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No. 20 (November 1957)
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TE AO HOU
The New World
THE ALEXANDER TURNBULL LIBRARY
WELLINGTON NEW ZEALAND

the maori affairs department NOVEMBER 1957

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TE AO HOU
THE NEW WORLD

No. 20 (Vol. 5 No. 4)

There has always been general agreement that the Polynesians are an ‘artistic’ race and the Maoris are no exception. But what do we mean by this? Partly, we are thinking of the Maori record in woodcarving and the scroll designs which are of unusual beauty. But we also think of the experience everyone of us has had: almost every Maori is a natural singer, a natural dancer and very many have a great facility at drawing. One notices this from day to day among the people one meets. One also notices how many Maoris are natural orators.

To what extent do Maoris succeed as professional artists?

There have been some notable successes. In singing, several have done well, and Inia Te Wiata has become a world figure. In painting, Oriwa Haddon is one of several who have built up some reputation. Among the younger generation, quite a number are art specialists with the Education Department. In fact, North of Auckland Maori art specialists must by now outnumber the European ones. The training for this job includes a year of special advanced study in Art given only to people with some artistic promise. Several of the Maori art specialists have done well at their own painting as well as teaching in schools. A few have also done the Diploma course at the Elam School of Fine Arts. One of these graduates, Mr Selwyn Wilson, has recently gone to England to further his artistic studies. Serious work based on traditional Maori forms still continues meanwhile.

In the composing of popular music, the Maori people also have a reasonable record. A full list of records by New Zealand composers was published recently and it appears from this list that of the five composers with most recordings to their credit, three are Maori. They are: Ruru Karaitiana (whose great success was Blue Smoke). Erina Kaihau and Hemi Piripata. In band music, Amohau's Maori Battalion has a high place.

Described in this issue is the first occasion when three Maori actors have taken chief roles in a play in New Zealand's most prominent theatre company, the New Zealand Players. The performance of these actors was widely praised.

Having said all this, we must still ask ourselves whether Maori artistic talent has so far found full expression in the new world. One cannot help observing that far too many people do not develop the very real talent they have, and that for any true achievement in the arts, one requirement is vigorous training. This applies to the traditonal arts of the Maori, it also applies to the modern ones. Professional status is for the few, but these few only come forward when people in general are keen to develop their talents.

The opportunities are better today than ever before. Training is easily accessible and for those who have given proof of talent and earnest study, financial help in various forms is available. Nonetheless, to succeed in the arts, a great toughness is needed and an overwhelming desire to succeed.

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HAERE KI O KOUTOU
TIPUNA

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HAERE KI O KOUTOU
TIPUNA

TU TE HOUNUKU KORAKO

Tu Te Hounuku Korako, rangatira of Ngaitahu, direct descendant of Tahu, and the last of his line, died at Tuahiwi, his birthplace, at the age of 86 years. He represented Ngaitahu in England at the jubilee of Queen Victoria and also at the opening of the Federal Parliament of Australia in 1901, which the Duke and Duchess of York attended. Tu Te Hounuku was the great-grandson of the chieftainess Te Whee Ariki and a nephew of Iwikau, rangatira of the hapu Rakiamoa, who was signatory to the Treaty of Waitangi. On his mother's side he was the great-great-grandson of the tohunga Naki Moroiti, chieftainess of Westland.

POROTENE TE MANU WELLINGTON

One of the most prominent Maori leaders in the Whangarei district, Mr Porotene te Manu (Bert) Wellington has died.

Mr Wellington belonged to the Ngatiwai tribe and the Kopotai and Waiariki subtribes. He was born at Ngunguru 59 years ago.

He lived for many years at Te Maika.

During the war he was Maori liaison officer for the Whangarei district. He was Chairman of the Whangarei Tribal Committee for six years and was chairman of the Ngunguru Tribal Committee for 11 years. He was a member of the Ngatiwai Trust Board. He was also a member of the Kaka Porowini Board of Trustees operating the Porowini marae in Whangarei where a new project is under way to provide a Maori community centre.

PENEAMINE WI NEERA

The late Peneamine Wi Neera, who died at Porirua, aged 77 years, was a fellow student with the late Sir Peter Buck at Te Aute, where he was a member of the college's first XV.

Born at Porirua, he was the second son of Te We Wi Neera and Hana, and a direct descendant of Te Rauparaha.

On leaving college he married Paeroa, the daughter of Tatana Te Whataupoko, the Ngati Huia chief of Poroutawhao.

During his residence there Mr Wi Neera keenly supported Maori Rugby football, and he was also a principal sponsor of hockey as a sport for the younger people, being president of the Toa Club, which he also coached during its best period.

He was one of the leaders of the Church of Latter Day Saints.

ATI KIRIMOA HAERA

A leader of the Tuhourangi Sub-Tribe of Te Arawa, Ati Kirimoa Haera, aged about 67, died in Rotorua. He was also affiliated to the Ngati Tuara and Ngati Wahiau Sub-Tribes of Te Arawa. Mr Haera, an owner in the Horohoro lands, was one of those instrumental in making them available for Government-assisted development. He was also one of the original settlers on the block.

Mr Haera was promiuent in social work and in the Second World he was closely associated with patriotic work generally and with the Maori war effort. He leaves a wife and a grown-up family.

WIKITERA HOHEA MEREMERE

The death occurred at Pukekohe of Wikitera Hohea Meremere, at the age of 60. Mr Meremere was better known to Pukekohe peopel as “Wiki”, and for many years he was a member of the staff of the Pukekohe Borough Council. Mr Meremere served at Gallipoli in the first World War.

MRS RANGI STAPLES

Mrs Rangi Staples died recently at the Hastings Memorial Hospital. She was survived by her sisters and daughters. The tangi was held at Omahu.

MRS TANEKO PAUL

Mrs Taneko Paul of Runanga died recently in the Hastings Memorial Hospital. She was survived by her daughters. The funeral was held at Omahu.

PAORA TEMUERA

The death has occurred at Palmerston or Canon Temuera, aged 72 years. Ordained in 1916, he spent 16 years in the Diocese of Waiapu, and in 1933 he succeeded his father as pastor of Rangiatea, where he remained until his retirement in 1952. In recognition of his services to that church, during its centenary celebrations in 1950, he was appointed an honorary canon of St Paul's Cathedral Church, Wellington. In the same year he was awarded the decoration of Member of the Order of the British Empire (M.B.E.) for his services to the Church and the Maori people. He leaves a widow and a daughter.

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TE AO HOU

He Tika tonu te korero ra he tohunga nga iwi o nga whenua o te Moana-nui-a-kiwa penei me te Maori ki nga mahi waiata; ki nga mahi whakairo me era tu mahi. Titiro tatou ki nga whakairo, ki nga tukutuku, ki nga kowhaiwhai, a te Maori ana taonga ka mutu nga taonga whakapaipai. Ka mutu te iwi reo reka i te Maori, he iwi tau hoki ki nga mahi haka a ki nga mahi tu marae.

Kua paoho ki te Ao to te Maori rongonui mo te waiata ina a Inia Te Wiata he tangata tino rongonui ia. Ko Orewo Haddon tetahi Maori tohunga ki nga tuhi ahua. Kua tokomaha rawa atu nga taitamariki Maori kei nga kura e whakaakoako tamariki ana ki nga mahi tuhi ahua a ko etahi kua whakaputa hei tino tohunga. Ko Selwyn Wilson inatata nei ka whakawhiti ki tawahi ki te whai i te hohonutanga atu o nga mahi o enei tu mahi.

Kua whakaputa o te Maori ona tohunga ki nga mahi tito waiata o Te Ao Hou nei, ko Ruru karaitiana tera, ko Erina Kaihau ko Hemi Piripata, a ko Anania mohau nara ra te warata rengonui mo te ope taua o te whawhai nui kua taha ake nei.

Ko tenei putanga o Te Ao Hou te korero mo etahi Maori tokotoru kua whakaata ki nga mahi tiata.

He pai tonu enei korero engari katahi tonu te Maori ka whawha ki enei taonga o te ao Pakeha. Pera me te ako haka, me te akoako waiata ma te pukumahi ma te u ka tutuki pai te mahi

Contents

Articles and Stories
Elsdon Craig, Elsdon Best of Tuhoe 7
Rowley Habib, The Visitors 11
J. McL. Henderson, Hui Topu 1957 13
Matutaera, Bonds of Friendship (The Putiki Youth Club) 21
Elsdon Craig, Men and Machinery Pave the Way for Sheep Farms at Remote Tiroa 24
Stanhope Andrews, The Maori Investment Societies' Conference 27
E. G. Schwimmer, Rani Ellison, Maori Crayfish Tycoon 32
Centre for Palmerston 37
Camp with a future 38
Prof. J. W. Davidson, Leadership in Samoa 39
Stories from Whakaki 43
T. M. R. Tomoana, New Roads for Welfare 49
Keen Maori Interest in Farm Schools 52
Success of Maori Actors 58
Elsdon Craig, Ruia Morrison's World Tour 61
Ko te Reo Maori Graham Anderson, Ko nga Taonga o Mua hei Pupuri ma Tatou 15
Matutaera, Putikitia te Aroha 21
Kingi Ihaka, Nga Whatatauaki me nga Pepiha Maori 42
He Reo na te Ao Tawhito 43
Permanent Features
Haere ki o Koutou Tipua
2
Seasonal Work on the Farm 53
Books 54
R. G. Falconer, The Home Garden 56
Crossword Puzzle No 19, 57
Women 58
News in Brief 48, 60, 64

The Minister of Maori Affairs: The Rt. Hon K. T. Holyoake.

The Secretary for Maori Affairs: T. T. Ropiha, i.s.o.

Management Committee: C. J. Stace, ll.b., Mrs M. Szaszy, B.A., W. T. Ngata, lic.int., E. G. Schwimmer, m.a., M. J. Taylor.

Editor: E. G. Schwimmer, m.a.

Sponsored by the Maori Purposes Fund Board.

Subscriptions to Te Ao Hou at 7/6 per annum (4 issues) or £1 for three years' subscriptions at all offices of the Maori Affairs Department and P.O. Box 2390, Wellington, New Zealand.

Registered at G.P.O., Wellington, for transmission through the post as a magazine.

PUBLISHED BY THE MAORI AFFAIRS DEPARTMENT NOVEMBER, 1957

PRINTED BY PEGASUS PRESS LTD.

Upon Mr C. M. Bennett's departure for England, his place in the Te Ao Hou Management Committee was taken by Mrs M. Szaszy, Dominion Secretary of the M.W.W.L.

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Our cover photo was taken at Te Kaha, Bay of Plenty.

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The Hon. E. B. Corbett who was the founder of Te Ao Hou and who through the years has given the magazine most generous support has resigned as Minister of Maori Affairs, and his portfolio has been assumed by the Prime Minister, the Rt. Hon. K. J. Holyoake. In our next issue we shall publish an article to record Mr Corbett's work with the Maori people.

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ELSDON BEST
OF TUHOE

On june 30, 1856, a little more than 100 years ago, a pakeha child was born in a small cottage on a lonely farm at Tawa Flat, near Wellington. His name was Elsdon Best. The Tuhoe people, of the Urewera Country, among whom he later lived, came to know him as “Peehi”. The cottage where he was brought up stood in a bush clearing; its walls were of pitsawn timber, and it had a shingle roof. The Tawa Flat telephone exchange now occupies the site.

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Elsdon Best as he was when he left the Urewera Country.

In these humble surroundings the foundations were laid for Peehi to play an important part in the affairs of New Zealand. The Tuhoe people remember him, particularly, because he became one of them, learning and respecting their ways, and preserving their tribal lore for future generations.

It was a tremendous task recording the wealth of knowledge handed down by word of mouth from generation to generation within the sacred walls of the whare-wananga. He was constantly faced with the problem of deciding which version of the many stories he was told about the history of the tribe was the right one.

Tuhoe still debate among themselves the veracity of some of these accounts, but, that Peehi was aware of the danger of being too dogmatic, is evident from what he says in the introduction to his monumental work “Tuhoe-The Children Of The Mist”. “I am well aware that this sketchy account of bygone fights is going to be vigorously condemned…by the descendants of those who did not win such combats. Human nature is much the same the world over. I herein give the stories as they were told to me, doubtless with the exagerations and concealments common to all mankind. Should others be moved to publish more correct versions, as from their point of view, why then more power to their indignant elbows.”

The Maori people as a whole remember Peehi for his honesty and sincerity of purpose in placing on record their proud achievements and valued culture. He loved New Zealand and he combined with that love a deep and abiding interest in the Maori folk. He knew New Zealand could not progress unless the Maori prospered and he knew their future welfare depended on their retaining those Maori values implied in “Maoritanga” in the face of changing conditions.

Peehi saw the breakdown of the greatest of those values, “tapu”, under the influence of the pakeha, and with it the destruction of the old social system of Maoridom. In a little-known pamphlet which he wrote, called “Christian and Maori Mythology

When Elsdon Best died, Sir Peter Buck had this to say of him: “As long as the race shall endure, men and women of Maori blood will owe a debt to the man who toiled so long and so arduously to record their ancient culture with its halo of romance and achievement”. (Journal of the Polynesian Society, March 1932). Undoubtedly, he was one of the greatest students of Maori culture. This brief story of his life was written for Te Ao Hou by his adoptive son Mr Elsdon Craig, now a journalist with the New Zealand Herald. Mr Craig's personal memories of the ethnologist are not very detailed: ‘I recollect him,’ he writes, ‘as a tall rugged individual with a piercing blue eye, who once delighted my boyish interest with a frightening exposition of the haka. He died when I was twelve years of age.’ Mr Craig inherited Elsdon Best's notebooks which are now in the Turnbull Library.

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—Notes on the Clash of Cultures”, he says: “The result of the destruction of the basic force of Maori social life (tapu) soon became apparent. The social system was so weakened that the various forms of discipline under wich the Maori had flourished for many centuries were sorely weakened. Evidence of this lax condition appeared in the social and industrial life of the people, and, ere long it was also evident in the mental outlook of te people”.

Understanding and Sympathy

Peehi set out to help restore some of these supports of Maori society and to adapt these traditional values to the changing times by stimulating racial pride, developing understanding of the Maori point of view, and cultivating sympathy toward the people who were undergoing vast changes by encouraging study of their problems.

He said: “I take an interest in these matters because after a lifetime spent in this land, I can look back with much pleasure of many years of contact with the Maori folk. I know if treated in a sympathetic manner they will respond and that outbreaks of irresponsible and superstitious activities are becoming rarer than of yore.”

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Peehi listening to a Maori playing a flute.

So that was why Peehi threw in his lot with the Maori people. He was born at a time which enabled him to grow up among those ancestors of the present generation who had hardly begun to emerge from the Old World into the New World. His earliest playmates were Maori children from whom he obtained his love of the bush and the first few words of the Maori language. Above all, he grew up among their kaumatua, learnt their point of view, and understood how to build on the old way of life in preparation for the new.

He attained manhood at an equally fortunate time. The Maori had reached the depths of that despondent state into which he fell after the wars with the pakeha and “Maoritanga” was at its lowest ebb. Peehi's “hobby”, as he called his interest brought him in contact with Apirana Ngata, Peter Buck and others who were forming the Young Maori Party and who needed the help of pakehas with a little appreciation of the difficulties and the requirements of their people.

Peehi regarded himself as a dwarf among giants. He was then not a great Maori scholar. His education in the pakeha sense was limited. He had only five-and-a-half years' schooling, but that did not mean that he and his parents did not appreciate the value of education. As it happened there was no school where he lived. So his father wrote the alphabet on his bedroom wall before his son was five years' old, and he learnt to read and write by making the most of his parents' teaching and the good books he was encouraged to read at home. The result was that when he did go to school for a short time he was able to pass the Junior Civil Service examination.

But Peehi did not want an office job. He loved the outdoor life. So he decided to go farming in Poverty Bay. At the place where he worked he built himself a hut and concentrated on learnining the Maori language. He also studied Spanish because he wanted to go to South America for a time. The trip did not eventuate but he went to the United States, where he worked in timber camps for five years.

His return to New Zealand and his meeting with Percy Smith, the Maori historian, was another fortunate coincidence. Percy Smith was the Surveyor-General who had the job of making a road through the Urewera Country, the home of the Tuhoe tribe. Smith knew many of the old customs and beliefs were intact among these people who had been isolated right up to that time. So he persuaded Peehi to become an overseer on the roadworks and to collect and record information about the Tuhoe people in his spare time.

Life among the Tuhoe

Peehi accepted the offer and in 1896 built his hut at Te Whaiti, later moving to Ngaputahi, Heipipi and finally to Ruatoki. Altogether he spent 15 years, most of the time alone, among the Tuhoe people. During the last part of his stay he was joined by his wife, who had taught at a

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Tutakangahau wearing flax cloak and feather in hair. Standing beside him are his son, Tukua Te Rangi (in hat) and Te Kokau. The woman in the picture is Te Kura. (Photograph taken by Peehi in 1896.)

Maori school, knew the Maori language, and shared his interest. The Tuhoe called her Hinekura because of her auburn hair.

Peehi's sympathetic approach made the people trust him and recognise him as a true scholar. “Greetings to you, the ahua (semblance) of the men of old”, was the way one acquaintance greeted him. Old Tutakangahau, the white-haired chief of Tamakaimoana, at Mangapohatu, once said to him: “Truly do I see that you tread in the footsteps of the men of old and my heart goes out to the man of a strange race who honours the heroes of the great past, be they pakeha or Maori”.

His Deep Friendships

Tutakangahau on his deathbed committed to Peehi's care the karakia and ritual used for preserving the sacred life principle, the mauri, of tribal possessions “His mind was a storehouse of primitive lore”, Peehi wrote about Tutakangahau. “He knew the old native names of every tree, shrub, plant, or fern in the forests of Tuhoeland. His fund of quaint folklore was immense. Above all, he was thoroughly conversant with the modes of thought of the ancient Maori.” A learned man, he was taught to read and write by the missionaries when he was a child. Peehi describes him as “a quiet-mannered and courteous companion, ever ready to allay strife among his tribesmen or to assist the stranger within his gates, be that stranger pakeha or Maori”.

A former warrior dedicated to Tu, his face deeply scarred with tattooing, Tutakangahau was a link between the old world and the new. He knew the advantages of education and when the school opened at Te Whaiti, he asked Peehi to look after his three grandchildren so they could attend there. Before handing them over he gave the children this good advice. “And should the pakeha correct or chide you, you must not be angry or sullen. That is a token of ignorance and low birth. It is by such correction that you shall learn to live well in this world.”

Quite a different personality was Paitini Wi Tapeka, of the Ngatimaru hapu. He and his wife. Makurata, an expert weaver, lived beside Peehi's camp at Heipipi, near Ruatahuna. Whereas Tutakangahau was placid and even-tempered, Paitini was impetuous and fiery. But both men were equally eager to preserve their “Maoritanga”. “We will go down into old age”, Paitini once told the white man, “striving to retain the lore of the old-time people for generations to come. So shall our children know all things, even from the days of Tapeka and of Maui”. Paitini was an expert on waiata and in a single winter he and Makurata gave Peehi the words of more than 400 songs.

His Books are Published

After he left the Urewera Country Peehi worked at the Dominion Museum, asembling the huge amount of information, which he had collected in notebooks, and publishing it in book form. These notebooks, with the manuscripts of the printed books, are carefully preserved in the Turnbull

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Peehi's camp at Heipipi on the Te Whaiti-Ruatatuna Road.

Library, in Wellington. It was there, in the later stages of his life that Peehi spent much of his time, part of it with Sir Peter Buck (Te Rangihiroa), writing in an attic-like room on the top storey of the building.

It should be remembered that Peehi was working for the Government which was supposed to have voted money to publish his books. But governments in those days did not realise the value of Maori studies like they do today. Consequently, the money was not always forthcoming to produce works like “The Maori”, “The Pa Maori”, and “Maori Agriculture”. These delays aroused Sir Apirana Ngata to some of the greatest heights of oratory in pleading for more funds to publish these books. “We shall treasure the manuscripts of Mr Elsdon Best”, he said, “when all these Hansards are forgotten”. Again in 1923, he stated: “probably 100 years hence he will find our descendants wondering what sort of fools we were when we had the opportunity to provide the money to enable these manuscripts to see the light of day”. In a still later speech he pressed the matter home: “… I think the Maori of New Zealand may be pardoned if they also are anxious to fall in line with other races and promote a fund in order to discover where they came from, who they are, and whether they are connected to the great Nordic race to which other honourable gentlemen of the Chamber belong, or with the Mongols … the Africans, or other primary races of the world …”

Through the pressure brought to bear by Ngata, with the backing of Mr Gordon Coates, and with financial help from the Maori people the Board of Maori Ethnological Research (now the Maori Purposes Fund Board) was formed. Although other difficulties stood in the way, the board was able to resolve them and the books which Peehi wrote began to appear regularly in the bookshops. His only regret was that the delays had meant the loss of valuable time. “Alas”, he said just before his death “there is so much knowledge which possess and which I will never have time record”. The last years were a race against time But he was able to translate nearly all his notes into manuscript form and when he died on September 9, 1931, it was found that the work “Maori Forest Lore”, on which he was engaged, embodied virtually the last extracts from his well filled notebooks.

