tuatahi. Kaore he mahi i oti i tenei rauna. I te 28 o nga ra o Hanuere 1909 ka haere ki Whirinaki ki te whakatu komiti marae. I roto o te ripoata o Pepuere 28 1909. Nga whare papa kua oti te hanga hou e rima. Kotahi whare kauta i Mangamuka he mea neke i te taha o te wai e kainga ana. Tenei kauta no Karene Hare.

Pepuere 27 1909. Nga whare paku kua oti te hanga i nga whakahau i Waimamaku e 22., i Mangamuka e 8, i Waima e 6.

Maehe 30 1909. Nga whare papa kua oti i Waimamaku 1. Whare hui 40 × 18 × 10 Whare Kai 40 × 18 × 8 Whare Kihini 24 × 14 × 8 Whare Piha 16 × 14 × 12 Whare Toa.

Nga whare o Waihou 2 Pakanae 1.

He kupu no tana ripoata. I te 26 o nga ra ka tae ahau ki Waihou ki te whakatau i te raruraru o te komiti marae ki a Te Hira Mataika. Kua oti taua raruraru he mea whakatau me paipa mai he wai mo nga kainga o Te Hira.

Ripoata mo nga whare paku. Waimamaku kua oti katoa. Kohukohu e 4 Pakanae e 5. He nui atu nga whare paku o era wahi kua oti. Kei te oho nui tenei kaute ki te whakatutuki o nga tohutohu.

He Hui Hinota i tu ki Waimamaku i te 18 o nga ra o Maehe 1900 i reira ahau i te tiaki i te taha o te tari o te ora kotahi wiki taua hui 300 tangata i reira.

(Signed) Taurau Toi

Sanitary Inspector.

Aperira 3 1909

Ki a Te Rangihiroa.

E hoa tena koe. He ripoata atu ki a koe mo te mare Peke (Whooping Cough). Ka rua kua mate kotahi ano taima i mate ai, enei tamariki na Paua Mihaka Pakanae. He nui atu nga tamariki e pangia ana e tenei mate engari kua pai haere ake.

Aperira 30 1909

Ki a Te Rangihiroa. He ripoata mo nga mahi o tenei marama.

He whare perana i Pakanae kua tahua. He whare perana i Mangamuka kua tahua. He whare perana i Whirinaki kua tahua. Nga Whare hou e rima kua oti.

He whare paku no te Pakeha i Waimamaku he mea hanga ki runga o te wai e kainga ana, kua oti te neke. He whare perana i Waimamaku kua tahua.

Mei 30 1909

He ripoata tenei mo nga whare perana he mea tahu ki te ahi.

Kohukohu 1, Tekarae 1, Mangamuka 3, Utakura 6, Waihou Roto 1.

Nga whare papa Motukaraka 3.

E Toru whare perana o Motukararka he mea tahu.

Whare Hui Waihou No th 50 × 24 × 10. Whare Hui Motukaraka 70 × 24 × 12. Whare perana Whakarapa (Panguru) kua tahuna. Nga whare Paku Utakura 15. Whakarapa 8. Taheke 8.

He hui i Whakarapa i Mei 18 ki te 24 1909 Ka mutu tenei hui ka haere maua ko te Rangihiroa ki Taheke.

He raruraru mo te tunga o te whare hui. Na maua ko te Rangihiroa i tohu he wahi hei tung mo taua whare ki te wahi marangai. Kua oti tenei raruraru.

Hune 29 1909

Whare papa kua oti i nga whakahau. Waima 8. Mangakahia Wharepapa 1. Whare perana 2, kua tahua. Mataraua 2 whare perana kua tahua. Otau 1 whare papa. Omanaia 1 wharepapa kei te mahia. Whangape nga wharepapa 11. I Whare hui.

– 23 –

Owhata 2 wharepapa, 1 Whare perana kua tahuna, Hapoki kumara Whangape 9.

He ripoata mo nga whare kua tahuna Whangape 24. Nga whare paku Whangape 45. Waima 45.

Hurae 30 1909

Matihetihe nga whare paku 5. 2 Whare perana kua tahuna.

He ripoata tenei mo te whare o Erana Ngakuru Waimamaku Wharepapa 49 × 40 × 11—6″ 7 ruma 4 ruma moe, kihini, 2 timera pereki dining paara pahihi 2 pei wini 11 kuaha 1 Karaihe Peita kua oti. Wariu £800.

Etahi o nga whare o Waimamaku 2. Nga whare he mea tahu 6. Waipoua Whare perana he mea tahu 3.

Hurae 23 1909

Nga whare papa kua oti o Whirinaki 4. Nga whare Perana he mea tahu 2. Nga whare paku 10 Pakanae whare perana he mea tahu 2. Whare kai me te kauta o te whare runanga 60 × 18 × 6 30 × 14 × 7 kua turakina.

I te 8 o nga ra o Hurae 1909 ka tae ahau ki Kaihu mo te hui taenga iho o te Rangihiroa i te kore o te Waake e tae wawe ake ka tukua mai ki ahau te whakahaere o nga tikanga o te tari o te ora.

E 4 nga turoro i mahia e te takuta e te Rangihiroa. Ko te pai tenei o toku mema he takuta tonu. Rapua mai tetahi mema kia rite ki to matou.

Akuhata 31 1909

Ki a Takuta Pomare M.D. He whare no Wi Moka Mangamuka. Whare Papa 43 × 41 × 12 8 Ruma 5 ruma moe paara kihini pahihi timera pereki 2 taha 1 tini 9 tatau 3 tatau karaihe 9 wini. Wariu £700.

Ngarongotea 5 whare papa 5 whare paku Whakarapa 12 whare papa kua oti. Nga kauta he mea tahu ki te ahi 5. 12 whare paku. Waimamaku Te mahi ienei marama he whakatikatika i nga marae.

Pakanae, Hepetema 1909.

Whare kai no te whare runanga 46 × 22 x9. Whare Toa kai 18 × 12 × 9. 2 whare papa kua oti 1 whare perana kua tahuna.

Motukaraka, Hepetema 21 1909.

Nga whare kua oti 3. Nga whare kua reri nga papa mo te mahi 2.

Kohukohu 2. Kei te mahia 1. He mea tahu 1.

Mangamuka, Hepetema 23 1909. Nga whare kua pahitia 3 e rua he whare perana 2. Whare perana kua tahuna.

Upper Waihou. Wharepapa 1. Whare perana he mea tahu 1.

He ripoata tenei mo te whare miraka kau a Hohepa Heperi. Whare Miraka Kau 38 × 10 × 7. Raina katoa roto. Me nga waikeri. Ko te whare pai tenei o nga whare mirakatanga kau kei roto o Hokianga nei ahakoa a nga Pakeha no Taranaki te kamura me te tauira. Ka ahei noatu te tangata ina ia ka hoki mai i te karakia me ona kakahu papai ki te miraka i nga kau i te nui o te pai me te ma o roto o tenei whare miraka kau.

Oriria 3 whare papa, 1 kauta he mea tahu.

Oketopa 30 1909. Nga whare o Utakura whare papa 1, perana hou 2 kua tahuna 4. Waimamaku whare itahuna 10. Whakarapa Nga whare he mea tono, kia tahuna 13.

Na i runga i enei ripoata ka kitea te ahua o te no ho a nga tangata o te 50 tau kua pahure ki muri. Torutoru rawa nga tangata tika nga kainga noho. Maku e titiro kahore he whare paku o tetahi Maori i roto i tana takiwa.

Me matakitaki i nga whare noho i mua o tona timatanga he whare perana nga whare he whare nikau o etahi i whakahaua kia tahuna.

Ko te miharo te taea enei whakahau e tana iwi i roto i tenei 12 marama i te pakeke o te ora i taua wa.

E wha tau i tu ai ia i tenei tunga Kaitirotiro marae no te 31 Hanuere 1912 ka mutu ia. Koia tenei kote ra i tonoa ai tana ripoata mutunga ki te Tari O Te Ora.


E kiia ana ko te ingoa roa o te ao kei Wales takiwa o Ingarangi, ko tenei taua ingoa.

Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwllllantsiliogogogoch. Kei a tatou te iwi Maori tenei ingoa roa nei.

Taumatawhakatangihangakouauatamateapokaiwhenuakitanatahu. Kei Massachusetts takiwa o America tenei ingoa nei.

Chargoggagoggmanchauggagoggchaubuagungamwhenua o America.

maugg. He ingoa tenei no nga maori o tea

Ki taku mohio ko enei anake nga ingoa e mohiotia ana e te katoa, ko nga ingoa roroa o te ao.

Engari, e ki ana ahau kaore, i te mea kei ahau etehi ingoa roa ke noa atu i era e mohiotia ana.

I oku haerenga ki etehi o nga motu maha noa o te moana Nui a Kiwa, ka u ahau ki Tahiti. Ko te taone o tenei motu ko Papeete, i konei, ka tutaki ahau, ki tetehi tangata matau, nana i homai enei ingoa e toru hei tapiri ake ki era o nga ingoa roroa o te ao.

Koia tenei.

Ko+ = Tekauariimanihinihiitevahinerereatuaifareia.

Ko= = Teriinuiotahitiitevahhinetaerateritonateraiteriiaetua.

Ko= Teriinavahoroaitetuaihauviritetuaniimaruaiteraiaroroaitemanavaotutepau.

Ko nga tamariki enei a Kiingi Pomare te tuarima, kiingi whakamutunga o Tahiti tae noa ki nga motu katoa o tenei moana.

Noreira, ki taku nei titiro ake no tenei iwi te ingoa roa o te ao.

Kua oti.

R. T. Harrison,

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KA aua atu inaianei e korerorerotia ana e ngaitaua e te iwi Maori a e etahi o nga Pakeha aroha ki a tatou nei taonga ki a te Maori, tenei kaupapa te whakaako o te reo Maori. Ko te whakaaro o te nuinga noa iho o te tangata kei te heke haere te tokomaha o tatou me a tatou tamariki koia nei te reo ko te reo Maori hei reo korero ia ra ia ra. He tika kei nga rohe penei me Waikato, me Tuhoe, me Te Arawa, me te Tairawhiti ki Ngatiporou ka nui te u o nga tamariki ki to ratou reo Maori, engari kua nui haere nga whanau o roto o enei rohe he Pakeha anake te reo. Ko te whakapae no nga whaea te he. He pai tonu i te wa e ora ana nga tipuna hei aki i nga mokopuna ki te korero Maori, engari ka noho ko nga whakatipuranga o muri nei hei tipuna kua riro i te huarahi pokatata kua korero Pakeha anake. Na reira kei te kaha te tipu o tetahi momo tangata he Maori te kiri engari kaore he reo Maori na reira te patai he aha ra tenei iwi?

I te marama o Mei 1958 ka tu tetahi hui ki Rotorua na nga tangata kei te whakaakoako i te reo Maori ki nga tamariki Maori kei etahi o nga kareti a kei etahi o nga kura pakupaku. E 45 taua hunga no te whare wananga o Akarana no nga kareti penei me Tipene, me Hato Paora, me Hukarere a me era atu wahi. He tokomaha o taua hunga he Pakeha motuake. Inahoki i reira tetahi wahine ko tana mahi he whakaako i te reo Maori ma te tuhituhi, a ma te Reo Irirangi, kei te kura Correspondence i Poneke nei ei a ia e mahi ana. He Pakeha motuhake tenei wahine engari he Maori te tane, a he tohunga ia ki te reo Maori. I reira hoki etahi o nga Pirihi Katorika he tangata kaha ki te ako i te hohonutanga o te reo Maori. No te Ratapu te 18 O Mei i te hawhe o te waru i te po ka huihui taua ropu kaiwhakaako, ratou ko Te Minita mo nga kura ki te ruma whakairo o te whare kura i Te Whakarewarewa. I reira ka manaakitia ratou e Te Mea o Rotorua e Mr Linton, e Te Reiwhati Vercoe a e Te Tiamana o Te Poari Whakahaere i nga kura Poari o te rohe ki te Tonga o Akarana. I te whakautu a Hoani Rotana te Tiamana o taua hui, ka mea ia nui atu tona koa i heipu mai te Minita mo nga kura a Te Honore Mr Skoglund ki taua hui, he tohu kei te manaakitia e te Kawanatanga te whakaaro me whakaako te reo Maori ki nga kura. Ka mutu ano tona hinapouri tu rawa ake tenei momo hui kua ngarongaro te momo tangata pera me te kaumatua ra me Te Apirana hei whakapuaki i te matauranga o te reo Maori. Ka tu ko te Minita Maori ka mihi ki te hunga i huihui ki te wananga i te whakaako o te Reo Maori. Ka mutu ano te mea kei roto i ona whakaaro hei aruaru i taua kaupapa ko te kore e tokomaha o nga tohunga hei whakaako i nga tamariki o nga kura ki te reo Maori. Heoi ano ko nga kupu tautoko e whanau mai i taua hui mana ma te Minita Maori e ata whiriwhiri a ko nga mea e taea ma tona Kawanatanga e whakatinana.

