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No. 18 (May 1957)
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The New World

the maori affairs department MAY, 1957

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No. 18 (Vol. 5, No. 2)


It has Been said recently that if the Maori birth rate keeps near the present level, there will be at least 400,000 Maoris in the year 2000. Of course a lot of things can happen before the year 2000 and nobody can be sure. There is no doubt however, that 400,000 is a reasonable expectation on the facts we have at present, and when thinking of the future it is wise to plan for a Maori population of 400,000 in the not too distant future.

We are fortunate in New Zealand that this rise in population does not need to cause anyone great alarm. In large parts of the world (for instance China and India), the country's leaders dread the fast population rise. Rather than rejoicing in their countrymen's fertility, they can forsee that it will depress standards of living, and frustrate social progress.

In New Zealand there is plenty of space and opportunity and it is a popular saying that babies are the best immigrants. The only small worry is that so many Maori babies are born in those districts where employment opportunities are limited.

It looks, therefore, as if a substantial part of the 400,000 Maoris of the year 2000 will have to find homes away from their ancestral land. We have seen a beginning of a movement to the cities over the last fifteen years; over the next generation we may expect this to grow faster and faster.

It was good to hear Rev. Bennett say at the N.C.C. meeting at Otaki that he thought Maoris in the cities are making a success of their lives, that they are becoming an integral part of the city communities. Rev. Bennett's address is substantially reprinted in this issue.

Yet there are many young people who after two or three years decide that city life is not for them and return to country areas. A definite effort is still necessary to help the young people make a success of their shift to town.

A lot can be and has been done to help young city Maoris—yet, fundamentally, it is in the villages where the children are brought up that the real job lies. By the time young people come to town their personalities are largely formed; their elementary education is finished.

The children are more likely to succeed in town if village life itself is progressive. There cannot be stagnant village life and fully successful migration at the same time. If a village is interested in enriching its social and cultural life, increasing production from the land, and improving farming methods, perhaps introducing small industries, then such a place is thoroughly worth staying in. Those young people who then still go to the cities will have been shown at home how to make their town life successful.

Let us have migration to the cities by all means, but it must be combined with active and progressive development in the country.

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The death occurred at Taipairu Pa, Waipawa, recently of Mr Tame Kaninamu Hone Ruki-Ruki (Logan). Mr Ruki-Ruki was born at Waipawa and after school was educated at Te Aute College. Mr Ruki-Ruki was 59 years of age. He was a prominent Church of England worker and a keen all-round sportsman. He belonged to the Whatiuapiti tribe. He is survived by his wife Tepora and children Edith and George.


The death has occurred at Taiporohenui, near Hawera, of Awatapu Ngaki, a Maori Battalion veteran who was one of the best-known personalities in South Taranaki. He was 78.

Generally known as “Tapu,” Mr Ngaki was a member of the original Maori Battalion—World War I—and saw action against the Turks at Gallipoli in 1915. The proud possessor of three medals—the 1914–15 Star, the General Service Medal and the Victory Medal, he was one of the keenest members of the South Taranaki R.S.A. He was also a member of the Gallipoli Veterans' Association.


James Hurunui Tukapua, a chief of the Muaupoko tribe, who died recently at the age of 66, was a son of the late Emily Weu Weu (nee Broughton) and James Hurunui Tukapua. He was born at Wangaehu, Turakina, and educated at Levin.

Mr Tukapua held several responsible positions in the Levin district. For many years he was an officer of the Child Welfare Department. He was also a Maori member of the Horowhenua Lake Domain Board.

With other members of his family he was principally responsible for the setting up of the Kawiu Road Pa, the land for which had been given to the Muaupoko tribe by his mother.

Mr Tukapua was a life member of the tribal committee and also a member of the tribil executive committee.


Mr Tuteari Kingi of Te Karaka died recently at the age of 87. Mr Kingi's death is a further severance with the early history of rugby in Poverty Bay. His name was well-known to players and supporters when football was in its infancy in the district.


Mrs Rihi Manira has died at Coromandel, aged 100. She was born a member of the Nga Puhi tribe, near Whangarei. Forty-five years ago she went to live at Colville and then at Coromandel.


The death has occurred of Mrs Emma Matarae Karena, a well-known Huntly personality, at the age of 85. She was prominent in leading action songs on her own Maraes and also when she accompanied her grandnephew, Koroki Mahuta, in his visits to other maraes.

A member of the Ngati-tamainu and Ngatimahuta tribes, she was the eldest daughter of Hikurangi Karaka Rotana and Pikihuia, of Huntly. With her late husband, Karena Wiremu Takoro, she was among the first in the Waikato to accept the faith of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints when it came to New Zealand.


With the death last November of Katerina Rangikawhiti Pitt, the Maori community at Gisborne lost one of its most noted identities, and the district as a whole a personality of wide influence. Born at Poroporo 69 years ago, Mrs Pitt was a member of an Arawa family, her maiden name being Rodgers.

As a girl she showed great musical talent, and in her youth she studied singing in Sydney for some years. She was later a well-known concert artist. She was married to Mr Wiremu Tutepuaki Pitt shortly before World War I.


Mrs Mihi Kotukutuku Stirling, of Raukokore, grand old lady of the East Coast and Bay of Plenty, died last November. Mrs Stirling was nearing 87 years of age. Her husband, who is over 90, and a large family, mourn her loss. During the Royal visit to Rotorua Mrs Stirling was presented to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth as a reward for her work among the Maori people in matters of welfare and health. She was a great supporter of Maori land development and improvement in Maori housing.

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The death has occurred at Gordonton, of Te Waharoa Te Puke, aged 88 years. A descendant of the two canoes Tainui and Mataatua, the late Mr Te Puke was known on every marae of the Waikato and Tuwharetoa tribes. Mr Te Puke was a descendant of the renowned chief Mahanga of the Tainui canoe among whose descendants were Tukotuku and Tamainupo, whose issue was Wairere.


A leading chief of the Ngati Whakaue sub-tribe of the Arawa confederation, Mr Wirihama Henare Meta Te Amohau, has died at the age of 65. Better known as Miro Amohau he had welcomed several distinguished overseas visitors to Ohinemutu, including Field Marshal Montgomery and Mrs Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Born at Ohinemutu in 1892, for many years he was employed by the Rotorua Borough Council as village custodian.

Mr Amohau was a member of the original Rotorua Maori Choir which made several well-known recordings. He toured England with a Maori concert party not long before World War I.

At the time of his death, Mr Amohau was chairman of the Koutu tribal committee.


Ngahiwi Tamihana, of Ngati Manu, one of the last survivors of the Gisborne district community who remembered personal experiences of the Hauhau fighting and of the time when Te Kooti roamed the hills, has died at Manutuke in his ninety-ninth year.

When militia and Maori forces were mustered to protect the settlement of Turanga against Te Kooti's forces, he was chosen at the age of ten to act as a link between the forward positions and the force headquarters.

In his later years he shared recollections of the Te Kooti era with many who had taken part against the government, and who knew the events of the campaign from the other side.


Mr Hunuhunu Hakopa, who was described during his tangi as one of the great elders of Te Arawa tribe, died last November at the age of 78. Mr Hakopa had lived and farmed at Awahou, where the tangi was held.

Mr Hakopa's status was recognised at the reception to the Queen at Arawa Park, when he was chosen for the place of honour as the look-out on the top of the tower at the gates. From there he shouted a warning to the challenger below as the Royal Party approached.

Mr Hakopa was recognised as a great orator and an expert in Maori genealogies. His knowledge and his strictness in enforcing Maori etiquette made him a dominant figure in maraes in his district.


Mr Pene Tuwhare of Kaiaua, North Auckland, has died in the Auckland hospital at the age of 68. He was an apostle of the Ratana church. Born at Kaikohe. Mr Tuwhare was educated at the Kaikohe school and Te Aute College.


Miss Waikuharu Parata died suddenly at the family residence, Waikanae on Saturday, October 6. She was the oldest daughter of the late Tohuroa and Te Oiroa Parata. She was 54 years of age.