HISTORIC PLACES

The recognition of two places famous in Maori history have been approved by the Historic Places Trust. They will be marked by commemorative plaques. The first is at the site of the Matakitaki Pa, at Pirongia, eight miles from Te Awamutu There is very little left of the pa fortifications, but the site is remembered for a great battle many years ago between Waikato and Ngapuhi. The second plaque will be at Kawhia, to mark the traditional resting place of the Tainui canoe after it was dragged up from its landing. Both the King Country and the Waikatos claim descent from people who arrived in the canoe.

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Short Story
THE VISITORS

They came to the door in the afternoon when the children's brother Paul was out on the farm fixing a part of the fence. They were all dressed in black and the woman had a black handkerchief tied over her hair and when her eyes lighted on the children her face drooped and she turned her head to one side and said, “Oh, don't they look so like William.”

“This is your Auntie and Uncle,” their Uncle Ben said. “We've just come to look the old place over.” He was smiling with his hands clasped in front of him and standing very straight. Then he moved a little to one side and said to the woman:

“Joyce, this is the little girl I was telling you about. William called her after you, you know. She's the one I think looks very like William.”

The woman came across the room and looked down at the little girl. “Oh, yes,” she said. “Those eyes are just like William's. I think he did write and tell me about her.” She bent over and kissed the girl and her lips were warm and dry and soft.

“The poor things,” she said looking at the heads of the children after she had kissed them all. “It's a shame to be left without a mother and father.”

“Yes,” the children's Uncle Ben said. “I know you would like to help them Joyce, but there isn't much we can do about it you know.” Then to the children: “Your Auntie and Uncle were just passing through and we thought we'd come down and see the old place. I used to stay here once myself, you know.”

The girl Joyce said, “Paul is over fixing the farm fence. We could go and get him if you want.”

“No, it will be alright,” her Uncle Ben put in quickly. “I think I know the old place well enough to look around.” The last part was said with a chuckle looking at the other two. They looked down at the floor and then up and the other man rubbed his nose with his finger and they chuckled a little too.

The visitors went into the passageway and they moved slowly down towards the sitting room looking about at the walls and up at the ceiling. They were talking in lowered tones and the children's Uncle Ben kept leaning sideways and talking into the sides of the others faces. The other two kept nodding their heads all the while he spoke, not looking at him but straight ahead.

The woman was big and the black fur coat she wore made her look bigger and bulky. She had a deep liquid voice and a habit of turning her head on one side when she spoke laying it on her shoulder and then raising her eyebrows. Her face was strong and her eyes wide and beautiful and the handkerchief around her head bulged with the mass of black hair beneath it.

The children stood in the kitchen a little awed, huddled in a group around the stove. They were very quiet, looking at one another and then watching about at the wal's up at the ceiling. They hear their relations moving about in the passageway and looking into the rooms, talking in lowered tones.

“Our father and I put this in,” they heard their

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Uncle Ben saying. “We had a little trouble getting it to fit beneath the ceiling, but we put it in to last.”

“I think that's very good.” They heard their Auntie say.

“Yes, it wasn't a bad job.”

The group moved on further down the passageway and the voices became muffled. And when their Uncle Ben spoke they could hardly hear him. “We added this half of the house on afterwards you know, when the family began to get a little larger.” Their Uncle Ben chuckled a little. “William got married, then my family and I moved in to this half of the house. Our father stayed with us. He was very sick at the time. William and I could never get on together, you know, so after our father died I moved.”

The group was quiet for a while, then the children heard the sitting room door open and the voices of their Auntie and Uncles came to them quite clearly through the wall by the stove.

“You know,” their Uncle Ben said, ‘our father was always sorry that you two stayed in the city. He often used to talk about you.”

“Oh, there's William,” the woman cried. “It looks just like him.” The children knew she was referring to the large frame photograph of their father that hung on the wall of the sitting room.

“And this is his wife, I suppose.” The other uncle spoke for the first time.

“The children heard their Uncle Ben grunt and then their Auntie was saying, “William had such beautiful eyes. Didn't he and Rita look alike. I wonder he didn't marry that girl back home.”

“You know this house is still in good condition.” The other Uncle spoke again. “Those boards on the ceiling are hardly even touched. And the farm, could we look around before we go? I believe it came up very well when our father had it.”

“Yes, there's some good land there still. A little neglected now, I think.”

“William was never for the farm, was he?”

“No, he just wanted the land in trees. It was our father and I who wanted it as a farm.”

“It should bring in a good price when we've sold it. I think we should put it on the market straight away, before it goes back too much.”

“Yes,” they heard their Uncle Ben say. “There's a few acres of virgin land along with the estate. I've had a few clients asking about the bush on it. I think we could go ahead and sell it over these people's heads. This Paul, William's oldest boy, doesn't know much about it you know. I think he believes the place is theirs.”

“Don't you think we'd better tell them, Ben?”

“I don't think there's any need. My lawyer said it wasn't necessary. Anyway it would only cause a bit of trouble. This boy, William's son, you know, would be against it. And it would all be unnecessary. Anyway they will get their father's share. We could let them use this house till they find somewhere else to stay. Very stubborn boy this Paul. I talked to him once before about it, you know.”

“Yes, I think they should be satisfied with having this place all that time.”

“I think it would pay to get rid of the whole estate at once. The block of bush would be a good tempter for a lot of people. Otherwise we might not be able to sell some of that useless land you were talking about.”

“Oh, they're such beautiful children.”

“Yes, William's wife was a very pretty womman before she got sick.”

“Poor William, we must visit his grave before we go. I would like to have brought out sonme flowers, but we left in such a hurry.”

“They say the place is very neglected. Not even a fence around it.”

“Oh, what a shame. Fancy neglecting their father's grave like that. And his wife here. Rene, was that her name? Is she buried beside him?“

“Yes, we didn't want it. We wanted a place for our family alone. Our father and us you know.”

“No, I don't think that would have been posible. I've arranged to be cremated and sent back home.”

“I don't see what the advantage of that would be.”

“Oh, it's just…” the woman broke off.

The group came back into the kitchen and the children were still standing wide-eyed by the stove.

“Well, this is a nice place you've got here.” Their Uncle Ben said. And he was smiling. “We just going to go and look the old farm over. I'll show your Uncle and Auntie round. We've all got shares in this place you know.” He came to the children and shook their hands and he tried to kiss the girls and they thought he was funny just because he was their Uncle Ben. And they knew he was doing it because the other two were in the room.

“They do not know me very well,” he said looking at the other two. “I'm hardly around here you know.”

“Good-bye sweethearts,” the woman said. “Good-bye little Joyce.”

The children did not say anything but stood with their heads down, watching the floor.

“Well, I hope we see you again soon,” the woman added and they began walking out into the passageway and through there onto the verandah.

“Give Paul our best regards,” their Uncle Ben called looking back in through the door. “Tell him we're sorry we could not stay to see him.” The little group walked out across the yard and through the gate an dthe children heard the low mumble of their voices, stil guarded and serious.

Then they heard their Uncle's car start up and the girl Joyce said, “Hurry Johnny, go and tell Paul.” And a little boy ran out across the yard and up through the orchard and they saw him climbing through the fence and his shirt flying about his body as he ran on the other side.

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Large church gatherings such as the one described here are not only enjoyable, but also a valuable leavening in Maori life.

HUI TOPU
1957

The fifth annual Hui Topu of the Church of England was held in May this year in the Ruatoki valley where the Whakatane River makes a broad road down from the forest ranges of the Urewera to the sea. There from Thursday, May 16th, to Sunday, 19th, approximately two thousand people from all parts of the Island joined together for a Maori Synod, youth conference and music festival. They came to live in the eight maraes of Ruatoki from Wellington, Wanganui, Waikato, Auckland and the East Coast, bringing with them their own action songs and hakas, to enjoy the lavish hospitality of the Tuhoe.

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Rev. Wharetini Rangi at the Hui Topu debutantes ball.

Suiting their reputation “Tuhoe, moumou kai, moumou taonga, moumou tangata ki te po”, the people of Ruatoki, assisted by members of other parishes in the archdeaconry of Tauranga, spared no effort. Food was cooked in five hangi and served in an immense dining shelter of raupo. Hay and mats were spread for beds in the brightly painted meeting houses of the valley.

A glance at its history shows the nature of the Hui Topu. When, in response to Maori demand, the Right Reverend Frederick Bennett was consecrated as Bishop of Aotearoa, he bacame suffragan or assistant to the Bishop to Waiapu. Each year the Waiapu Diocese dealt with Maori matters at the annual Synod, advised by resolutions passed in archdeaconry meetings in different parts of the Diocese. In 1953 all three archdeaconry meetings were combined and a Maori Synod was set up in Waipawa, Hawkes Bay. Thus, costing £766 with a credit balance of four shillings (!) the Hui Topu was born. Since then, at Tengae, Ruatoria, Wairoa and at Ruatoki this year, it has grown lustily. Besides the Synod there is a conference of Maori Youth, a debutantes' ball, a sacred music festival in which parish choirs compete and are judged, and a Maori cultural festival. Whilst the young folk have an opportunity to develop and display their talents, elders like to come to renew old acquaintances and to arrange tribal affairs.

At Ruatoki, historic stopping-place of Potiki, Te Kooti Rikirangi, Kereopa Kaiwhatu and his captors, Elsdon Best, Rua Kenana the Prophet, and Maori and pakeha Christian missionaries, the guests of honour (the Right Reverend Norman Lesser, Bishop of Waiapu, Mrs Lesser, and the Right Reverend W. Panapa, Bishop of Aotearoa) were welcomed in traditional style. A practice had been held in lovely sunshine. The action song group in red skirts and piupiu had sung Maranga Tuhoe powhiritia ra … (Arise, Tuhoe, welcome your guests) and Haere mai nga Pihopa, Haere mai nga Minita … (Welcome to Bishops and Ministers) whilst cameras clicked and whirred. Then came the rain. The greater the mana of the visitor about to arrive, acording to Maungapohatu legend, the heavier will be the rain. For the first time since (fifty years ago) she started her Church of England mission in Ruatoki, Rotu Numia who became Mrs Wharetini Rangi, saw her marae flooded. When on Thursday the kai wero (challenger) pranced out in his waterproof skin and piupiu to welcome the Bishops, he laid his carved

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manuka in the water and then led the party through the rain into the meeting house. Following the action songs came speeches and a patere chanted by Mr Takarua Tamarau representing Tuhoe. That night twenty debutantes were presented to the Bishop and Mrs Lesser, with full formalities, and the Hui Topu was under way.

Gradually the weather cleared. The speakers at the Youth Conference addressed an audience of about three hundred. The Reverend Manu Bennett told of his pineapple-happy days in Hawaii and suggested that the Maori was too full of racial pride. “It was racial pride that crucified Christ”, he said. The Reverend M. Cameron gave an outline of the growth of the Church in New Zealand through the work of Maori converts, and Dr Maharaia Winiata spoke effectively on racial problems. He suggested that the Maori should be tolerant of, and understand, his pakeha (or was it ‘colourless’?) brother. Later Dr Winiata led an equally spirited discussion on rock 'n roll dancing, a theme which was introduced early by the Ohinemutu boys and girls and which continued throughout the conference. Dr Keith Sinclair said that Maori youths had “the I.Q. and should be teachers, doctors and farmers”. Other speakers were Mrs Lesser, Mr M. Marsden, and the Reverend Hohepa Taepa. Between addresses and questions. Canon Wi Huata [ unclear: ] conducted com munity singing. The talent quests and concerts, the sacred music recitals and Maori action songs showed the diversity and plenitude of Maori talent. “Spaceman” and the Ropiha songsters and many others will be remembered by those who were fortunate enough to find seats in the crowded meeting house. In general dramatic power was well developed and the modern action songs, like all true folk song expressed the feelings of the people concerning themselves and their homes.

Competition winners were: Action songs… Whangara; Choir singing…Waipatu-Motea.

The Youth Movement Committee passed a number of significant resolutions, indicating a progressive spirit. In future delegates are to be sent to Synod meetings, all junior items are to be non-competitive in order to foster a love of the arts for their own sake, and religious plays and oratory are to be included in the festival next year. Addresses, it was agreed, should not be ‘above the heads’ of the youthful audience. Subjects suggested to next year's speakers were: Guidance of youth in cities, Explanation of obscure words in the new Maori Bible, Definition of young folk's duty to parents, Sex knowledge and guidance, and Modern developments in the history of the Church.

When, on Sunday and Monday, the buses began to pull away from Tauarau marae, songs were sung and speeches were made in honour of the hosts. Te Kuiti sang of Tuhoe who slew his brother long ago, and the Reverend Wharetini Rangi, M.B.E., recounted old tales over the loudspeakers, telling of the three sons of Potiki and the night when Wairaka made a mistake to the confusion of her descendants. The boys of Ruatoki galloped after the buses on their horses, and in the kitchen and canteen, the kai mahi began to enjoy a well-earned rest. In the vividly decorated meeting house two painted figures. Tamate Te Ihuwaka the first Christian of Tuhoe, and his lady Te Moa Tutahuna, who had not closed their eyes all the busy week, were left to meditate on the variety of spiritual nourishment they had seen and heard perhaps during the past four days only, but most probably over the whole period of fifty years in which the seed of Christianity planted by Rotu Numia and her husband the Reverend Wharetini Rangi, has grown into a full-flowering tree.

During this half-century, it is evident that the Maori communal tradition has survived the storms of transition. Yet inter-tribal animosities have largely disappeared as new groupings have cut across older kinship affiliations. The Hui Topu is one of the new communities, the younger generation creating one tribe with Christ as Ariki.

The next Hui Topu will be at Whangara on the East Coast in January 1958.

Miss Matekino Kopae, one of the twenty debutantes presented to the Right Reverend N. Lesser, Bishop of Waiapu, and Mrs Lesser, at Ruatoki last May. (Sabrina Studios, Whakatane).

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Ko Nga Taonga O Mua
hei Pupuri ma Tatou

Tena ra koutou e nga Waka, e nga Reo, ara koutou katoa e noho mai na i o koutou kainga maha o te motu, Tena ra koutou.

Tenei au te atu nei i o koutou aroaro he tamaiti hoki kaore and kia tae ki te wa hei tu ki runga i te marae.

Ko te take e tu nei au he tono na te Tangata whakahaere o nga korero penei kia puta i a matou he whakaaro mo nga taonga o mua e tika ana kia puritia e tatou e te Maori.

I te wa i tae mai ai te pakeha i te tuatahi, huri katoa te ahua noho a te Maori, whakarerea ana e ia tona whakapono, tona mana me tona tapu. Uru katoa nga iwi ki te whakapono Karaitiana, a e rite ana hoki tenei whakapono pera me te tapu o mua. No muri mai ka tupu te whawhai a te pakeha ki te Maori…i tenei wa ka kore haere te whakapono ki te pakeha, a ki tona Atua hoki. Muri iho ka pangia te Maori e nga mate huahua o te pakeha, a ka iki te tangata ki te po. A e whakaaro ana te Iwi kei te heke te Maori i raro i nga “waewae o te Moa” ki te kore. I aua wa e whakaaro ana nga tangata me pehea. E ki ana etahi o nga kaumatua kia “moea te po, ma te reo hihi e ora ai tatou” ara me whakarere nga tikanga o mua me whai atu i te ara o te pakeha.

Inaianei kua rereke ano te ahua, kua ora ano te Maori, a kei te tokomaha haere. Kua tae mai hoki te wa hei whiriwhiri ma tatou mehemea me whakarere e tatou nga tikanga katoa o mua, me aha ranei. A ki te mea he tikanga papai hoki hei pupuri ma tatou, he aha ra era.

I tupu matou, nga tamariki o tenei whakatupuranga, i roto i nga tikanga a te pakeha. Kua whiwhi matou ki tona reo hei reo mo matou a i akona hoki matou ki te kimi oranga mo matou i runga i ona huarahi. E pai ana ra ko tena, engari e patai ana au me wehe atu tatou i nga tangata o nehe,

Maori Culture

Graham Anderson is a Wellington student who wrote this oration for a broadcast last year.

The writer considers that the Maori should hold fast to his language and such customs as the “Tangi”, that is the ceremony of lamenting the dead, the “Hui” with all its ritual, speech making on the courtyard…marae…singing of chants and the performing of war dances…“hakas”. The retention of these attributes of the Maori is essential for its survival as a race.

me piri ranei tatou ki to tatou Maoritanga. Ki taku nei whakaaro me piri ra tatou ki etahi.

Ko te mea tuatahi ko te reo Maori. I mua o te taenga mai o te pakeha ko te reo Maori he reo tino reka, he reo e ki ana i nga whakaaro me nga korero o aua ra. E paitia ana hoki te reo Maori i te mea he reo whakamiharo…he reo e ki ana i nga tu ahua katoa e pa nei ki te ritenga o te korero. Otira kaore anake te reo nei i te reo whakamiharo ki te whakaaro o te ngakau, engari he reo whakamiharo ki te whakarongo o te taringa. Ma tenei reo anake ka puta marama mai nga whakaaro, nga hiahia, me nga tumanako o nga Pakeke kua rupeke atu ki te po. Ki taku nei whakaaro ko te tino hiahia o aua tangata kua mate atu nei, kia mau tonu to ratou reo hei reo mo o ratou uri, ake tonu atu. A e whakaaro ana

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au kia puritia tonutia enei taura ki o tatou matua kua heke atu nei. Ko te pakeha e korero ana ia tona reo ano, he mea heke iho mai i ona tupuna. Tatou ra, me wareware ranei te reo heke iho mai i o tatou tupuna?

Tuarua ko te whare Tapere. Huihui ai nga tamariki ki roto i nga whare Tapere i nga ra o mua i nga po. A ratou mahi he haka, he waiata, he poi me te aha. I nga ra o mua i te mea e hoea ana nga waka, ko te mea nui kia rite te hoe a nga tangata. Na i nga haka nei e tika ana kia rite te mahi a te ringaringa, a te reo, a te takahanga o nga waewae. Koia na te ahua e whakakoa nei i te ngakau o te Maori. Ka whakarerea tena kua kore to tatou Maoritanga. Tera ano tetahi ahua o enei tu mahi. Ka hui mai te pakeha ki nga hui ka nui tona miharo ki te pai o enei mahi. Kei te mohio hoki ia ehara i te mea nana tatou i ako mai engari na tatou ano. Ma tena e tupu ai to totou mana i te tirohanga a te pakeha. A ka waiho enei mahi nei hei tapiritanga ma tatou ki nga mahi ngahau tahi a nga iwi e rua o tenei motu.

Tuatoru ko nga Marae me nga wharepuni. Ko te mea nui ki te Maori ko te mahi tahi a ko te whakaahoa tahi ki nga tangata. Kaore hoki ia i te noho mokemoke ko ia anake. No reira he pai rawa atu te mahi a Ta Apirana Ngata ki te hanga whare ki runga i nga marae maha o te motu nei hei huihuinga mo nga Iwi o ia wahi, o ia wahi. He mea nui hoki tena ki te Maori. Hono tonu aku rongo i te Iwi e korero ana e ki ana “Pai tonu enei huihui hei kitekite ma tatou i a tatou.” Ma enei hui hoki ka mohio haere nga tangata ki a ratou ano, a ko tenei te wa hei korero ma te Iwi i nga ahutanga katoa e pa mai ana ki te Iwi Maori. Ka tu tena tangata, tena tangata ki te whakaatu i ona whakaaro me ona hiahia, a ma te Iwi e whiriwhiri te mea pai, a ka oti nga korero katoa katahi ka kitea te whakaaro tahi o te Iwi.

Na, tenei ano tetahi ahua pai o enei hui ara te mahitahi i runga i te tikanga a te “Ohu”. Ki te mea ka tu tetahi hui ka whakaritea te kohiti hei whakahaere i taua hui a ma te komiti hei tohutohu ki te Iwi he aha te mahi ma tena tangata, ma tena tangata. Katahi ka huihui mai nga tangata me a ratou awhina a ka tahuri ke te mahi katoa o te marae…te mahi kai, te whakahora i nga tepu te tahi me te horoi i nga whare, me te aha, me te aha. Ko enei mahi katoa kaore he utu mo te tangata mahi, he mea homai noa, he tohu hoki no te koa o te tangata ki ona tikanga me te kota hitanga o te Iwi Maori.

