Named after a battle won by an Austrian army in Italy, the frigate Novara acted as the link between Austria and the Maori people. It is on this ship that the authors of our diary travelled to Vienna where they met the Emperor and learned the printing trade. This photograph is after a painting by Zoebl, done in 1903.
A VIENNA JOURNAL
HE WHARE PEREHI O TE KINGI
Tenei korero mo te pai o tenei iwi o te Taiti. Ka nui te pai o taua iwi, heoi ano te iwi pai i kitea ai e maua ki nga whenua pakeha. Te papai o nga whare, te papai o nga kai me ana wai. I nui te pai o tona tangata te karanga mai kia haere noa atu ki te whare kia mahia he kai. Te kore kai rama, kahore he haurangi kahore mea kotahi i kitea e maua ki te rori ahakoa iwa noa nga marama ki reira e noho ana maua, Kaore hoki tetahi mea kino i kitea e maua ki taua whenua. Heoi ano te motu rangatira e noho nei i te ao ko Haramane.
Tana moni he moni pukapuka; kaore i penei me ta te Ingarihi moni: he rereke ta tenei iwi ta tenei iwi tana moni ta te Taiti. E kotahi pene ana te utu mo te tangata ina kai ki roto i nga whare kainga, ta te Ingarihi e nuku ana ki te rua hereni.
These words are set down in praise of the Austrians. They are a good people, the most generous people we visited in the land of the Europeans. The buildings are beautiful, the food and the beverages delicious. Hard liquor is not found amongst them, nor did we see one drunk on the road during the nine months of our stay and we did not see anything bad in that land. They are undoubtedly a people of the highest standing in the world.
They have paper money which is unlike that of the English. Money varies from people to people and theirs is Austrian money. It only costs one penny for a meal in a restaurant, whereas in England it is more than two shillings.
We began our stay in this country in the month of September 1859, and were taken to a leading chief of the land who was to arrange the place
A i te timatanga o to maua nohonanga ki taua whenua te marama ko Hepetema 1859 a kawea ana maua ki tetahi rangatira nui runanga o taua whenua. Te take mana e whakarite te wahi hei nohoanga mo maua. A rite ana, karangatia ana ki te whare perehi a te rangatira nui, noho ai enei rua Maori taihoa kia tata nga ra o to raua hokinga ki to raua kainga, ka haere ai kia kite i te Emepara.
A, i te tekau ma ono o nga ra o Mei i 1860 a ka tae ake a te Hokiteta, haere ana ko ia te mea i tae wawe ki te Kingi. A tuhituhi ana ia ki a Hata i te Riete ka mea atu kua hiahia te rangatira nui kia haere atu enei rua Maori kia kite i a ia, a whakaae ana a Hata mo te rua o nga wiki ka haere atu ai ahau. Ko tana korero mai tera ki a te Hokiteta, mo te paraire i te rua o nga wiki haere atu ai enei rua Maori ki tetahi whare huinga o nga rangatira o te Nowara i Remihe Kaihe. No te Paraire haere ana matau, ka uru ki roto i taua whare. He whare korero whakahari mo nga rangatira o to ratou nei manuao mo te hokinga mai i te titiro i nga whenua katoa o te ao, mo maua hoki tetahi wahi o taua korero mo to ratou kitenga i te Maori moko.
I kite atu maua i to maua rangatira ki roto i taua whare, notemea e rua marama e wehe atu ana i a maua e noho ana ia e mahi ana i nga korero o nga whenua i haere ai te kaipuke.
Taua pa e tata ana ki Itari, te ingoa te Riete. He nui te matara o taua pa no te Tariana, he wehenga ano no Haramane, engari no te Taiti ano taua iwi, kotahi tonu te kingitanga ko Paranihi Hohepa.