Miss Parata was prominent in social and church activities in Waikanae, having been organist at St Luke's Church.



Kua Puta te korero ki te penei tonu te haere o te piki o te tokomaha o te iwi Maori tae rawa ake ki te tau 2000 kua eke te tokomaha ki te 400,000. Otira ko wai ka hua ko wai ka mohio ki nga ahuatanga mai atu inaianei ki tera wa. Kei tika noa atu pea te eke o te tokomaha o te Maori ki te 400,000 na reira me whakataunga tatou ki te ahu pera nga whakaaro ki te 400,000 te tokomaha meake nei.

He waimarie tatou ahakoa penei te kaha o te tipu a te tangata kaore noa iho he maharahara. Kei etahi wahi nui tonu o te Ao (penei me Haina me Inia) he mea mataku te piki o te tokomaha o te tangata. Ka whanau he tangata ki te ao ka harakoa tatou nei, ki era iwi kaore, he mea maharahara ke ma wai ra e whangai.

Ka nui nga wahi watea ka nui te mahi kei Niu Tireni nei na reira ko te tumanako kia hua kia tini te tangata. Kei piki te tokomaha o te Maori ki nga wahi kore mahi.

Ko te ahua nei ko te nuinga o te 400,000 o te tau 2000 nei tera e whati ki nga taone noho ai ka whakarerea nga takahanga waewae o ratou tupuna. Kua timata nui tonu te whati o te Maori inaianei ki nga taone e ako a ko ake nei ka pera ke atu. Ko etahi ano pea ka noho ki nga taone mo te wa poto ka kawea e te aroha ka takihokihoki ki te wa kainga.

He hanga pai te rongo ake i a Manu Peneti e korero ana i te Hui Topu a Nga Hahi i tu ra ki Otaki ka nui te pai o te noho a te Maori kei nga taone. Kei wahi ke o Te Ao Hou te roanga atu o nga korero a Manu. Otira ahakoa te pai me ata tiaki ano nga tamariki e whati nei ki nga taone. Me timata mai nga awhina i te kainga haere rawa ake ki nga mahi taone kua totika.

He pai tonu te haere ki nga taone engari me whakapai te noho mai i te kainga.

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Articles page
Towards a Welfare Programme 6
S. M. Mead, Constable McFarland 10
Rora, A Home is Made 12
Rowley Habib, The Burial 15
Apirana Ngata, Waikato Taniwharau II 18
Elsdon Craig, From Tamaki Makaurau 23
Rev Manu Bennett, The Maori People of Wellington 25
Royalty's First Hangi? 31
We keep our land for our children 32
E. G. Schwimmer, The Fires of Ngatoroirangi 37
Folk Tales from Papamoa 43
T. T. Ropiha, The Place of the Maori in a Modern Community 47
E. W. Williams, United States Indians 53
W. J. Phillipps, Plaits and Plaiting 60
Betty Johnston, Puddings for This Winter 62
Hoterene Keretene, Weddings at Otira Ko Te Reo Maori 63
Ko te kaupapa hou a te Tari Toko i te Ora 6
Apirana Ngata, Waikato Taniwharau, II 18
Nga Whakatauaki me nga Pepeha Maori 41
He reo no te Ao Tawhito 43
Dr Maharaia Winiata, Ripoata o te Hui i Ngaruawahia 56
Permanent Features
Haere Ki O Koutou Tipuna 2
News in Brief 22
Rev Kingi Ihaka, Proverbial and Popular sayings of the Maori 41
Seasonal Work on the Farm 52
Books 53
Sports 57
R. G. Falconer, The Home Garden 58
Crossword Puzzle 59
Women's World 60

Cover Photo: The new look on Maori farms. This was taken near homestead of Mr E. C. Pohio, runner-up for the Ahuwhenua Sheep Trophy, 1957. This sheep farm is one of the many established over the last few years near Lake Rotoiti. See our article on page 32.

Literary Competition: Our judges' decision is given on page 10, and the three best stories submitted are presented in this issue (pages 1017).

The Minister of Maori Affairs: The Hon E. B. Corbett.

The Secretary for Maori Affairs: T. T. Ropiha, I.S.O.

Management Committee: C. J. Stace, L.L.B., C. M. Bennett, D.S.O., M.A., DIP.ED., DIP.SOC.SC., W. T. Ngata, LIC.INT., E. G. Schwimmer, M.A., M. J. Taylor.

Editor: E. G. Schwimmer, M.A.

Sponsored by the Maori Purposes Fund Board.

Subscriptions to Te Ao Hou at 7/6 per annum (4 issues) or £1 for three years' subscriptions at all offices of the Maori Affairs Department and P.O. Box 2390, Wellington, New Zealand.

Registered at G.P.O., Wellington, for transmission through the post as a magazine.



Stories Wanted: Te Ao Hou still requires more writers and artists. We want fact and fiction; we want Maori or English writing; we want drawings and photographs. Here is an opportunity for an absorbing pastime, and the chance to earn a little extra as well. Let us know what is happening where you live. News items on happenings throughout the country, sports news and obituary notices are always gratefully received.

Contributions in Maori: Ko tetahi o nga whakaaro nui o Te Ao Hou he pupuri kia mau te reo Maori. Otira ko te nuinga o nga korero kei te tukua mai kei te reo Pakeha anake. Mehemea hoki ka nui mai nga korero i tuhia ki te reo Maori ka whakanuia ake te wahanga o ta tatou pukapuka mo nga korero Maori.

Renewal of Subscriptions: Please see whether your copy of Te Ao Hou contains one of our renewal forms. If there is a form in your copy, this indicates that renewal of your subscription is due. Please do not delay and send us your renewal today.

Back Issues: We still have a few copies of past issues of Te Ao Hou from issue 4 onwards. These copies can be obtained from The Editor, Te Ao Hou, P.O. Box 2390, Wellington, for 2/- each.

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Towards a Welfare Programme

Last year. Mr C. M. Bennett, D.S.O., M.A., Dip.Ed., Dip.Soc.Sc., was appointed controller of Maori welfare. His first act was to write a long statement (if fully printed here, it would occupy almost an entire issue of Te Ao hou) describing what welfare officers should do and suggesting guiding principles for tribal committees and executives and other people who give their energies to improving the Maori lot. This long statement will shortly appear in print. It is well worth a detailed review in Te ao hou, so that the general public may know what the government now thinks about social work among the Maori people.

No tera tau nei ka whakaturia ko Hare Peneti hei tumaki mo te taha Toko i te ora o te Tari Maori. Ko tana mahi tuatahi tonu he tuhi i ona whakaaro ina te roa, mehemea ki te tuhia te katoa ka ki tonu tetahi putanga motuhake o Te Ao hou, mo nga mahi e tika ana ma ana apiha ara ma te katoa o te hunga kei te mahi ki te toko i te ora mo te iwi Maori.

Meake nei ka puta pukapuka nga korero a Hare Peneti, ka mutu ano ta Te ao hou i tenei wa he whakataki haere i te aronga o nga whakaaro o Te Kawanatanga mo nga mahi toko i te ora mo te iwi Maori.



Many of us who have attended Maori gatherings have become accustomed to endless discussions but usually not very conclusive, because there is such a terrible amount to do. It is surprising how many Maoris do social work in one form of another; are on a committee, run a club, or have something to do with guiding and influencing young people who need a steadying hand. The influence of all these people is considerable; the steady progress and raising of standards that we see from year to year is to a large extent due to

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Ko nga mea o tatou e haere auau ana ki nga huihuinga Maori kua taunga ki nga whakapuakitangi whakaaro o nga iwi, mo te iwi Maori o apopo, heoi ano ra he whakaputanga whakaaro kau. He tokomaha noa atu te hunga kei nga mahi toko i te ora, kei nga komiti marae, kei nga mahi whakahaere karapu mo te rangatahi me era tu mahi. Ko ianei nga mahi kaore noa iho e korerotia ana, engari ko ianei nga mahi kei te hiki i te Maori; ki te kore enei momo tangata tera e mate te Maori.