No te ata o te Mane ka ata timata te hui. I reira nga tohunga o te Pakeha whakaako i era momo reo pera me te Wiwi ki te whakatakoto tauira hei matakitaki ma taua hunga ma te iwi e whakaako ana i te reo Maori. Na Hone Waititi B.A. kaiwhakaako o te reo Maori i te kura o Tipene, i te kura o Wikitoria me tetahi kura Pakeha ara te Auckland Grammar Girl's School etahi korero tohunga mo tana kaupapa whakaako Maori. Kaingakau ana tera ana korero ki ona hoa kura mahita.

Na Takuta Bruce Briggs kai-whakaako Reo Maori o te whare wananga o Akarana etahi korero hohonu mo te reo Maori. Ko tenei tangata, he toto Maori paku, i haere ki Amerika i tera atu tau i runga i te karahipi a nga hoia o te whawhai nui tuatahi whakamaumahara ki a Ta Apirana. I haere ia ki nga whare wananga i Amerika ki te rapa i te hohonutanga o te matauranga mo te whanauneatanga o te reo Maori ki nga reo o era iwi e noho whanaunga ana o te Moana-Nui-a-Kiwa i runga i nga kaupapa o nehera. I whakawhiwhia a ia ki te tohu matauranaga Dr of Linguistics ara he tohunga ki te kaupapa o nga reo Maori o te Moana-Nui-a-Kiwa. Nana etahi korero werowero whakaaro ara tana korero mo te tuhi o te reo Maori. E ki ana ko ia ki te kuare me roa e korero ana katahi ano ka marama te tikanga o nga kupu penei me te rata, a rãTtãT. Ko te hunga reo Maori tere tonu te mohio ko te rata he takuta, a ko te rãTtãT he rakau. Ko ta Takuta Biggs korero me pera te tuhi o te Maori i te tuhi o te kupu ra Maataapuunaa. Ki te hunga korero Maori he whakarihariha tenei tu tuhi o te reo Maori. Otira i te mea koianei te

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A typical group at the Rotorua refresher course. Canon Kaa, left, is studying the new booklet on Tuwhakairiora written by Pine Taiapa. As the Canon conducts classes in the Maori language in Hastings. In has a practical interest in anything appearing in the language. In earnest debate around the front table are Mr John Waititi, left, who teaches Maori at St. Stephens. Queen Victoria Girl's College and Auckland Girl's Grammar School and who gave three talks at the refresher course; Miss Makuini Warbrick, centre, who has compiled a Maori song book which is still unpublished; and Mr A. Awatere, District Maori Welfare Officer, Rotorua, whose recent adult education course in Maori in Rotorua beat all previous local attendance records. Col. Awatere contributed an inspiring lecture on waiata's to the course. (Photograph Mr Kinsella.)

whakaaro o nga tohunga tera pea e pai noa atu, ma te wa ra e whakaatu.

Na Hoani Rotana te tino korero—ko te reo te ha ora o te Maoritanga. Ka ngaro te reo ka moumou noa te whai a te tangata ki te pupuri i tona Maoritanga.

Ko tetahi mea whakamiharo o taua hui ko te tokomaha o nga kai-whakahaere o te Tari o nga Kura i reira e noho ana e whakarongo ana ki nga korero a e whakahokihoki ana i nga pataitai.

Ko te whakarapopototanga o nga whakahau ara kupu tautoko a taua hui ina na:—


Me timata te ako o te reo Maori ki nga kura Maori me nga kura Poari pakupaku he tokomaha nga tamariki Maori kei reira.


Me tuhi etahi pukapuka whakaako i te reo Maori me timata atu i raro ka piki haere—ma tetahi tohunga ma etahi tohunga ranei e tuhi a ma te Kawanatanga e ta, e whakarato.


Me whakakaupapa etahi korero Maori ki etahi pukapuka hei korero ma nga tamariki kei te whakaakona ki te korero Maori.


Me whakaako nga tamariki Pakeha ki to te Maori kaupapa. Ki nga korero purakau, ki te aronga o nga ingoa maunga, o nga ingoa awa o nga ingoa kainga, hei huarahi atu mo te aroha ki a te Maori taonga a hei mea tuhonohono i nga tamariki Maori me nga tamariki Pakeha ara ia i te Maori raua ko te Pakeha.

Ara atu nga kupu tohutohu o taua hui a meake nei ka panui ai hei korero ma koutou. I panuitia atu ai enei korero hei maramatanga mo koutou e kui ma, e koro ma kei te whakaaro nuitia te reo Maori.

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Talking to Mr Awaere is Mr Hironi Wikiriwhi who taught Maori at Auckland University during Dr Bigg's stay in America. For several years he was a teacher at the correspondence school in Wellington. He collaborated with Mr Awatere in the lecture on waiatas and showed himself an authority on classical Maori


Approximately forty-five teachers of the Maori language assembled at the School of Forestry, Rotorua, on Sunday 18th May to commence a week of lectures and deliberation on the teaching of the Maori language.

Most of the scholars stayed in the single men's huts in the Forestry camp and here after evening sessions they visited each other. With the firewood bins full of pine cones supplied by the generous Forestry authorities, and the little stoves blazing, the day's discussions were gone over again, and remits planned. Scholarly trappings were not wanting in these huts; nearly all had libraries brought by the members, sometimes quite formidable rows of books on Maori subjects, usually a dictionary, often a tape recorder, not rarely a typewriter. Obviously people had come to work.

They worked morning, afternoon and evening; only once after lunch one could see a procession of cars leaving the camp for an outing. They all went to a lookout tower near Ngongotaha. Overlooking the lakes and mountains in a powerful autumn wind, members listened to Peter Awatere reciting history and songs attached to the features of the landscape; then they returned to the conference room.

What subjects were discussed? The Maori text describes them in some detail; here we shall only list them briefly:

One teacher in foreign language, Mr C. I. Lowe, of Christchurch, and one teacher of English, Mr C. B. Kelly, of Auckland, gave lectures on how to teach languages.

A full plan for a high school course in Maori was ably set out by Mr H. R. Waititi B.A., teacher of Maori at St. Stephen's College, Auckland. Queen Victoria College, Auckland and Auckland Girl's Grammar School.

Dr Bruce Biggs of the Department of Anthropology. Auckland University, gave two scholarly lectures on the structure of the Maori language. He advocated the distinct indication of the long and short vowels in the written Maori, and the marking of the long vowel sound by doubling the vowel.

A resolution from the course unanimously supported the need for clear indication but only a narrow majority favoured the double vowel.

Col. A. Awatere and Mr Hironi Wikiriwhi discussed the teaching of Maori waiatas. Col. Awatere efficiently demonstrated his technique by training the group to sing Puhiwahine's love song “Ka eke ki wairaka”. The group responded enthusiastically.

Mrs Hattaway, Editor of School Publications described the growth and policy of her Department's publishing activities and invited the course's recommendations for publications in Maori.

Mr Schwimmer, Editor of Te Ao Hou threw out a challenge to the Maori speaker to produce some original literature.

Mr D. Alexander, Headmaster of the Whakarewarewa Maori School, advocated the teaching of Maori studies in schools. He thought European children should be familiar with hakas, pois and Maori culture, and be able to pronounce Maori place names.

The last few hours of the course were taken up with a formidable volley of remits and recommendations from the floor, so many and so involved that a committee was specially set up to sort them out and condense them so they would look less unwieldy. The result was that eleven remits were sent as recommendations to th Education Department. Most of these were aimed at giving Maori children better opportunities to learn Maori culture and language in primary and secondary schools, and at improving the training given to those who are to teach these subjects. Particularly the training of Maori language teachers was thought to need improvement. In addition Course members pressed for a part-time liaison officer for Maori children in

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Two important Course Personalities: the Very Rev. J. G. Laughton, Course president and Dr B. G. Biggs. Lecturer in Maori at Auckland University. Mr Laughton has made many important contributions to Maori language study; he saw the latest edition of the Maori Bible through its final stages. He is editor of the Maori magazine Te Waka Karaitiana, published by the Presbyterian Maori Mission in Whakatane. Dr Biggs, after his study in America, was able to give the Course valuable guidance in scientific method in the study of the Maori language.

Board and post-primary schools where the Maori roll is large.

The most important remit was probably the one asking the Education Department to set up a standing committee to advise on Maori language teaching.

The course was the first of its kind. It was noted for the presence of several prominent educational personalities, including the Minister of Education. It presented a challenge to young educated Maoris to become expert in the language and traditions of their people. Teachers were fortunate in having the services of the Very Rev. J. G. Laughton as Chairman. He ruled the meeting with sympathy and understanding and his lecture on the traditions and customs as the background to language was the most inspiring lecture of the whole course.

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Tape recorders were used to study new action songs collected by the teachers at recent huis. There was much zealous practising and copying of texts and no doubt Maori children at many schools will benefit. When the photograph was taken the song on the blackboard was ‘Te Matauranga o te Pakeha’ by Tuini Ngawai—an appropriate text.

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A young Maori actor—St. Peter's College, Northcote.

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The Prime Minister, the Rt. Hon. Walter Nash, has attended a remarkable number of Maori gatherings this year. Although some of them involved important business, many were social or religious or had a cultural or welfare aim. Here is the Prime Minister at the annual gathering of the Ratana Church at Ratana Pa (last January). The little girl, Joy lhaka, stayed on Mr Nash's knee for some time during a sports function while the team of Tauranga marching girls went through their paces. (Photo: Neale Hilton.)

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These apprentices studying at the Christchurch Technical College are all from the North Island. They came to Christchurch to do their apprenticeships, because good accommodation was available to them at the Rehua Hostel, now operated by the Methodist Church especially for Maori apprentices. (Star-Sun Photograph.)

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The only Maori to be in charge of a home for the aged is Sister M. Manawatu, who runs the Buchanan Home at Greytown. She was the only Maori at a meeting called in Wellington by the Health Department recently to discuss the problems of old people in New Zealand. In the photograph Sister Manawatu is seen meeting the Minister of Health, the Hon. H. G. R. Mason. Before marriage she was Mere Wehipeihana, of Ohau, near Levin.

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Old people gathered at the Centenary celebrations at Ngaruawahia.

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Last May, Margaret Lady Buck, Sir Peter's widow, died at Honolulu. During Te Rangihiroa's last visit to New Zealand in 1948, Lady Buck became widely known to the Maori people as they both travelled from marae to marae. It was her wish that her ashes should be interred in the vault at Okaki burial ground, where her husband's last remains were taken in great ceremony four years ago. Leaving Parliament Buildings on Saturday, July 5, the cortege bearing her ashes travelled via Otaki and Opunake, where stops were made, to Manukorihi Pa, Waitara. The ceremony at the vault at Okoki was on the following Sunday, in the presence of the Prime Minister, the Rt. Hon. Walter Nash, the Hon. E. T. Tirikatene, Mrs I. Ratana, M.P., and the former Minister of Maori Affairs, Mr E. B. Corbett.

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Respect was paid to Lady Buck's ashes at Orimupiko marae, Opunake. On the right is the new meeting house Ohinetuhirau, which was opened by the Prime Minister on the occasion of this visit. (Photo: Taranaki Daily News.)

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The ashes leave Manukorihi Pa, led by Rev. Manga Cameron. Pallbearers are Messers R. Vercoe, K. Ehau, M. R. Jones, B. Carkeek and F. B. Katene, all fellow soldiers of Sir Peter Buck in the first world war. (Photo: Taranaki Daily News.)

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Feather box (waka huia) in the style of Northern carving. As the box was suspended from the roof, the bottom (shown here) was the most ornate. This specimen is stone tool work. Its place of origin is unknown. It come to the Dominion Museum from the Oldman Collection. The long rolling curi [ unclear: ] inear surface decoration, the images with demand heads, sinuous bodies and webbed feet, are all typical of the Northern style. (Photograph: Dr. T. Barrow.)