Otiia e toru kingitanga i roto o taua whenua kotahi o Haramane e wha: te tuatahi Paranihi Hohepa; tuarua kei tetahi wehenga o Haramane —te ingoa o taua pa Rewaria, tona kingitanga Makimiriana; tuatoru no Wiatene Peaka tona kingitanga ko Wiremu Wiatene Peaka; tuawha ko te kingitanga o Puruhia moe te tamahine a te kuini i te kingitanga o taua whenua. No Haramane anake enei kingitanga.*
Ka hoki ano tenei korero ki to maua kitenga i te Kingi tuatahi i a Paranihi Hohepa koia te mea i nuku ake i roto i enei kingitanga o Haramane.
of our stay. He did so and we were made welcome at the printing house of that great gentleman. And here these two Maoris stayed until it was near the time for them to return to their homeland, when a visit to the Emperor was to be arranged.
On the 16th of May Hochstetter arrived, who had already seen the Emperor. He had then written to Hata from Trieste saying that the great chief had expressed a wish to meet the two Maoris, and Hata had consented to an interview in two week's time. That was what Hochstetter was told. On the second Friday these two Maoris were to go to the hotel “Zum Roemischen Kaiser” where the officers of the Novara were to meet. On the Friday we went there and entered the building. The occasion was a welcome to the officers of this warship which had returned after seeing all the lands of the earth. Part of the welcome was for us, the first tattooed Maoris they had seen.
The Government Printing Works in Vienna were among the famous presses of the nineteenth century. In various processes, such as colour printing, their standard was almost unequalled. It was here that Wiremu Toetoe Tumohe and Te Hemara Rerehau Paraone learnt the trade. (After an engraving of about 1850.)
* The Germanic Confederation (doubtless this is what the author means by ‘Haramane’ in this context) was created by the Vienna Congress in 1815 and bound Austria and the German States, at least nominally, together. The Austrian Emperor was in fact no more than the senior partner in this Confederation. Within it, there were two more small Kingdoms not mentioned by the author, namely Saxony and Hanover, as well as a large number of German Principalities. The Confederation was dissolved a few years after the visit of the Maori chiefs. Obviously it was a favourite topic of conversation in Vienna while the Maoris were there and their Austrian informants could easily have given them an exaggerated idea of the Emperor's power. (Ed.)
The translation of this diary is by Mr M. Te Rotohiko Jones.
Our thanks are due to Messrs W. Parker, J. M. McEwen and Dr W. Rosenberg who helped in the editing of the manuscript. Some of the Maori vocabulary must be unique, e.g. aihanapana meaning train (from the German word Eisenbahn) and timeara meaning chamberlain (German: Kaemmerer).
In our next issue we shall reproduce the diary of Te Hemara Rerehau Paraone, which makes up the rest of the manuscript.
A i nga ra whakamutunga o Mei, i te tekau ma ono o nga ra o te marama, he Paraire taua ra no te ahiahi, ka tae mai te reta a te rangatira nui ki a maua mo te tekau ma rua o nga haora i te awatea ka haere mai enei rua Maori kia-kite ia i a raua. Heoi, i te ata, ka mutu te parakuihi, tahuri ki te whakapai i nga kakahu ara ki te paihe i nga hu, ka rite noa te taima i karangatia ai, haere ana matou ko to maua hoa whakaako ki te mahi-perehi. Ko matou kua tae ki te tatau o te whare o te rangatira nui, ka tae hoki to maua rangatira a Hata. I mua ko Hata me te Tiuka, muri mai ko Wiremu, muri mai ko ahau, muri rawa ko te timeara. Titiro rawa atu ki te hoia o tetahi taha o tetahi taha me to whakahonore haere, ko runga anake ano e tuohu haere ana ka tae ki te tatau i te ruma i noho ai te rangatira. Tuwhera kau ana te tatau kua pai mai te tu mai a te rangatira nui, me te whakahonore haere atu matou ka tata noa ki te taha. Katahi ka tu matou, ka korero a Hata ka mea atu ki te rangatira:
“No Niutereni enei tangata ko nga rangatira o taua whenua, Wiremu Toetoe, Hemara Rerehau i haere mai i runga i a te Novara e mea ana kia korero i to raua reo kia rongo koe, ma te timeara e whakataiti kia koe.”