Ka huihui aua Maori kei te mahi i nga mahi toko i te ora ka whakapuaki i o ratou na whakaaro me a ratou na amuamu. Ehara i te mea he amuamu i runga i te whakaaro iho kaore he painga o a ratou mahi, kaore kei mohio iho e, kei te pai te haere a te iwi Maori.

Ka raha ra nga whakaaro o te tangata ki te kore e mohio iho me timata he mahi i whea; notemea kei te kaikatia kia oti te hubua noa iho o te mahi. Waihoki ko nga apiha toko i te ora he huhua a ratou na mahi a ia ra, ia ra kei te raparapa o ratou whakaaro me timata ra ki whea, me timata ra ki whea.

Ko ianei nga mahi, me nga whakaaro i te aroaro o Hare Peneti e takoto atu ana i tona ekenga mai ki tenei taumata. Ka whakaaro ia he pai ke te oti o etahi mahi ahakoa iti, i te raha o nga whakaaro ki te huhua noa iho o te mahi. Ka tikina e Hare ko nga mea e tika ana hei kaupapa mana.


Kua waihangatia e Hare Peneti tana kaupapa mahi hei hiki i nga mahi toko i te ora i raro i te kupu manaaki a Te Minita Maori. He mea ata whiriwhiri taua kaupapa mahi. Kaore i whakaurua te katoa o ta te tangata e whakaaro ana hei painga mo te iwi, engari ia ko nga mea ano e tika ana. Kei te mahi tonu nga komiti a iwi me era tu ropu i a ratou na mahi kaore, he to kia whai i ta te Kawanatanga.

Ko ta te Kawanatanga he whai kia eke te Maori ki nga taumata e whai ake nei:–

(a) Kia whiwhi i te matauranga

(b) Kia whiwhi i nga mahi totika

(c) Kia whiwhi i te whare totika.

Ko ianei ra te tino kaupapa o te noho a te tangata i tenei ao. Ka eke te Maori ki enei taumata he hanga noa iho a muri atu, ara ia nona te Ao. Na konei ka whakaaro te Kawanatanga me penei he kaupapa mahi hei toko i te ora mo te iwi Maori.


Ko te whakaako tamariki kei nga mahita. He tika tonu ra tenei, engari i etahi wa tera ano etahi ahuatanga penei i te ngaro ke i te kura, i te he o te noho a nga tamarki, e kore e taea e nga mahita te rongoa. Etahi kura ano ra penei me nga kura


their efforts. Without them, the Maori people would perhaps be in some real danger.

All these social workers, when they meet at huis, freely express their worries. This is not because they are really pessimistic about the future of their people; on the contrary, but if you spend a day with your fellows deciding how bad everything is, it gives you a fresh view of the urgency of the work you are doing.

It can be really unsettling however, if at the end of the day you are left with so many things in mind that need immediate remedy, that you don't know where to start; you do not know whether to collect April showers for newly born babies; talk confidentially to some of the boys in the Training Centre; circulate leaflets against the use of alcohol; organise a haka partv; learn to make piupius; start a children's training centre; or invite the Inspector of the Department of Agriculture to give a talk. These are all desirable objectives, and which is better than the other?

It is a hard question to answer, particularly for the many voluntary people without whom nothing could succeed. Professional Maori welfare workers also have problems of their own: they have to decide whether they should travel fifty miles to try and revive a tribal committee which has been dying for two years, or forget about the committee and concentrate on individuals who have to be visited and talked to by themselves. They have to decide whether they can help those people best by private conversation or by the tonic of a Maori meeting.

Of course, you can only really decide what is best by looking each time at the circumstances. But is there some general principle by which people can be guided?

This is the question Mr Bennett tried to answer in his recent statement. He started with a very important principle. We must limit our objectives. It is no good to follow a list of twenty-nine aims and objects which could be achieved by a battalion if we only have a platoon. In planning our work, we should choose those spheres of life on which the general social and economic progress of the Maori people most depends.


Mr Bennett, with the full agreement of the Minister of Maori Affairs, has made a list of what he regards as the main objectives of Maori social work. This list of course does not include every-thing that is worthwhile in life; if it did, there would be no end to the exciting and satisfying activities that could be mentioned. Furthermore, voluntary organisations such as welfare leagues, youth clubs, and even tribal committees, are by no means expected to change their ideas to conform with the government list. We must have variety and if each group concentrates on its own small workable list of worthwhile objectives, then the Maori race will still prosper.

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Maori e takataka auau ana nga mahita i waenganui o nga matua ka taea e ia te korero atu ki a ratou nga makenu o nga tamariki.

Ka haere nga tamariki ki nga kura o runga ki te wahi uaua ake nga mahi a e roa ana te ra, ka piki ake hoki nga uauatanga.

Kei nga apiha toko i te ora etahi awhina. Ma ratou e haere hei takawaenga i nga komiti, i nga ropu o nga matua me nga kura. Kei a ratou etahi awhina penei me te awhina a Te Tari Maori ki te tapiri i nga moni e kohia ana e nga komiti-a-iwi hei awhina i nga matua ki te tuku i a ratou tamariki ki nga kura.

Ka whakapau nga komiti i o ratou kaha kia mohio iho ai nga tamariki kei te kaha o ratou matua kia whiwhi ratou i tetahi o nga tino taonga kei tenei ao i te matauranga. Ma te mahi tahi o nga komiti whakahaere i nga kura me nga mahi toko i te ora ka taea te whakamahea nga uauatanga penei me to pangia o nga tamariki e te mate, te ngaro poko noa i te kura, te kore moni me era atu mea.

Ko ta nga apiha toko i te ora he takawaenga mo te katoa o nga komiti.


He aha te Maori i aro ake ai ki te whai i te matauranga? He ai hoki ki te korero a Peneti “E tika ana kia horapa te Maori ki nga mahi katoa.” Ara ia mehemea e tika ana te Maori hei takuta he aha i waiho ai ki nga mahi a ringa. Otira he tokomaha o te Maori kei te penei. Kei te he ra tenei ki te kore e tutuki nga Maori pai o ratou na hinengaro ki nga taumata e rite ana, ka pohara te Maori i te takuta me era tu tangata. E piki nui ai te Maori ki enei taumata me whakapai te noho a nga matua.

Ka nui te mahi ma nga komiti me nga apiha toko i te ora ke te taha whare mo te iwi Maori. Ma ratou e tirotiro te ahua o te noho a te tangata, a ma ratou e whakamarama ki nga mea kei te noho he nga huarahi e whiwhi ai ki nga awhina whare.

He aha ra te Kawanatanga i hone ai i enei kaupapa e toru hei arawhata mo te iwi Moari i te matauranga, i te whai whare, i te whai mahi totika. Kei te awangawanga etahi ki te tokomaha rawa o te Maori kei te taka ki te he, kei te whakawaia e te waipiro, a me te matemate o te tamariki. He mea kore noaiho enei?

Ko te whakautu, ka piki te matauranga, ka pai te noho a te tangata i roto o ratou na whare, ka whiwhi i nga mahi totika ka ngaro enei tu makenu.


Ka pehea hoki te Maoritanga? Ko ta te Tari Maori he pupuri i te ha o te Maoritanga. Ko ta nga apiha toko i te ora he awhina i te iwi Maori ki te manaaki i nga taonga o tona Maoritanga. Kei waenganui i te matotorutanga o te iwi Maori te tokomaha o nga apiha toko i te ora e noho ana, e takataka ana ma ratou e tirotiro haere nga


Nonetheless, the new welfare policy guides activities of Maori Welfare Officers and it is there fore bound to influence deeply much social work among the Maori people.

The government programme regards as most urgent the need to see that young Maoris are

(a) well educated

(b) placed in good jobs, and

(c) well housed.

These are basic essentials for a happy life under the conditions of today. Also, if we can achieve these three aims, the other special problems of the Maori people will be solved far more easily. For that reason the government has decided to place these needs above all others. This is not of course to the exclusion of cultural and other work with Maori groups.