Tuawha ko te Tangihanga. E kore au e tautoko i nga tikanga katoa o nga tangi tupapaku o mua Kua rereke hoki te ahua o enei wa me ana mahi I nga ra o mua e watea ana te tangata ki te whaka rere i ona mahi ahakoa te roa o te tangi, kahore he Tari-ora hei ki he aha te rangi hei tanu. I enei ra ka haere te tangata ki te tangi ka mihi, ka tangi, ka hoki ia ki tona kainga, a ki tana mahi ranei. Kaore i roa tana noho ki te tangi. Ki au nei ko nga mea nui ko te karanga, ko te poroporoaki a tae noa ki te hongi. Ko te mea nui pea o enei katoa ko te hongi, kua whaka rapopotitia nga whakaaro, te aroha, te tangi me te mihi, ki roto i taua mea. E ki ana a Te Rangihiroa kua kore te tikanga o te hongi i roto i nga Iwi o nga moutere o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa, nga Maori anake te Iwi e mau tonu ana ki teneiahuatanga. No reira e hoa ma puritia tenei tikanga a tatou.

Na, hei whakamutunga, mo aku korero, maku e tatau ano nga taonga o mua e tika ana kia puritia e tatou e te Iwi Maori; ara ko te reo, ko te whare tapere, ko te marae, ko te hongi.

Kei te mohio hoki tatou katoa kei te pakeha te matauranga o enei ra; te ora o te tinana, te hanga whare, te mahi huarahi, te hokohoko taonga me te tini o nga ahua o te noho o te tangata. He pai ra hoki kei a ia te mohiotanga o enei mea katoa engari me mau tatou ki nga korero a to tatou koroua a Ta Apirana Ngata. He penei tana korero:

E tipu e rea mo nga ra o to ao, ka to ringa ki nga taonga a te pakeha hei ora mo tou tinana, ko to ngakau ki nga taonga a o tupuna hei tikitiki mo tou mahunga, a, ko to Wairua ki te Atua, nana nei nga mea katoa.”

Kia ora ano koutou.

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MAORI LEADERS OF THE PAST — 1
A NEW LOOK AT TE KOOTI

The time has come to write the story of some of the great Maori leaders of the last century. Our first subject is Te Kooti Rikirangi Te Turuki on whose life Mr Leo Fowler of Gisborne has brought to light many new facts. With the help of Maori scholars and other unpublished evidence. Mr Fowler challenges the old history-book picture of Te Kooti, and does not hesitate to be controversial. Naturally, this magazine does not take responsibility for the author's views.

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Te Kooti according to F. B. Lysnar. Is this picture genuine? Many have doubted it. In our next issue we present some pictures that may be more reliable.

It is important that we should have a new look at some of the leading figures among the Maori leaders of the last century for two reasons. The first reason is that most of them were, inevitably, written of with a bias inseparable from the fact that their critics were too closely associated with them and with the circumstances which projected them into leadership. The second reason is that we are in the last decade when anything like first-hand, or even second-hand information is available from living witnesses.

In no case is this more so than in that of Te Kooti Rikirangi Te Turuki, one of the most picturesque, the most important and the most generally misunderstood and misinterpreted of all those leaders who fought against pakeha power during the years of pakeha-Maori conflict.

Before embarking on an assessment, or a reassessment of Te Kooti however, it would be wise briefly to review the wider field of Maori leadership during the first century of British rule. The rapid spread of pakeha settlement during the nineteenth century produced marked changes in the pattern of Maori leadership which are still playing their part in modern Maoridom. Within this pattern we can place nineteenth century Maori leaders in three main groups, though of course many of them tend to overlap from one classification to another.

THE MOTIVE OF REVENGE

In the first group were those opportunists who took advantage of pakeha-introduced methods of extermination, especially the musket, and embarked on bigger, bitterer and more extensive campaigns of mass slaughter. Their motives were the old motives of inter tribal animosity and the personal aggrandisement of the chiefs themeslves.

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In the perspective of modern ideas we tend to see these campaigns in terms of slaughtered thousands, reeking umus, and decimated tribes, but we must remember that these leaders themselves and many of their contemporaries saw them in the accepted tradition of their own custom as laudable and enterprising. The mammoth exterminations of Matakitaki, Totara Pa and Patu-one differed only in degree from the affairs which had preceded them for generations. If the question of culpability comes into it at all, it must be conceded that the pakeha traders who supplied the guns were even more guilty than the chiefs who used them.

Incidentally it is, perhaps, interesting to reflect that the introduction of firearms not only brought in a new concept of warfare, but also caused a change in the whole pattern of Maori living, being the main cause of the abandonment of the old hill-pa sites, as living quarters, in favour of kaingas built on lower levels. According to Dr Thompson (one of the earliest pakeha historians), this made them susceptible to an incidence of chest and lung diseases which wiped out more thousands than all the slaughter-experts put together.

THE MOTIVE OF NATIONALISM

In the second group we find leaders of a different calibre who, each in his own degree, were the champions of an emergent Maori nationalism. These leaders were men who recognised that the fates of individual tribes were inseparable from the fate of the Maori as a whole people, and that their continuance, as a race, depended on their adjustments to new conditions of existence, imposed, willy-nilly, by the spreading tide of pakeha settlement. This new nationalism, like all nationalisms, went through many phases. The leaders it threw up were divided between those who believed that the future of the Maori depended on his co-existence with the pakeha, and those who believed that his very existence demanded opposition to pakeha impact and its resultant changes.

Needless to say these two points of view brought many leading chiefs into opposition.

Some, like Hone Heke, consistently opposed pakeha infiltration and domination, others like Tamati Waka Nene were equally unswerving in their support of the pakeha.

Some, like Te Rangihaeata and Rangitaake (Wiremu Kingi), began by co-operating with, and even protecting the pakeha, and ended by bitterly opposing him. Both the King movement, and the Hau-hau movement which succeeded it, produced outstanding leaders on both sides.

THE MOTIVE OF SOCIAL WELLBEING

There is a third group, much nearer to our own generation, which, at the conclusion of the war, took over the gigantic task of leading a defeated and disillusioned people to a new destiny, within the fabric of, and through the institutions of, a society dominated by the pakeha and his way of life. The names of Carroll, Buck, and Ngata are but a few of the many who worked so hard and so brilliantly for a renaissance of Maoritanga and all that it means.

TOWARDS AN OBJECTIVE VIEW OF TE KOOTI

Te Kooti was the last of the militant leaders who opposed the pakeha and all he stood for Te Kooti fired the last shots in a campaign against pakeha domination which began when Hone Heke fired the first.

It is most unfortunate, but true I think, that those historians who drew his picture did so in a very one sided manner. Although they were mainly contemporaries of Te Kooti, and therefore had access to a mass of primary information which would have enabled them to ascertain carefully all those circumstances and forces which produced him as a leader, they failed to take advantage of this circumstance.

Almost without exception they dipped their pens in bitterness and recorded mainly those facts which would enable them to present him in, to say the least of it, a very one-sided light. Bishop W. L. Williams, otherwise a meticulous and painstaking historian dismisses Te Kooti's early life by saying “the various traders knew him as a somewhat light-fingered and troublesome fellow”. Lambert who does appear to have gathered some intereesting information about Te Kooti's early years no where gives any indication that he has come across anything to Te Kooti's credit and drops here and there such comments as that he was a ‘veritable fiend’ and ‘only a butcher’, this last, sardonically enough in comparing him with Ropata.

This is not to impugn the integrity of these historians and it must be admitted that it is to the research and painstaking enquiry of contemporary writers that we have a detailed accounting of one of the most important and most interesting of all the campaigns of the Maori wars. Having read these accounts, however, one cannot but conclude that they were written with bias. Even though they give Te Kooti credit for being a shrewd and brilliant tactician, they leave no doubt that they regard him as a brutal ruffian inspired only by hatred and revenge. It is not surprising that they should so regard him, for they but reflect the general opinion of contemporary pakehas.

Even Greenwood, whose fine essay “The upraised Hand” is a careful and sympathetic account of the rise of the Ringatu faith which was founded by Te Kooti, is surprisingly content to accept and repeat the careless estimate of these contemporary historians, and to sum up his career, prior to his deportation to the Chathams, in Williams' phrase that he was “well known as one who was lightfingered and always getting into trouble.” Even the devil, it is said, should be given his due te Kooti has been given much less than his. His repu-

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tation has been tarnished by half, and less than half-truths, and by an almost conscious suppression of much evidence which could, and should have been put forward to enable a correct assessment of his character, and much more important, his stature as a Maori leader, to be arrived at.

CHILDHOOD

The published accounts of Te Kooti's childhood are few and meagre. They were gathered by interested pakehas after Te Kooti became famous. They are highly likely to have been coloured by later events.

Lambert seems to have gathered some material about Te Kooti's childhood from old Maori identities who would have been alive at the time, and J. A. McKay did some assiduous scratching a generation later. Occasionally I have got together with a few old people and have managed to get the subject of Te Kooti introduced and once they got started there has been a flood of minor corroborative detail concerning at least the two main stories told by Lambert and repeated, with added detail by McKay.

The first is the story that a tohunga named Toiroa told Te Kooti's mother while she was pregnant, that the child in her womb was destined for great good or great evil. The second story is that Te Kooti's early childhood was marked by such propensities for evil that the tohunga caused him to be shut away in a ruakumera with the earth piled high against the door to prevent his escape. The boy (his name in those days was Rikirangi te Turuki), is said to have escaped through the intervention of superhuman powers He was then handed over to the missionaries for education.

It is fairly certain that Te Kooti did receive some sort of a pakeha education at the Williams missionary school. Greenwood, in his ‘Upraised Hand’ states that he was educated at the mission-school at Waerenga-a-hika, but this is palpably a mistake, for the Waerenga-a-hika school was not opened until 1857. There is some doubt about Te Kooti's age, his followers stated on his memorial that he was 79 when he died, while McKay does not think he was more than in his mid-sixties. But even taking the latter estimate he would have been a man of 27, if not older, when the Waerenga-a-hika school opened. As nearly as I have been able to ascertain Te Kooti attended the earlier mission school at Whakato, near Manutuke in Poverty Bay, somewhere about the year 1846 at which time he would have been in his teens. I have been told that he was there when Samuel Williams went there to teach, which was in 1846–7. The actual site of the Whakato mission is now marked by the grounds of a fine carved house, named Whakato, which was erected about 1883 to commemorate the site of the first missionary enterprise on that site.

It seems that Te Kooti, or Rikirangi as he then was, was a promising pupil. He appears to have had an ambition to be a catechist, or a Maori lay reader, but the Bishop seems to have rejected the idea on the grounds that the lad was more interested in the warlike tales of the old testament than in the peaceful message of the new.

It is evident, however, that the Williams family held the lad in some esteem for when he was baptised into the Christian faith they bestowed on him the name of Coates, after the Secretary of the Church Missionary Society, James Danderson Coates. It is by the Maori version of this name, Kooti (pronounced kor-tay), that he was ever afterwards known, his full name after baptism being Te Kooti Rikirangi te Turuki.

In my next article I will re-examine the evidence concerning Te Kooti's character and reputation prior to his unjust deportation to the Chatham Islands.

KA HOKI MAI TE KOOTI RETURNS
TE KOOTI I TE MATE FROM THE DEAD

The Maraenui Maori School has sent to us this version of a famous story about Te Kooti's childhood.

Tenei pakiwaitara mo Arikirangi, ara ko tetahi o ana ingoa ko Te Kooti, a ko te kai korero ko Paora Teramea.

He tangata rawahanga a Te Kooti i a ia e tatama ana, a i ana mahi rawahanga ka mea tana matua ki te patu i a ia.

No tetahi ra ka mea atu te matua ki tana tama kia haere raua ki te whakama i te poka wai mo

 

This story, told by Paul Delamere, is about Rikirangi, better known as Te Kooti.

As a young man Te Kooti was very mischievous. He caused so much trouble that at last his father decided that he must be got rid of. He thought of a plan. He told his son that they must go and clear out a certain well, ready for the coming winter. This well was among the sandhills of the Gisborne coast.

 
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te (makariri).

Te poka nei i roto i nga oneone a i te taenga ka mea te tangata nei kia heke a Te Kooti ki roto i te poka ki te keri i nga oneone ki waho.

I papahia nga taha kia kore ai e horo a no te nuinga o nga kete one one i puta mai i te poka, katahi ka whiu te tangata nei i te kete oneone ki runga i tana tama a hinga ana te tama ki ana turi. Katahi ka tanumia ki nga oneone e te matua.

Engari i ora a Te Kooti i nga papa nei ina hoki i whai wahi a ia hei whakatatanga i tona manawa.

I a ia e takoto ana mahara tonu atu a ia ki tetahi manga haere tika mai i to pa ki taua poka. Katahi a ia ka wawahi i nga papa ka keri i roto i te oneone tae atu ana ki te manga nei. Kua po i tenei wa haere ana a ia ki te whare o tana matua keke no te mea i reira a ia e noho ana. I te taenga atu haere ana ki te pataka ki te tiki kai. I a ia i reira ka rongo a ia i tana matua e mea atu ana ki tana matua keke kua haere a ia ki te mahi i tetahi mahi. Engari i whakaaro tana matua keke kua taka kino hia tana potiki, tangi ana.

No tenei, katahi a Te Kooti ka heke iho i te pataka awhihia ana e tana matua keke ano he tangata i hoki mai i te mate.

Kahore e mohiotia ana i korero pehea a Te Kooti ki tana matua, a mehemea i rapu utu a ia mo tona tanumanga.

 

Arriving there, the father sent his son down into the well, which was boxed in with wood, to dig out the sand. When the father thought he had enough kits of sand he suddenly threw them at the young man, knocking him down to his knees, then piled in loose sand and buried him.

But Te Kooti found that the wooden boxin gave him space to breathe in, and as he thought about it he remembered an old trench that ran from the pa almost to the well. Breaking away the old boards he began to burrow his way through the sand, and at last broke into the trench. It was dark by then, so he made his way to his uncle's house, where he lived, and climbed up into his uncle's pataka to get some food. While there, he heard his uncle and his father talking together. the father was saying that the son had gone on message, but the uncle was sure the young man had come to some harm, and began to tangi for him.

At this, Te Kooti came down from the patak to be embraced by his uncle as one returned from the dead.

The story does not tell what Te Kooti said to his father, or whether he required any utu for being buried alive.

* * *

– 21 –

Although the first impulse to start the Maori Youth Club at Putiki on the Wanganui River came from the Rev. K. Ihaka, it did not long remain confined to church membership. Like other ventures started by churches in the Maori world, it became a general community enterprise, based on a desire to keep in touch with the traditional side of Maori life…and religion is part of the tradition. Matutaera's description of the club may be of interest to others who wish to bring the Maori youth of various maraes together for similar activities. There is no doubt that the youth club movement is growing all the time and also that contact between the various local clubs is constantly on the increase.

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Putiki concert party. (Photograph: Neal Hilton, Wanganui Herald.)

BONDS OF FRIENDSHIP
THE PUTIKI YOUTH CLUB

Pukikitia te Aroha

Putikitia te aroha. Koia nei te whakatauaki o te Ropu Taitamariki o Putiki, he kainga Maori kei te taha o te taone o Whanganui. No te tau 1952, ko Mei te marama, ka timatia e te kaituhi te roopu nei ki Putiki. I te timatanga atu, tokoiwa noa nga taitamariki, a, pau rawa ake te tau, kua piki ki te 50 nga mema. Ko nnga kaupapa a te roopu nei, kahore i rereke ki nga kaupapa o etahi atu roopu taitahariki, ara, he akoako ki te reo Maori, ki nga haka, ki nga waiata, ki nga poi, ki te tini noa iho o nga taonga ataahua a te Maori.

Ka tino pumau tenei whakahaere ki roto o Putiki, ka kimihia he whakatauaki e hangai ana ki te roopu, na, kitea ake ko tenei na, “Putikitia” te aroha.”

Ko te ingoa tuturu hoki o te kainga nei i nga wa ki nga tupuna Ko Putiki-wharanui-a-Tamateapokaiwhenua. He pai tonu te whakamarama i te tikanga o te ingoa nei. Ko tenei ingoa he whakamaharatanga ki a Tamatea. Ka tae mai a Tamatea

 

Putikitia te aroha means literally: Knot together love. This is the motto of the Putiki Maori Club, which until recently was known as the Putiki Youth Club. It was formed in the month of May in 1952, beginning with a humble membership of nine young members, but before the end of the year membership had increased to 50. The objects of the Club are similar to those of like clubs, namely the preservation of the Maori language, haka, songs, poi and other worthwhile items. It was not until the Club was firmly established that a motto was sought, and finally, in order to incorporate the centre from which the Club originated, “Putikitia te Aroha”, which, in a wider sense means to bind together in love, was adopted.

The original name of the place was Putiki-wharanui-a-Tamatea-pokaiwhenua. It is as well to explain the origin of the name. It was so named by the renowned explorer. Tamatea, when, accompanied by his son, Kahungunu, he visited the Whanganui district in the 14th century. Upon landing at a point where the present Putiki Pa now stands, Kahungunu, desirous of dressing his hair, sent his slave Taukai to gather flax with which to bind his hair. The slave obtained the flax from the banks of the Awarua stream, and

 
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raua ko tana tamaiti ko Kahungunu ki te kainga e karangatia nei i tenei ra ko Putiki, ka tonoa mai e Kahungunu tana mokai, a Taukai, ki te rapu harakeke hei here i ana makawe. Ka tae a Taukai ki tetahi awa, ko Awarua te ingoa, i reira ka timata tana tarai i te harakeke. No tona hokinga atu ki tana rangatira, ka tahuri a ia ki te here i nga makawe o Kahungunu. Na wai ra, ka motu noa iho te harakeke. Ano ra ko Kahungunu: “Kahore enei harakeke i rite ki nga wharanui o te Tairawhiti.” Ka rongo mai a Tamatea, ka karanga mai “Koia nei te ingoa mo tenei wahi, ara, ko Putiki-wharanui-a-tamatea-pokaawhenua.” No enei tau tata nei, na te roa tonu o tenei ingoa, ka whakapotoa ki Putiki. Kati mo te ingoa nei.

No te tau 1953, ka timataia ki Putiki nga “Hui Aroha” a te Hahi Mihinare, o te Pihopatanga o Poneke. Ko enei hui i rite ki nga “Hui Aranga” a te Hahi Katorika, ki nga “Hui-a-tau” a te momona, ara he whakahuihui i nga taitamariki Maori o te pihopatanga kia kotahi ai i roto i nga taitamariki Maori o te pihopatanga kia kotahi ai i roto i nga mahi. Na i aua hui, ko nga mahi a nga ropu taitamariki, he whakataetae mo nga mahi haka, waiata, poi me era atu taonga a te iwi Maori. I te hui ki Putiki, ka riro i te ropu o Putiki nga kapu mo te koea, haka, haka-waiata, poi me te whai-korero, tae atu hoki ki te Hiira o Rangiatea. Ko tenei Hiira, he mea tuku na Paora Te Muera raua ko tona hoa wahine i te tau i whakamaharatia ai te 100 tau o Rangiatea, hei taonga ma nga ropu taitamariki. I te tau 1954, i Rangiatea te hui. I reira ka riro ano i te ropu nei te kapu mo te poi, waiata-haka, whai-korero me Rangiatea. I te tau 1955, i Poneke te hui. Ka riro mai i reira ko Rangiatea, te poi, te koea me te haka. I te tau 1956 i Wairarapa te hui, na i riro katoa mai i tenei ropu nga kapu katoa mo te taha Maori me te koea hoki.

No Hanuere o tenei tau (1957) ka whakaeka a Putiki e etahi toru rau manuhiri no Ahitereria. Ko Te Paku-o-te-rangi te marae (te tupuna marae o Putiki). Ka tu te ngahau a te ropu nei ki reira. Ao rawa ake i tetahi mai o nga ra, kua puta whanui nga rongo o te ropu nei he tokomaha no nga tari kawanatanga, na ka puta to ratou reo whakamihi ki te pai o nga mahi me nga whakahaere a te ropu tamariki. E rua e toru ranei ra i muri mai, ka tae mai nga tangata o te kawanatanga ki te tono kia whakaahuatia te ropu a hei nga ra o Hepetema ka whakaahuatia.

He maha nga marae o te motu kua haerea e te ropu o Putiki. Kua takahia nga marae nunui kata o te pihopatanga o Poneke. Kua tae ki Mangakino, ki roto o Tuhoe ki Ruatoki, a kei te haere ki te Hui nui ka tu ki Ngaruawahia a Akuhata. I nga marae katoa kua tae te roopu nei, ka nui te whakamihi o nga kaumatua me nga kuia ki te poi e poingia ana e ratou. Na tata nei, ka tae mai te reo mihi mai o Tipi Ropiha, ko ia nei te Tumuaki o te tari Maori mo te ataahua me te hangai o nga kupu o te poi nei, ki nga mahi a te hahi, me tana ki ano, e tika ana kia kaua nga kupu e ngaro,

 
 

after dressing it, proceeded to tie up the hair of his master in the usual manner into a ‘putiki’ or top-knot. The flax proved unsatisfactory and broke on being tied. However, the work was finally accomplished with some difficulty, after which Kahungunu commented that the flax was not like the ‘wharanui’, a species of flax obtainable from the East Coast. Tamatea, on hearing his son's comment said, “Putiki-wharanui-a-Tamatea-pokai-whenua shall this place be called”. The name was later contracted to Putiki-wharanui and later still to Putiki.