The waka huia or papahou was the treasure box of a chief or of a family group. It may be more rightly termed papahou, for it held many small treasured items of adornment other than huia tail feathers. Combs for the hair, tiki, greenstone and bone ornaments, valued feathers and other small treasures were all retained in the papahou under a very special tapu, the box being suspended from a rafter of a chief's sleeping hut, or kept in one of those small whatu rangi upheld by a single pole of considerable length. Many of the curious and remarkable pendants held in our Museums once graced a welcarved waka huia or papahou.

There were several different forms of waka huia or papahou, all more or less fully ornamented with superficial carving. Examples of some of the man groups are figured. A highly ornamental specimen has a raised carved lid with human or manaia figures (above). The lower surface is covered with running scrolls and spirals which have two plain ridges partially interlocking at intervals. The second figure illustrates

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Waka huia from the British Museum, with matching mania figures. (British Museum Photograph.)

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Papahou illustrating spirals. (British Museum Photograph.)

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Papahou illustrating rauponga. (Copenhagen Museum Photograph.)

matching manaia, a feature of Bay of Plenty (Arawa) carving. Here we have a common and fairly typical oblong box shape, with projections at the ends (one apparently broken) to hold the suspension cords. The third and fourth specimens are somewhat rounded at the ends with projecting lugs carved in the shape of human heads. Of these specimens the third exihibits the complete interlocking spiral with two plain ridges in the rauponga, while the fourth, apparently from Northland, is carved with conventional more modern type rauponga, the variety known as whakarare in which three plain ridges cross at intervals over the notched ridge.

Lastly we have an unusual type of treasure box of which no specific name is known to me and which exhibits a human form holding the box on his bent back. The specimen illustrated is a modern carving by Mr J. M. McEwen after an old prototype. It is worthy of mention that similar small boxes on the back of an alleged ‘fire god’ have been excavated in Peru.

We have Maori carvers in our midst; all too few in relation to the population. Why should not the great Maori families of today have their own carved waka huia, made to their own design. Here is a work for an ambitious young man or a group of ambitious young men. Let us start with simple types until we get used to our tools. Strong hands and resolute hearts are the ingredients required. The rest will follow. Many beautiful waka huia have gone overseas; but in recent years some have been returned.

Oustanding and interesting types are on view in the Dominion Museum. These are from the collection gathered together by the late W. O. Oldman, London, and purchased by the New Zealand Government. It is perhaps not remarkable that so many of the finest examples of waka huia are to be found in England, for this was a convenient type of gift wherewith to speed the departure of some pakeha well loved by the Maoris of his day.

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Modern papahou, carved by J. M. McEwen. (John Ashton Photograph.)

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IN these modern times examples of Maori architecture in the South Island are rare. Buildings which existed in pre-pakeha days have long since vanished—destroyed by fire or fallen into ruin and decay. The ones figured here have been built at the small settlement of Otakou, seventeen miles from Dunedin, since 1940.

The ceremonial gates were built in 1940 to celebrate the centenary of the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi. For though it seems a long way from the scene of that historic event, the Treaty was signed here by the Southern Chiefs Karetai and Korako.

The church is a memorial to the work of the Methodist Church in Otago, and to celebrate the hundredth anniversary of the arrival in 1841 of the Rev. James Watkin, the first missionary to Otago. It is, however, a Maori mission church, and services may be held there by the clergy of any denomination. The whole of the interior has been decorated in typical Maori style and colours are the characteristic red, white and black. The sanctuary is lined to a height of about five feet with genuine tukutuku—imported from the North. Above the altar is a beautiful window of stained glass, the work of Mr John Brock of Dunedin. The pulpit also has panels of tukutuku.

At the back of the church a door leads into another room, a museum where hundreds of interesting relies of Maori and Pakeha occupation of the district may be seen.

The hall was built later, and it is, for so small a district, a truly splendid one. It has the design of a whare runanga outwardly at least.

Contrary to what one might expect both buildings are entirely made of brick, concrete, and cement, even to the so-called ‘carvings’. These were cast in a reddish brown colour from moulds made of genuine carvings in the Otago Museum.

Alas! How scattered are the tribes! Seldom now do the walls echo to the sound of waiata, karanga and korero. Yet a great variety of functions is held there—from school concerts and ‘bring and buy’ sales to banquets, balls and receptions to prominent visitors; from the joyous wedding feast to the mourning of the tangi.

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Above: One of the oldest chiefs of the district, Mr Kahu Te Kura (right) who was one of the earliest pupils at the first Tokaanu school breaks out the flag. On the left: Mr Tu Kahu. Below: General view of the new school. (Twentieth Century Photography, Taumarunui.)

Department of Maori Affairs, Taumarunui.

The opening of the Kuratau Maori School marks a very considerable change in the landscape between Tokaanu and Taumarunui. Not so long ago, the land surrounding Kuratau was worthless scrub, flanked by inaccessible forest. Now there is a highway right through from Tokaanu to Taumarunui; vast land development schemes are in progress at Kuratau, at Hauhungaroa, at Pukawa and all along the road to Waihi.

The children of settlers and workers on all these schemes now have an excellent new school to go to. It was open for lessons last October, with a roll of 70, which has already risen to 93, On 23rd April it was officially declared open by Mr D. C. Seath M.P., in a touching ceremony in which the Maori leaders in the district took an enthusiastic part. Most of the children now going to Kuratau school come from nearby milling centres and from the unit farms already established on the newly developed land. The school can accomodate a maximum of 115 pupils; this figure will be reached very soon.

In fact, within a few years it may well be exceeded; the Department of Maori Affairs has land development schemes in the area totalling almost 24,000 acres. Over half this acreage has been developed and the rest is expected to follow soon. Ultimately 45 settlers will be occupying this land, mainly on sheep farms; of these only 9 are

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Mr Kahu Te Kura addresses the children at the school during the opening ceremonies. Left of him is Mr J. Asher, master of ceremonies, seated are the other prominent visitors. (Twentieth Century Photography. Taumarunui.)

settled so far, so that there is still plenty of room for the population to expand.

In addition to departmental development there are some 9,000 acres being broken in by the Lands Department and by two Maori incorporations (Hauhungaroa and Puketapu).


At the opening day the official party assembled at the gates of the school and then made its way through a guard of honour of pupils dressed in Maori costume as they chanted a traditional Maori welcome and waved branches of greenery.

Mr Joe Hoko gave the official Maori Welcome and this was responded to by Mrs Wright, the Senior Lady Welfare Officer. Little Mary Kereopa presented a bouquet to Mrs Seath, wife of Mr D. C. Seath, M.P.

Chairman was a prominent Maori leader and member of the Tuwharetoa Advisory Committee. Mr J. A. Asher, whose family donated the land for the school, and the official party included Mr and Mrs Seath; Hepi te Heubeu, paramount chief Tuwharetoa Tribe; Ben Christy, Chairman of the School (an ex-Maori Welfare Officer who has now taken up farming on the block under the Rehabilitation scheme); Kahu Te Kura, one of the oldest chiefs; Canon Wi Huata; P. A. Grace; G. L. Stafford, Inspector of Maori Schools, and many others.

Mr Asher delivered an opening address. He then called on Mr Ben Christy, Chairman of the School Committee, who extended a welcome to the visitors to the ceremony and appreciation to the Paurini family for its gift of the land for the building, and also to the Education Department for erecting the building.

The headmaster of the new school, Mr B. James, was the next speaker, who said he was impressed at the interest shown in the school by the local residents and parents.

An action song by the pupils delighted the audience and then one of the oldest surviving chiefs, Kahu te Kura, spoke. Kahu te Kura was an original pupil at the first Tokaanu Maori school and said he thought that, today, education for Maori children took precedence over everything else. Tribal lands and even Maori culture should take second place to modern education which allowed Maori children to be measured by the same yardstick as their European friends. With education, Maori children would be well protected in the future.

He then walked to the flagpole and broke out the New Zealand flag while the children sang the National and New Zealand anthems.

Mr D. C. Seath. M.P. officially declared the building open.

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When the Maori chiefs visited Vienna, this was part of the imperial palace. Today, it is the Ethnological Museum, in which treasures from all parts of the world are displayed. They include a number of Maori works of art, most of them brought back to Austria by Andreas Reischek. (Photo: Museum f. Voelkerkunde.)


A century ago, when the Austrian Empire included the ports of Trieste and Venice, Archduke Maximilian, brother of the Emperor Franz Josef and head of the Imperial Navy, ordered an exploratory world cruise to be made by the frigate Novara, with a staff of seven scientists. She visited Auckland from 22nd December 1858 to 8th January 1859.

When she left for Trieste, a geologist, Dr Ferdinand von Hochstetter, stayed behind, at the request of the New Zealand Government, to investigate Auckland coal deposits. The Novara signed on two Maoris, Wiremu Toetoe Tumohe and Te Hemara Rerehau Paraone, as members of the crew.

The Maoris reached Vienna in October. It was arranged for them to work at the State Printing House; a member of the staff knew Maori, and taught them English and German, all branches of printing, and drawing. They spent nine months there, and were presented to many prominent people, including the Emperor. When they left they were given a printing press (now in the Te Awamutu Museum), and they returned home after a visit to England, where they were presented to Queen Victoria.

Meanwhile Hochstetter had spent nine months in New Zealand, working with Sir Julius von Haast in Nelson as well as Auckland. Returning to Europe, he kept up his interest in New Zealand, corresponded with von Haast, and exchanged botanical and other specimens. He published his book New Zealand in German and English. Later he became Director of the State Museum, Vienna,

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Maori exhibits in the Viennese Ethnological Museum. All these fine examples of Maori art, with the exception of the one on the far left, are from the Reischek collection. (Photo: Museum f. Voelkerkunde.)

where he built up large New Zealand collections.

In 1877 von Haast wrote asking von Hochstetter to find him an assistant for the work of founding the Canterbury Museum. Andreas Reischek was sent out as a taxidermist. After his term of two year's work he spent ten years more travelling in New Zealand and getting to know the Maoris. He took back his famous collection of Maori objects to Austria, and it is now in the Ethnological Museum—part of the old State Museum—in Vienna. A special display of the collection has recently been made by the ethnologist, Dr Irmgard Moschner, who is keenly interested in New Zealand and the Maoris. Reischek's son. Professor Andreas Reischek, now aged 65, and a prominent figure in educational work in Austrian broadcasting, also takes a great interest in Maori Affairs and corresponds regularly with Maori friends.


We are pleased to offer our readers a manuscript of great interest to students of Maori history and language. It is a diary kept by Wiremu Toetoe Tumohe and Te Hemara Rerehau who went to Europe on board the Austrian frigate “Novara” with Dr Hochstetter. They spent from September 1859 to May 1860 in Vienna, learning the printing trade at the Imperial Printing Press.

They were introduced to the Emperor. The Archduke Maximilian showed them all over the city and on parting asked what they would like as a present. They asked for a printing press and types, which were later sent to New Zealand and used by the Maori King to print the paper called “Te Hokioi”.

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Named after a battle won by an Austrian army in Italy, the frigate Novara acted as the link between Austria and the Maori people. It is on this ship that the authors of our diary travelled to Vienna where they met the Emperor and learned the printing trade. This photograph is after a painting by Zoebl, done in 1903.


Tenei korero mo te pai o tenei iwi o te Taiti. Ka nui te pai o taua iwi, heoi ano te iwi pai i kitea ai e maua ki nga whenua pakeha. Te papai o nga whare, te papai o nga kai me ana wai. I nui te pai o tona tangata te karanga mai kia haere noa atu ki te whare kia mahia he kai. Te kore kai rama, kahore he haurangi kahore mea kotahi i kitea e maua ki te rori ahakoa iwa noa nga marama ki reira e noho ana maua, Kaore hoki tetahi mea kino i kitea e maua ki taua whenua. Heoi ano te motu rangatira e noho nei i te ao ko Haramane.

Tana moni he moni pukapuka; kaore i penei me ta te Ingarihi moni: he rereke ta tenei iwi ta tenei iwi tana moni ta te Taiti. E kotahi pene ana te utu mo te tangata ina kai ki roto i nga whare kainga, ta te Ingarihi e nuku ana ki te rua hereni.