Some people may ask why we need social workers to achieve aims such as these. Why can't we leave the job to school-teachers, employers and housing officers?


In education, naturally the job of teaching the children at school is the teacher's. Yet he may find that some of his pupils do not progress according to their intelligence, that they could learn more than they do and are in danger of fore-going their place in modern society because of troubles outside his control. Perhaps it is weariness, irregularity, poor homework, or bad health. He realises that these things are not the fault of the child, nor entirely the fault of the parents but by himself he can do little to help.

The difficulties increase when children go to high school where the standards are so much higher, and the school day often very long.

Where children go to Maori schools, the teachers often know the Maori community very well. There is close contact between them and the parents and elders. Often some of the parents take a very active interest in the school welfare and contribute generously to the upkeep of grounds and installing of new facilities. This is less common where Maoris go to European schools and high schools.

Social workers can ensure that the links between school and community become closer, and this can be done specifically through school committees, Parent-Teacher Associations, inducing parents to take an interest in school affairs, and also through full use of the educational subsidy scheme operated by the Department of Maori Affairs.

The purpose of such community work is to show the children in a practical way the high value the community attaches to education.

A welfare officer's task will be to attend to difficult cases, and to help local Maori organisations plan their educational work.


Why should the raising of educational standards be the concern of Maori communities? In Mr

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ropu kei te whakaakoako i nga mahi Maori. Kua whakahaua hoki me anga ratou ki te whakahauhau haere i nga ropu penei.

Ka kite ai koutou he tini noa atu nga mahi a nga apiha toko i te ora. Otira ko ta ratou tino mahi i raro i te kaupapa hou he whakapakari i nga tangata takitahi, ki te hanga whare, ki te whakawhiwhi i nga tamariki ki nga mahi totika, ki nga kura nunui ranei. Ka pakari te tangata takitahi ka pakari te iwi Maori katoa.

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Mr Charles Moihi Bennett, Controller of Maori Welfare, is due to leave for a two year study period in England next July. (NPS PHOTOGRAPH)


Bennett's words, there is a ‘need for an even spread of talent throughout the length of the occupational ladder’. If a man has enough intelligence to become a doctor, he should not be a factory worker.

The community and the social worker can encourage the education of Maori children according to their abilities and placement in jobs worthy of their education. Welfare officers can help with advice and will in future be expected to place a number of young Maoris in skilled jobs or further education each year. If any financial or accommodation problems arise, help will be given where possible and contact with the cases will be maintained.

In housing work, too, there is a place for the social worker to survey an area and see which people most need houses, and to encourage and advise future housing clients.

Why does the Government choose education, housing and placement as the three main concerns of Maori welfare? Many people are disturbed about the Maori crime rate, the drink problem and infant mortality. Are these problems less important?

The answer is that among a well-educated, well-housed people in good jobs, crime, drunkenness and infant mortality will tend to decline; the whole of life will be affected by the changes, and the new conditions will by themselves do what a great deal of social work might otherwise never effect.


And what about Maori culture? It is the department's stated aim ‘to help develop in the Maori an appreciation of the modern content of his own culture.’ The value of the culture itself would amply justify such a policy. However, from the social workers’ point of view, cultural appreciation is also desirable because people should not be in conflict wth their own racial background. The study of Maori culture gives not only pleasure but also security.

Maori welfare officers are the only large section of public servants who spend a good part of their time doing work with groups: 40% of their time is intended to be spent on this. Here the purpose is twofold; the preservation of Maori culture and the speeding up of social and economic progress. Special emphasis is placed on the formation and guidance of youth clubs, and tribal committees and executives and Maori women's welfare leagues are to get continued help in their work.

To succeed, such groups have to find a creative and satisfying job to do, and have to be given the knowledge to carry out that job. By group discussion and by short refresher courses where desired. Welfare is to encourage their progress.

Naturally, welfare officers could not do their job if they spent all their time with these groups. In the end, it is always the individual who has to be helped to build a house, place his boy in a trade, or send him to the university.

Nonetheless, the Welfare Division, under its new policy, should be able to do a good deal to ‘mobilise the leadership from within the Maori race itself’. Over the last ten years a huge tribal committee and league organisation involving several thousands of people has been set up and this organisation is inspired by fine ideals.

There is of course a point beyond which efficiency should not go in group organisations. That is the point where enthusiasm and drive are lost through a mere excess of new ideas. However, traditional Maori wisdom should be ample proof against such danger.

– 10 –

The second Te Ao Hou Literary Competition was judged by Messrs M. R. Jones and W. Sparks, and Mrs E. Garrett. The first two of these judges selected Constable McFarland as the winning story, Mrs Garrett preferring The Burial. Rora Paki's A Home is Made was placed third. The judges did not think any of the entries were outstanding; yet the second competition was generally an advance on the first, in the number of worthwhile entries coming forward and in the intrest shown.

Prize Winning Story in literary competition




“There's someone coming! Quick-”

“Hey, John! Someone's coming. Scram!”

“Right! Coming.”

“Each man for himself!”

“Hell, go where?”

“Anywhere, but get out of here!”

John ducked out of the dark alley way. He was keyed up now, alert for any noise. He ran hurriedly, urgently. Escape, he must. He could hear his mates running away. Swiftly he raced, and silently. His spine tingled. His breath came in great hissing gulps, which he tried to stifle. Away he dashed. And then it happened. A dark shape suddenly loomed ahead. He couldn't stop; he couldn't dodge. Head on he crashed into the soft yielding dark mass. A man, he thought, as he gasped and went sprawling. He heard a grunt and some cursing. Yes, a man.

“Well, well, my man, what's the terrible hurry?” John looked up. The man was towering above him.

Gee, a policeman, he almost cried aloud.

“I—, I—,” he hesitated, “I was catching a tram.” He struggled to his feet trying desperately to stop shivering.

“Is that so!” the policeman exclaimed, “Catching a tram, ch! Young man, there are no trams in this part of the city, Now, what's your name?”

“I—, I— was catching a bus. True!” John stammered. Somewhow a good excuse just would not come to him.

“Come on, your name, son! And you're a Maori lad too, eh.”

“Jo— John— Tai— Tairoa.”

“And where are you living, son?” demanded the policeman, now fumbling with a notebook.

“Union Street.”

“Where d'you come from in the first place?”

“I see. Now come with me to that street lamp over there. I want a good look at you before I take you in”.

– 11 –

As they drew closer to the lamp each was able to study the other more closely. John saw a colossal man in the characteristic black uniform. The uniform, especially the helmet, impressed him more than the man within it. It filled him with awe. It brought to his mind, all sorts of frightening pictures conjured up in the first instance during his childhood when his parents had threatened the policeman would do a host of terrifying things to him, if he did not behave. ‘The man in the black clothes will hang you by the neck till you die; he'll whip you in jail until you fall down dead, he'll punch you in the face and kick you in the head; he'll break your bones one by one, if you don't listen. So listen, my son. If you don't, that fallab will……….”

John shivered involuntarily. Although he now knew, the terrible things his parents had told him would not happen, there was yet fear in his heart of the unknown things the policeman might do to him.

“Well”, said the towering policeman, “You look to me as though you're only fifteen. How old are you?”

“I am sixteen”.

“Mm, a mere youngster. Now tell me all about it John and don't leave anything out. I like the look of you, young fellow. Pity you're such a young man to be going against the law.”

John's mind had been racing, racing to find a likely story, but none which he invented seemed good enough to fool the big policeman.

“Start from the beginning John, from back in R……when you decided to come here.”

John began his story, the true one.

“What do your parents do for a living,” asked the policeman.

“They milk cows when the cows are in.”

“And what, when the cows are not in?”

“Nothing much, except for odd jobs that my father found,” John replied.

“How many in your family John?”


“I see,” the policeman reflected, “Now go on.”