The club has joined in at five ‘hui aroha’ of the Anglican church at Putiki, Otaki, Wellington, Was rarapa and Ruatoki. These ‘huis’ are similar to the Easter Huis of the Roman Catholic Faith and the yearly ‘huis’ of the Mormon Faith. At the first four the club won most of the major trophies for action song, oratory, as well as the Rangi-atea shield which was presented by the last Canon Paora Te Muera and Mrs Te Muera of Otaki to mark the centenary of the consecration of Rangiatea Church at Otaki. At Ruatoki last May the club gave a performance, but did not enter the competitions.

In January of this year (1957) a party of nearly 300 Australian visitors visited Putiki. The club entertained the guests, and the following day, news of the club's performances had travelled far. The press gave it publicity. A week or so later a request was received from the London International Choir for recordings, and later still a further request was received from His Master Voice for test recordings.

On 4th May the executives of the various Tourist Agencies throughout New Zealand visited Putiki. Representatives of Government Departments were also present. All were impressed with the Club's performance. A few days later a representative of the National Film Unit approached the club for permission to film the club in action and arrangements are now in hand for this to take place in September.

Maori language is taught along with each song practised. Members of the group learn to master the meaning of the songs they sing, which help them to develop an interest in language study.

The club has visited several maraes. It has performed throughout the Wellington Diocese. In addition it has performed at Mangakino and only recently in Tuhoe-land at Ruatoki, and in August attended the Waikato Diocesan Maori Youth Festival at Ngaruawahia. Wherever the club has performed, the elders have spoken highly of its poi, and only recently Mr T. T. Ropiha. Secretary of the Department of Maori Affairs, wrote expressing his personal delight at seeing the poi being performed at Ruatoki, with the hope that it be preserved for posterity. Rev. Ihaka was responsible for the composition of a major part and in some instances has adopted an ancient ‘haka’ with the words altered to suit Church gatherings. The whole chant is patterned on the one which the

 
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me manaaki tonu mo nga whakatupuranga e heke mai nei. Na te kaituhi te nuinga o nga kupu o te poi nei, otira, he mea tango mai te tauira i te poi i poia ai e Taranaki raua ko Whanganui i te taenga o te Kuini ki Rotorua. E whai ake nei nga kupu o te poi nei:…

Aotea te waka ko Turi-ariki “tangata o runga,
Ruapehu te maunga, Whanganui te awa,
Atihau te iwi, Putiki-wharanui te ropu rangatahi,
Nga uri a Haunui-a-paparangi, nana i takahi te
Nukuroa o Hawaiki e!

…E kore, e kore ahau e ngaro,
Kakano i ruia mai “Rangiatea,
Ka tupu ka hua i roto i te ra
Tenei ka tae mai ki runga o Raukawa,
te marae whakareretanga iho o nga tupuna e!

Ka rere atu ra ko taku poi,
Taku poi rere tika hei kawe aroha,
Ki te iwi kua riro atu ki Paerau,
E tangihia tonutia nei e matou,
Aue te mamae e!

Tenei ta tae mai ki te Hui Aroha,
Kia tangi kia mihi tahi ai tatou,
kapiti hono, tatai hono,
Te hunga mate ki te hunga mate,
Te hunga ora ki te hunga ora,
Aue, taukuri e!

Ka mate! Mate atu he tetekura,
Ara mai ra he tetekura;
Mate atu he tetekura,
Ara mai ra he tetekura,
Te Whakatauki a nga tupuna, aue, aue, aue ha!

Ka tuhi, ka rapa ka uira katoa te manhuru,
Ki okioki e, toia te waka!
Ki okioki e, toia te waka!
He utanga mo runga ko te Whakapono,
Te Kapene, Ko Ihu Karaiti hikitia! Aue! Hei!

I tuhia ai enei korero, ehara i te mea hei whakahihi hei aha ranei. Heoi ano hei whakaaraara i nga roopu taitamariki Maori katoa puta noa i Aotearoa me kore ratou e hihiko ki te pupuri i nga taonga ataahua a taua a te iwi Maori, a me kore hoki ratou e kaha ki te whakaropu i nga taitamariki katoa o tena marae, o tena marae, ma konei pea taua te Maori e hiki ki runga. Tena koutou katoa.

 

Taranaki-Wanganui party performed before the Queen at Rotorua. Here is a free translation of the Maori.

Aotea the canoe, Turi-ariki the Captain on her,
Ruapehu the mountain, Whanganui the river,
Ati-Hau the tribe, Putiki-wharanui the group of young people,
The descendants of Haunui-a-paparangi … who conquered the length and breadth of Hawaiki.
I will not, will not disappear,
The seed broadcast from Rangiatea;
It will grow and bear fruit;
Now we have arrived at Raukawa,
The ‘marae’ bequeathed to us by our ancestors.

My poi doth fly,
My poi flies direct and takes with it love,
To those who have gone to ‘Paerau’ (Place of departed spirits)
For whom we still mourn,
Alas! it is distressing.

We have come to this ‘Hui Aroha’
That we may mingle our tears and greetings with yours,
Let the dead be united with the dead,
Let the living be united with the living,
Alas! Let it be.

'Tis death! A Chief will die,
Another replaces him (Repeat),
A saying of our ancestors,

It glows, it glistens, it flashes, again it glows,
Let us relax and haul the canoe,
Let us relax and haul the canoe;
Let its freight be the Faith,
The Captain, Jesus Christ, uplift it (the Faith).

One of the difficulties is to safeguard the continuity of such clubs. This is important as the disappearance of the club would leave the same void that existed before. Younger people are being trained to take up leadership when the older ones leave, as they invariably do either through marriage or migration.

There is nothing to stop similar clubs being set up throughout New Zealand. It seems to me that the most important purpose of such clubs should be the social and spiritual one summed up in the motto ‘Putikitia te Aroha’…that is: develop close and healthy personal relations between the members of the Maori group. Club activities have a further fundamental value: by concentrating on “items” like the immemorial Aotea poi we go back to the root of Maori tradition.

* * *

Construction has started on a £55,000 hostel at New Plymouth which is to accommodate 60 Maori girls and young women. The hostel, which will be in the charge of Sister Evelyn Marriott, head-mistress of the Rangiatea Maori Methodist Girls' School. New Plymouth, is expected to be ready before the end of 1958.

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Men and Machinery Pave the way
for Sheepfarms at Remote Tiroa

Tiroa was an obscure, rather unfamiliar name on a map nine months ago. At the beginning of January the whole of the 50,000 acres in this block, situated midway between Te Kuiti and Taupo, was clothed in light bush and heavy scrub. Today, Tiroa is in the news. 700 acres of rolling hill country is sprouting new grass. By next Spring it will be stocked and 6000 acres will be fenced ready for the contractor's heavy machinery to take the first bite at the next big area of scrub and bush.

That is the plan of campaign at Tiroa, where is hoped to settle 50 sheepfarmers one day. True only 26,000 acres have been gazetted but it is expected that the remaining portion will soon be subject of an agreement among the owners.

When Tawhiao and the Tainui tribes were taking refuge in this wild and forbidding region behind the old Aukati Line after the disastrous Waikato War they probably did not envisage the day when Tiroa would be farmed by Maori settlers. Fruit trees, wheat, and potato plantations flourished nearer to Te Kuiti. But this remote pumice plateau beside the western foothills of the Rangitoto Range was hardly inhabited. Indeed the contractors have found practically no sign of human occupation and it is assumed that only the Patupaeareh [ unclear: ] and the well-fed Captain Cookers, who relish the succulent fern root on these highlands, held sway here before giant crawler tractors and bulldozers began nosing their way through the virgin vegetation.

Development has begun beside the narrow road, which winds and twists from Kopaki to the headwaters of the Waipa River. Not far from Fletcher's Mill, the contractor and his family and the departmental headquarters are found. The former are established in a comfortable little cabin on the edge of the clearing. A large prefabrical corrugated iron shed with a steel frame erected by the department, houses the supplies and equipment for development. Not far away, on a commanding rise, the farm manager's three-bedroom house is being built.

The contractor at Tiroa is Mr Jack Ammon. He is a quiet, modest young man who does things in a big way and thinks nothing of it. In his work, he has the advantage of a sympathetic and adaptable wife, who shares his trials and triumphs, travels with him in the landrover over the rough temporary roads, and cooks wild pork and venison in a way which would win the heart of any man Mrs Ammon likes the free and open existence at Tiroa, which is not altogether strange country to her. She lived nearly all her life on a farm at Arapuni on the other side of the range, and is pleased to see her three young children getting the benefit of the same healthy country air.

Breaking in land at Tiroa is a dawn to disk job. There are five tractors working on the block. They are used to pull the crushing rollers filled with water each of which weighs nearly five tons The rollers are off-set, so the tractor travel in

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A crawler driven bulldozer clearing an access track round a hillside at Tiroa.

the cleared ground while the roller is in the scrub. This ensures safer working in country where there are many dangers and the drivers have to keep their eyes open.

Hidden swamps, which are not even marked on the survey maps, are the biggest menace. They have trapped more than one tractor but there is always another one handy to pull the victim out. This operation is not easy if a machine nose-dives into a yawning tomo or water hole. It has happened once without serious consequences.

On another occasion the tractor crashed through the tangled scrub to come face to face with a gaping cavity measuring eight feet across and 30 or 40 feet deep, and, to teeter dangerously on the brink before it was withdrawn to safety. Hidden outcrops of limestone rock often cause the tractors to spin drunkenly before they regain their equilibrium and plough again into the overburden.

The contractors take all these hazards in their stride. Two rollers crush between 35 and 40 acres a day. The giant discs follow in their wake, covering 20 to 25 acres daily and the harrows eat up easily 60 acres a day. Sowing and rolling with three machines cover 60 to 70 acres a day but the work could proceed even faster than this if there were no big fern roots to snag the machines.

Supervising the whole project is Mr L. Houchen of the Department of Maori Affairs. Te Kuiti, a man with twenty-five years of experience in the development of Maori land.

At Tiroa all the land as far as one can see is owned by Maori people. Some day all of it will be brought in. With up-to-date machinery, energy, and the wonder trace element, cobalt, this land, which was once wasteland, can be made to grow the greenest grass and raise the fattest lambs.

Night was falling when the party left the block after a thorough inspection by car, on foot, and in Mr Ammon's land rover. The whirr of heavy machinery, which has been in their ears all day, had now ceased. At dawn the clash of discs, the rattle of harrows, and the laboured moaning of the tractors crawling up the hillsides would be joined by the steady drone of aircraft as they lifted off the strip to bring the benefit of fertiliser to this promising country.

* * *

NGATIAWA FACES ROAD DANGERS

Road accidents have become an important issue to the Ngatiawa Tribal Executive. Distressed by the fact that 60% of road accidents in their area involved Maori people, the executive wants a more rigorous check to see that vehicles are roadworthy. The traffic officer in Whakatane has commended the tribal executive for its proposals, and agrees that ‘there is a lot of junk on our roads. These old cars are being sold every day. They have got warrants of fitness, but they will never get another’. The tribal executive has also asked for power to screen applicants for drivers' licences. This proposal, said the traffic officer, ‘could produce a workable scheme.’

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A CLASSIC MAORI CARVING
These realistic faces, placed on stylised bodies, belong to the Fox Pataka, in the Auckland War Memorial Museum. Pokaha Haranui, the builder of the pataka which dates from about 1860, was the younger brother of Waata Haranui who built the wellknown Arawa meeting house Rangatiki (Whakarewarewa). Pohika wanted to do something to establish his mana, he could not build a larger house, therefore constructed the outsize pataka now in the museum.

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The chair—Mr Steve Ngaropo, chairman, guided the meeting with a firm hana, finished the whole agenda comfortably a little ahead of schedule. He is flanked by Messrs John Booth (left) and Peta Waima (right).

THE MAORI INVESTMENT SOCIETIES
of TOKERAU

This was wintertime, and colder than Tai Tokerau has any right to be. The head of Panguru mountain was hidden in cloud, and a dour southerly wind pushed streaks of rain down the heavily bushed slopes above Waihou Valley. Dejected horses tethered to the fence outside the marae shifted weight from one hind leg to the other while cars hissed and splattered along the road. Everybody in sight was gum-booted or bare-footed in the slush. It was, on the surface, as miserable a winter's day as every fell on a country valley. It did not snow, but hail made a fair substitute. This was in fact the Saturday before Queen's Birthday, the time and the place for the first conference of Maori Co-operative Investment Societies in the Hokianga area…a meeting which didn't give a snap of the fingers for the weather and which did not end until after the sun came back two days later.

Inside the whare hui, Waimirirangi, there was nothing to show that this was different from any other hui on a wet week-end. Electric light from a generator outside was reinforced by petrol lamps. Bedding was neatly laid out round the walls, and a tangled pile of muddy footwear of every kind and size stood in the entrance porch. A raised gallery at the rear made a convenient stopping place for workers from the cookhouse, and for others coming and going, without disturbing the body of the meeting.

At the platform table at appropriate times sat Steve Ngaropo, Conference Chairman; Peta Wairua, Conference Secretary; John Samson, Secretary of the Lower Waihou Society; and John Booth, Research Officer of the Department. As visitors arrived they were greeted and replied to greetings in the traditional way.

In short a visitor could be pardoned for thinking

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The Conference hall

he had seen it all before, though if he were a sensitive visitor he might have felt that here in the chants and speeches was a delightful and somewhat unusual sense of style and a specially nice touch of timing.

There were representatives present from the investment societies of Lower Waihou, Panguru, Te Akau (Mitimiti), Pawarenga, Rawene, Motukaraka and Nukutawhiti (Rangi Point). There were visitors from all over Northland, and one party, comprising most of the directorate of the Te Kaha Dairy Co, came all the way from the Bay of Plenty. From Wellington, there was Mr Ron Crocombe, of the Department of Island Territories.

A Way to Help Yourself

Most of the first day was given over to general discussion. Mr Booth spoke of his belief in the need for a new approach to the economic problems of the Maori people, and of the part that co-operative investment societies could play in this. As most of his audience were well aware of the crucial part he has played as an officer of the Department over the past few years in fostering and guiding the establishment of investment societies in the Hokianga his words carried special weight. The societies were, he said, an attempt at self help, an encouragement to saving, and an example of the benefits of practical co-operation. They were not a new idea, but had flourished Canada and the U.S.A. for many years. Groups started in Fiji only three years ago, with some initial Government backing, had saved over £100,000 and had loaned over £23,000 to members

In a general outline of the rules Mr Booth said that membership was entirely voluntary and open to anyone over 16 years of age, though members under 21 could not sit on the committee. Each member was required to state how much wished to save each month, and a minimum 5/- had been set. The money saved by each group was invested at 3%, and if the business warranted it, a bonus was paid at the end of each year. Profits were derived from interest on loans to members, and in the existing societies the rate charged was 8%.

Shower of Questions

This brief outline brought a shower of question What part will the Department play? None, the business of the society is a matter for members only. In any case the Department hasn't the staff or the money to establish societies. What happens if a loan is not granted? This sometimes is a hard job, and it shows the importance of electing suit able people to the committee. It is made some what easier by restricting loans to productive and provident matters, provident meaning for instance

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Delegates and interested persons of all ages come out to have a look at the dreary weather. The meeting house is Waimirirangi at Lower Waihou.

chool fees, sickness and so on. What security is asked of a working man who doesn't own any property? This depends on the character of the man. The Panguru society has not so far asked for any legal security. No loans made so far have been over £100, and none have been long term loans. If larger loans and longer terms were wanted the society might have to ask for more security.

Where is the money kept, in a tin or in a bank? At present some is kept in the Savings bank and some in the BNZ, and all payments are made by cheque. Every member has a society deposit book.

As question and answer went on and heads were bent over note books emphasis shifted quietly from details to obvious benefits. Methods and aims of the societies fitted comfortably into the Maori way of doing things; if a group could help its members, an organisation of groups could help more. It was suggested that activities might extend into asistance with tax and accountancy problems, into co-operative assistance in marketing produce, into seed buying. In short, so much good could be done for so many, that more people should know about it. So with no prompting the meeting settled to discuss how to expand the movement.

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Visitors from Te Kaha in the Bay of Plenty took a keen interest in the proceedings. From left to right: Messrs W. S. Swinton, N. Perry, J. Waititi, all officers of the Te Kaha Co-operative Dairy Company.

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Steve Ngaropo, conference chairman, and John Samson (right), secretary of the investment society at Lower Waihou.

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In the meeting house lighting his pipe is Father Wanders, the priest from Panguru, who has wholeheartedly supported the investment project.

First came the suggestion that the Department make John Booth available as promoter in a wider field. This was met by strong feeling that the movement could be and should be a Maori one, supported as need be by Maori effort and Maori money. In the process tribute was paid warmly and frequently to Mr Booth's faith, patience and guidance during the three years that he had worked in the Hokianga area. His help was still wanted, but it was self help first.

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Two interested listeners were Mrs Maraea Morunga (left) and Mrs Lucy Ngaropo (right).

Discussion crystallised into the setting up of the following committee of ways and means: … Chairman: Steve Ngaropo (Lower Waihou); Secretary: Norman Perry (Te Kaha); Members: George Sutherland (Auckland), Waata Tipene (Ahipara-Kaitaia), John Waititi (Raukokore), Wi Reweti (Whangarei), Robert Proctor (Pawarenga). This committee was directed by the conference to give urgent attention to the propogation of the aims and objects of investment societies among the Maori people, and to make provision of funds from Maori sources for this purpose.

Endless Possibilities

And so came to an end a memorable meeting of which the flavour cannot be captured on papeer. It was interesting that there were two pakeha visitors from outside the district who could and did speak Maori…Mr Ron Crocombe and Mr Norman Perry from Te Kaha. It was good to watch the deft chairmanship of Steve Ngaropo who saw that though no time was wasted there was always plenty of time (the meeting ended some comfortable hours ahead of schedule). The social arrangements, despite the weather, were almost flawless. But the main theme evident from the beginning was a sense of purpose. This was a conference of people most of whom for once had practical experience of a piece of pakeha wisdom that offered endless possibilities for the good of the Maori people and they were fired as some of them said, with the desire to spread the gospel. Taken up in the spirit which was roused at Lower Waihou, the investment society movement could well lead to another Maori renaissance.

* * *

A tribal executive in the timbermilling district around Tokoroa was formed recently. It is called Te Rahui and is centred on Tokoroa.

* * *

A new community centre, tennis court and basketball courts are planned for Wairaka Pa, Whakatane, by the Wairaka Tribal Committee. A government subsidy has already been granted.

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OLD NEW ZEALAND

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RANI ELLISON
Maori Crayfish Tycoon

One of the biggest fishing enterprises in New Zealand is owned by Maoris and has a Maori as its manager. It is the Otakou Fisheries of Dunedin, run by Mr Rani Ellison who must be one of New Zealand's most unusual businessmen.

Before 1946, the people of Otakou Heads were farmers or worked in town. A few made some money out of line fishing and caught harracouta along the coast. The people also have interests in the muttonbird islands, particularly Kaihuka, and go there every year.

They belong to Ngati Mamoe and Ngaitahu and their canoe is Takitimu which according to their tradition was wrecked at the mouth of the Waihau River. They travelled south from there to where they now live.

Elder of the tribe at present is Dr. Pohau Ellison, who is among the last survivors of the famous “Young Maori Party” which arose at Te Aute College before the end of the last century. The community has a meeting house called Tamatea and a Maori church and gate with copies of ancient carvings in concrete.

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Fish is unloaded on the wharf and stored at once in freezing chambers. Shaw McEwen works in the chamber at Otakou, (Photograph: N. M. Beaumont).

After the last war. Rani Ellison, with two of his brothers, started a transport business at Otakou. They soon decided that business would be brisker if they could stimulate a little more fishing at the Otakou Heads. That would provide them with some extra loads.

They bought a shed and started to build a landing ramp. Most of the timber came from the family farm on which Rani had worked before the war. (Rani Ellison had tried for a university degree when young, but he found the academic life did not suit him and he went farming instead.) The harbour board lent the three men a punt which was anchored just in front of the ramp. They ran a wire from the punt to the factory, and attached a bin to the wire. This bin, filled with fish, was drawn by a horse into the factory where it was emptied out by various devices. Later, when the landing ramp was completed, with the help of a harbour board pile driver, they put a railway on the wharf. The small capital needed for the project was horrowed from relations and friends at Otakou. The primary object (apart from stimulating their own cartage business) was to employ

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Bernes Oysters is one of Mr Ellison's recent business ventures. The oysters are flown north from Invercargill as soon as they are landed.

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One of the boots supplying Otakou Fisheries is the oyster dredger Ariel (Otago Daily Times Photograph).

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Back from the sea: Messrs Taiamoa and Russell on board M.V. Foam, another boat supplying Otakou Fisheries. (Photo; N. M. Beaumont)

Maori men with work near their homes, so they would not all have to travel to Dunedin.

These were the foundations of Otakou Fisheries which last year had a turnover of close to one million pounds. The whole enterprise was like a businessman's dream, except that those who dream about large sums of money do not usually get them. When Mr Ellison describes how it all happened it sounds like a series of phenomenally lucky breaks, all of them quite unexpected. Yet such a long list of lucky accidents is rather unlikely, to say the least.