These words are set down in praise of the Austrians. They are a good people, the most generous people we visited in the land of the Europeans. The buildings are beautiful, the food and the beverages delicious. Hard liquor is not found amongst them, nor did we see one drunk on the road during the nine months of our stay and we did not see anything bad in that land. They are undoubtedly a people of the highest standing in the world.

They have paper money which is unlike that of the English. Money varies from people to people and theirs is Austrian money. It only costs one penny for a meal in a restaurant, whereas in England it is more than two shillings.

We began our stay in this country in the month of September 1859, and were taken to a leading chief of the land who was to arrange the place

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A i te timatanga o to maua nohonanga ki taua whenua te marama ko Hepetema 1859 a kawea ana maua ki tetahi rangatira nui runanga o taua whenua. Te take mana e whakarite te wahi hei nohoanga mo maua. A rite ana, karangatia ana ki te whare perehi a te rangatira nui, noho ai enei rua Maori taihoa kia tata nga ra o to raua hokinga ki to raua kainga, ka haere ai kia kite i te Emepara.

A, i te tekau ma ono o nga ra o Mei i 1860 a ka tae ake a te Hokiteta, haere ana ko ia te mea i tae wawe ki te Kingi. A tuhituhi ana ia ki a Hata i te Riete ka mea atu kua hiahia te rangatira nui kia haere atu enei rua Maori kia kite i a ia, a whakaae ana a Hata mo te rua o nga wiki ka haere atu ai ahau. Ko tana korero mai tera ki a te Hokiteta, mo te paraire i te rua o nga wiki haere atu ai enei rua Maori ki tetahi whare huinga o nga rangatira o te Nowara i Remihe Kaihe. No te Paraire haere ana matau, ka uru ki roto i taua whare. He whare korero whakahari mo nga rangatira o to ratou nei manuao mo te hokinga mai i te titiro i nga whenua katoa o te ao, mo maua hoki tetahi wahi o taua korero mo to ratou kitenga i te Maori moko.

I kite atu maua i to maua rangatira ki roto i taua whare, notemea e rua marama e wehe atu ana i a maua e noho ana ia e mahi ana i nga korero o nga whenua i haere ai te kaipuke.

Taua pa e tata ana ki Itari, te ingoa te Riete. He nui te matara o taua pa no te Tariana, he wehenga ano no Haramane, engari no te Taiti ano taua iwi, kotahi tonu te kingitanga ko Paranihi Hohepa.

Otiia e toru kingitanga i roto o taua whenua kotahi o Haramane e wha: te tuatahi Paranihi Hohepa; tuarua kei tetahi wehenga o Haramane —te ingoa o taua pa Rewaria, tona kingitanga Makimiriana; tuatoru no Wiatene Peaka tona kingitanga ko Wiremu Wiatene Peaka; tuawha ko te kingitanga o Puruhia moe te tamahine a te kuini i te kingitanga o taua whenua. No Haramane anake enei kingitanga.*

Ka hoki ano tenei korero ki to maua kitenga i te Kingi tuatahi i a Paranihi Hohepa koia te mea i nuku ake i roto i enei kingitanga o Haramane.


of our stay. He did so and we were made welcome at the printing house of that great gentleman. And here these two Maoris stayed until it was near the time for them to return to their homeland, when a visit to the Emperor was to be arranged.

On the 16th of May Hochstetter arrived, who had already seen the Emperor. He had then written to Hata from Trieste saying that the great chief had expressed a wish to meet the two Maoris, and Hata had consented to an interview in two week's time. That was what Hochstetter was told. On the second Friday these two Maoris were to go to the hotel “Zum Roemischen Kaiser” where the officers of the Novara were to meet. On the Friday we went there and entered the building. The occasion was a welcome to the officers of this warship which had returned after seeing all the lands of the earth. Part of the welcome was for us, the first tattooed Maoris they had seen.

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The Government Printing Works in Vienna were among the famous presses of the nineteenth century. In various processes, such as colour printing, their standard was almost unequalled. It was here that Wiremu Toetoe Tumohe and Te Hemara Rerehau Paraone learnt the trade. (After an engraving of about 1850.)


* The Germanic Confederation (doubtless this is what the author means by ‘Haramane’ in this context) was created by the Vienna Congress in 1815 and bound Austria and the German States, at least nominally, together. The Austrian Emperor was in fact no more than the senior partner in this Confederation. Within it, there were two more small Kingdoms not mentioned by the author, namely Saxony and Hanover, as well as a large number of German Principalities. The Confederation was dissolved a few years after the visit of the Maori chiefs. Obviously it was a favourite topic of conversation in Vienna while the Maoris were there and their Austrian informants could easily have given them an exaggerated idea of the Emperor's power. (Ed.)

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The translation of this diary is by Mr M. Te Rotohiko Jones.

Our thanks are due to Messrs W. Parker, J. M. McEwen and Dr W. Rosenberg who helped in the editing of the manuscript. Some of the Maori vocabulary must be unique, e.g. aihanapana meaning train (from the German word Eisenbahn) and timeara meaning chamberlain (German: Kaemmerer).

In our next issue we shall reproduce the diary of Te Hemara Rerehau Paraone, which makes up the rest of the manuscript.


A i nga ra whakamutunga o Mei, i te tekau ma ono o nga ra o te marama, he Paraire taua ra no te ahiahi, ka tae mai te reta a te rangatira nui ki a maua mo te tekau ma rua o nga haora i te awatea ka haere mai enei rua Maori kia-kite ia i a raua. Heoi, i te ata, ka mutu te parakuihi, tahuri ki te whakapai i nga kakahu ara ki te paihe i nga hu, ka rite noa te taima i karangatia ai, haere ana matou ko to maua hoa whakaako ki te mahi-perehi. Ko matou kua tae ki te tatau o te whare o te rangatira nui, ka tae hoki to maua rangatira a Hata. I mua ko Hata me te Tiuka, muri mai ko Wiremu, muri mai ko ahau, muri rawa ko te timeara. Titiro rawa atu ki te hoia o tetahi taha o tetahi taha me to whakahonore haere, ko runga anake ano e tuohu haere ana ka tae ki te tatau i te ruma i noho ai te rangatira. Tuwhera kau ana te tatau kua pai mai te tu mai a te rangatira nui, me te whakahonore haere atu matou ka tata noa ki te taha. Katahi ka tu matou, ka korero a Hata ka mea atu ki te rangatira:

“No Niutereni enei tangata ko nga rangatira o taua whenua, Wiremu Toetoe, Hemara Rerehau i haere mai i runga i a te Novara e mea ana kia korero i to raua reo kia rongo koe, ma te timeara e whakataiti kia koe.”

Ae, katahi ka korero ko Wiremu, ko nga pukapuka i te ringaringa ano o Wiremu e mau ana. He mea mahi na maua ki te whare perehi, he reo Maori tetahi taha, he Taiti tetahi taha. Ka hoatu e Wiremu nga pukapuka ki te Kingi. Katahi ka korero notemea ko nga mihi mona i roto i taua pukapuka. Ka karanga mai a Hata. “Wiremu takia Maoritia kia nui te reo, kia kaha.” Ae koi ana ka tatu, ka koreo a Wiremu, ka mea ka mihi maua ki a korua.

“Tena koe tena koe e Paranihi Hohepa, te rangatira nui o Atiria katoa. Ka nui to maua hiahia kia kite maua i a koe. Tenei te take o to maua haerenga mai ki tenei whenua, i hiahia


In that building we saw our host again. He had been away for two months writing an account of the lands he had visited on the ship. He had been in a town near Italy, called Trieste. This Italian town is very far away and cut off from Austria, yet the people belong to the Austrian Empire: they have the same ruler, Francis Joseph.

However, there are three further Kingdoms inside the Germanic Confederation, which includes four Kingdoms in all: first, Francis Joseph; secondly there is a part of the Confederation called Bavaria whose king is Maximilian; thirdly there is Wurtemberg, whose king is William of Wurtemberg; fourthly the Royal House of Prussia; the Queen's daughter married into that house. All these kingdoms belong to the Germanic Confederation.

I shall now return to our visit to the first of these rulers, Francis Joseph, who is the principal ruler of the Germanic Confederation.

In the last half of May—it was the sixteenth day of the month and a Friday evening—the letter arrived from the Emperor inviting us to visit him at noon the next morning. So, in the morning after breakfast we began to tidy our clothes, brush our shoes and, in time for our appointment, we went on our way with our mentor from the printing works. We arrived at the door of the Emperor's palace, where our chief Hata joined us. In front went Hata and the Duke, then followed Wiremu, then I and at the very rear the chamberlain. We saw soldiers on each side and as we went we bowed to each side, bending only the upper part of the body, until we reached the door of the Emperor's chamber. As soon as the door was opened, the great man was standing ready to receive us and as we approached we bowed until we were beside him. We then stood and Hata said to the Emperor:

‘These men are from New Zealand; they are chiefs of that land. They are Wiremu Toetoe and Hemara Rerehau who came on the Novara. They wish to speak to you in their own language and the chamberlain will translate it into German for you.’

So then Wiremu spoke, holding the papers in his hands. We had prepared them in the printing works, Maori in one column and German in the other. Wiremu then handed the papers to the Emperor, who read the greetings contained in the papers. Hata then called on Wiremu to speak in the Maori language loudly and with emphasis. It was then that Wiremu spoke and expressed our greetings thus:

‘Greetings, greetings to you Francis Joseph, supreme ruler of all Austria. Our desire to see you has been very great. That was the reason for our coming here: we desired to see you, the supreme ruler of all Austria; we also wanted to see the lands of the Europeans. The commander of your warship Novara spoke to the Governor

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maua kia kite i a koe i te rangatira nui o Atiria katoa; ka hiahia maua kia kite i nga whenua pakeha. Te rangatira nui o tou manuao o te Novara i korero ki te Kawana o Niutireni, a, whakaae ana te Kawana ki te korero o te Kamotoro. Korero te Kawana ki a maua haere kia kite korua i nga whenua pakeha kia kite korua i nga rangatira nunui o nga pakeha. Tena koe, tena koe e te Kingi o nga Kingi, te Ariki o nga Ariki, ohana ki runga rawa.

“Ka whakapai atu maua ki a koe akeake, he hepeta tika te hepeta o tou Kingitanga.

“Tena koe, tena koe e Paranihi Hohepa te rangatira nui o Atiria katoa; ka korerotia e maua tou pai ki Niutireni me tou ataahua ina hoki maua ki to maua nei kainga.” Ko te mutunga tenei o a maua mihi mo taua Kingi.

Titiro tonu taua Kingi ki a maua me te menemene mai nga paparinga, katahi ka puta te kupu a taua Kingi: “Katahi ano ahau ka rongo i te korero pai na enei tangata; katahi nga tangata i korero pai ki ahau. “Heoi puta ana matou ki waho, hoki ana ki Otakaringi, i te ata taia ana ki te niupepa to maua taenga kia kite i te Kingi a rato katoa ki nga wahi katoa o taua whenua katoa, hei korero ma taua iwi i te ao, i te po.

I te taima i tata ai nga ra o to maua hokinga mai ka nui te mihi a taua iwi ki a maua me te aroha. Tata noa ake nga ra heoi ano e taia ana ki te niupepa kei te rua te kau ma ono o nga ra o te marama o Mei 26—1860, i te Rahoroi, ka hoki enei rua tangata ki to raua nei kainga. No te Paraire ka tuhituhi mihi maua mo te rangatira nui rawa. Te Rahoroi ka rere mai i runga i te tima haere uta, i te aihanapana.

Ko to maua rangatira nana maua i arahi atu kaore i kite i to maua haerenga mai, i Itari hoki ia e noho ana, engari ko te reta kau i tae mai ki a maua. “Haere ra e oku hoa aroha ki to korua nei kainga: kua rite korua ki nga kapua teitei, haere kia pai te hoki kia ora korua haere e hoki ki Waikato kia kite o korua whanaunga i a korua.”

I Te Rahoroi ka haere mai maua i Wina ka eke ki runga i te aihanapana Hangaperetene Rimiti, Pewharia. Tae noa atu ki te Kingi o reira kua riro ki Wiatene Peaka. Haere ana maua ki te matakitaki i roto o tona whare.