John told him how his mother had prepared his few things which were packed into a small suitcase; of how he had departed full of golden hopes and magnificent dreams. One of his relatives had sent a telegram to a cousin of his working in Auckland to meet him at the bus depot. His cousin did meet him and he was taken to Nelson Street where he had to share a bed. His cousin tried very hard to find him a room and a job. He finally got a job in the freezing works. The rest of the story was only too familiar.

At first, the strange, bewildering and exciting attractions of the city; the cinemas, the amusement park, the dazzling splendour of neon signs, the billiard saloons, the bustling din, the dance halls, the spectacle of dense masses of people moving like a river in flood, the parties and the pubs. Then, loneliness.

As for the riches, they just did not last. He told how he eventually found a room in Union Street, with some other Maori boys he had met. With all good intentions, he had tried not to drink, but all his mates did and if he did not join them, he would be left alone with no one tor company. Anyway no one was interested in them. No one cared about them. There was no restraining hand. There were no friends to visit.

He told how he was gradually drawn in and accepted into the gang. Later, he discovered that the gang sometimes raided offices, shops and factories. If he pulled out he would be called “yellow” and this he could not face. This night he had accompanied them for the first time. He didn't want to, but, he had to. They broke into—–'s factory and were just searching the office when someone must have heard them.

“And that's your story, John. You'll be surprised young man, how many young fellows tell us a story just like yours,” remarked the policeman.

John's heart sank. Evidently the big policeman did not believe him.

“Now John, listen to me,” continued the policeman. “Lots of young men like you get into trouble just like you did. A lot of them finish up in jail, which isn't a very nice place for any young fellow to go to. A few—the decent fellows—get a chance. Now I think you deserve a chance.”

Like the magical moment when Tane, by his strenuous efforts, allowed the glorious daylight to flood the breast of Rangi, so did the policeman, by his word, brighten the gloomy world of John's mind.

“Here's an address, John. You meet me there at ten o'clock tomorrow morning without fail. Understand! Good, now go home and have a good night's sleep.”

“Thank you very, very much Mr—–,” John stumbled.

“Constable McFarland is the name, son.”

“Thank you, very much Constable McFarland,” the youth said and then he stepped into the night and was lost.

Some years later, Constable McFarland was thrilled to read the following letter.

Dear Mr McFarland,

At last, I feel free to write to you. I am still working at the same garage that the Vocational Guidance people sent me to six years ago. I am now an “A” Grade mechanic and earning good money.

I find it very hard to put into words, my gratitude for what you did for me. Thanks again.

Some hours ago my wife gave birth to a ten pound son. My wife and I have decided to call him McFarland. When he grows into manhood I sincerely hope he will put Constable in front of his name. Won't I be proud of my son—Constable McFarland Tairoa!

Kia Ora and best wishes,

Yours sincerely,

John Tairoa.

– 12 –

Placed in Short Story Competition


I Know it is always best and wisest for a couple contemplating marriage, to make preparation, and have a home and most of the furniture and linen, etc., all ready, and a nice tidy little sum of money put by for all the little extras, while one or even both parties should have a good job; but that isn't the way it was when we got married.

I had never actually met the man who was to be my husband, for he was born and reared down in the South Island, while I was born and reared up in the North Island. Yet, ever since I was about eleven years old, I had known all about him and his family since his mother was my mother's second cousin and my mother had often said as I grew into my ‘teens, “Now dear, how nice it would be when you grow up, for you to marry Hakopa, it would please your aunt and me.” How full of indignation I was, but mother didn't take much notice, except to remind me that he was of my own kin. As I grew older, the subject was gently re-opened, just to get me used to it perhaps, and mother took a holiday once, and visited my aunt, Hakopa's mother. Not long after her return, she and my father decided it was time I had a holiday, and without any more ado I was despatched, as it were, to my aunt's place, away down South.

How mixed my feelings were, as I journeyed for days. How I missed my mother and father to tell me what to do, and how to do it, and how I longed for my own home and surroundings, and my own familiar friends they were all hundreds of miles away while I was, oh so alone in the great wide world.

Deep down inside me there burned a resentment; to think that my parents could so calmly send me off to an unknown place, to unknown people; of course they were my kin, but I had never seen them, and the longing for those whom I had left behind, almost overcame me; yet never a thought of disobeying occurred to me. I went on my long journey, a pitiful, lonely little person, blind to all

As the train wound its tortuous way up into the Southern Alps, I looked down hundreds of feet to the waters below wildly rushing down over great boulders, the scene touched an answering chord in my heart. Up and up we crawled until we reached Arthur's Pass on a comparative flat, and what a sight met my eyes! Hundreds of people were standing around, and as our train drew in, hundreds more it seemed alighted and throngèd towards the place of refreshment, while I sat looking on. At last I was jarred out of thoughts of self, by the scene before me. As we had rushed across the plains below, I had relived my childhood days, and my schooldays, and as the train had gradually slowed down as it approached the mountains, I had lived again those happy days when with my brother and father and many friends, we had rode off, in the pride of the morning, to attend those little sports meetings, perhaps at some nearby town, or perhaps away out in some sleepy hollow, where nestled a tiny village. I had played again that exhilarating game of hide-and-go-seek on horseback, galloping wildly round five or six huge pointed stacks of fresh oats, over gates and round the plantations. Oh! How far away that all seemed now, as I sat and gazed at this surprisingly huge crowd away up here in the mountains, with the sharp, biting, yet somewhat exhilarating mountain air, and clear sunshine. I was in a new world, all alone!

Ours was a long train, well crowded, and on the other side of the platform was another, equally long and crowded. It had not long emerged from the Otira tunnel, which we were about to enter, one of the great tunnels of our New Zealand railways. My mind went back to the time of the opening, and I remembered my mother telling us all about this wonderful tunnel, a feat by the engineers of that time—and here was I, about to enter into this great opening under the Southern Alps—approximately six miles of darkness, to emerge on the other side—and what?

A thrill of excitement ran through the crowd as the electric engine was brought along and connected to our train. Soon we were all set and slowly we approached the tunnel. The trair gathered speed and most of the travellers chatted loudly as we sped along. How nice it was to come out into the friendly sunshine again. I for one was sick of tunnels and darkness. I took notice now of my surroundings, and I began to think of my destination; and about how long I'd stay at my aunt's and—yes—what would Hakopa look like?

– 13 –

Would he be tall, dark and handsome? What if he should be short, and stocky and uninteresting? I knew that he was the main reason for my visit and I made up my mind to be quite indifferent towards him, and I built up a barrier in my mind against him, not stopping to reason that he might be just as unwilling as I for a stranger to come into his life.

I spent another lonely night at an hotel, spending the evening alone in my room. Early next morning I wandered along the beach and wondered whether mother and father were thinking of me and following the stages of my lonely journey. But I felt quite excited as I realised that by night-fall, I would be there! How would they receive me? How would I find them? If Hakopa was only half as nice as mother had made him out to be, he would have at least come this far to meet me, I thought; however, as the morning advanced, I boarded the big bus and started on the final stage of my journey.

I gazed out on what must once have been heavy native bush, but what was now a tangled mass of fallen trees and stumps — wilful destruction I thought—left to rot away, while fern and rubbish sprang up. We crossed the Hokitika River, and for miles there were great heaps of dirt which had been dredged from the river as the search for gold still went on; out over barren marshy looking country, stripped of its native beauty, yet here and there were still some beauty spots, such as Lake Kaniere and others.

By midday, we had reached Hari Hari, a tiny village at the foot of the mountains, where we had lunch. Here our driver was changed, and he took over the other bus which had arrived simultaneously with ours, driving it back to town, while the driver of that bus took over our bus and drove us over the most exciting part of our bus ride. I was to learn that a special team of drivers, took the buses over this part of the trip, the town drivers turning back from Hari Hari.