Mr Ellison produces an almost constant plan of brainwaves. In the company as it is now, he has a good number of able and systematic executives indispensable to the success of the enterprise, but he stands slightly aloof as the artist who plays with financial combinations, thinks up new ways of processing and selling fish, or the many other products in which he is interested. It is very strange to think only ten years ago he was totally ignorant of the world of business and finance.

Stranger still is how little he personally has become infected with the affections and the

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Above: Mr Rani Ellison at his Dunedin desk.

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Below: Crayfish tails, ready in bags, are loaded off the fishing vessel. (Photos: N. M. Beaumontit)

hunger for money that so often accompanies financial success. Through it all he has remained slightly hesitant and humble; his relationship to the other people of Otakou has not, one imagines, changed at all. He is one of the iwi at weddings. An important visit to America, his first trip to that part of the world was put off for several months, because he did not want to be away when his baby was born. The fact that several hundred thousand pounds of business were involved did not make any difference to that.

The small amount originally put into the business by the Otakou people has grown to huge assets. The value of all the original shares has been raised as the business grew. Everyone profited equally. He feels himself as a trustee and representative of his own people.

If he had been struggling merely for himself, he would now perhaps be a harder man, he could no longer genuinely feel his equality and kinship with most other people, his achievements would have separated him. But because the link with his people was not broken, he showed that the highest financial success can be achieved without the loss of the qualities the Maori sums up in the word “aroha.”

When the first barracouta was being processed, Mr Ellison made a deal with a Dunedin firm selling his total output for about a year. The Dunedin firm did so because of a small temporary

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Turu Taiaroa weighing in crayfish. (Photograph: N. M. Beaumont).

shortage, not imagining that the annual output from one horse and a bin could be very great. However, hardly any time passed before various people at Otakou bought boats and obtained licenses. Others who had previously sold their catches to a rival firm were glad of an opportunity for a change. Rani soon flooded the Dunedin market. When the term of this first agreement was over, Otakou Fisheries could not hope to get rid of their output locally.

In this way they were forced to enter the export market which was to bring them their greatest wealth. It was at that time, 1947, that Otakou Fisheries became a limited liability company, based on co-operative lines. Of the twenty-two shareholders, twenty were working for the fisheries. They all put something into the business; their investment was in those days a big sacrifice to many. The first shipment of fish to Sydney was in April 1947–£353 worth of fish, representing six weeks' output.

One of Rani Ellison's first investments was to instal ultramodern freezers competing favourably with anything else in the district. After two years of operations, more fisherman gave their output to Otakou to handle than to any other distributor in Otago and Southland. The fish was still largely exported, but the shops of Dunedin now revived their interest in it because other companies no longer had enough fish left to supply them. At present there are, in addition to the company's own boats, 160 fishing vessels selling their catches to Otakou Fisheries. Quite a few of these are financed by the company.

One can say that it is this mass support from the fishermen that made Otakou's great success possible. How was the support obtained? Principally. Rani Ellison says, it was a matter of honest dealing and good relations.

In 1947, the export of crayfish to Melbourne started. No New Zealand firm had tried this before. At first the whole animal was sent, at 2d per pound, but this proved unsatisfactory. They then switched over to crayfish tails sent to Melbourne and cooked crayfish in tins sent to places like Singapore.

After a few years Rani Ellison discovered by accident what happened to the craytails he sent to Melbourne. Evidently most or all of them never came on the Australian market, but were transshipped to the United States at a huge profit. In 1953, Otakou Fisheries began to export to the United States direct. Last year, sales totalled well over one million dollars. It is claimed that Otakou Fisheries is now the biggest single processor of craytails in the world.

It has not been Otakou's principle to own their own boats (they have only two), but to leave the

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Johnnie Bradie helps to process these crayfish tails for export to America. (Photograph: N. M. Beaumont).

fishermen independent, even though quite a large percentage of the cost of the boats is financed by the company. One company they bought out had, in addition, one oyster boat and six others.

Once the ordinary activities of the company were on a sound footing. Mr Ellison developed a great interest in buying out companies or else taking over their management. As he says, sometimes a concern has a perfectly good and valuable product to sell, but due to lack of finance or bad management, somehow no success is achieved. Quite a number of such businesses have become associate companies of Otakou Fisheries, with a fee charged for management expenses.

Nine concerns, in addition, have been bought outright and become subsidiary companies. Some of them were in the oyster or crayfish business, others were transport companies languishing until the association with Otakou's produce put new life into them.

Otakou Fisheries began to handle a lot of products other than fish. One of the latest ideas is to pack boneless lamb for the American market.

Factories and freezers run by the company are at Karitane, Otakou, Dunedin, Taieri, Waikawa (Southland). Bluff and Stewart Island. At the beginning of this year. Mr Ellison was thinking of a branch further north.

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The Maori community of Otakou are still deeply attached to their Maori past. The chapel is decorated with concrete casts of carved slabs from Rotorua.

Meanwhile new ideas keep coming up. The latest is a fish roll (somewhat similar to a Belgian roll) made out of oysters, crayfish and ordinary fish. The recipe was worked out by a member of the staff. The idea is to utilize a modern type of shredder which can cut up the coarser types of fish so that the coarseness goes out of it and it is then flavoured by means of this recipe. If the plan goes through, this fish roll should be one of the cheapest and pleasantest meals on the market.

One could say far more about the business schemes of Mr Ellison. The amount he turned over last year was well over £892,000 not including the other companies.

The greatest strain of his career as a businessman was the English strike which stopped his exports for five months. At the end of that period he had 33,000 cases of crayfish tails in storage…worth well over £100,000 and the bank overdraft reached a dangerous figure.

I asked Mr Ellison how he kept up-to-date on business ideas and methods. He told me that when he started up he found people helpful and talkative and prepared to tell him what he did not know. He regularly studies magazines on subjects such as packing and deepfreezing. The most up to date ones are from the United States.

Has the whole of the Ellison family now gone into big business? No, Rani's brothers did not like it. Rangi went back to the farm and when Otakou Fisheries bought the Ranui, George went fishing.

The future of Otakou Fisheries of course still depends to a large extent on the seafoods market. Last year half the company's turnover came from the profitable United States lobster market which seems stable and ready to absorb all it can get. Earlier in the year there was some threat of legislation outlawing the term ‘lobster’ for the imported species such as the New Zealand crayfish. This would have harmed the trade, but latest information is that the United States are not likely to pass this legislation. As long as the crayfish trade flourishes, this most spectacular of Maori business enterprises has every chance of continued growth and prosperity.

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One of the most successful money-raisers were hangi evenings. A number of amusement tents were set up and people had a good evening out, buying at stalls and playing games, with a delicious hangi supper to follow. This one was at Levin.

CENTRE FOR PALMERSTON NORTH

The Queen Carnival held recently to raise money for a £30,000 Maori community building in Palmerston North was an achievement in organisation and inter-tribal collaboration. All Maori people from the Rangitikei River down to Waikanae in the South took part. This large area was divided into four competing zones centred on Feilding (Princess, later Queen: Miss Rene Tapine). Palmerston North (Princess: Miss Charlene Brown), Levin (Miss Lana Heremaia) and Otaki (Miss Mary Hawea). Dances, socials, concerts, hangis and shopdays were held; funds collected; there were also special functions such as a huge indoor bowling tournament. As a result, £7,500 were raised in two months. Drive Organiser was Mr W. Parker, Maori tutor of the Wellington Council of Adult Education, who throughout exploited the many cultural and educational aspects of the enterprise.

The building is designed in very modern style by Mr John Scott of Hastings, one of the very few qualified Maori architects. The section had been bought prior to the campaign for £3,500; it is a splendid site right in the heart of the city. Apart from a community hall, the centre may serve as a hostel.

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The successful Queen was miss Rene Tapine, of the Fielding zone, who was crowned at a ball in the Palmerston North Opera House. (The Times, Palmerston.)

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Bring and buys were another popular feature at the carnival. The Levin princess. Miss L. J. Heremaia, is in the background. (Levin Chronicle Photographs).

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Mr Abie Mason, late elder of Ngati Parekawa, lifelong believer in the development of Hauhungaroa. In the 1920's an attempt was made with the help of Father Langewerf, with the Tuwharetoa Trust Board providing grass seed manure, and cream being carted on horseback to the now disused factory Waihi.

CAMP WITH A FUTURE

When Te Ao Hou visited Hauhungaroa, there was a grand dinner in the community hall, with many excellent speeches, followed by a dance. The master of ceremonies was Abie Mason, the elder whose recent death will be a great loss to the settlement.

Hauhungaroa is a camp with a difference. In most timber camps, when the trees are cut the workers disperse and their interest in the land ceases. At Hauhungaroa, many of the workers are owners and a substantial part of the royalties from the timber are being used to develop the land as an independent Maori incorporation. Ultimately, this land will be cut up into farms.

Mr J. Bishara who owned the mill for some years was a great help in the early development and is also responsible for the model shop and for the fact that the community hall has a Charter to sell liquor…Hauhungaroa is the only timber camp with a Charter, and very proud of it. People tend to stay in the camp during the weekends which benefits both them and the mill.

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Hohepe Takiwa, elder of Hauhungaroa, takes a short nap after the festivities.

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Chairman of the Hauhu ngaroa tribal committee and the social committee is Mr Wi Moku who comes from the far north.

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The welcome ceremony of the Samoans. (nps photograph)

The early independence of Western Samoa will be a milestone in Polynesian history. Professor J. W. Davidson of the Australian National University, Canberra, one-time administrator in Samoa, has specially written this authoritative account of Samoan leadership and political development for our journal. The second instalment will be published in our Christmas issue.

LEADERSHIP IN WESTERN SAMOA

INTRODUCTION

Whenever men act together, certain individuals occupy positions of particular importance. These are the men who advocate definite policies of action or serve as spokesmen for a group of followers, who take decisions on behalf of all and bear responsibility for what is done. They supply the element of leadership which is essential to group activity.

In major public activities … whether political, economic, social, or religious … the sources of the leaders's authority are varied and complex. In part, they are derived from personal talent, temperament, and training. But in part, also, they are determined by tradition, which gives sanction to certain kinds of leadership and, in many cases,

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Chief's daughters lead parties bringing gifts from the villages to prominent visitors. The distinctive head-dress (tuiga) is emblematic of their rank and status. It is made of human hair. They are carrying hooked beheading knives. (nps photograph)

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by the long accepted responsibilities of particular classes and of persons with a particular status. The functions of leadership are generally performed most effectively where the factors of tradition or convention are combined with those of personal suitability. A leader who owes his position entirely to the former factors is likely to be unimaginative, ill-informed, and out of touch with the times. On the other hand, one whose position is a result only of his personal exertions, and whose conduct is not guided by a settled convention, is liable to the defects of over-ambition and of resort to trickery to maintain his power. An excessive conservatism in leadership tends to precipitate the overthrow of existing leaders and their replacement by very different men, who may have little to offer but their demagogic persuasiveness. The new leaders, in their turn, produce a renewed mood of conservatism less firmly rooted in tradition, when people have become disillusioned by their unfulfilled promises and by the decay of order.

This problem of leadership is an especially pressing one among peoples who have come in recent times into contact with Western civilisation. New forms of leadership are necessary when a people is remodelling its way of life in accordance with new needs and opportunities and when individuals have gained fresh means of advancement through the spread of Christianity and education and the growth of a commercial economy. Among many peoples, the old leaders…whether chiefs, or priests, or landlords…have failed to adapt their position to changing times and have lost their authority. Those who have replaced them have often shown a superior understanding of what is required. But abrupt change, in these circumstances, cannot be made without loss. People who are struggling to adapt themselves to the conditions brought about by contact with Western civilization stand in special need of the support which only their own culture and traditions can give them.

In this respect, the situation in Samoa is of particular interest. The men who are providing leadership at the present time are fully in touch with the problems of the modern world; but their authority is exercised in ways broadly consistent with long-standing tradition.

THE TRADITIONAL STRUCTURE OF SAMOAN SOCIETY

The basic unit of Samoan social organization was the lineage, or ‘clan’, whose members traced their origin to a common ancestor. Its leader was the matai, the holder of a title conferred by the group on one of its members. In the course of time, such groups sub-divided; and new titles were created for the various sections of the lineage. One consequence of this process has been the gradual differentiation between major and minor titles. Those which can be traced back to the earlier history of the lineage have more standing than newer titles created during the later stages of segmentation. In addition, of course, other factors have helped to give special standing to certain titles and families; inter marriage with other important families; successful alliances in time of war; or the outstanding leadership of individuals. In these ways, the traditional structure of Samoan society was formed. At its apex, were the leaders of the Tupua and Malietoa families, able to represent, in terms of social status, large sections of

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These placards were displayed everywhere in Samoa during the United Nations Mission in 1947 when self-government for the Samoans was just about to be granted. (nps photograph)

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the Samoan people. Only a little less important were several other families, whose leaders have from time to time emerged as national figures. Below them, were a great number of matai, with varying degrees of standing. Some were entitled to recognition as leaders in their districts; others had an important voice in the affairs of their villages, while the holders of a great many minor titles had influence mainly within their own family groups. This account represents the situation only in a very elementary way. For reasons of space, I have made no mention of the differences in status and functions between the two classes of matai titles, those of chiefs and orators; nor have I touched on the considerable differences between district and district. These matters do not, however, materially affect the argument of this article.

Administratively, the basic unit in Samoa was the “village” community (which might, in fact, consist of several separate hamlets or a single settlement). The village was controlled by a fono (or council) of the local matai. They made decisions on matters of common concern, arranged for village works to be undertaken, received visitors, and punished offenders. Most importantly, they protected the proper balance between the various family groups constituting the village. Thus, a matai who was seeking to increase his own influence and that of his family by actions of a presumptuous or aggressive character, would be severely dealt with…generally by the temporary exclusion of the family from participation in village affairs. Similarly, any individual who harmed the status of a matai…for example, by openly flirting with his wife…would be punished with special severity. Apart from the matai, the other principal groups in the village (untitled men, wives of matai, unmarried women, etc.) had their own organisations, which were concerned both with purely social activities and with the performance of the common duties they owed to the village as a whole.

Above the village level, Samoan society was organised on similar lines, but functions were, in fact, more limited. For example, the fono of a district would be concerned with alliances in times of war and with matters such as disputes between the holders of major district titles. Indeed, both in regard to individual matai and to councils, the higher one went the more one became concerned with matters of status and ceremonial and the less with those of administration. The individual matai, for example, had a more or less unfettered control of the affairs of his own family. In the village fono, if his title were of adequate standing, there were many things he could get done, but he had to be more careful to observe the conventions. At the district level, the important title meant more in terms of formal recognition of status than in those of actual authority. And, at the highest level of all, when there was a tafa'ifa (or king) in Samoa…which was rarely…his position had to be defined in terms of supreme status alone.

This social and political system was suited to the conditions in which it had grown up. For centuries, after the defeat of the Tongan invaders of an earlier period, Samoa was not threatened from outside. Internally, there were no forces at work to produce profound social change. The high degree of decentralisation of control was, thus, appropriate; and the preoccupation of Samoan leaders with the maintenance of a delicate balance in matters of family and district prestige was conducive to the preservation of order. But, with the arrival of Europeans in Samoa in the nineteenth century, the political needs of the country were greatly changed.

CHANGES IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

Missionaries and traders came to Samoa from about 1830 onwards. Whaling vessels began to anchor in Apia harbour, to give their crews a rest and to obtain supplies. Later, settlers came in search of land on which to establish plantations. The Governments of Britain, the United States, Germany and France, sent their naval vessels to Samoa from time to time, to support the claims of their nationals who were living there; and the first three of these Powers established permanent consulates at Apia.

All these changes affected Samoan society. Individual Samoans gained influence by ways unknown to tradition: by holding office in a mission (as pastor, catechist, or deacon); by ability to speak the English language; or through the possession of money. High chiefs promoted the interests of their title and their family with the backing of European supporters. At the same time, the political structure of the country began to be modified, so that it could deal with the new demands that were made upon it. A central Government was formed to control relations between Samoans and Europeans and to represent Samoa in negotiations with consuls and naval officers.

For a variety of reasons, those changes did not take place smoothly. The Samoan Government, in particular, was never fully effective; and political control in Western Samoa passed first to Germany in 1900 and then in 1914 to New Zealand. But these nineteenth century developments began a process of change which has in more recent years, enabled a new generation of Samoan leaders to emerge, with both the knowledge and the prestige required to tackle successfully the problems of the twentieth century.

(to be continued)

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PROVERBIAL AND POPULAR SAYINGS OF THE
MAORI
NGA WHAKATAUKI ME NGA PEPEHA MAORI

Toi te Kupu, toi te mana, toi te whenua.

He maha nga korero o enei ra mo te take nei, mo te Maoritanga. Kei te korero tena tangata, tena tangata, tena iwi, tena, iwi, i o ratou nei whakaaro me pehea ka u ai te taonga nei, te Maoritanga. Ko te whakatauaki e whakahuatia i runga ake nei, no Whanganui, na tenei kaumatua rangatira o roto o te Awa, na Tinirau. Ko te kupu “toi”, me te mea nei, he whakarapopotonga no te kupu ra “toitu”. Na kei te takoto marama noa nga kupu nei. Ki te toitu te kupu, ara te reo Maori, ki te toitu te mana o te iwi Maori, ki te toitu te whenua, ka mau te Maoritangata. Otira me penei; ki te ngarao te reo Maori, ki te ngaro nga whenua Maori, ka ngaro te mana Maori. Ma enei mea e toru, e pupuri te Maoritanga. Ki te mate ana, ka mate te katoa.

Pikipiki motumotu ka hokia he whanaunga.

Kahore ahau e mohio, na tehea iwi tenei whakatauaki. Tera tetahi tangata ko Tama-ki-te-wananga tona ingoa. I a ia e tahu ana i tana ahi kia maoa ai ana kai, ka tuturi atu a ia ki mua, ka timata tana puhipuhi i te ahi kia tere wawe ai te maoa o nga kai. Tera tetahi atu tangata, ko Hauokai tona ingoa, he whanaunga no Tama. Ko te mahi a te tangata nei e tatari kia tata te maoa o nga kai a tana whanaunga a Tama, ka puta atu ki reira. Ka tahuri nei a Tama ki te puhipuhi i tana ahi, me tana karanga ano; “E mura, e mura, kei mau au i a Hauokai.” Rokohanga, kua uru ke mai a Hauokai ki roto i tana whare, a kei muri e tu mai ana e ata whakarongo ana ki nga korero amuamu a Tama. No te tahuritanga ake o Tama, e tu ana Hauokai. Ano ra ko Hauokai: “He aha taku mahi ki a koe, i kino ai koe ki ahau?” Ka whakahokia e Tama;” Kanui taku hoha ki a koe; tatari rawa koe kia maoa he kai, ka puta mai ai koe.” Ka ki atu a Hauokai: “I hokihoki mai ai ahau ki a koe, no te mea he whanaunga tata taua, otira, i te mea kua ki na koe na te kai i haere mai ahau ki a koe, e kore ano taua e tutaki a muri ake nei.” Ano ra ko Tama: “Pikipiki motumotu ka hokia he whanaunga.” He taunu na Tama ki tana whanaunga mona i tatari ai kia maoa he kai ka puta a ia ki te toro i ona whanaunga.

Ka pai te whakatauaki nei mo te taha Wairua. Kia taka ra ano te tangata ki te he, kia pa mai ra ano he pouritanga ranei katahi ano ka anga atu ki te wahi ngaro.

 

“The permanence of the language, prestige and land.”

The subject “Maoritanga” has received great publicity in recent times. A number of individuals and tribes have expressed their views as to how “Maoritanga” can be preserved. The above proverb, was quoted by Tinirau, a noted chief of the Wanganui district. The burden of the proverb is to stress the fact that without the Maori language, without prestige and without land, “Maoritanga” will cease to exist. These three…language, prestige and land…are the main means of preserving “Maoritanga”. Without these, Maori culture will be a thing of the past.

“One constantly in attendance, will be revisited by relatives.”

I have no knowledge as to which tribe this proverb belongs. The origin however is revealed in this episode. Tama ki te Wananga, was busy lighting his fire and in order to hasten the cooking of the food which he prepared, knelt before the fire and began blowing the flames. Hauokai was his relative, and it was his practice to visit Tama at meal times. On this particular day, Tama was anxious that his meal be cooked and finished with before his relative arrived. As he was bending before the fire, he repeated to himself: “Flare up! flare up! Lest Hauokai catch me.” In the meantime however, Hauokai had already entered the room unnoticed and of course had heard what Tama had said. When Tama looked up, to his surprise, Hauokai was already there. “What evil have I done that you should treat me like this?” said Hauokai. To this Tama replied, “I am sick and tired of you; you always wait until a meal is ready before you visit me.” Hauokai replied, “I have only been visiting you because we are close relatives, however, in view of the fact that you claim that I visit you wholly because of food, we will never meet again.” To this, Tama replied. “One constantly in attendance will be revisited by relatives”, meaning that his relatives only visited him because of his unstinted services to them. This proverb of course could be interpreted in various ways. For instance on the spiritual level, this could be well used for those who seek Divine guidance only in times of distress and the like.