Ae, katahi ka korero ko Wiremu, ko nga pukapuka i te ringaringa ano o Wiremu e mau ana. He mea mahi na maua ki te whare perehi, he reo Maori tetahi taha, he Taiti tetahi taha. Ka hoatu e Wiremu nga pukapuka ki te Kingi. Katahi ka korero notemea ko nga mihi mona i roto i taua pukapuka. Ka karanga mai a Hata. “Wiremu takia Maoritia kia nui te reo, kia kaha.” Ae koi ana ka tatu, ka koreo a Wiremu, ka mea ka mihi maua ki a korua.
“Tena koe tena koe e Paranihi Hohepa, te rangatira nui o Atiria katoa. Ka nui to maua hiahia kia kite maua i a koe. Tenei te take o to maua haerenga mai ki tenei whenua, i hiahia
In that building we saw our host again. He had been away for two months writing an account of the lands he had visited on the ship. He had been in a town near Italy, called Trieste. This Italian town is very far away and cut off from Austria, yet the people belong to the Austrian Empire: they have the same ruler, Francis Joseph.
However, there are three further Kingdoms inside the Germanic Confederation, which includes four Kingdoms in all: first, Francis Joseph; secondly there is a part of the Confederation called Bavaria whose king is Maximilian; thirdly there is Wurtemberg, whose king is William of Wurtemberg; fourthly the Royal House of Prussia; the Queen's daughter married into that house. All these kingdoms belong to the Germanic Confederation.
I shall now return to our visit to the first of these rulers, Francis Joseph, who is the principal ruler of the Germanic Confederation.
In the last half of May—it was the sixteenth day of the month and a Friday evening—the letter arrived from the Emperor inviting us to visit him at noon the next morning. So, in the morning after breakfast we began to tidy our clothes, brush our shoes and, in time for our appointment, we went on our way with our mentor from the printing works. We arrived at the door of the Emperor's palace, where our chief Hata joined us. In front went Hata and the Duke, then followed Wiremu, then I and at the very rear the chamberlain. We saw soldiers on each side and as we went we bowed to each side, bending only the upper part of the body, until we reached the door of the Emperor's chamber. As soon as the door was opened, the great man was standing ready to receive us and as we approached we bowed until we were beside him. We then stood and Hata said to the Emperor:
‘These men are from New Zealand; they are chiefs of that land. They are Wiremu Toetoe and Hemara Rerehau who came on the Novara. They wish to speak to you in their own language and the chamberlain will translate it into German for you.’
So then Wiremu spoke, holding the papers in his hands. We had prepared them in the printing works, Maori in one column and German in the other. Wiremu then handed the papers to the Emperor, who read the greetings contained in the papers. Hata then called on Wiremu to speak in the Maori language loudly and with emphasis. It was then that Wiremu spoke and expressed our greetings thus:
‘Greetings, greetings to you Francis Joseph, supreme ruler of all Austria. Our desire to see you has been very great. That was the reason for our coming here: we desired to see you, the supreme ruler of all Austria; we also wanted to see the lands of the Europeans. The commander of your warship Novara spoke to the Governor
maua kia kite i a koe i te rangatira nui o Atiria katoa; ka hiahia maua kia kite i nga whenua pakeha. Te rangatira nui o tou manuao o te Novara i korero ki te Kawana o Niutireni, a, whakaae ana te Kawana ki te korero o te Kamotoro. Korero te Kawana ki a maua haere kia kite korua i nga whenua pakeha kia kite korua i nga rangatira nunui o nga pakeha. Tena koe, tena koe e te Kingi o nga Kingi, te Ariki o nga Ariki, ohana ki runga rawa.
“Ka whakapai atu maua ki a koe akeake, he hepeta tika te hepeta o tou Kingitanga.
“Tena koe, tena koe e Paranihi Hohepa te rangatira nui o Atiria katoa; ka korerotia e maua tou pai ki Niutireni me tou ataahua ina hoki maua ki to maua nei kainga.” Ko te mutunga tenei o a maua mihi mo taua Kingi.
Titiro tonu taua Kingi ki a maua me te menemene mai nga paparinga, katahi ka puta te kupu a taua Kingi: “Katahi ano ahau ka rongo i te korero pai na enei tangata; katahi nga tangata i korero pai ki ahau. “Heoi puta ana matou ki waho, hoki ana ki Otakaringi, i te ata taia ana ki te niupepa to maua taenga kia kite i te Kingi a rato katoa ki nga wahi katoa o taua whenua katoa, hei korero ma taua iwi i te ao, i te po.