How I loved that part of my journey, as I recalled all that mother had told me of her girlhood days in these parts, the names of the numerous rivers we passed over, with here and there an old line, over which busy little loggies must have puffed in the busy days of the sawmills. Up into heavily wooded hills we wended, down steep glades where here and there nestled an occasional lake onto which we could look from high up on the mountainside. There was Lake Ianthe, Wahapo and largest and most beautiful of them, Lake Mapourika nestling in dense bush amidst towering hills. Then we reached Waiho and the famous Franz Joseph glacier, where we paused awhile to view the sight. We visited the little church just a little way in the bush, with its window looking out across the tops of the trees to that mighty mass of ice which seemed to

– 14 –

reach almost down to sea level. I lingered longest in that little old church, and I wondered if they ever worshipped there now the Creator of all that grand beauty, or did they just hurry in as we did that day to take photographs and hurry on again, in search of better views? On and still on we journeyed till at last we reached Weheka where the bus journey ended, and travellers booked in at the large hostel from where they would visit the many sights, including a bus trip out to Fox Glacier, while I was to journey, now by car, still further on, by night, to reach my destination.

The trip was quite a fast one over mostly flat country through heavy bush, where hundreds of opossums jumped helter skelter across the road, and out over swampy patches stripped of the heavy bush. At last we were there, and someone was there to open an old rickety gate, while we drove in over a bumpy paddock to the homestead, where someone else came out, among dogs and cats and geese, to meet us with a lantern.

Suddenly I was inside, and my aunt, a big, tall woman with dancing dark brown eyes had taken me and hugged me to her ample bosom, then held me at arm's length, the better to look at me, and then hugged me again, till I felt quite giddy. Then she was introducing me to the family gathered there, one by one I met them, until at last, in the farthest corner of the room, I saw Hakopa for the first time. He rose slowly and stood quietly looking at me, while I held my breath and stared wide eyed at him, neither of us offering to step forward and shake hands, as had everyone else. I fought to control my feelings as I thought—so this is Hakopa, the reason for my having been sent away from all that I loved so dearly, to travel alone for hundreds of miles—and as we gazed at one another he so quietly, but I so emotionally, my aunt again embraced me, and everyone began talking at once, and that moment, that seemed an age to me, passed as if unnoticed by the others. They had to decide whether I resembled my mother or not, and ask after my journey, and rush around me, to make me comfortable, and to see to my every want.

And so began my supposed holiday with my distant relatives. I was taken to all the places where mother used to go as a girl, and I learned to love my aunt very much, she was so young in spirit, though she had reared a large family. As the weeks ran into months. I began to mention my desire to return home to the North Island, but one day I received a letter from my mother which was to the point, saying that I was to be a good girl and do what they expected of me and to make up my mind to marry Hakopa as they were all set on that, and that surely, after having taken that long journey, I would not think of making it all in vain by thinking of coming back home. Inwardly I rebelled, and cast about for a way of escape, then I would look at my aunt and uncle and numerous cousins and other relatives, and somehow I knew I was trapped, and I realised quite suddenly that I had already committed myself by coming here in the first place, and how could I hurt my own kin by turning my back on them? So, when later on my aunt put the question to me, and sent Hakopa to me to propose, I said “Yes,” even though perhaps a little halfhearted, nevertheless, it was yes! We were married with the usual fuss and feasting, and everyone was too busy enjoying themselves to notice that we were not the most romantic of couples, and so I settled to my married life with only what I had taken in my suitcase and the presents we received for our wedding.

Where Hakopa found a job we would go, and camp in a tent or perhaps a little batch, and I learnt to cook in a camp oven over an open fire. Sometimes we stayed with some relative of us both, at other times we stayed at his, Hakopa's home. But when our first child was born, and then, in just over a year's time a second came along, I began to long for a home of my own, and so it was we planned to build, with nothing between us, and no prospect of help from our families, as they were not rich. First we migrated to more civilised parts and began to save a little. Soon we were making application to the Maori Housing for a home. We chose a very modest plan, which proved a mistake, but we could not risk not being able to keep up payments. It was a tiny place with a 10 × 14 living room and two 10 × 10 bedrooms and a combined washhouse-bathroom.

By the time we moved in we had three children, no furniture other than our double bed, a baby's cot and pram, a kitchen table and a few rather rickety chairs. And so began our life in our own home, and what with keeping up the payments on the house and providing for ourselves, there was very little left. It was a long time before any new furniture could be bought, though now and then our families would send us something which they had no more use for, but with a bright curtair here and a dash of new paint there, we made do with what we had, in the meantime, keeping a look out for a bargain from the “mart”.

Each year we laboured to pay off our home and each year almost, we added to our family, until it was very evident we had made a great mistaks in choosing a small plan, and so we had to apply for a further loan to add to our home, two more feedrooms and a parlour with open fire. What a luxury was that open fire!. But still no furniture! We had to buy beds and bedding for the bedrooms, and one or two chairs, but no floor covering, instead we polished up the wooden floors and they did look lovely, being new. We set the lawn around the house with little bordered edges, and kept it all nice and tidy, and our saying was— costs nothing to be clean and tidy. As our children grew, they were taught to gather up bits of paper and sticks that might lay around and keep doggy off the marigold borders. Marigolds were not my ideal, but they were cheap and pro-

– 15 –

fuse and very hardy where there are tiny feet that wander from the path.

Our days were so full, that before we even realised it we were “old-timers” our youth had passed us by and our children were growing up around us, no longer little tots, but tall strapping youngsters, and we hadn't even had time for a honeymoon! Well it's been real honest-to-goodness work, and though we didn't what you'd call “plan ahead”, nor make adequate preparation for our marriage, nor worry overmuch about all this “marry for love” stuff, yet we learned to accept one another at face value, and we have endeavoured to bring our children up to be good citizens, to “do unto others as you would they should do unto you”, and to love and obey their Master, and we know that it is on these principles that “a home is made.”


It stopped raining in the morning but a mist still lay about the ground and trees. The people were standing in the small yard between the verandah and the hedge. Their breaths clouding for it was a fresh morning. Some were shuffling the stones with their toes and talking quietly. Others were just standing waiting. Every one looked fresh and clean. The children were on the verandah in a little group. Kurram was holding the railings and resting his face against the sharp cold wood, and now and then he would look up as one of the adults brought out a handkerchief and shook it. And he would watch to see if they were crying. His Auntie Mary had been crying and a lot of the

– 16 –

others, for there were red welds beneath their eyes and the skin on their faces were shiny.

When the door to the passage opened the group moved back and some looked up to watch. But Luke and some of the younger ones looked down at the ground and jostled bits of stones with their toes. The men shuffled through the door awkwardly the weight of the coffin upon their shoulders and slowly, with their eyes straining to see the steps they shuffled down onto the gravel path. Aboot was at the back, his head leaning out and his other arm over and steadying the top of the coffin.

Someone held the gate open and the men moved past the group of people and under the archway to the outside.

Wi's old truck was backed up by the shop verandah and Wi himself was standing at the side brushing away with his hand, some dirt that was on the deck. He was dressed in a blue suit with white stripes flecked throughout it. His face was shaven and his hair parted neatly in the middle. As the children's mother was led through the gate, he went around to the door, and opened it And he and the other two women helped her into the truck. There was a look on his face, a look of understanding and sympathy. It was on everyone's face that morning, when the children were there on Luke, on Aboot, and on their mother.

The wreaths were placed on top of the coffin and the children were lifted up beside it. Then the men put the sides of the truck back up. Aboot sat at the end with his elbows on his knees and his face in his hands with the fingers closed. He was not crying and his eyes were open, he was staring fixedly at the wood of the coffin.

The truck moved slowly down the road with the people all around it. The mist had begun to lift and the sun was already beginning to show through.

At the corner some of the people branched off and went up the short-cut through the scrub. When Kurram looked back he saw the yellow light of the sun upon the wall of the shop. Some people were turning to warm their hands and they would rub them together briskly. From everyone clouds of mist were blowing into the air. There were a few cars coming up slowly behind the people, the sun reflected on their roofs.