“A double grained greenstone.”

The modern interpretation of this is “a twofaced person.” The “kakano” is not “seed”, but the

 
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“He pounamu kakano rua.”

He whakatauaki tenei mo tetahi tangata e ruarua ana ona whakaaro. Ko te whakatakotoranga ki enei ra, he tangata e rua ona mata, kanohi ranei. Ko te “kakano” ehara i te purapura, engari ko te ahua o te pounamu. I tetahi ra kei te noho pai tetahi tangata, ao rawa ake i tetahi mai o nga ra, kei te puku riri tona ahua. Mona te whakatauaki nei, “He pounamu kakano rua.”

 

“grain” or “Testure” of the greenstone. This proverb is applicable to those who are moody; one day a person is happy and contented, and the next day he is grumpy, etc.

“The north is poor and the south abundant.” It appears as if this proverb originated from the North of Auckland. “Tinihanga” here means “plentiful” and not to “deceive.” The prized greenstone is found mainly in the south, and other prized! possessions are more plentiful in the south.

TE KORERO O TORERENUIARUA

Na Kuaotepo, ka noho i a Teanauoterangi kia puta ki waho ko Hoturoa, ka noho i a Whakao-tirangi kia puta ki waho ko Torerenuiarua, ka noho ia Manakiao, kia puta ki waho ko Taimanawapohatu. Na Taimanawapohatu ko Tai, ko nga uri tenei o Torerenuiarua, e karangatia ko Ngaitai ki roto o Torere. Kia hoki rua ake taku korero mo Torerenuiarua i whai nei i a Taikehu o runga o Te Arawa waka hei wahine mana, kaore a Torerenuiarua i pai atu. Hei whakatikatika ake i te korero kei te “Ao Hou May Issue 1957”, e korerotia, ara i whai a Rakataura i a Torerenuiarua hei wahine mana. Ko te tohunga tenei nana i tarai a Tainui Waka. I whai ke tenei tangata i a Kahukeke taina o Torerenuiarua Me hoki whakamuri ake he korero maku mo Taikehu i whai nei i a Torerenuiarua, mai i te motu nei i a Tangihia i u nei nga waka ki te patu o mo te whakawhititanga mai, kaore ano a Torerenuiarua i pai atu. Hei whakapoto i te korero. Ka u a Tainui waka ki Tikirau ara ki Whangaparaoa ka whakahau a Torerenuiarua ki tana Papa ki a Hoturoa kia haramai ratou, ka whakarerengia atu a Taikehu. I u mai te waka ki Pukeiahunoa, kei Torere kainga tenei wahi, i makere mai hoki a Torerenuiarua. I konei ka tukua iho e tona whaea e Whakaotirangi te Rokuroku Tinaku ma ta raua tamahine. Ka mahue iho a Torerenuiarua i konei ka haere te waka a Tainui ki te Tai-Whakararo ma Waikato me Ngatimaniapoto e korero nga whakaunga o Tainui ki tera tai. I tenei wa me hoki ake he korero maku ki te kahenotanga mai o te waka nei o Tainui i Whangaparaoa, i whaia mai nei e Taikehu ma te taha tika o Takutai. I korerotia ai e ona mana “E kore koe e kite i a Torerenuiarua kua Kohatuketia”. Tona taenga mai ki tetahi pari toka, ka werohia e ia ki tana hoe he kimi nana i a Torerenuiarua, i te korero a ona mana ki a ia. E karangatia ana tera waahi mai i reira ki tenei ra ko Toka Puta. Te korenga e kitea e ia i roto i te toka nei ka whakatakina mai e ia ki te ‘Huka o te Tai’, ka kitea iho e ia ko nga tapuae anake. Katahi ka whakatauki iho ia “Ko te Ha noa o nga tapuae” a mai i tera wa ki inaianei, e mohiotia ana tera waahi ko te ‘Hanoa’. Ka eke mai ia ki te tuamaro o te Akau o Torere e karangatia nei ko Tamatea Tipi. Tomo rawa atu ki te

The author questions the genealogy in our story of Torerenuiarua published last May. According to him, Rakataura, the priest who shaped Tainui canoe, took Kahukeke the younger sister of Torerenuiarua to wife, but her own genealogy was as follows:

From Tai, the offspring of Torerenuiarua came Ngaitai, the tribe inhabiting Torere in the Bay of Plenty.

awa i Takataka, kapiki ki etaumata o Rongomaeteururangi. I reira ka kite iho a Taikehu i te ahi a Torerenuiarua e ka ake ana i roto o te Wainui, kua tae mai te mohiotanga ki a ia e kore e mau i a ia a Torerenuiarua. Ko tana whiunga tena a tana hoe, a ko tera waahi “Ko te hoe a Taikehu”. Waiho hoki ake kia whakatutukitia ake te waahi ki a Torerenuiarua ki te maara i whakatokia nga tinaku ki te maara [ unclear: ] e karangatia nei i Torere ko Otuhawaiki. Tona ahunga atu ki roto o te Wainui ka tutaki a ia ki a Manakiao, ka moe raua, ka whanau ta raua tamaiti ko Tainui. Ka pakeke ka ki iho a ia, ‘Hei konei korua’ kia whakakohatu ake au i ahau ki roto o te wai nei. I muri nei toana taku upoko ki te kai, taku aroaro ki a tapu i a korua, e mau na tena tapu, taea noatia mai ki tenei ra. Ite mea kua whakarererea nei maua e koe, kia whakarakau ake au i au hei marumaru mo ta taua tamaiti, e tu mai nei he Nikau, a e mohiotia ana ko Manakiao Hei whakamarama ake ki te taha ki a Manakiao. Na Tangaroamaue ka noho i a Tehaerengaawatea kia puta ki waho ko Tai Kai Rakau, ka noho i a Kuranuiamonoa, ka puta ki waho ko Rauru ka noho i a Ruatangiawa ko Manakiao….

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The last instalment of our folk tales gathered by the Papamoa Maori School are a series of stories all from Whakaki and are the genuine work of children. We shall be glad to publish any corrections of these lively tales.

Stories from Whakaki

HE WAHINE O WHAKAKI

I mua, he repo katoa a Whakaki (Nuiarua) a he mahi nana te whakamaroke i tenei wahi i te Rotoke.

Ko te poutapeta, i te wahi kei reira nei e tu ana te whare o Mr J. Peakman. Ko te toa i Opoho, te waapu i Paka a ko te whare karakia tuatahi i Pohotapu.

I taua wa, e toru nga pa i Whakaki, ka Otarautu, ko Pohotaipu me Tarata.

Ko Hinetawaiwa Ewaewa te taniwha o reira a, he tuna kore whiore. Ka kitea ana te taniwha nei, he torotika tonu, a ki oku whakaaro, kahore e mate, no te mea kei te ora tonu i tenei ra.

A Teomaru, ko te tamahine a Mahu te rangatira o tona iwi. Ko te pa, e rua maero te tawhiti mai i te wai.

I tetahi ra. i tana mate wai, katahi a Mahu ka unga i a Teomaru ki te tiki wai mona. I te timatanga kahore a Teomaru i whakaae, engari i te kaha o te inoi a Mahu, katahi a Teomaru ka whakaae, ki te tiki wai mona. Katahi a ia ka waha

 

A LADY OF WHAKAKI

Whakaki (Nuiarua) was once all swamp; it was very hard to keep it drained during the winter season. The post office was where Mr F. Peakman's house is now, the shop was at Opoho, the wharf at Paka and the first church house was at Pohotapu.

There were actually three pas in Whakaki, whose names were Otarautu, Pohotaipu and Tarata.

Hinetawaiwa Ewaewa is a taniwha which lives here. It is in the form of an eel with no tail. Whenever it was seen it was straight and it is still alive to this very day. I think it will never die.

Teomaru was a daughter of Mahu, who was the chief of his tribe. The pa was about two miles from where water was to be seen. One day Mahu sent Teomaru to get water for him in two calabashes (hue) because he was very thirsty. Teomaru shrugged her shoulders to refuse. Mahu begged

 
– 45 –
 

i tana tamaiti, ka tango i nga taha e rua, katahi ka haere.

Ko te hiahia o Mahu he patu i tana tamahine kia mate, a no te haeretanga o Teomaru i roto i te ngahere, katahi a ia ka whai haere i muri a kahore i kite a Teomaru i a ia.

No te taenga ki te wai, a i a ia e tuohu ana ki te tiki wai, me te tamaiti i runga i tana tuara, katahi a Teomaru ka panaa ki roto ki te wai e Mahu, ka toremi tahi raua ko tana tamaiti.

Ka titiro a Mahu ki a Teomaru raua ko tana tamaiti i roto i te wai, katahi a ia ka mahi tetahi tohu kohatu, a ka tuhituhi i runga, “Kei konei e takoto ana te Pohatu o Teomaru.”

 
 

and begged Teomaru to get him some water until finally Teomaru picked up her child, lifted him on to her back, took the two calabashes (hue) and started to walk. As she crossed the bush Mahu who wanted to destroy her followed her without Teomaru noticing him behind her. When she saw the river, she slowed down, very relieved.

While reaching for water, with her child on her back, she and her child were pushed into the river and drowned. Mahu who had drowned Teomaru and her child stood watching them, then made a stone, and written on it was: ‘Kei konei e takoto ana te pohatu o Teomaru.’

 
 

HE TANIWHA

I nga tau kua pahure ake nei, tera etahi tamariki, he tungane he tuahine, a ko nga ingoa ko Rata ko Rau.

Ko te hiahia o nga tamariki nei he haere ki te kau i roto i te awa, a no tetahi ra katahi raua ka haere. No te taenga ki te awa ka whakaritea e raua me kau haere raua mo tetahi wa iti.

Kahore a Rata raua ko Rau i mohio he taniwha ano i reira, no reira noho ana raua a he haora pea i mua o te po katahi raua ka mea ki te puta ki uta, a no te meatanga, katahi raua ka pa ki te taniwha nei. No taua wa tonu ka ngaro nga tamariki nei, a kahore ano kia kitea, a kahore ano hoki kia kitea te taniwha nei.

 
 

HINE O RANGI

I nga tau kua taha nei, tera tetahi kotiro ataahua, ko Hine O Rangi te ingoa, e noho ana i roto i te ngahere i Whakaki. Ko te kotiro nei, e aroha ana ki tetahi rangatira o tera taha o te moana.

 
 

A TANIWHA

Many years ago there lived, a brother and sister whose names were Rata and Rau. One day the two children wanted to go to the river to have a swim.

Arriving at the river, Rata and Rau decided to paddle around in the river for a few minutes. Not knowing that a Taniwha lived in that pool, they stayed there until an hour before dark. When Rata and Rau decided to get out of the water they both felt the taniwha. The next minute the children had disappeared and were never found again. Nor is there any trace of the taniwha.

 
 

HINE O RANGI

Many many years ago there lived in the forest of Whakaki a beautiful maiden called Hine O rangi (Lady of the skies). This maiden was in love with a young chief from across the sea, and whenever mist covered a certain hill which now bears her

 
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I nga wa e tauria ana tetahi hiwi i te kohurangi, haere ai a ia i runga i tana waka ki te one i te wahapu o te awa ki te tutaki i tana tahu. Ka penei ana, riri ai nga atua ki a Hine O Rangi raua ko tana tahu, a i te harawene hoki, whakatupuria ana etahi hiwi i waenganui i te awa me te moana kia kore ai nga tangata nei e tutaki. No tetahi o ana haerenga ki te wahapu o te awa kahore i puta mai tana tahu, a i te kaha o tana aroha ki tenei tangata katahi a Hine O Rangi ka mate i te wahi tonu e tatari ra a ia.

I enei ra, ka rere ana te wai o tetahi awa i reira, ahakoa he pehea te pai o te ra, maringi mai ai te ua, a ko tenei ua ko Hine O Rangi e tangi ana. Ka mutu ana te tangi ka haere tana wairua ki te one i te taha o Nepia ki tana tahu. Ko te kainga o te tangata nei ko Moremore.

I te mahinga o nga pakeha i tetahi awa kia uru mai ai nga kaipuke nunui, i whakatakotoria e ratou etahi poraka raima. I te hokinga atu o nga pakeha i tetahi o nga ata, kua huri ke hia nga poraka nei e te tahu a Hine O Rangi a kei te takoto penei tonu inaianei.

 
 

KO TE TOHUNGA I TE HANGI

I nga tau maha kua pahure ake nei, tera tetahi tohunga rangatira. Ahakoa he rangatira, he tangata matapiko, i te mea kahore i tika ana mahi ki etahi o nga tangata o te iwi.

No tetahi ra, katahi ka whakaaro nga tangata nei ki te patu i te tohunga kia mate a no tetahi po ka patua.

No muri te patunga, katahi nga tangata nei ke mahi hangi, ka tao i te tohunga.

I era wa he mahi makutu te tohunga, a no te whakaarotanga kua maoa te tohunga katahi ratou ka hura i te hangi. I te huranga, titiro rawa ake ki roto i te rua kahore kau he tohunga hei kai ma ratou.

 
 

HE KURI TAPU

I te wa e noho ana taku kuia i Turanga, haere ai ona matua ki te whakangau poaka i te ngahere. I tetahi o raua haerenga, i whakaaro taku kuia i rongo a ia i tetahi kuri e pahu ana i waho o te whare. I te aranga i te ata, katahi a ia ka haere ki waho kia kite ai i ona matua e hoki mai ana, engari ko tana anake i kite ai, ko tetahi koti e iri ana i runga i te keeti. Ka titiro taku kuia ki te koti nei, katahi ka mea ki te tiki i te koti, engari kahore e makere mai i te keeti.

I taua po kahore a ia i haere ki te moe, a no te moenga o nga tungane me nga teina katahi a ia ka haere ki waho ka huna i muri o tetahi rakau. Kahore hoki i roa, ka rongo a ia i te keeti e tuwhera ana, a ka kite a ia te tetahi tangata me tetahi kuri e haere mai ana i te ara. I te korero Maoritanga atu o te tangata nei katahi te kuri ka tangi ka aue. No te rongohanga o te matua o taku kuia i te turituri katahi ka puta mai ka patu i te kuri i runga i te mahunga. I te huringa ki te hoki ki roto o te whare, ka hinga ki runga ki te ara, ka mate.

 
 

name (Orangi), she would sail down the river in her canoe to the mouth towards the beach. There she would meet her lover. Every time this happened the Gods grew very angry and jealous of Hine O Rangi and her lover so they caused hills to come up between the sea and river, and this prevented the lovers from meeting. When Hine O Rangi saw this she was broken hearted and died, where she had waited in vain for her lover at the mouth of the Whakaki river. Now to this day, whenever the water cuts through the bar to the sea, no matter how fine the day is there is sure to be a little shower, and that is Hine O Rangi weeping. When she has finished weeping she goes in spirit to be with her lover at the beach near the break water in Napier. Today he haunts a special place there known as Moremore.

When the pakehas tried to build a channel to let the big ships in, they had put big blocks of concrete on this special place. When next morning came they went to look at it but Hine O Rangi's lover had turned them all over, and today it is still like that.

 
 

THE TOHUNGA IN THE HOLE

Many years ago there was a very noble, very mean tohunga. He was mean, because he was not fair to several men of a Maori tribe. One day these men planned to kill this mean tohunga. Night came and the men were all together at a certain place.

Not long after they had assassinated the tohunga, they dug a hole (puare) and put him inside it. Then they lit a fire and waited for the tohunga to cook. Soon, they thought it was time to take the tohunga out of the hole, but to their amazement there was no tohunga for the men to eat. In those days tohunga's could cast spells.

 
 

THE TAPU DOG

Many years ago when my grandmother used to live in Gisborne, her mother and father used to go out into the bush to hunt for wild pig. While her parents were away, she thought she heard a dog barking outside the house. Early the next morning she awoke and went outside to see if she could see her mother and father coming home, but instead of that she saw a coat hanging on the gate.

My grandmother began to stare with amazement, she stood there looking at the coat, then she tried to take it from the gate, but it would not come off. That night she would not go to bed with the others. After her brothers and sisters had gone to sleep, she crept out of the house and hid herself behind a tree and waited. No long after she heard the gate open, and a man came up the path leading a dog. On is saying some words in Maori, the dog began to howl loudly. Her father hearing this noise came out and hi the dog on the head with his hand. As he turned to go back inside he fell down on the path dead.

 
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KO TE TANGATA O NGATIPANEKAKA

I nga tau maha kua pahure ake nei, i te wa e whawhai tonu ana nga Maori ki a ratou ano, tera a Ngati Hinepu o Hereheretau, i whakaekea e Ngati Panekaka o Waikaremoana. I waimarie ai, i mohio a Ngati Hinepu, a i te whakaekenga a Ngati Panekaka, e noho tatari mai ana ratou.

No tenei, katahi te hoariri ka huri ka oma i runga i nga hiwi ki te one, a, i muri tata i a ratou ko Ngati Hinepu. No te taenga ki te one, katahi ratou ka keri i tetahi awa i te wahi whenua whakawehe i tetahi roto me te moana, a na te rere kaha o te wai nei i whakawhanui te awa nei a kore ana a Ngati Panekaka i mau i a Ngati Hinepu. Engari kotahi ano o Ngati Panekaka i mahue ki tenei taha o te awa, a no te taenga mai o Ngati Hinepu, katahi tetahi tohunga ka huri i te tangata nei hei roku.

E huri ana a Ngati Hinepu ki te hoki ki Hereheretau, ka kite ratou kua maroke te roto nei me nga awaawa, a e takoto ana nga tuna me nga inanga. Na te mea kahore i tono nui te kai i aua wa ka mea nga tangata nei ki te noho i te taha o te roto, a ka tapahia te wahi nei WHAKAKI no te mea i ki katoa ratou i te kai i konei.

No tetahi wa katahi ka pupuhi tetahi tupuhi oneone a kati ana te awa nei, a no te uanga katahi ka ki te roto me nga awaawa i te wai.

Katahi ka mea nga tangata o Whakaki ki te keri i tetahi awa i roto i te oneone ki te moana, a i a ratou e keri ana katahi ka ua a e karangatia ana, ko te ua nei ko nga roimata o te tangata o Ngati Panekaka i mahue nei i ona hoa.

Ka timu ana te tai ka kitea atu te roku totara nei. I tenei wa e kiia ana, ka tuwhera ana te tahuna, ka tangi te tangata nei ara te roku, e takoto nei i roto i te one.

 

THE WARRIOR OF NGATIPANEKAKA

Many years ago when the Maoris were still declaring war among themselves a tribe from Waikaremoana called Ngatipanekaka came to attack the people of Hereheretau known as Ngatihinepu Fortunately the Ngatihinepu were prepared and waiting for the attack. Taken by surprise the enemy turned and fled over the hills towards the beach, and as they realized Ngatihinepu was close on their heels, the enemy quickly dug a creek from the lagoon to the sea which was divided by a narrow strip of land. As the water rushed into the sea the creek began to widen into a big channel thus preventing the Ngatipanekaka surrendering to the Ngatihinepu. Unfortunately for the enemy one of their warriors was left on the other side of the channel and he began to cry. When the Ngatihinepu tribe came upon him, one of the tohunga turned him into a log. When the Ngatihinepu tribe turned to go back to Hereheretau they noticed the lagoon and the little creeks around it had gone dry and to their amazement they saw many different kinds of fish known as eels, and inanga lying about. As food was scarce in those days the Hereheretau people decided to live near the lagoon, naming their new settlement Whakaki which means plentiful. As time went by a sand storm arose which blocked up the dam and the rain filled the lagoon and the creeks.

The Whakaki people decided to dig a creek through the sand to the sea. As this was being done it began to shower and this is known to be the tears of the Ngatipanekaka warrior who was left behind by his comrades. When the sea goes down a totara log is seen jutting up. Today the people think that when the bar is opened he weeps and it is said that it is this log. A bar is a sand bank which separates the lake and the sea.

– 48 –

He Pitopito Korero

The Pouto Maori land development scheme near Dargaville was capped off recently by the planning of a town site. At a special meeting of owners at Dargaville, land was set aside for this site, as well as 11 acres of native bush for a reserve. A community centre comprising a hall, tennis courts and children's swimming pool is also in view.

The Pouto scheme, with now 3,000 acres in good grass is well on the way to completion. Ten dairy farms have been established, averaging 60 cows, and are producing very well. The men on these farms will be settled if they prove satisfactory after a probationary period. Ultimately 30 dairy farmers will be settled on the block.

Pouto is situated on the North Head, Kaipara Harbour, approximately forty miles south west of Dargaville. The supervisor is Mr D. Finlayson, and the scheme manager Mr N. Te Wake.

* * *

The Huia football club of Moawhango, near Taihape, held its diamond jubilee on Friday and Saturday, August 30 and 31.