I te taima i tata ai nga ra o to maua hokinga mai ka nui te mihi a taua iwi ki a maua me te aroha. Tata noa ake nga ra heoi ano e taia ana ki te niupepa kei te rua te kau ma ono o nga ra o te marama o Mei 26—1860, i te Rahoroi, ka hoki enei rua tangata ki to raua nei kainga. No te Paraire ka tuhituhi mihi maua mo te rangatira nui rawa. Te Rahoroi ka rere mai i runga i te tima haere uta, i te aihanapana.
Ko to maua rangatira nana maua i arahi atu kaore i kite i to maua haerenga mai, i Itari hoki ia e noho ana, engari ko te reta kau i tae mai ki a maua. “Haere ra e oku hoa aroha ki to korua nei kainga: kua rite korua ki nga kapua teitei, haere kia pai te hoki kia ora korua haere e hoki ki Waikato kia kite o korua whanaunga i a korua.”
I Te Rahoroi ka haere mai maua i Wina ka eke ki runga i te aihanapana Hangaperetene Rimiti, Pewharia. Tae noa atu ki te Kingi o reira kua riro ki Wiatene Peaka. Haere ana maua ki te matakitaki i roto o tona whare.
Moe iho i te ata ka rere mai ka tae ki te kainga o nga matua o to maua hoa e arahi nei i a maua, o te Hokiteta. E wha nga ra ki reira e noho ana, katahi ka haere kia kite i te Kingi o tera wehenga o Haramane. I te tekau ma rua ka haere ki te whare o taua Kingi o Wiremu Wiatene Peaka. Tae rawa atu kua riro te Kingi o Pewharia i reira hoki e noho ana. Heoi ano haere ana ka tae, mihi ana ki taua Kingi ko nga mihi ano i te Kingi tuatahi. Ka mutu hoki ana mihi mai a tera kihai i taro kua po. No te mea ko te taupatanga atu, tera: e po ai a reira e marama ai a konei, e po ai a konei e marama ai a reira.
of New Zealand, and he agreed to the Commodore's request. The Governor told us to go and see Europe and the great chiefs of the Pakeha. Greetings, greetings, King of Kings, Lord of Lords, Hosanna in the Highest. We pay homage to you for ever and ever: a true sceptre is the sceptre of your rule.
‘Greetings, greetings, Francis Joseph, supreme ruler of all Austria; we shall acclaim your kindness and your splendour in New Zealand, when we return to our homeland.’
For a long time the Emperor gazed upon us, his cheeks aglow; then he said: “I have never heard such well-chosen words as these two have said; their address was very excellent.” We retired outside and returned to Ottakring. In the morning our visit to the Emperor was published in the newspaper and distributed all over the country for all to read day and night.
When the time of our return drew near, there were many expressions of goodwill and affection towards us from the people. Just before our departure it was published in the newspaper that we were leaving for our homeland on Saturday, May 26, 1860. On the Friday we sent our farewell message to the Emperor. On the Saturday we left, first by ferry, then by train.
The gentleman who had conducted us did not see us leave but we did receive a letter from him. saying: ‘Farewell my dear friends, depart to your homeland; you have become like the clouds on high; farewell to you both. Return to Waikato so your relatives may see you.’
On the Saturday we left Vienna and went by train to Bavaria. When we arrived, the King of that country had gone to Wurtemberg. So we went to view the inside of his palace. We stayed overnight and in the morning went to the parental home of our mentor Hochstetter. We stayed there for four days, then went to see the King of that part of the Germanic Confederation. On the twelfth we arrived at the palace of the King of Wurtemberg. By then, the King of Bavaria who had been staying there had just left. Nonetheless we proceeded to pay our respects to the King of Wurtemberg, in the same way as we had done at the Emperor's. After he had replied to our greetings, it was close to nightfall, for such is the division of time: when it is nighttime over there, it is day in New Zealand; when it is night in New Zealand, it is day over there.