At the mill turning the truck turned off and moved slowly up the rough track to the graveyard. Some people were already waiting at the

– 17 –

foot of the hill. They were standing in little groups warming themselves in the sun and talking quietly. Wi drove the truck up beneath the big pine tree and old Doc Hepi held up his hand for him to stop. But Wi leaned through the window and said.

“I think we can get it a little closer Doc. Just see if there's no ruts or broken bottles in the way.” And he moved the truck further out into the field.

The priest in his long heavy robing moved on up at the head of the crowd. The track was steep and slippery and it curved a few times. The children followed up behind the coffin, and they watched it swaying high on the shoulders of the men. And they watched the clouds of the men's breath rising into the air. The track was wet and black and the smell of the soil mingled among the people.

At the top the men stopped and the sweat stood out on their faces. Then the priest beckoned to them and pointed to the two planks that lay at the edge of the grave. Slowly the men lowered the coffin onto them.

The people were very quiet while the priest spoke. And except for the sniffing and coughing of some of the women and the twittering and fluttering of the sparrows in the pine-trees behind the group; the hill was very still.

The men began to lower the coffin with the ropes and the children's Auntie Mary broke into loud high wailings. Her voice rang out over the crowd and along the hill. The people seemed suddenly to come to life. Some wept loudly, and some called “Haere ra e Teho”. All about them was a stir. At the edge of the group the children saw their mother. She was crumpled forward between their older cousins, and her face was twisted with pain. She tried to move towards the grave but the two women held her tightly and as her hair fell over her face Pane the bigger and stronger one brushed it back.

Then Willy Hagg began to shovel the earth back into the grave and as the first lot hit the coffin, it echoed hollowy and loudly, and their mother lurched forward with a small cry, her eyes wide and frightening. The two women held her and she almost fell. And Pane spoke to her sharply.

At the sight of his mother Kurram felt a sudden horrible shock run through him. And in desperate bewilderment he turned about looking for somewhere to go. Then he felt someone quite close beside him and he looked up. His cousin Paul stood over him and he said to the boy.

“Never mind Cur you hold on to me.” He put his arms around the boy and the boy put his face against his cousin's shirt and began to cry. Paul stood for awhile letting the boy cry then he began to squeeze his shoulders and say.

“Never mind, Cur. It's all over now. Don't cry now”. The people were already moving down the hill. And some voices could be heard at the bottom. Willy Hagg and one of the Mill-hands were still shovelling dirt in the grave. The boy could hear the noises of the shovels against the earth. He could hear the murmuring of the people moving down the hill and someone coughing. He could smell the rich wet earth and his cousin's shirt and he could feel the warmth of the sun upon his back. He was aware of everything except that his father was dead and that he would never see him again.

When they reached the bottom of the hill the boy had stopped crying. His face felt fresh after the tears and the cold in the air stung him a little on the cheeks.

Wi's truck had already gone with his mother on it. There seemed to be a relaxed feeling all through the crowd, for they were talking quite freely. Some of them were smiling and every one was trying to enjoy the sun.

By the apple trees a group of women were busying themselves with their shawls. Two of them were lifting their babies onto their backs, and they bounced them around a little to settle them more comfortably in the blankets. Down by the Hepis's fence the priest was talking with old Doc and Tita. He was gesturing slowly with his hands and now and then he would look off across the paddock at the sun. Every one was talking about the beautiful day, everything except the burial.

Soon the paddock to the road was alive with moving people, as they walked down to the boy's home. The sun shone brightly down onto them and made them seem very small against the yellow grass. Their clothing reflected strangely gay red shawls, blue handkerchiefs, black coats, brown felt hats.

Then one of the women turned and called, her voice full and gay, clear on the morning air.

“E Tita kia tere ra”.

The Maori community at Bluff is to receive more than £2000 from the Ngaitahu Trust Board towards the cost of building a new community centre at the port. This was announced by Mr R. Whaitiri, the local member of the board. A concert and dance were held to raise funds, the programme for the concert being arranged by Te Roopu Pipiwhararoa, of the Academy of Maori Culture of Tuahiwi, one of the principal maraes of the South Island. The members of the concert party, which has been in existence for more than 20 years, are drawn from many tribes.

⋆ ⋆ ⋆

Carvings for the new Tapeka meeting-house being erected at the ancestral home of the Tuwharetoa tribe at Waihi, are nearly completed. The chief carver, John Taepa, hopes to have the work finished by Easter.

All the carvings are new.

– 18 –


In our last issue, we printed the late Sir Apirana Ngata's comments on Waikato and the origin of the King movement; here we have an appraisal of that important historic figure, King Mahuta. This article is reprinted from Pipiwharauroa, of the year 1900, and the translation is by Rev Hohepe Taepa. The photograph of Apirana Ngata (left) and Peter Buck (right), taken about the time the article was written, is from the Turnbull Library.

He tangata te kingi o Waikato e tau ana hei hapai i te ingoa rangatira, hei whakatopu i nga whakaaro o nga iwi i roto i te porotaka o Te Kingitanga. Haunga ake te waihanga o te tinana, kaore he wahi hape, engari ko nga whakaaro. E titiro ana au he tangata marama, he tangata hohoro ke te whawha i te kupu tika engari e tupato ana ki te whakaputa, e araitia ana pea e nga tikanga nunui kei te takiwa o Waikato. Kei mua ona whakaaro i o tona iwi ki taku mahara, e whai ana ki te hopu i nga mea pakari e ahu ana mai i te taha pakeha hei painga mo tona iwi, otira e tino uaua ana a Waikato ki te whakapiri atu ano ki te taha o te pakeha, na reira ka mate whakaroto nga whakaaro o nga tangata e titiro ana e taea noatia ana e te Maori te pupuri nga wahi pumau o tona maoritanga i tuku mai i ona tipuna: engari i te mea kua ara ake he aronga hou i te taenga mai nei o te pakeha me tiki atu ano i te pakeha he ringaringa he kaha he matauranga hei whawha i enei mea tauhou.


The King of Waikato (Mahuta) is a personage who can well bear the honourable title, and in whom the hopes of those within the circumference of the King Movement may well be centred. He has personality, but more he is a thinker. To me he is keen to discern, quick to consider good advice, and diplomatic, perhaps somewhat stunted by the authority of custom prevalent in that Waikato region. I think he has shown initiative in advance of his people, striving to turn to their advantage those things of worth in the European way of life; but Waikato is reluctant to co-operate again with the European which is a burden the other people confident in the retention of their cultural heritage. Since with the advent of the European a new way of life has been introduced, the new problems created must be met with European methods and education.

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Ko nga kupu enei a Mahuta ki a matou ko aku hoa o Te Kotahitanga i te taenga ki Waahi i te marama o Mei nei:—

“Haere mai e taku papa (Te Heuheu Tukino) te pou hereanga o te tangata o te whenua o te tikanga. Haere mai whakawaha mai nga rangatira o te motu. Haere mai nga rangatira o te motu, i te ngaro hoki a ka kitea mai. Haere mai ki te mahi tahi, ki te whiriwhiri tahi. Haere mai e nga mahi matau ki te titiro i tenei hanga i te tikanga i te kupu. Haere mai e nga mahi matau ki te titiro whetu.” Katahi ka whakahua te waiata.

Kei waenganui o Waikato me te pakeha e takoto ana ko te pakanga, ko te whakahekenga toto, ko te raupatu, he awa nui e hamama tonu ana ka toru tekau tenei nga tau. Kia roa e karapiti ai: engari tenei kei te whakatutata. Kua hopu a Mahuta ki te kupu a Potatau “Kia mau ki te ture”—kei te whaiwhai hoki i tera kupu na “Kia mau ki te whakapono,” e manaakitia ra a Nikora ma e noho mai ra i Te Pourewa, e whakatapua nei te Ratapu, e puare nei nga whare o Waikato ki nga kauwhau a nga minita. Na Mahuta te kupu ki te taina mo te kakahu kanukanu o o raua tipuna. Maku e tapiri atu tenei, kaore he mate e Waikato ki te kanihitia e koe nga pakaru o te kakahu na, hei whariki mou a ko ake nei. He tikanga toitu tenei kei te ao e takoto ana, na te ringa o te Atua i tuhi ki te rangi ki te whenua, ko te whakapono anake te kaupapa hei utanga mo nga mahi a te tangata e tu ai, e ora ai. Ehara te ture, ehara te ahuwhenua, ehara te uaua tangata, ehara te matauranga he tapiri kau no te whakapono, no te wehi ki te Atua.