The Club began at Moawhango in 1897, although football had been played there before that. There are two surviving members of the original team…Mr J. Bartosh and Mr H. Salmon In 1899 and 1900 the team's line was not crossed and they were unbeaten from 1899 to 1905. The Club of course is principally Maori as can be seen by the names of the original organisers…Hiraka Te Rongo, Hakoha Te Ahunga, and Pine Tuakau with Punch Pine as first captain.

Punch Pine, with Wilson Winiata and Jo Whenuaroa donated the Whenuaroa Shield fo Maori football in the Wanganui District. Whare mahihi Mako, Boyce Whenuaroa and Miria Pin also donated trophies for Maori football and the Tuiuke Cup signalises the tribal link with Tokaanu. The Club has also been largely represente in the Ngati-Tuwharetoa team which competes at the Coronation Celebrations at Ngaruawahia an won the trophy, the Coronation Shield, in 1954 and 1955.

* * *

Errol Haora, a young swimmer of Rotorua, has had a new national record recognised. This record is for the New Zealand 100 yards junior boy breastroke.

* * *

Ngapuhi ex-servicemen of the former A company, 28th (Maori) Battalion, have decided to organize a reunion. Chairman, Mr T. R. Kepa; Secretary, Mr L. Munns.

* * *

The memorial windows in memory of S Apirana Ngata and Bishop Bennett were unveiled on August 24 in the chapel of St Michael and All Angels, Hukarere School, Napier.

– 49 –

Last May all Maori welfare officers met at Paraparaumu for a week's up-to-date lectures and discussions which helped their thinking about Welfare. Here are the impressions of one man who attended the course.

NEW ROADS
for Welfare—
Training Course at Paraparaumu

SINCE the passing of the Maori Social and Economic Advancement Act in 1945, two or three different Conferences have been held and all at Parliament Buildings. In my own experience I have only attended one other and that was at a General Conference of Welfare Officers held in 1954.

There the setting proved unsatisfactory in that the Administration sat at the one end of the Hall and the District Welfare Officers at the other so that an atmosphere of awe, first in regard to Administration Officers and secondly in the placing of the Senior District Welfare Officers in a position, that accentuated their seniority. Partly because of the kind of topic discussed at these earlier meetings any individual Welfare Officer standing to express an opinion would not enjoy freedom and self-confidence.

In other words a class consciousness was created, not deliberately but there nevertheless. Placing everyone at the same level means that the Seniors have to come down from the clouds so to speak and the reserve of the individual Welfare Officers broken down. This was accomplished quite noticeably at our Residential Course from the first day on, first because of the attitude of our Seniors and secondly because of the very nature of the term Residential Course, in which all participants, lecturers and students alike shared not only working hours but leisure hours as well; if one could term such off-duty hours as leisure hours. In fact all the time was spent in discussing the various aspects of the Course from the opening session to each successive subject and afterwards.

Before the course much speculation was evident but the plan of the course became clear when the Secretary Mr T. T. Ropiha and the Controller Mr C. M. Bennett made their opening addresses saying that the time would be utilised in improving the technique in the execution of our work as Welfare Officers.

I sincerely consider that this has been achieved and although the outward appearance of any individual Welfare Officer may not have altered I reiterate by saying that inwardly an emotion has been stirred with intent to act and work harder for the purpose of achieving good and not only good but a general spirit of goodwill firstly among our own people and also with the pakeha. The pakeha knows his own position and his capacity and therefore acts accordingly; for ourselves our situation is known but our full capacity has not been completely extended and therein lies the challenge to all Maoris who hold responsible positions be they the leaders of the community, the school teachers, the farmers, the man in the professions, the employer of labour, the contractors, those in business, those in executive positions and last but not least, the Clergy. And what of the parent? Theirs would be the greatest task of all; and upon them falls the privilege of accepting the challenge, bearing in mind that if the capacity is there all the resources possible should be applied to aid those who possess the ability.

Nothing in the week of instruction, discussion and debate can be really considered new to the Maori Race. Nothing that emerged from those to whom we were privileged to listen was difficult to comprehend and this I record as a tribute to all of the lecturers who obviously knew their subject

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and furthermore enjoyed giving their respective addresses. Add to that, personality, and ability to understand the Maori situation, plus a sincere desire to help and it will be understood why we the Welfare Officers rate this Course the best ever held. Dealing with the first sentence in this paragraph, almost in every subject parallels with past history could be made whether it was with Child Care, Education or Budgeting. The very nature of the Course suggested the Whare-wananga of old with each day beginning and ending with a short Karakia. Certainly, only a short prayer but delivered with equal fervour and sincerity with those incantations of old. And the Tohunga, was he present too? The Tohunga, the paramount being, the navigator, the astronomer, the psychiatrist, the doctor, the tutor…I would say yes and again I pay tribute to our lecturers who in part re-portrayed the duty of that once prominent gentleman.

The venue of the Course, how does that compare with the past? Situated in the low rolling hills of Paraparaumu the Conference Room encased completely with large windows overlooking the sea, and a stone's throw from Kapiti Island and the shadow of Te Rauparaha dancing across the rolling waters really made the atmosphere tense and exciting and it was this very scene that inspired and provoked a remark at the conclusion of the discussion on Budgeting, when we all subscribed to the opinion that it was something new to the Maori. Yes, new to the Maori of today.

Budgeting

How could it best be advocated to our people as the proper way to set our daily lives? By the use of the graph system of division with each item cut to fit its proper place in the family income. That would be the method by which we could deliver our subject on the appropriate occasion. Certainly the idea is good we all agreed.

But then, budgeting to the Maori is not new it is something that is inherent and only requires a re-awakening as to its suitability and usefulness to us the Maori of today.

Let us turn back the clock six hundred years to the period when a fleet of canoes left the shores of Hawaiki and what do we see? Months and perhaps years of preparation for the journey across the vast oceans with only a small canoe to carry the manpower, the energy…the instruments…the stores of food, all within that limited space. Every item calculated to give its full capacity, every muscle trained and tested to its full ability. Sir Peter Buck in his “Vikings of the Sunrise” calls it the budgeting of resources. We can correctly assume that that was no hit or miss journey but maybe “Tangaroa” had some protecting influence on the safe conduct of those budget minded Polynesian Vikings. Nevertheless there is the lesson which we can all do well to remember.

Other Lessons

What other matters arose that would be of general interest? Such terms as non-directive approach as against direct approach to any problem. This means to let the people decide on the course they wish to pursue (let them direct their own course) and restrict our work to guiding them (showing them by what means they can get to where they want to go). The first is recommended by the School of Social Science not only as a method of approach but also as a means of obtaining a solution to a problem. And then again we have another new term…emotional maturity. To dissect and analyse needs a scientific mind to determine the full implication and meaning of this term. Are we, or is anybody emotionally mature? To what extent or degree does one claim this maturity? I cannot give a satisfactory answer to that one.

The Value of Social Science

Some of our Welfare Officers are products of the School of Social Science. Many of us are not and cannot claim any academic qualifications either, but the point arises as to whether these qualifications are absolutely necessary or not and if they are whether they should come before one undertakes the work of a Welfare Officer or after they have had the experience of the outside world:

I am reminded of the words spoken by a German social worker, Mr A. T. Blaschke, who attended a University Refresher Course with a group of Social Workers in Wellington in 1952. He was himself a student at the Berlin Seminary of Social Workers prior to the Nazi Regime. These were his words:

No one can really know just how much the other person is suffering unless he has suffered the same experience himself. No one can full understand the meaning of loneliness until he has stood alone in the world. To acquire this experience one does not need academic qualifications, and understanding does not necessarily come of a university training but academic training will be a help. The true social worker does not regard his work as a job or a profession, but as calling”. There are some who say proudly. “I am a product of the School of Hard Knocks and experience was my Master”. The school may well have taught the lesson but possibly a little of the scientific skill could have diminished the hard knocks.'

The German gentleman's final analysis was very well delivered in this fashion:

I advocate that future social workers should undertake a course of alternate six month periods in various occupations in the field with the people with whom he intends to work—without pay…and the other six months at the University so that in the course of time will have gained experience and the acquired skill of the Social Scientist.'

– 51 –

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Welfare officers take every opportunity to stimulate Maori arts in a practical way…some lady welfare officers give a demonstration at the league conference in Christchurch last April. (Green and Hahn Photography).

To us who attended the Course at Paraparaumu the scientific approach is recognised to the full and we fully appreciate the very good people who in every way contributed the worthwhile addresses and arranged the very stimulating discussions that took place and if we in our lifetime can fully apply all that was put forward, then the success of the Course is assured.

Our special thanks to Professor Minn, John McCreary, John Booth, Charles M. Bennett and Bill Herewini for the splendid manner in which they controlled proceedings and to all the other lecturers who gave of their time to address us in the very able manner that they did.

In the absence of the Minister of Maori Affairs, Mr Corbett, we were honoured with the presence of the Minister of Welfare. Dame Hilda Ross, who in the short time at her disposal gave the impression that she enjoyed our company.

Extravaganza too

For the lighter side of proceedings, yes we had time for that. A concert programme was arranged for the night prior to our departure. What Maori gathering overlooks this important function? As a member of the second intake of Welfare Officers I cannot comment on the programme of the first group but I understand that they had a first class programme under the leadership of Peter Awatere, Brownie Puriri and Jimmy Pou.

For the second group the organisation was in the capable hands of Waka Clarke, Peter Kaua, Maud Tamihana, Sam Mitchell and Wi Amaru. To an audience who literally dropped out of the sky (fifty plane passengers were marooned at 6 p.m. because of the wet weather and had to spend the night at the hotel) Waka Clark, compere, introduced the “Musical Extravaganza of 1957” with the first number “Down at Paraparaumu” conducted by Professor Amaru and rendered by the Eight Singing Fools “a la” Platter style. The programme varied from singing to magic mysteries of the East with thirty six items to complete, the final being a stirring haka led by John McCreary in full cry “Koko Ma Ko Koko Ma” less the bagpipes of course.

We are grateful also to the Management of the Majestic Hotel for the splendid service rendered and the wonderful supper they provided not only for the Conference Group but also for the plane travellers who, with the Management, were our guests for the concert.

This week was a really great deal of benefit to us all personally and I sincerely hope that in time our people will also gain by our renewed outlook, shown and demonstrated.

* * *

TARANAKI RALLY

Many visitors from New Plymouth and coastal districts as well as from the South Taranaki area took part in the Methodist Maori Mission's June rally held at Wesley Church and Hall, Hawera, recently.

Choir competitions held during the rally were judged by Mr Lynch of New Plymouth. The winner of the Emma P. Rangi Memorial Challenge Cup for the junior competition was the local Ngatiki choir under the leadership of Mr Morehu Whareaitu. The Te Mutunga Challenge Cup for senior groups was won by Te Awhina club from New Plymouth under the leadership of Mr K. Euruiti.

– 52 –

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An East Coast farm…Wairongomai Station. (Photo: John Ashton).

Keen Maori Interest in Farm Schools

Recent farm schools organized by the Department of Agriculture in the Gisborne-East Coast district recently had a large and enthusiastic Maori audience.

The fields superintendent of the department at Palmerston North, Mr C. J. Hamblyn, stated that attendances both Maori and pakeha had been much larger than expected, but that the most gratifying and encouraging feature was the keen interest shown by Maori farmers.

Last June, schools were held at Rere, where there was an attendance of 22, at Tolaga Bay, where there was an attendance of 51, and at Te Araroa, where there was an attendance of 90.

These were the first farm schools ever held at Rere and Te Araroa.

While a number of European farmers within tasy reach of Te Araroa did not attend the school the Maori farmers flocked to it from as far away as Cape Runaway and Ruatoria, Mr Hamblyn said.

Made Welcome

At such schools, there was commonly a marked tendency for the people to drift away as the afternoon wore on, Mr Hamblyn said, but most of the Maoris stayed to the end of the session, and their appreciation of what the school offered was most gratifying.

Their wives and daughters, for, whom, at each school, two home science extension officers held special class on “New Fabrics and Short Cuts the Home”, showed equally keen interest, and went to great pains to cater for the lecturers and make them feel welcome.

Greater Efficiency

Addressing the schools on the work of the extension division, Mr Hamblyn said that it was advisory service which dealt with local problems and carried out experimental work on them. It could not, however, go round asking individual farmers what their special problems were and offering to solve them. The division expected farmers to bring their problems to it, and it would then give them every help in its power.

In an address on wool shed design, Mr R. Montgomery, sheep and wool instructor at Hastings, said that improvement of shearing shed layout had enabled the same shearers each to shear 20 more sheep in a day and the same shed hands each to handle 30 more fleeces.

The horticultural instructor at Gisborne, J. D. Overbye, spoke on kumaras, soil mulching and fruit trees.

Mr E. B. Smythe, of Gisborne, spoke at Rere

– 53 –

and Tolaga Bay, on the production of beef cattle and the requirements as to branding and earmarking of the new Stock Act, and Mr G. Wilson, of Opotiki, spoke on these subjects at Te Araroa.

Mr E. A. Madden, agrostologist at Palmerston North, spoke on the improvement of hill country pastures.

Drive for Production

Maori interest in the schools was due in no small measure to the support of the committees of management of Maori sheep and cattle stations on the Coast, These committees, alerted by the field supervisor of the Department of Maori Affairs, decided tat full support of the farm schools would be a first step to the improvement of farming on the East Coast.

Such improvement is an urgent question on the Coast and various measures may be taken to cope with it. It appears that the Department of Agriculture may decide to station an instructor in agriculture in Ruatoria. Furthermore, that Department is keen to demonstrate on one or two selected farms in the district what can be achieved by improved management practices under the supervision of the Department of Agriculture. The purpose is to show up to date farming methods for the benefit of the whole area. Subdivisional fences and effective use of manure are among the main problems of the area. The people's interest in the farm schools augurs well for the future.

Seasonal Notes

TREATMENT OF BLOWFLY STRIK IN
EWES

In districts where crutch strike causes trouble in ewes crutching or early shearing is advised by the Department of Agriculture. Close supervision is necessary to detect cases so that suitable treatment can be applied before the strike becomes too extensive.

When treating cases of fly strike, shear the soiled wool away from the immediate vicinity of the strike. Dressings containing aldrin, dieldrin, or BHC will rapidly kill the maggots, whcih will be expelled from the wound. In addition treatment with either aldrin or dieldrin preparations will prevent re-strike until dipping if this is done in January. These dressings do not prevent the flies blowing the sheep with eggs, but they do prevent the maggots from hatching and causing a strike.

Irritant fluids such as kerosene should not be used: they may kill the maggots, but they will irritate the wound and tend to cause restrike.

Jetting of ewes is not usually necessary, but if fly strike is severe, it may be advisable to treat them to give protection until dipping. Apply ½ gallon of aldrin or dieldrin wash to the crutch of each animal, extending the wetted area to above and round the tail. A pump working at 401b to 601b pressure per square inch, with a hand cut-out on the nozzle, is advisable for this purpose. Jetting with aldrin or dieldrin at 0.05 per cent strength will give 2 months' complete protection against crutch strike; for longer protection 0.1 per cent should be used.

BLOOD POISONING AFTER SHEARING

Deaths in sheep after shearing may be due to infection of cuts or bruises with the blackleg germ. This disease can be prevented by vaccinating at least 3 weeks before shearing. Sheep which have been vaccinated previously may not require revaccination, and a veterinarian or Livestock Instructor of the Department of Agriculture or a Field Supervisor of the Department of Maori Affairs should be consulted about the best procedure.

MANAGEMENT OF YEARLING
HERD BULLS

Good experimental evidence has been obtained at the Department of Agriculture's Ruakura Animal Research Station to show that excessive use of a yearling herd bull will reduce his fertility in later life. For best results a yearling should not be run with more than 12 to 14 heifers, unless some effort is made to reduce the amount of work he will do.

SPRING TOPDRESSING ON DAIRY
FARMS

Rainfall is a major limiting factor to dairy pasture production throughout most North Island summers. However, the Department of Agriculture considers that by topdressing in November with superphosphate (and potash also if needed) a more vigorous and dense cover for pasture can be secured and it will keep the soil moister and result in better summer and autumn production.

If topdressing is left too late, insufficient rain may fall to encourage the required summer growth. If the pasture is to be topdressed again in autumn, 2cwt. of superphosphate per acre is all the phosphate that need be applied in November. All fields being grazed and aftermaths of silage fields can be topdressed in November to provide extra summer feed.

VACCINATION AGAINST CONTAGIOUS
ABORTION

Vaccination has reduced the New Zealand average rate of contagious abortion in dairy cows from about 5 per cent to 1 per cent. However, the Department of Agriculture contends that there are still too many dairy farmers who do not vaccinate their calves. Past freedom from abortion is no excuse for not vaccinating, as infection may be introduced into a herd at any time.

Though vaccination does not begin until January or February, applications should be made now, as veterinarians and Livestock Instructors have to plan their vaccination itineraries. Late applications make this planning very difficult. Calves should not be vaccinated until they are over 4 months old, as poor immunity results if they are vaccinated before this.

– 54 –

BOOKS

A NEW ZEALAND CLASSIC

Polynesian Mythology by Sir George Grey: Edited by W. W. Bird, illustrated by Russell Clark; Whitcombe and Tombs Ltd.; 17/6.

The old leatherbound Grey concealed a number of virtues from a popular audience, but Whitcombe's have groomed this edition for its debut from the glass-case to the bedside table.

Russell Clark's dust-jacket makes a lively beginning, the spacious layout heightens the sense of quality; merely to look at this book is a pleasure.

Grey's classical style, with its sinewy periods, is in the best tradition of Maori oratory. Not only is it suited to the subject, but also to the modern reader. Grey has no need now to apologize for “occasional simplicities and infelicities of expression”.

Except for the standardising of Grey's Maori spelling and the improvement in order of chapters, the late Mr W. W. Bird's editing is skilfully unobtrusive.

I quibble with Grey's prefix and his title, “Poly nesian Mythology”. Although he states “that probably to no other person but myself would many of their (the Maoris) ancient chants and traditions have been imparted by their priests,” it was an ex-road works foreman, Elsdon Best, who pene trated beyond the familiar myths of Grey's volum to the esoteric concept of the abstract begin nings of the earth, from darkness and negatior through stages of will and desire, into substanct

Buck mildly ridicules the school of Te Matore hanga, on whom Best relied, for its inconsistencies and transcriptions from the Christian concept of creation, but he does not question the concept of lo the father, Io the fatherless, who could have n atua or image, and who had no place in the common genealogy of gods down to men, puts the Rangi and Papa creation-myth beside Adam an his ribbone…a delightful story, but little else.

Yet with all due disrespect for one's elders, do not for one moment suggest that Grey's “Pol; nesian Mythology” is merely a collection of delightful stories…it is more than that, a work of scholarship, a shaft deep into the workings of Maori belief and history. Buck, even Best, fo lowed this shaft and drew much from it. Grey account of the dissensions in Hawaiki and the coming of the “fleet” should be read beside Buck version in “The Coming of the Maori”.

– 55 –

The acid test of Grey's scholarship and veracity is that he chose to publish the first edition in Maori at a time when the oral tradition was still strong enough to give the instant lie to any error in substance or in style.

“Polynesian Mythology” has every right to sit alongside any de-luxe edition of Greek myth and legend. In this country, it has prior right.

GREEDY CRITIC

The New Zealand Journal 1842 1844 of John B. Williams of Salem, Massachusetts.…Edited with an Account of his life by Robert W. Kenney. Peabody Museum of Salem and Brown University Press 1956.

This is a short account of New Zealand by John Brown Williams, a New England merchant, who was United States consul for New Zealand for some years, residing from 1842 to 1844 in the Bay of Islands. A brief life of Williams is also included.

The book is a disappointing one. The ‘Journal’ reproduces without acknowledgment, substantial portions of Gilbert Mair's ‘Pilot’. The latter work, written in 1839 by the original Gilbert Mair, consists of brief notes on the harbours of the northern portion of the North Island, and other information useful to navigators. It is reproduced in full as appendix B to “The Mair Family” by J. C. Anderson and G. C. Petersen (A. W. and A. H. Reed, 1956). These extracts are interspersed with rather incoherent remarks on the character, customs and manners of the Maoris and of the Europeans resident in the Country, and on the scenery, climate, geology and vegetation of New Zealand. Williams has an extraordinary capacity for moral indignation…except perhaps in relation to commercial transactions in which he himself might be engaged.

There is little new material in the work which is of any value to the historian except, possibly, further confirmation of the rough and ready morals of the early European population in the far north.

E.W.W.

The book is beautifully produced and has some fine plates.

TUWHARETOA STORY

A history of the Tuwharetoa tribe written by Mr John te Herekiekie Grace will appear shortly with the publishing house of A. H. & A. W. Reed. This history will provide a similar background to the history of this tribe as is already available for Tainui and Takitimu. It also includes some valuable new documentation on the early history of the King movement.