Moe iho i te ata ka rere mai ka tae ki te kainga o nga matua o to maua hoa e arahi nei i a maua, o te Hokiteta. E wha nga ra ki reira e noho ana, katahi ka haere kia kite i te Kingi o tera wehenga o Haramane. I te tekau ma rua ka haere ki te whare o taua Kingi o Wiremu Wiatene Peaka. Tae rawa atu kua riro te Kingi o Pewharia i reira hoki e noho ana. Heoi ano haere ana ka tae, mihi ana ki taua Kingi ko nga mihi ano i te Kingi tuatahi. Ka mutu hoki ana mihi mai a tera kihai i taro kua po. No te mea ko te taupatanga atu, tera: e po ai a reira e marama ai a konei, e po ai a konei e marama ai a reira.


of New Zealand, and he agreed to the Commodore's request. The Governor told us to go and see Europe and the great chiefs of the Pakeha. Greetings, greetings, King of Kings, Lord of Lords, Hosanna in the Highest. We pay homage to you for ever and ever: a true sceptre is the sceptre of your rule.

‘Greetings, greetings, Francis Joseph, supreme ruler of all Austria; we shall acclaim your kindness and your splendour in New Zealand, when we return to our homeland.’

For a long time the Emperor gazed upon us, his cheeks aglow; then he said: “I have never heard such well-chosen words as these two have said; their address was very excellent.” We retired outside and returned to Ottakring. In the morning our visit to the Emperor was published in the newspaper and distributed all over the country for all to read day and night.

When the time of our return drew near, there were many expressions of goodwill and affection towards us from the people. Just before our departure it was published in the newspaper that we were leaving for our homeland on Saturday, May 26, 1860. On the Friday we sent our farewell message to the Emperor. On the Saturday we left, first by ferry, then by train.

The gentleman who had conducted us did not see us leave but we did receive a letter from him. saying: ‘Farewell my dear friends, depart to your homeland; you have become like the clouds on high; farewell to you both. Return to Waikato so your relatives may see you.’

On the Saturday we left Vienna and went by train to Bavaria. When we arrived, the King of that country had gone to Wurtemberg. So we went to view the inside of his palace. We stayed overnight and in the morning went to the parental home of our mentor Hochstetter. We stayed there for four days, then went to see the King of that part of the Germanic Confederation. On the twelfth we arrived at the palace of the King of Wurtemberg. By then, the King of Bavaria who had been staying there had just left. Nonetheless we proceeded to pay our respects to the King of Wurtemberg, in the same way as we had done at the Emperor's. After he had replied to our greetings, it was close to nightfall, for such is the division of time: when it is nighttime over there, it is day in New Zealand; when it is night in New Zealand, it is day over there.

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What can you do? What must you leave to the experts?

A New Article on Motoring specially written for Te Ao Hou

We left off at the point of minor maintenance jobs in the last of these motoring pages, and promised to say something about the slightly more complicated jobs the ordinary motorist can do at home. Well, here we go.

Rule Number One is to tackle only the jobs you have the tools to do—and of course the experience too. As a general rule the things you can do in your own garage are confined to keeping brakes, steering and general running gear in good order, cleaning and adjusting distributor points, minor carburettor servicing, cleaning out the cooling system, and finally the ‘top overhaul’, that is, decarbonising or valve-grinding.

A whole article could be written about almost any of these jobs, but I'll try to condense the main points into this one and leave you to fill out on the know-how of your friends and through that tough old teacher experience.

But before we start there are two things the home tinkerer should never do: attack any job for which he has neither the tools nor the experience, and at all costs avoid disturbing the pistons, rings, big-end and main bearings, camshaft or timing-chain. Repairs to these are mechanic's jobs, and the amateur can seldom do anything but damage. And before you start anything buy one of the cheap instruction books available for most makes of car nowadays.


Brakes nowadays are hydraulic, but most of the older cars we have had in mind in these articles have mechanical linkage of some sort or another. In the case of mechanical brakes, if the pedal goes too far down to the floor-boards, leaving little margin for emergency, first check the pedal adjustment. Where the pedal works the brake-rods or cables beneath the floor-board, there is always an adjustment point. In hydraulic systems all that is probably needed is more of the special fluid in the reservoir.

If these adjustments bring no improvement to your brakes, the next thing in either case is to jack up each wheel in turn (or preferably in pairs, front and then back). Behind the brake-drum there is always an inspection plate, and beneath it the adjusting nut or screw which the instruction book will explain to you. Tighten up each brake in turn until the brake shoe is just binding on the drum, then ease off one notch or turn to free the whee’.

Then by testing the car you will find whether one brake is binding more than the others, pulling the car out of line, in which case the remedy is obviously to slacken it off further.

Sometimes a leaking oil-seal has allowed oil to get around the wheel-bearing on to the drum and lining, causing the brake to lock suddenly, or work erratically.

From this stage on it is best to go to a garage or a brake specialist, for if the linings are so far worn as to need replacement it is cheaper and more satisfactory in the long run to have the job done by the expert. There are traps, especially with hydraulics, which are better left to the expert to avoid.


Much the same applies to the steering-gear, with which just about all the home mechanic can do is to check all the connections, like the ball-joints at the bottom of the steering arm and the ends of the tie-rod, take up slack in the steering-box if there happens to be an adjustment (this is not usual), and watch the tyres carefully for signs of undue wear.

Any indication that a front tyre is wearing rapidly on one side, or in irregular bumps and hollows, means that the front wheels are out of alignment, and a check should be made at a garage. It can be done at home, but it takes so much trouble to rig up the necessary gear that it is much faster (and safer) to take it to a garage.


Other suspension and transmission checks the home mechanic can make are on the universal joints on the propeller-shaft, running from the gearbox to the back axle, on the shock-absorber fluid level and on the u-bolts and shackles of leaf springs. It is surprising how much difference loose shackles or bolts can make to the handling of a car, and the bolts are usually easily tightened up. Worn shackles are a bit more difficult, but they can be replaced at home by either jacking or hauling the body up until there is no weight on

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the spring and the shackle can be removed.

It's useful to remember, however, that when putting in a new shackle it is usually necessary to wedge a piece of wood in between the eye of the spring and the chassis above it, to keep the eye the correct distance from the eye on the chassis when the old shackle is taken out. Otherwise the spring will snap up against the chassis and you'll have a long and painful job levering it down to the right spot to slip the new shackle in.

Any tightening-up that has to be done under the car is uncomfortable at the best, and often the nuts are rusted up hard. The best thing to do is to squirt them liberally with penetrating oil, giving it a few hours to soak in, applying the right-sized ring-spanner and having another go. A sharp tap with a hammer on the spanner near the nut will often jolt it free, but too hefty a blow may leave you one spanner short.

On the subject of tools, never start a job unless you are sure you have the right spanners and screwdrivers for the job, and enough of them. Some cars are standardised down to needing only four or five sizes of spanner for practically all the jobs on the car (Fords are the classic example) but others need a dozen or more. Find out first, for there's nothing more irritating or time-wasting than to get half-way through a job and find yourself lacking the proper tool.

A careful inspection of the nuts on your car will tell you how many spanners and what sizes you will need. A few shifting-spanners, a couple of pairs of pliers, three screwdrivers and a coldchisel and hammer for desperate emergencies will just about complete the outfit for the jobs mentioned in this article.

We'll have to leave work on the engine to the last article of this series, and will add a bit about care of the bodywork as well. Final advice on these jobs, as on any others I've mentioned, is: When in doubt, don't start it yourself. It's cheaper and better in the long run to take it to a good mechanic.

* * *


The fourth annual conference of Maori students was held last July at Auckland University and was attended by members of the university and teacher's training college Maori clubs from throughout New Zealand.

Visiting students, including representatives from Christchurch, Wellington and Palmerston North, arrived early Saturday morning and were welcomed traditionally by the Auckland group.

A full article on the conference will appear in our next issue.

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Some years ago, in an isolated district in Northland, an effort was made to help Maori people to provide homes for themselves better than they lived in previously. In order to conserve the very limited finance upon which they could call, an effort was made to use cheap and locally obtainable material, and to use for the most part unskilled labour. As the work progressed, however, the unskilled labour very soon became skilful for the project in hand. The following story may be of some interest to those Maori people who consider that the financial hurdle incurred on a house built by the Maori Affairs Department or other orthodox methods may be beyond their resources. To repay loans on professionally built houses must require a regular income, which is not always available, and security of title, which is often most difficult to arrange.

What were the essential factors in the successful completion of the houses which have been built in this area?


The employment of cheap materials, locally available.


The necessary money, perhaps £300, to be available over the building period of two years, or less in the case of a relatively skilled man. Skill comes with practice. Enthusiasm must precede the commencement of the work.


The utilization of second-hand materials, scorned by the wealthy, such as doors, windows, stoves, sinks, baths, and the other expensive requirements in hardware which bring up the cost of building. It is easily possible with patience, paint, and work to transform old windows, doors and other things into articles of beauty. A window is no less serviceable if it is sound, but old. It probably functions better than some modern contraption with ‘louvres’ and chromium plate—in wet weather anyhow!


Patience, careful work, to be undertaken over weekends, on holidays, or between casual seasonal jobs, which are the common lot of working folk in the country. Money must be earned to live. That little extra bit from casual work can easily be spared for essential material for a house.

Our experience taught us that for success and easy accomplishment there should be certain desirable conditions. The site must be carefully chosen. What trouble and expense would have been avoided, for instance, if we had sited one house so that a hillside spring could have been tapped for an easy and permanent water supply. A sunny outlook with warmth, a good soil for gardening, a nearby beach, and good road access all make for success. As we grow old riding horses is tedious, if we need to carry flour and other

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awkward goods to the site on horseback. Then again, where the house site is not of easy access by road, the costs of transporting timber, heavy hardware, and metal are expensive in money and labour.

We first planned to build houses of timber, of which there was an abundance in the communally-owned bush. In the case of one house there were 28 owners to the bush. After many hui on the marae, all were agreed to work the timber, a small mill was set up, and it looked as if all those needing timber would have all they required for building. One of the 28 owners at the last moment changed his mind, and that was the end of the cheap timber.


Finally we decided that we should use the only other material cheaply available locally—the shingle and sand at the mouth of a nearby river. At first sight, this seemed to be an ambitious project. Concrete construction was criticised adversely, since the house would be cold and it would leak in the heavy rainfall. In any case, we had not the equipment to handle concrete. All these criticisms proved to be false. We used concrete blocks made on the beach. We put down a slab of concrete on the beach—a smooth floor on which to lay out the blocks to dry—and we borrowed a couple of ‘lightning’ block moulds, for blocks 18in. × 8in. × 6in. With konaki and horses we sledged the aggregate to the house site, and carted the finished blocks from the beach. Two men could build 100 blocks per day, and catch a few fish off the beach in between mixes. The mixture was 5—1 with some silicate of soda (Sharlands's egg preservative) to waterproof the blocks. This has worked well, since the houses have proved to be leak-proof. Sharlands's preservative became expensive, so we finally used 4-gallon drums of a similar and much cheaper solution. It did not take the adaptable Maori long to learn the tricks of a dryish mix, and excellent blocks were soon being turned out on the beach. Even today, often when jobs are scarce, the boys will turn out hundreds of blocks and sell them to the pakeha, who also has become block-minded, for sheds, pigsties, and even cottages like ours. In fact, the houses we built have become the fashion in the district, since the construction is within most people's ability and pocket. Many of our local cowsheds are built on the lines pioneered in this district by the commencement of our housing efforts.

We had our troubles to begin with until we learned the tricks of the trade. At first we were confused in the construction of a house, because corners, window openings, door openings, &c., need odd-sized blocks to fit the plan. Our supervisor made scale models, and marked the dimension on each scale block of the wooden model, so that even a child could tell which block fitted the wall. As a matter of fact, the house should be designed with walls and partitions of a certain suitable length, so that few odd blocks are required. Three sizes of blocks only are thus necessary for plain house designs. This makes it much easier for the amateur builder, since there is little delay in matching the blocks for corners, openings, chimney space, and other odd places such as porches.


We bought our steel windows with frames at a second-hand scrap-metal yard in the city. Old buildings are constantly being demolished, with perfectly good steel windows discarded as scrap. In each case, the windows for the whole house cost £7 per house, compared with frames and sashes in wood which would have cost £124 plus cartage. The steel windows, with sashes glazed, cost in cartage £3, so we saved considerably in this respect. Steel doors also were used, and these were included in the price of £7 for the windows. Doors and windows came from demolished banks and churches. The Gothic arches of the church windows were discarded and the bank windows no longer look grim and formidable. They are high and broad, and take up much wall space, letting in plenty of winter sun, and allowing us to open the house wide in the summer time.

Windows and doors were set into the walls of the building as construction proceeded, and were tied into the concrete construction. A minor amount of scraping and new paint made them as good as new. The children broke a few panes of glass in the windows, but stern measures resulted in less repair in later days.


Our houses do not show the foundation faults which have become obvious in some of the less carefully built sheds about the district. It is important to build a solid foundation, for one must remember that each block weighs 35lbs and that over every foot of wall ten blocks are superimposed on the foundation, plus the weight from superstructure. We were meticulous in making a 15in. base to the foundation, with an 8in. wall, 15in. high, reinforced with twisted strands of fencing wire, old grader blades, piping and sundry pieces of steel which abound in most areas longinhabited and lie around old whaling stations,

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This is the first house built under the programme. with Mr Wehi Heta in the foreground.

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This is completed house is identical with one on the title drawing.

bush mills, and other places where heavy machinery has been used. Air vents were inserted in the foundations, and one of the crafty neighbours invented a mould with the aid of a penknife, teatree sticks and a board. He turned out perfect ventilators, and the cost was about threepence for the cement. They were designed especially for the job, and are unique examples of what the Maori can do in the way of improvising when he sets his mind to the job.

The foundation walls were 8in. wide and covered with malthoid to act as a damp course. The 6in. wide blocks were built on the foundations, leaving an internal ledge of 2in. to take the ends of the sleepers off the floor. Intermediate blocks for the floor construction were cast in place, using box timber for moulds. Wooden topplates were made of 6in. × 2in. rimu, and fixed in position with bolts cast into a reinforced encircling concrete cap, which thus completed the top of the wall construction. Reinforced concrete lintels were built over each opening for windows, doors and other openings. No crack has developed in these houses.


We got enough good iron and quite a few studs from old buildings bought for a song, showing again that a quiet search about the district saves pounds in construction costs. The chimney blocks were bought, since the moulds for these are a standard pattern, and it was not worth while to improvise on the chimney.

Floors were put down after spraying the second grade timber with mettalix and power spirit. Once a family moved in, work proceeded at a faster pace. The finish of the inside of a typical house took 2 years. Enough money had to be earned to keep the pot boiling and time was limited when workers could give a few days to building. Ceilings were lined with hardboard, partitions were placed where the plan showed, the H.W. service, sink, hand basin, and shower were installed, and a concrete tank built to catch rain water. Drainage for the waste water was carried out to a sump, with herring-bone soakage pits for the spreading of the effluent.

Can you envisage our slow and hesitant progress? As time moved on we became more confident in our ability to cope with new problems. The boys sometimes took a job on wohk which was like ours, and soon learned sufficient to manage our own difficulties. We were often dismayed. Today we can sit in the sun on the front porch and help others to solve the problems which gave us food for thought.

* * *

Legislation was passed last year about the savings accounts held by the Department of Maori Affairs for intending home-owners. It is not uncommon for contributions to a savings account to be made by persons other than the one for whom the account is kept (for instance, by other members of the family). The legislation lays down that in such cases, the money is still held for the person in whose name the account is kept and that it is to be used as he directs. It would be an impossible task to distribute the money to all who contributed and it should now be clearly understood that the Department of Maori Affairs has no such responsibility.

* * *

The New Zealand Worker's Union, at their annual conference last June, decided to leave unfilled the position on their management committee fallen vacant through the death of Mr R. Tutaki. The Union hopes that a Maori representative will be found to take his place on the executive next year.

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Ringworm in calves is sometimes troublesome, especially in poorly nourished calves. The Department of Agriculture recommends that before any remedy is applied the scales should be removed by rubbing in a mixture of equal parts of soft soap and lard and scraping off the softened scabs the next day. The bare patches should then be dressed with an ointment consisting of 1 part of salicylic acid and 8 parts of lard, or any registered stock remedy for ringworm which is available.

As the infection can be transmitted to man, it is wise to wear rubber gloves when treating ringworm. In any case the hands and arms should be thoroughly washed immediately after the dressings are applied.


Before each cow is mated two heat periods or an interval of at least 30 days should be allowed after calving. Cows mated before this period are less likely to get in calf, and the chances of contaminating the bull are increased. Hand mating should be practised and accurate records kept showing the bull used and the dates of all services. Should breeding trouble occur, these records will be of considerable assistance in arriving at a correct diagnosis.


In districts where crutch strike causes trouble in ewes, crutching or early shearing is advised by the Department of Agriculture. Close supervision is necessary to detect cases so that suitable treatment can be applied before the strike becomes too extensive.

When treating cases of fly strike, shear the soiled wool away from the immediate vicinity of the strike. Dressings containing aldrin, dieldrin, or BHC will rapidly kill the maggots, which will be expelled from the wound. In addition treatment with either aldrin or dieldrin preparations will prevent restrike until dipping if this is done in January. These dressings do not prevent the flies blowing the sheep with eggs, but they do prevent the maggots from hatching and causing a strike.

Irritant fluids such as kerosene should not be used; they may kill the maggots, but they will irritate the wound and tend to cause restrike.

Jetting ewes is not usually necessary, but if fly strike is severe, it may be advisable to treat them to give protection until dipping. Apply ½ gallon of aldrin or dieldrin wash to the crutch of each animal, extending the wetted area to above and round the tail. A pump working at 40lb to 60lb pressure per square inch, with a hand cutout on the nozzle, is advisable for this purpose. Jetting with aldrin or dieldrin at 0.05 per cent will give 2 month's complete protection against crutch strike; for longer protection 0.1 per cent should be used.


Deaths of sheep after shearing may be due to infection of cuts or bruises with the blackleg germ. This disease can be prevented by vaccinating at least 3 weeks before shearing. Sheep which have been vaccinated previously may not require revaceination, and a veterinarian or Livestock Instructor of the Department of Agriculture should be consulted about the best procedure.

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The Maori rugby team has returned from its tour of Australia satisfied that it has restored the prestige of Maori football and that the pride of a people in their heritage can win rugby matches like anything else. It was not only one of the most successful tours by a Maori team but also one of the most enjoyable. The team drew with Australia in the test series and lost one of the ten remaining matches.

Although it was a very hard tour, Keith Davis spoke for the team when he said it was the most enjoyable any of them had experienced and one which did a great deal to rehabilitate Maori rugby. Future teams could be expected to produce that fast, open type of football which distinguished Maori play in days gone by.

R. F. Bryers, the Taumarunui schoolmaster and former Maori representative who coached the team, relied on the fact that Maori footballers do best in broken play and in producing the unexpected movement at the right time. He reminded the boys of this in all his team talks and it brought results. There were many occasions when Pakehas would have kicked the ball and the Maoris who had been influenced by pakeha tactics were tempted to do so too. But they were always reminded that they were playing Maori football by a voice beside them calling on them to “Keep the ball,” and would put that extra pace on, resulting in some of the lightning movements which delighted the Australian crowds.

Ron Bryer's team talks were unforgettable. He always “called a spade a spade” according to the players. His theme was pride of race and he never lost an opportunity to remind the team about it. Before the last test he told them how Rewi was prepared to die for the Maori people at Orakau. It was one of the best pieces of Maori oratory some of them had heard. So much did it stir the players that three of them were in tears at the finish—“tears of determination”, one man said, “to get out there and beat the Wallabies for the sake of Maori rugby”.

Pride and pleasure in the behaviour of the team on and off the field was expressed by the manager, Mr F. D. Kilby. Entertainment was confined to match nights and in between matches they trained “really seriously”. Nine of the players were nondrinkers and eight were non-smokers.

In return for the hospitality which was lavished on them the players visited a great number of schools and talked to the children about rugby and New Zealand. The schools were delighted. They also entertained their hosts with impromptu concerts which nearly brought the house down. Singing carried the team through a lot of difficulties. One of them was the seemingly constant travelling which became tiresome and could have affected the morale of the players. But the tour had no sooner begun than they formed themselves into a choir and no matter how tedious the journey somebody would start a song which restored lagging spirits just when they needed it.

They had their serious as well as their happy moments. One of the most anxious was the four days when Bill Gray lay in hospital with a broken leg and the doctors were undecided whether or not to amputate his leg. The happiest moment was when they found that the injury was not as serious as was expected and that it would respond to treatment.

Birthdays added that little personal note to the tour and made for comradeship and team spirit. Three members celebrated birthdays and a squad was detailed to turn on a birthday treat for each one of them. Then there were the birthdays of non-playing members. Mrs Walters, wife of the fullback, gave birth to a child when the team was in Sydney and in that spirit of generosity for which the players were noted, they contributed to a complete outfit for the baby. Then Albert Pryor's wife produced a son. Albert commemorated the tour and the popular captain, P. T. Walsh, by naming the boy Patrick Timothy Walsh Pryor. Mrs Pryor consented and the team responded by buying the Pryor baby a complete outfit too.

The Maori rugby team is likely to go down in history as one of the toughest ever to leave these shores. Major injuries robbed them of fighting strength but the extra load was shouldered by the remaining players. Walsh was a hero and idolised by his men. Although suffering from a knee injury he played in every match to keep up the confidence of the team. Bill Gray manfully bore his disability and the disappointment at not being able to play again this season. D. Mathieson, who broke an arm, was out training again soon after leaving hospital and handled the ball whenever possible, although it was strictly against doctor's orders.

* * *

A Maori Youth Festival, organised by the Wellington Diocese of the Anglican Church, will be held in Wellington from October 24—27. There will be a debutante's ball, cultural competitions and a thanksgiving service to be attended by the Governor-General and the Prime Minister.

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Photo: Peter Blanc

Some further traditional toys of the Maori are described in this article following the story of the kite and the reti in our April issue.

TOPS, or potaka, of various types were used not only by the young and very young, but also by the not so young and very old. There were whip tops of several kinds, humming tops, double-ended tops, gourd tops, jumping tops and climbing tops. The whip, itself, called a ta or kare, was made by tying strips of green flax to a wooden handle. The strips were wound round the top and quickly pulled thus setting the top spinning. Top spinning was usually a contest of which there were three types. In one the tops were jumped over mounds or hurdles called karangi. In the second, players commenced whipping the tops down narrower lanes, and though the players interfered with each other's tops, they endeavoured to reach the goal, represented by a line drawn across the ground, which might be a hundred yards away. Tops had to be kept spinning, otherwise the player was forced to retire from the contest. The third was perhaps the most interesting and unusual. The top itself, as a rule most elaborately carved and inlaid with paua shell, measured about six inches by three and a quarter inches in diameter. In addition, there was a spindle protruding from the exact centre of the top. This was about three and a quarter inches long, and had a hole bored through the side at the extreme tip. In operation a cord was threaded through the hole and tied to the branch of a tree so that the top was suspended at about chest level. A shorter cord was then wound round the base of the spindle and pulled against a kip—a small piece of wood which acted as a fulcrum with such force that it would cause the top to spin very swiftly. It would spin so swiftly in fact, that the cord by which the top was suspended would wind itself round the spindle, and in winding itself, would cause the top to climb upwards, on the cord itself. Of course the winner of the contest was the one whose top climbed highest. Although the writer has been unable to find any reference to this top either in museums or in any publication, he has seen the top in action, spoken to numerous others who have witnessed it in operation, and, furthermore, has a beautiful specimen of this type in his possession. Occasionally stone tops were made but were never common.

The potaka takiri or humming top had a projection similar to that of the climbing top but without the hole, and was spun similarly, by winding the cord round the stem. The wood used was usually matai or mapara. Ditties and chants were sung to the spinning of tops.

The potaka hue, as the name implies, was made from the calabash or gourd. As a rule small ones were used though occasionally large calabashes were made use of as tops. Down the centre of the gourd a rod was passed, one end being pointed, upon which the top would spin. Holes were cut in the side of the hue and the action of the wind upon these holes would cause the top to emit a humming sound. To the old people this humming represented the wailing of the dead. For top spinning entered into Maori mourning ceremonial. At times, often after the defeat of a party in battle, friendly visitors would call at their pa to pay their last respects to the memory of those killed in the fight. Specially composed songs would be sung when the humming tops would be whipped up and made to sound off between each verse of the laments. The last time this custom was revived, appears to have been after the battle of Orakau. It might be compared with the Prayer Wheel of Tibet.