– 56 –

THE HOME
GARDEN

Horticulturist, Department of Maori Affairs Tauranga

If the home gardener is to be a successful grower and produce a reasonable crop for the time, energy, and cost, involved it is necessary to prepare the land some time before planting. Digging may be carried out by two methods:

(a)

By digging one spit deep.

(b)

By trenching.

If trenching is to be the method adopted, then the top-soil is removed one spit deep and the sub-soil turned over by the use of an ordinary garden fork. The next operation is to take a further spit of the top-soil, placing it on top of the loosened sub-soil. If any well decayed vegetable matter, compost or animal manure is available, a light dressing could be applied, and incorporated in the sub-soil. The above method is then repeated until the whole area intended to be cultivated is completed, then the first spit of soil removed is transferred and placed in the last trench made.

Heavy clay soils are responsive to the above method of cultivation with which the writer has had much practical experience. I have found that the effects lasting for many years after the initial operation, have amply rewarded the extra work, especially in the production of root crops.

When preparing land for the growing of vegetables, it is always necessary to have at least six or seven inches of top-soil well worked. The area should contain above all, a high organic content, being of course an ample quantity of humus, which performs two essential functions: the improvement of the physical structure, making the soil retentive of moisture, and the conservation of plant food and elements which are otherwise lost through leaching, especially in high rainfall areas.

General work for this time of the year, is the sowing of practically all types of vegetable seeds, and the earthing up of early potatoes should be attended to periodically. If main crop varieties of potatoes are being planted remember to fertilize with a well balanced and prepared manure, containing potash. At this time of the year slugs and snails, are very destructive and often give the home gardener much concern. Various preparations for these destructive pests are easily available from local horticultural suppliers and are very efficient if applied early.

DEPTH FOR GROWING SEEDS:

According to the type of soil, it is not always possible to adhere to a rigid rule in respect to the sowing of vegetable seeds, but in most home gardens, which have been cultivated for some time and where ample protection is provided, it is assumed that in light soil seeds can be fairly safely sown at a greater depth than in heavier soil. Generally the following depths should give a fairly even germination: peas 1 ½-2 inches; beetroot ½ inch; carrots ¼ inch; parsnips ½ inch; celery ¼ inch; onions ½ inch; beans ½ inches; potatoes, early planting 3 inches, main crop 4 inches, pumpkins, squash, etc. 1 ½-2 inches.

TRANSPLANTING:

If possible, it is usually a practice to transplant during the evening, taking much care to avoid injury to the young and tender roots. Do not allow air or sunlight to dry the plants extensively. Always firm the soil after planting, and if necessary provide shade for two or three days, if the weather is hot or dry.

THE HOME ORCHARD:

The main work in the orchard at this time of the year, is the spraying and protection of the young fruit, which is rapidly developing. With passionfruit for instance, it is necessary to spray at least once a month with bordeaux mixture for brown spot, which is easily discernible on the leaves. The same spray should be applied to all varieties of lemons for the control of verrucosis and wither tip. This spray should be repeated again in twenty-one days, if satisfactory control is to be obtained.

* * *

SCHOLARSHIPS AND CAREERS FOR MAORIS

The Department of Maori Affairs has published a second edition of the pamphlet. “Some Educational Facilities for Maori People”. This pamphlet gives up-to-date information on just what financial assistance is available to Maoris in the way of scholarships, trusts, grants, etc., to help them further their education.

The pamphlet discusses career openings for Maoris and accommodation for those who must move from their homes to the centres to take up suitable jobs.

Copies of this pamphlet may be had by applying to the editor, Te Ao Hou, Department of Maori Affairs, P.O. Box 2390, Wellington.

Supplies of the pamphlets as well as being available to individuals and organisations are available for free distribution at huis. Anyone sponsoring or attending a hui who would like a supply of the pamphlets to distribute is invited to write in for a quantity.

– 57 –
– 58 –

Success of Maori Actors

Watching Maori concert parties and variety shows, with their incomparable comperes, one often thinks that there should be great opportunities for many Maori people in the more serious stage drama. Last August for the first time, the country's foremost theatre group, the New Zealand Players, staged a play where the three principal characters were Maori actors. It was “The Pohutukawa Tree” by Bruce Mason, and the chief actors were Miss Hira Tauwhare, Miss Mary Nimmo, and Mr Maia Sullivan. Critical Wellington audiences, viewing the play in four performances, were most favourably impressed with the liveliness and appropriateness of their acting and the play will be shown again in various towns later.

Subject of “The Pohutukawa Tree” was the conflict in ideas between the older and younger generations of Maoris in the modern world. It tells the story of the Mataira family … Aroha and her two children, Queenie and Johnnie. These three are the only remaining Maoris of the Ngati Raukura living on their ancestral lands at Te Parenga; the rest of the tribe slowly drifted away many years ago as their land was bought and settled by the pakeha.

Aroha, the mother, a deeply religious woman, played by Miss Hira Tauwhare, still clings to the great traditions of the past. When the play opens, Queenie and Johnnie (acted by Miss Mary Nimmo and Mr Maia Sullivan) are adolescents, and are beginning to rebel against the restrictions of their home life. Being unprepared for the harshness of the world, both come to grief. But being young and resilient they learn to compromise.

Not so Aroha, for her it is different. She suddenly finds her life collapsed and in ruins, and is too old and proud to re-mould it.

This then is the story of “The Pohutukawa Tree” which was produced recently in the Theatre Work shop of the New Zealand Players.

The cast included eighteen speaking parts, but it was the three Maori characters who were dominant figures and around whom the play revolved and to whom its success is due. These three, with their freshness and vitality, have shown that the Maor has a natural and uninhibited acting talent which was the envy of the rest of the cast. And they have proved that the door to yet one more profession is open to the Maori.

Miss Hira Tauwhare, formerly of Masterton and now of Feilding, took the part of Aroha Mataira

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Mrs Mary Nimmo (Queenie)

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Mr Maia Sullivan (Johnnie)

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Miss Hira Tauwhare (Aroha)

– 59 –

This part called for a lot of versatility for Hira had to represent an aged Maori of the old school while she herself is anything but old school. But she has had wide dramatic experience and therefore was able to adapt herself to this new part very quickly. Although she is very fond of sport and at one time was the Champion Marching leader for the Wairarapa, North Island and for New Zealand, Hira's main interests have always been drama and speech. Ever since schooldays, which were spent at Wairarapa College, she has belonged to theatrical societies and actually produced her first play at the age of seventeen. For years she was an active member of the Masterton and Martinborough Little Theatre Societies, the Marlborough Repertory Society and the Blenheim Operatic Society. Hira, who has passed the L.T.C.L. examination for speech, leads a very busy life. During the day she works as a hairdresser, while each evening is spent teaching speech at the Leader Studio in Wellington. Recently she produced the play “Sunday Costs Five Pesos” acted by te Leader Studio at the Wellington Drama Festival. She told Te Ao Hou that she would like to interest the Maori people in speech and drama, for she believes that artistic work, apart from the old traditions, will give them confidence to face the future, for it is the future that is important, and although one can learn from one's own traditional past, other peoples' customs and cultures should be adopted and used to advantage.

An active member of concert parties, Hira sang, danced and did sketches during the war. Later she was chosen to represent the Wairarapa in the first Miss New Zealand contest.

In the near future, Hira hopes to go to England to further her studies in speech and drama.

Taking the part of Aroha's young daughter, Queenie was Mary Nimmo, who comes from Levin. Mary, who belongs to the Tukarehe subtribe of Ngati Raukawa is twenty years of age.

While attending Horowhenua College, she learnt shorthand and typing which led to a position in a solicitor's office when she left school. Just over a year ago she decided to come to Wellington and now works with Adult Education. At first she boarded at Pendennis Hostel, but she now finds flatting with four other girls, one of whom is an Australian, much more exciting. Mary feels she has gained much since she has been in Wellington. She now has the opportunity in participating in a wider range of cultural activities. There are visits to the theatre, the National Orchestra, and exhibitions such as that of Henry Moore.

While at College. Mary took part in several light opera performances. She was a member of the Levin Operatic Society doing musical shows, as well as being an active member of entertainment groups.

Although her chief interest is in musical shows Mary was thrilled when she was given a part in “The Pohutukawa Tree”.

Mary's brother in the play, Johnnie, was played by Maia Sullivan, who comes from Fernhill, near Hastings. A member of Ngati Maahu of Ngati Kahungunu, Maia, who is twenty-four attended Hastings High School. He came to Wellington in 1952 and at first he worked in the Department of Agriculture. At present he is working in the Chief Electoral Office of the Department of Justice, as well as attending Victoria University College, where he is a medical intermediate student. Next year he intends going to Otago University to further his medical studies.

When Maia saw the advertisement for Maori actors, he was dared by a friend to apply for an audition. Maia is extremely interested in drama and although he has had little dramatic experience, he immediately took the dare up and was successful in his application.

He says the rehearsals took up a lot of time especially when he could have been ‘swotting’, but he feels they were well worth it and he will be sorry when the play is over.

Like Mary, Maia feels that the city provides many more opportunities to attend the live theatre.

A keen sportsman, Maia plays hockey for University.

– 60 –

WOMEN'S WORLD

More than 1,000 guests attended the double reception at the Waipatu marae Hastings on Saturday, June 8, which followed the weddings of two cousins, Miss Isabel Whatarau, the well-known singer who toured Australia with the Maori concert party last year, and Miss Thelma Kahui Mareikura.

Isabel is the second eldest daughter of Mr and Mrs James T. Whatarau. Clive; the bridegroom was Peter, eldest son of Mr and Mrs John Cowan, Feilding.

Thelma is the second eldest daughter of Mr and Mrs Paul Mareikura, Waipatu; the bridegroom was Donald Sydney, eldest son of Mrs P. Edwards, Bridge Pa and Mr Albert Collier, Hamilton.

* * *

Among the nurses to graduate at the recent graduation at Hawera Public Hospital was staff nurse Olive Broughton, thought to be the first local Maori to graduate at the Hawera Hospital.

The superintendent, Dr Berry, remarked that of the three graduates, one was an old New Zealander…a Maori…one a new New Zealander…Dutch…and one a pakeha New Zealander.

An association of ‘Friends of Turakina Maori Girls’ College’ was launched recently with Miss M. Middlemis of Marton as secretary. The association, which has over 300 members will carry out work similar to Parent-Teachers' Associations and is at present raising money for basketball courts, and a new front fence.

* * *

Guide Rangi was invested with the cross of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (M.B.E.) by the Governor-General, Sir Willoughby Norrie at the investiture held recently at Government House, Auckland. At the same investiture. Canon Poihipi Kohere, the 81 year old vicar from Tikitiki, was invested with the O.B.E.

Guide Rangi appeared at the investiture in bare feet, flax skirt, kiwi cloak, a feather in her red scarf headdress and carry a Maori kit.

“I came as a Maori so I dressed as a Maori,” she said. To questioners at the investiture she explained that her costume and accessories were all hand-made. She felt it appropriate to wear them for the occasion as they represented the handcraft of the Maori people.

– 61 –

Ruia
Morrison's
World
Tour

Avisit to America and a return trip to England and the Continent are almost assured for Miss Ruia Morrison, the New Zealand lawn tennis champion, next year.

No sooner was she back in her own country after her first appearance at Wimbledon, than the Auckland Maori committee which raised funds to send her abroad with the New Zealand Davis Cup team was busy checking the accounts to see if it would be possible for her to make another venture next year.

Mr J. Waititi, chairman of the committee, says the expenses from the recent tour have to be computed but he is almost certain there is enough in the fund to send Miss Morrison on the same tour as well as to America. Much depends on the extent of her itinerary in Europe. If this is larger than anticipated some more money may be needed.

Meanwhile the champion is back at Training College studying as hard as ever to become a teacher and quite unaffected by her triumphs on the international courts. Her modesty on and off the courts impressed all who saw her play, including the members of the organising committees at the tournaments.

When asked at Whenuapai airport what she thought of Wimbledon, her reply was what those who knew her before she left New Zealand expected from Ruia Morrison.

“I was pretty lucky at Wimbledon,” she said. “I had the luck of the draw.”

Miss Morrison makes no secret of the fact she would like to return to the scenes of her greatest moments. She acknowledges that her tennis has improved. She says she is hitting the ball harder than she did before, indicating that she has benefited from her experience of playing against the world's best.

At least America's best want to see her in action in their country. Since she returned to New Zealand, Miss Morrison has had at least three letters from Miss Darlene Hard, the American runner-up to the Negress Miss Althea Gibson at Wimbledon, pressing her to come to America. Numerous other requests have been received from tennis officials and supporters abroad stressing that Miss Morrison is not only a great advertisement for the game but also a great advertisement for New Zealand.

Although a further venture abroad will have to be officially sanctioned, the proposal that Miss Morrison should visit. America has been sympathetically received by the New Zealand Lawn Tennis Association. Mr. Waititi has an assurance that everything possible will be done to ensure the visit takes place.

Almost the first call which Miss Morrison made after her return was at her old school, Queen Victoria. A few days later she was given an official welcome at the Maori Community Centre. The arrangements for this were made only three days before, but the centre has rarely been as packed. Although high-ranking tennis officials joined in the reception it is doubtful if it eclipsed the spontancous greeting which awaited her at Whenuapai airport.

Miss Morrison was surprised and delighted when she stepped off the aircraft to find a reception committee of her own people…Training College students…waiting for her. She was greeted with the traditional challenge of the Maori followed by the haka and responded by rewarding the members of the welcoming party with a kiss. Dozens of Europeans stood by watching the enthusiastic scene amazed at the mysterious manner in which the party suddenly appeared on the tarmac and then disappeared to greet the returning heroine-again with songs and more hakas.

– 62 –

A MEAL IN AN EMERGENCY

This article is issued by the Home Science Extension branch. Adult Education Department. University of Otago.

Meals that have to be prepared out of nothing are usually wanted in a hurry, just to make it more difficult! But you can cope very well with the aid of a tin of meat or fish, some tinned or bottled vegetables and a scone mix. Here is the recipe for the scone basic mix.

SCONE BASIC MIX

2

lbs sifted flour.

4

ozs butter

4

tablespoons baking powder

1

tablespoon salt

1.

Sift the flour, baking powder and salt.

2.

Cut or rub in the butter until the mixture resembles coarse oatmeal.

The mix is now ready for storing. Dry skim milk can be added to the mix. Use ½ cup dried skim milk to the basic mix and use water instead of milk when preparing the scones.

For 1 dozen 2 inch scones take:

2

cups basic scone mix

½

cup milk

1.

Make well in centre of mix, pour milk into “well”. Stir rapidly with knife, spatula, or fork until blended.

2.

Knead (with fingers) 15 strokes on a lightly floured board.

3.

Cut and bake on baking sheet in a hot oven (450°) for 10 minutes.

SALMON WRAP

With a tin of salmon, a tin or jar of green peas, and 2 cups of scone mix, you can make salmon wrap. Tuna or silver cod could be used equally well. Make up the mix by adding milk or water, and roll out the dough thinly to an oblong shape. Brush the dough with melted butter, and then spread the flaked salmon evenly all over. Next the green peas, and a sprinkling of chopped parsley. Roll up the dough into a long roll, and put it in a greased casserole or baking dish. This will take 30–40 minutes in a moderately hot oven…425•F. or No. 6 in gas. While it cooks you could make an egg sauce to serve it…one cup of thin white sauce with a hard cooked egg chopped or sliced into it. You could add cheese to the sauce instead of egg, if eggs are at a premium.

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CLUBFOOT SHOULD BE CURED

A STATEMENT that clubfoot was noticeably more prevalent among the Maori prople than among the European was made recently by Mr H. C. Rishworth, the retiring President of the Northland sub-centre of the Auckland branch of the New Zealand Crippled Children's Society. Of 114 cases of clubfoot known to the Northland sub-centre on the records, 96 were Maori (66 boys and 30 girls). This is probably typical for the whole of New Zealand.

A survey by the Department of Health in 1956 suggested that a Maori child might be almost nine times as likely to have clubfoot than a European child.

Dr H. B. Turbott, the Deputy Director-General of Health feels that the greater prevalence of clubfoot in the Maori statistics, may be attributed to the fact that with the European child, clubfoot is detected at birth or very soon after and usually treatment is begun at once.

By the time the child is of school age, it no longer has a clubfoot and of course not recorded as a crippled child. Many Maori parents do not realise that clubfoot can be cured if it is detected and attention given to it at an early age, and are reluctant to allow the child to be operated on. The treatment consists of a series of operations to straighten the tendons of the foot followed by physiotherapy.

If the rate of clubfoot among the Maori is to be reduced, stated Dr Turbott, the parents of a child born with a clubfoot, should allow the child to undergo treatment immediately the deformity is detected. There is no evidence for any suggestion that the disease is due to housing or any other social condition.

EQUAL PAY FOR WOMEN

The principle of equal pay for men and women doing work of equal value figures in the constitutions of sixteen nations. They are: Bulgaria, Burma, Byelorussia, Costa Rica, Cuba, France, the German Federal Republic, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, the Ukraine, the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia.

In Canada new laws to implement the principle have been enacted in the provinces of Manitoba and Nova Scotia.

Most governments adopt a ‘gradual’ approach to the problem, due to the need to soften the impact of higher wages on the cost of production by spreading it over a longer period of time.

– 64 –

NEWS IN BRIEF

TREATY DAY

The anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi, February 6, is to be set aside as a national day marking the establishment of New Zealand as a British country.

The new national day will not, however, be declared a holiday.

The Government thought it desirable that there should be some formal observance of the date on which the representatives of the two races pledged themselves to work side by side in the establishment of a new nation.

Though Waitangi Day would not be a public holiday, arrangements would be made for such observances as the flying of flags from Government buildings, special references in the schools, and an appropriate ceremony at the treaty house, which was now a national trust.

It is hoped that private organisations concerned with New Zealand's early history, a number of which had made representations to the Government to declare Waitangi Day a national day, would themselves arrange appropriate observances.

Rev. W. Vercoe is conducting a class in the Maori language in Masterton. He has 35 pupils, 25 of them pakeha. The class is sponsored by the Wellington Regional Council for Adult Education.

* * *

To avoid the closing of St Stephen's School for Maori Boys, the Wellington Diocesan Synod last July guaranteed £1,000 a year assistance for three years. The money will be raised by increases in parochial assessments for general purposes.

* * *

The legend of Pania and the Reef was made into a play by Mrs V. May Cottrell recently and acted by the Takapau branch of the MWWL, Mrs Courell (Selwyn Road, Napier) has written to Te Ao Hou to say she would be happy to send a copy of her play to any other group interested in acting it.

* * *

Miss Diana Winterburn a third-year studen nurse at the Palmerston North Hospital, was elected Dominion president of the New Zealand Student Nurses' Association at its annual con ference in Wellington. She is the first Maori holde of this office in the 21 years' history of the association.

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4. Ko te Ahuwhenua Whakato Rakau

Kei te piki haere hei te piki haere te tokomaha o te hunga mahi ahuwhenua kua mohio iho he tino taonga te rakau. Haunga nga rakau mo te poohi taiapa mo te papa whare engari ko nga rakau e whakatoria ana ki nga whenua tupuhi. Kei te Tari mo nga Ngahae etahi awhina etahi tohutohu mo enei mahi na reira me apu pera o koutou whakaaro.

KO TE WHAKATIPU RAKAU MO AKE TONU ATU

Na Te Kaunihera Arai hei

tohu i a tatou ngahere.

– 66 –

He karere ki nga matua!

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He mea kaingakau na matau te wai ENGARI

HE TOKOMAHA RAWA A MATAU TAMARIKI KEI TE MATE KI REIRA

He iwi kau, he iwi ruku, he iwi hi ika, he iwi mahi kai moana, he iwi takaro matou ki te wai, engari ia he mea kino rawa te mate o te 10 Maori ki te wai i tenei Raumati, tokowaru i raro iho i te 12 tou te pakeke.

⋆ Kotahi te tamaiti e 8 tau te pakeke i mate ki te amio wai.

⋆ Takarua nga tamariki e 7 tau tetahi e 9 tau tetahi i haere ki te awa i tetahi ohiohi…kihai i hoki mai.

⋆ I taka tetahi tomaiti nohinahi i rungo i te waapu…mate tonu atu.

⋆ I taka tetahi tamaiti ki te tipi hipi…i te worea ke nga matua.

⋆ I te takaro tetahi tamaiti e whitu tou te pakeke i te taha o te awa…kihai i kitea ake…ka pa te pouri ki ana matua.

He wetiweti nga wai katoa. Ka mate te tamariki ki te toru inihi wai.

He tokomaha a matou tamariki he tamariki nahinohi, he tamariki wawahi taha…he uaua te tiaki i nga wa katoa…engari ia e tika ana…kia tiakina i nga wa katoa.

HE MEA KAINGAKAU NA MATOU TE WAI…ENGARI KEI RUNGA ARE TO MATOU KAINGAKAU KI A MATOU TAMARIKI.

KAUA E TUKUA KIA MATE A TATOU TAMARIKI

Kia tupato i a koutou tamariki kia what tangata i nga wa katoa hei tiaki i a ratou…kia tuoato i te wai…kia tupato.