In an endeavour to prevent children from being selfish and to teach them to be generous, a curious game was played. Should a small child be enjoying some delicacy, an adult would approach the child, and, clasping hands, but leaving the little fingers poking out, would say, “Will my fort fall to you?” The little one would place a piece of the delicacy upon the projecting fingers and this would be eaten by the adult.

Sometimes complete miniature forts were made by boys, a game they found fascinating. Equally

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fascinating was the racing of little canoes made from flax leaves and stems.

A carved wooden figure, about eighteen inches in height, with legs merging into a handgrip, but with loose rams held in place by a cord which passed through the arms and the shoulders, was called a karetao. With the exception of the arms, the whole body was carved out of one piece. The cord was knotted immediately in front of the upper part of the arm and passed through the shoulder. The figure was held upright in the left hand while the other was used to pull the cord in various ways—upwards, downwards or to either side. By manipulating the cord the hands and arms were forced to move in different directions in emulation of a person performing a haka. Sometimes a whole row of performers in a haka or action song would be equipped with these karetao, and as the rows in front knelt, the figures would be brought forth and their movements displayed to the delight of the onlookers.

Some years ago a number of stone bowls were discovered but nobody could remember their use. They were round, about five inches in diameter, and about three inches thick across their flattened sides. It has been suggested that they might have been used in a game something akin to the present-day bowls. The suggestion is not too farfetched, as the Hawaiian people used stone bowls in a game which they called maika, while in the Cook Islands a game called pua, was played with wooden bowls. Incidentally, we are told that these were engraved with the Grecian symbol of health, but no one can tell us how the symbol came to be found way down in the South Pacific Islands.

A curious pastime upoko titi played by little ones, was one in which the fingers of a number of players were crooked over each other until they were all bunched together. As far as the writer can gather it seems to have had no significance. It is of interest however, in that a similar game was played by the native children of Queensland.

Whare tapere, a figurative expression, was applied to that place in which young folk assembled to indulge in social pleasures. While no special house was built for that purpose, the name, which might be described as the House of Games, or the House of Pleasure, would be applied to any building in which the youth of the time met to play their games. Some of these were regarded as being useful in the teaching of the wielding of weapons, in the teaching of swimming and aquatic sports, in gaining confidence when in and on water, and in the teaching of agility and dexterity, and some were useful for testing the memory and mental alertness. Today, like many other Maori institutions, the whare tapere is no more.

At a meeting in Auckland last July, Mr T. P. Paikea M.P., was elected chairman of an Auckland Marae Society, which plans to build a carved meeting house and other marae facilities on a 4 ½ acre property in New Lynn, some eight miles out of the centre of Auckland. Secretary of the society is Dr M. Winiata; and joint treasurers, Mrs W. Cooper and Mr E. Porter.

First project of the society is to build a workshop and complete carvings for the new house. Some of these have already been made, and described in issue 19 of Te Ao Hou.

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Many people are at present farming an ‘uneconomical’ unit, that is to say, the area that is available for dairying is smaller than the average dairy farm, Anything under eighty acres in good country is termed uneconomical, for the reason that insufficient income is derived to cover the cost of capital outlay, interest, rates, maintenance, etc., and since butterfat returns to the farmer have dropped, some notes on the ways and means of increasing the income from smaller areas could be to advantage. The established farmer, on what is termed an economical area, could often get the most advantage by spending extra time on pasture management and good farm husbandry.

However let us look at the small farmer milking from twenty-five to thirty cows. According to the district and suitability of climate, he must plan his future activities. Taking the Northern half of the North Island as an example, farmers would be well advised to take stock of their pasture, and any areas of up to three acres which are not responding to normal topdressings and are showing a burnt out appearance, could be turned over and profitably cropped during the forthcoming season. Potatoes and kumaras are always in demand. Carrots are also a very profitable crop, and in the Northern districts an acre set aside for citrus and tree tomatoes can often supplement the farmer's income, to make his dairying venture far more attractive.

As an instance, one Maori farmer, although milking over fifty cows on eight acres and producing 16,000lbs of butterfat per annum, always makes an effort to crop at least two acres of his land each year. His field crops consist of pumpkins, kumaras and potatoes, whilst in the home garden he has a regular supply of greens such as lettuce, cauliflowers and cabbages as well as onions for winter use, with carrots sown in January to tide him over the winter months. It is conservatively estimated that this person, not having to purchase vegetables for his family, could add fifty pounds to his income. Potatoes and kumaras are stored, pumpkins are harvested, and distributed to merchants when prices are economical, and it could reliably be estimated that this farmer's income from cropping as a side line from a couple of acres, would be in the vicinity of one hundred and fifty pounds after taking into consideration his family requirements and his generous donations of produce to tangis, huis, and other social functions.

Therefore, with sound planning and forethought, those Maoris who are facing the future possibly a little disheartened with their present income, could improve their financial returns if prepared to interest themselves in horticultural activities.

The demand for vegetable produce is increasing and it is to be hoped that the Maori people will in many instances take advantage of the possibilities of horticulture as a side line.

It is recognised that the cost of renewing pasture after having been cropped for one or two years is excessive and many farmers are undoubtedly reluctant to commence cropping operations owing to this factor. While turning over pasture that has only recently been sown and consolidated would be foolish, on fully established farms there is often a definite need for renewing pastures. It is there that horticulture can provide greater production from the land today, which is most essential.



Once more A. H. & A. W. Reed come to the fore with an excellent little production. This book describing ancient Maori games is profusely illustrated with first class drawings, the artist, Dennis Turner, capturing a sound likeness to the Maori right through. Very wisely the author points out that, there being no shops, the Maori children had to make their own toys, and suggests that today's children might like to do the same.

Games dealt with are kites, throwing sticks, darts, the Maori haka and poi dances, running punipuni and other games of skill. Instructions are given for the playing of mu torere (sometimes called Maori draughts), whai, bush games, hoops, purerehua, potaka, stilts and games played in the water.

This ‘book would make an inexpensive and much appreciated gift. I might say, however, that the price gives no indication as to the value of the book. It has a hard cover and a very well illustrated jacket, showing five tekoteko, one flying a kite, another twirling a Bull-Roarer, one doing whai, one whipping a top and the last walking on stilts.

Unfortunately, a mis-spelt version of Manurere has been used in place a E Papa Waiari. However, the remainder of the book is of such excellence that little is lost by this small mistake.

Hemi Bennett.

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Richard Seddon felt that New Zealand needed protection from the North. That was one of his main reasons for acquiring the Cook Islands. But having got them, he did not seem to know exactly what to do with them.

Today, however, the Cook Islands administration is moving ahead of events, finding its way with land-utilisation surveys, investigation for a quickfreeze industry, for improved transport to New Zealand, for community and social welfare, for political reform. No longer need the administrator fumble his way in the dark. “Social Change in the South Pacific” brings the light of a new day to the Cook Islands.

The chief value of this book lies in its use for the future. Dr Beaglehole's exploration of the missionary past and the more moderate present in Rarotonga and Aitutaki gives the answer to the future of the Cook Islands and much of Polynesia. He studies, step by step, the impact of the European upon the Polynesian. He shows how the Rarotongan and Aitutakian adopted only that part of the Christian doctrine and practice that suited their needs. He analyses the life there today, involving as it does something of the best, something of the worst, of both worlds. He shows how the differences between Polynesian and European lie in childhood training and historical background.

Dr Beaglehole underlines the need for political equality and more responsibility, for co-operative schemes, with group competition in agriculture, industry and village welfare. Above all, he emphasizes the need for better housing, better schools, and better education for citizenship and parenthood, so that one may build a better world in our islands.

Tini Whetu Te Aute

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An employment survey carried out by the Rotary Clubs of Waitara and New Plymouth show that the Maori people have managed to penetrate only into a few of the skilled trades and professions in these places. Out of 217 Maoris employed in Waitara, 240 are in the meat exporting industry; three in professional and clerical occupations. In New Plymouth, 80 out of 102 Maoris employed are in the building industry, where their jobs range from foremen, skilled tradesmen and heavy vehicle drivers to labourers. There are no Maoris in the clerical and retail sectors.

The Rotary Clubs have done well to show up the facts. Their survey may be a beginning of a widening of the occupational spread of the Maori people of the district.

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In your current magazine, No. 22, Vol. 6 (No. 2), under the heading HE PITOPITO KORERO, reference is made to the late Sir Apirana Ngata's remarkable message which he wrote in an autograph book of a little girl.

I believe that that was his last message to the Youth of the Maori people, and, as such, I have quoted it up and down this country since I was consecrated Bishop in 1952.

I would like to point out that he wrote it in the Tuhoe dialect, it is a Maori classic, and should be treasured and quoted in its correct form. Here is the original of it as he wrote it down himself.

E tipu, e rea, mo nga ra o tou ao;

Ko to ringa, ki nga rakau a te Pakeha, hei ara mo to tinana:

Ko to ngakau, ki nga taonga a o tipuna Maori, hei tikitiki mo to mahuna;

Ko to wairua ki te Atua, nana nei nga mea katoa.

Needless to say there are many and various translations of it into English, but however else one may attempt to do so, the masterpiece is still the original text.

Wiremu Aotearoa.



In your issue of April, 1958, Mr Johannes C. Andersen writes interestingly of several Maori place names and, in particular, of Takanini and states that the Geographic Board adopted this spelling although evidently convinced that the name properly was Takaanini. Quoting Fenton's “Judgments”, Mr Andersen said that the Ihaka Taka-anini was an historical personage. This was confirmed by the late Mr James Cowan, who in his booklet “New Zealand Railway Station Maori Names and their Meanings” said that the old chief Ihaka Taka-anini, a great friend of the early colonists, lived near Papakura. In 1863 he was made prisoner by the Government, under the impression that he was an enemy. It was shown that this was a mistake, nevertheless he was kept a prisoner of war, latterly with some of his people on one of the small islands in the Hauraki until he died in 1864. His tribe was the Akitai. It is of interest to note that Wiri was also named after the chief, for this was a contraction of the pakeha-Maori Wirihana of Wilson. It is evident that Ihaka Takanini was known locally as Takanini Wilson.



Three Maoris were awarded the M.B.E. (Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire) in the Queen's Birthday Honours which were announced recently.

Nurse Ngarangi Putiputi Te Kura Kohere, who lives in Dannevirke, was one of the recipients.

Nurse Kohere, who is of the Ngati Porou tribe, is a daughter of Canon Poihipi Kohere, of Rangitukia, East Coast.

Nurse Kohere has given outstanding service to the nursing profession since 1944 as a Public Health nurse. Her appointments have included periods at Te Karaka, Opotiki, Raglan, Huntly and now Dannevirke. It was felt that her service in remote areas, often under very difficult conditions fully merited the recognition that the Queen has now bestowed upon her.

Another recipient of the M.B.E. was Thomas Stewart Spencer, of 16 Henderson Street, Bluff. The award recognises Mr Spencer's services to the Maori people, especially as a leader of Ngai Tahu people, Mr Spencer, who is 78, has been closely associated with Maori welfare, particularly in connection with the work of the Maori land court.

The other Maori recipient of the M.B.E. in the Queen's Birthday honours was Chief Superintendent William Carran, who is at present stationed in Auckland.

Superintendent Carran has given outstanding service to the police force for 38 years and is the first Maori to reach officer rank in the force.

* * *


Legislation last year carried one step further the government's efforts to avoid excessive subdivision of already minute interests in Maori land. According to the Maori Affairs Act 1953, the Maori Land Court had discretion to award land interests worth 5/- or less to the exclusion of some beneficiaries. In the Maori Purposes Act 1957 (Clause 3) this limit has been raised from 5/- to £10.

This clause empowers the Court, when disposing of an interest to which more than one person is entitled to succeed, to award it to one or only some of the successors, provided that no person thereby gains or loses interests of a value which in the Court's view exceeds £10. If the total value of the interest does not exceed £10, it may be awarded to other owners of the land.

* * *

The Maori Purposes Act 1957 lays down penalties for non-compliance with the statutory provisions relating to Maori Incorporations. This means that if any officer of a Maori Incorporation violates any statutory rules, he is liable to the same kind of penalty as an officer of a Limited Liability Company.

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There were six Maori students among those capped at the recent Auckland University graduation ceremony.

Patrick Wahanga Hohepa, from Hokianga, was awarded his B.A. and is now working for his M.A. in anthropology with the intention of later taking a doctorate overseas. He is also acting as a tutor in the Maori Studies section at the university. He was once awarded a New Zealand University Blue in boxing as the most scientific boxer of the year.

Peter John Gordon, of Gisborne, has also earned his B.A. and is now doing his M.A. in anthropology. He is president of the Auckland University Student's Association and a former president of the University Maori Club. Along with the Ambassador for the United States of America, Peter Gordon was one of the two principal speakers at the Auckland 1958 graduation ceremony. Two years ago, Mr Gordon represented the N.Z. University Student's Association at an international student's conference held in Ceylon.

Miss Josephine Ball was awarded her Diploma of Fine Arts. Miss Ball was educated at Opotiki College where she now holds a teaching post.

Miss Margaret Teaku Sampson also received a Diploma of Fine Arts. Miss Sampson was educated at Waihi College. At present she is a student at Auckland Teacher's Training College.

Mita Robert Hoturoa Henare graduated as a Bachelor of Engineering (Civil). Mr Henare is from Motatau, North Auckland. He is at present a civil engineer in the Railways Department.

Michael Archibald Taylor received his Bachelor of Engineering (Mechanical) degree. Mr Taylor is working at the Meremere coal-electric Station.

These six Maoris who graduated at Auckland constituted the largest number of Maori students ever to be capped in one year.

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The first Maori student nurse to hold the office of Dominion President of the New Zealand Student Nurse's Association is Miss D. Winterburn of Otaki who is at present training in the Palmerston North Hospital.

Miss Winterburn, who is a third year nurse, is following in the footsteps of her mother, formerly Miss Rangi Wereta, who nursed at Otaki, Wellington and Dunedin before her marriage to Mr J. Winterburn.

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Grants to two Maori institutions are included in the £24,000 which was distributed this year by the T. G. McCarthy Trust. The late Mr McCarthy left the income from a great part of his estate, which is administered by the Public Trustee, to assist educational and charitable institutions in the Wellington province. The two Maori institutions concerned are St Paul's Maori Boy's College (Hato Paora), Parorangi, Feilding, with a grant of £100; and the Roman Catholic Maori Mission Jerusalem, Wanganui River, also with a grant of £100. Since the McCarthy Trust was established in 1912, an amount of over £500,000 has been distributed.

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A meeting of the Nga Iwi District Council of the M.W.W.L. This new group gained second prize at this year's Te Puea Trophy competition, for good work in many of the things the leagues set out to do. (Photo, B. H. Wilson.)

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AT THE TIME of the Maori Wars a Maori child became Queen Victoria's godson, sat on her throne, later left New Zealand as a sailor and disappeared altogether from the annals of history. I found the first trace of his story in the records of the Children's Home at Papatoetoe, Auckland. Here it was stated that Queen Victoria contributed to the support of Albert Victor Pomare at this Church of England orphanage. He was her Maori godchild.

How did such an unusual connection come about? In 1863 Hare Pomare, a Ngapuhi chief, and his wife Hariata were visiting London with a touring Maori party. During their stay Prince Albert died and they composed a lament which they sent to Queen Victoria. The Royal widow must have been touched by this gesture. She later met them personally at Osborne where they were hospitably received. Food was served on silver plates and at the meeting with the Queen that followed one of the women laid at the Queen's feet the heitiki she was wearing—a tribal heirloom. The Queen was delighted with this graceful gesture and gave her in return a beautiful cross of pearls and brilliants.

While Hariata was in London, a child was born to her. To make her more comfortable the Queen arranged for her to stay with Mrs Elizabeth Colenso, a fluent Maori speaker, the wife of the missionary William Colenso. The story of Queen Victoria's contact with her Maori godson comes from Elizabeth Colenso's diary:

“On Monday, November the 30th, 1863, when the baby was four months old, the Queen's christening gift was received. It was a silver-gilt cup, with a golden knife, fork and spoon, as well as a gift of £25 for Hariata. The same inscription was round the top of the cup and on the knife: “Albert Victor Pomare, from his godmother Queen Victoria, November 1863”. She had also arranged for his baptism at a London Church, St Paul's at Tottenham, and requested that Mrs Colenso with the baby and his parents should attend an audience at Windsor Castle on December 4th, the following day.

After the baptism the New Zealanders met the Queen and four of her daughters at Windsor Castle. The Queen kissed the baby and admired his healthy appearance.

It was then that the photograph illustrating this story was taken by the Queen's Court photographer, William Bambridge. “The Queen remarked”, wrote Mrs Colenso, “that she would always feel a great interest in the child, and I must write from time to time and tell her how it was getting on. Lady Bruce (who attended the Queen) asked Her Majesty to take the baby in her arms and try his weight, which she did, and said he was the finest child of his age—16 weeks—that she had ever seen, then gave me back the child and, smiling most pleasantly, wished me goodbye and retired.”

Before the party left for London it was taken for a tour of the State Apartments, including the room where the Queen invested her Knights of the Garter. At one end of the room was a large portrait of the Queen in the robes of the Order, at the other a gilt throne. Hare Pomare laid his son in it for a moment.

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Hariata Pomare with her son Albert Victor, photographed at Windsor Castle in 1863.

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When his parents took him back to New Zealand, the Queen not only paid for their passage on a good ship, but “provided many little comforts for their voyage”. About three years after their return, Hare Pomare died in Wellington Hospital, and it was after this that his son was in the care of the Church of England orphanage in Auckland. About fifteen years later, Fanny Colenso (then Mrs G. H. Simcox) met Hariata at Otaki, married to a rangatira of Ngati Huia. It was the Queen's wish that her godson should serve in the Royal Navy, and he did go to sea, but little was heard of him after that. One story says he settled in Canada; another that he died in California. In the meantime his golden christening gift has been in charge of successive Bishops of Auckland until 1933 when Archbishop Averill sent it in trust to be held by the Auckland War Memorial Museum.


Two Maori girls have been granted American Field Service International Scholarships.

The scholarships have been awarded to Miss Tungia Baker, daughter of Mr and Mrs Matenga Baker, of Otaki; and to Miss Hine Kino Taroi Wills, of Wanganui Girl's College.

Miss Will's father comes from Gisborne and her mother from Wanganui.

Miss Wills is considered a very bright girl. She has passed the University Entrance examination and also has the Higher Leaving Certificate. She is 16 years of age.

Miss Baker has been a pupil of Queen Victoria Girl's School, Auckland. She has an outstanding academic record. She was dux of Queen Victoria in 1956 and has won other school prizes, including one for the best all-round girl. She is 18 years of age.

The two girls sailed for the United States last July. Under their scholarship awards they will spend a year in America. During that time they will each live with a private family as a member of the family.

The object of this scheme, under which children from the United States spend a year in foreign countries as well as children from those countries spending a year in the United States, is to bring together on common ground people of all races and thus promote international good fellowship. A vivid description of the life of an A.F.S. scholar appeared in a recent issue of Te Ao Hou.

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It seems that housewives have that Spring feeling and like the birds, want to set their houses in order. One of the awkward problems that some of us face up to in Spring is how to clean dingy or stained floor coverings.

As a starting point, here is an actual query concerning hearth rugs. The enquirer writes, “I have a white mohair rug which is used as a hearth rug. It is about two years old and now has a decidedly yellowish tinge and has lost that lovely clear shine it had originally. There are no stains on it. I did try rubbing French chalk in a few months ago, and it helped a little, but not enough. I would like to be able to freshen it up.”

This problem faces many of us after a winter of fires. The hearth rug may not be mohair, but the same cleaning method applies to all. First shake the rug thoroughly to get rid of any coal dust or dirt embedded in the backing. When you shake, remember to have the mat folded in half, so the strain won't loosen the ends, which is not only unsightly, but also quite dangerous.

After shaking the rug, go over it with a vacuum cleaner or brush to pick up all the bits that have been loosened. If you run the cleaner diagonally you will avoid that annoying rucking up that occurs when you vacuum up and down in straight lines. Do the back of the rug too, so that it will be thoroughly clean.

Next comes what may be called a dry shampoo. At all costs you must avoid getting the backing of a rug or carpet wet. It makes dark stains, takes out the sizing, may make the colours run, and generally spoils the appearance. Shampooing with a detergent is preferable to using soap, as rinsing is easier and there are not the same harmful effects from leaving traces of detergent as there are when soap is used. So add about I teaspoon of detergent to a pint of warm water—or use the proportions suggested on the packet or bottle. Whisk it up to a stiff froth with an egg beater. It is the foam you use for cleaning, so add more detergent if you do not get a stable foam the first time.

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Now take some of the froth on an old nail brush, or small scrubbing brush and work it into the pile—for the mohair rug, a circular motion is best. Do a small patch at a time, so that it is not left wet. Scrape off the foam with a dull bladed knife and then rinse off the remaining detergent with a cloth wrung out in clear warm water. Old woollen cloths are useful for this because they are so absorbent. Then have an old dry towel to rub the pile as dry as possible and do that before starting on the next patch.

To counteract the yellowness in a white mohair rug, use a blue rinse—after the first rinse and before mopping up operations. Rub the mat over with a clean cloth wrung out in blue water—make it quite dark to get the effect just as people do for a blue rinse for white hair.

It is important to dry the carpet or rug quickly, so choose a good day to start operations; or if you must do it indoors, have the room well heated and airy. With a mohair or sheepskin rug, before it is quite dry, comb up the pile with an old comb to remove tangles and restore its curly appearance.

Exactly the same procedure should be followed if you should be ambitious enough to attempt shampooing the carpets. That involves thorough cleaning all over, dry shampooing, rinsing and drying a small area before going on to the next one, speedy drying. This is a big job when you consider that the average living room of 12ft. × 15ft. would be equal to ten hearth rugs.


Another query concerns flax matting and how to clean it. Many people have this type of floor covering now. While it can look very attractive, it certainly does have its problems.

For instance, it does let the dirt seep through to the floor, so the first thing when you set out to do a clean-up job is to vacuum the topside thoroughly and then lift it so that you can vacuum underneath. I know this means you must lift tacks if the matting has been used for closecarpeting a room. But it must be done if you want good service from your floor covering. Dirt and grit are often sharp and flinty and will cause wear.

A wipe over with a damp cloth wrung out in warm water plus a few drops of ammonia will freshen up the matting, provided it is just a little dulled but not really soiled. But recently we have heard of flax matting that seems to be oily. Probably oil has been used in the manufacture and it is coming out gradually. Of course the oil attracts and holds any dirt that falls on the surface and so raises a major cleaning problem.

Again we suggest using a detergent. It increases

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the wetting power of water, which means better penetration of the cleansing material. Also, detergents have a great affinity for grease and oil, and they will remove it very efficiently from the interior.

Make up a froth of detergent and water as explained earlier. You can increase the proportion of detergent to water as you are dealing with a tougher material this time. Scrub the foam into the matting, rinse it with clear warm water, and blot it as dry as you can with old towels or clean dusters. This is necessary, because excessive dampness can make the colours run in a flax matting.

If at all possible, dry the matting out of doors in a good breeze. It can lie flat on the ground or be slung over two clothes lines. But it is essential to bring it in before it is absolutely dry, or you will not get it to lie flat again. If it must dry indoors, have the windows open and the room well heated, and put newspapers under the matting to absorb the moisture.

(This article is issued by the Home Science Extension branch, Adult Education Department, University of Otago.)

A new chapel at St. Joseph's Maori Girl's School, Greenmeadows, was opened and blessed last July by the Roman Catholic Archbishop of New Zealand, Archbishop McKeefry. The ceremony and subsequent concert was attended by a large and representative gathering of pakehas, as well as Maoris from many parts of New Zealand.

The Prime Minister and Minister of Maori Affairs, the Rt. Hon. Walter Nash, was among the official guests.

The chapel which cost over £16,000 is claimed to be one of the most modern and attractive of its kind in New Zealand.

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At the request of the Director of Education. Dr C. E. Beeby, pupils of Northland College are sending samples of their Maori arts and crafts work for exhibition at the New Zealand Embassy at Washington.

Dr Beeby said he was so much impressed by work sent from the college to a special display last April at an exhibition in the United States that he thought it would be a good idea to have a permanent display.

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Three Maori portraits by Lindauer will be reproduced on Christmas cards to be issued this year by the Auckland Art Gallery. Cards will be on sale at the Gallery.

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Kia tupato i a koutou tamariki

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