Te Kauhanganui

Ka ara te pepeha kei Waikato te rakau e tupu ana ka toro te Kauhanganui hei taunga mo nga manu o te motu. Tera kei Maungakawa e toro ana, ko te wahi tera i te torona o te kingi, ko te huinga tera o te iwi i raro i tera whakahaere. Hei te 2 o nga ra o Mei i ia tau i ia tau ka tuwhera te Kauhanganui, ka hui nga Matariki, nga Manukura, nga Whakamarumaru, me tenei i te parangeeki nei. (Ko wai oti i rangatira ki te kore he huruhuru mo nga waewae?). Kei reira ka puaki te kupu i te kingi, ka whiriwhiria e nga rangatira nga take. I te wa e tu ke ana te kingi i nga mahi o te Paremete, i nga whakahaere hoki o era atu wahi o te motu, kaore au e marama he aha ranei nga tino take hei whiriwhiringa. Engari i nga tau i ara nei Te Kotahitanga ka tuatoru nei taenga ki te Kauhanganui; i te wa hoki o Mahuta nei i uru ai me Waikato katoa ki te whiriwhiri i nga ture e hangaia ana hai i te Paremete, ka nui nga take korero o nga hui a te Kauhanganui.

Na e Waikato! he taonga nui tenei te ahu ki waho i ou rohe tirotiro ai whakarongorongo ai hoki: he taonga ano hoki te tuku atu i nga maramatanga o waho ki tou takiwa, kia marama ai to titiro ki roto ki waho, ki tetahi taha ki tetahi taha, kia ahei ai te whakariterite, a, te whakatikatika i nga tikanga me te whakahaerenga o nga kupu nunui kei to awa e takoto ana.

– 20 –

When my friends of Te Kotahitanga and I visited Waahi this month of May, Mahuta addressed us in these words:

“Welcome my uncle (Te Heuheu Tukino) the mooring for man, land, and custom. Come, bearing with you the leaders of the country. Come and let us work and consider together. Come, thou magi to examine such things as planned and discussed. Welcome, thou astrologers.” Then the song was sung.

For nigh on thirty years a great river has flowed between Waikato and the European, a river of hostility, bloodshed, and confiscation. This status quo has prevailed for a long time: but there is a coming together. Mahuta has seized Potatau's advice “Uphold the law”—and furthermore pursues that other “Hold fast to the Faith,” which Nikora nurtures and those with him at Te Pourewa, where Sunday is observed, and where the homes are open to the ministering evangelists. Mahuta exhorted his younger brother concerning their ancestors' tattered cloak. I will add this, no misfortune will befall you, O Waikato, if the torn cloak were patched, and in the future used for you to lie on. This has universal authority, God's hand has written it in the heaven and on earth, the Faith is the only foundation upon which man and his accomplishments will stand and survive. The law, economics, manpower, and education are but subsidiary to the Faith and the fear of God.


The saying arose—the tree groweth at Waikato from whence stems Te Kauhanganui, a perch for the feathered flock of the land. It stands at Maungakawa. It is there that the King is enthroned and the plaza upon which the Kingites assemble. Te Kauhanganui is opened annually on the 2nd May, when the galaxy of leaders gather as though boding great events. (For who can lead who is destitute?) There the King commands, and there the people deliberate. When the King stood aloof of Parliamentary influence, and of affairs concerning other parts of the country, I was not sure what matter should be discussed. But in the years of Te Kotahitanga's existence, there have been three visits to Te Kauhanganui; during Mahuta's time when he and all Waikato with him participated in the discussions on Parliamentary acts, there was ample material for Te Kauhanganui meetings.

Therefore, O Waikato! It is of great importance to venture outside your boundary, that you may observe and listen also: it is to your advantage to permit into your domain, outside, sound opinion, that you may consider clearly both sides, and make fair comparison, amend policies, and act on such important deliberations which abound throughout your territory.


Waikato is a big tribe, and if those people on its borders or under the Movement's influence were included no other gathering of people could

Te Iwi

He iwi nui a Waikato, a ki te huia atu nga iwi e pae i nga taha, a e uru ana ki te whakahaere kotahi, kaore he huihuinga iwi o te motu nei e rite, no te mea ahakoa he maha nga wehewehenga tupana, hapu i roto, he Maniapoto, he Raukawa, he Ngati-Haua, he Ngati Poao, he Ngati Maru, he Ngaiterangi, e taea ana te ki he kotahi enei iwi me Waikato, kotahi te waka taua, kotahi te tangata kei runga i nga kai-hautu. Mo te ahua o te tangata, ehara he Maori nei ano: he tangata i pai tona waihanga he tangata i kino: he tangata i parauri, he tangata i kiritea. Engari ka nui te tangata. I tona wa pea i mua atu o te whakapono nei kaore he wahi matatea o nga taha o nga awa. Engari ki taku titiro kei te hoki haere. He maha nga taitamariki kua moe i te tane i te wahine, he maha e rite ana mo te pera engari e takakau ana: otira kaore i maha nga tamariki ririki nga mea hei tiriwa i nga matua. He tohu mate tena ki a au, he tohu e whakaheke ana te iwi.

Nga Huarahi Oranga

E marama ana te motu ki to Waikato ahua he iwi e mate ana i te whenua kore. Kaati ko nga huarahi oranga i ahu mai i tera mea i te whenua, te reti, te moni hoko, te mokete ranei i kore i a Waikato, tera ano ra nga hapu e whiwhi ana. Haunga ia nga wahi whenua hei tupuranga kai, i a te Maori i ana mahi o te kai, e whiwhi whenua ana nga hapu mo tena. Na, i mua ake ra he oranga nui e puta ana mai ki te tangata i te kiri rapeti, e rite ana ano ki nga mahi utu ra e mahi nei te Maori ki te pakeha. No tenei tau ka whakamutua e te Kawanatanga te patu i te rapeti, ka kore tena huarahi oranga. Kei etahi wahi o Waikato, a, kei Hauraki ahu atu ki Tairua he kapia te huarahi moni, he tini o Waikato e ahu pera ana ki te whakarawe hereni. Tetahi mahi o Waikato he tapahi harakeke mo nga mira mahi muka. Engari tenei, ko te kai nui tonu o Waikato he tapahi harakeke mo nga mira mahi muka. Engari tenei, ko te kai nui tonu o Waikato he harakeke, e tu ra he wao, e tu ra he wao o taua taputapu. He haua noa pea no nga wahine o reira i kore ai e rangaia he takapau kia maha hei whariki mo nga whare. Ko te mahi pakeha kaore i nui, ara te tope rakau, te tua ngaherehere, te kutikuti hipi, te parau. E kimi ana au na te aha a Waikato i ora ai? E wha ona peene (he paana ki etahi iwi): e kohia ana he moni nui i ia tau, i ia tau, mo nga whakahaere o te kingitanga; e tu ana he hui nunui i ia tau, i ia tau, hei iki i te kai i te moni: e whiwhi ana te tangata i te kai pakeha, i te kakahu, i era atu mea, penei ano me etahi iwi e whai oranga nei i nga whenua. Ka miharo au. Mei tupono tenei mate, te mate i te whenua, ki etahi atu iwi o tatou e kore pea e penei te ora. Kei konei te ora mo te Maori, me tango te oranga whenua kia waiho ai ma te werawera o ia tangata, o ia tangata, e whakarawe he kai mo te poho o ana potiki, he kanukanu ranei hei uhi mo te tuara o tana whaereere.


equal it, for though there are many parts and subtribes, claiming descent from different ancestors, Maniapoto, Raukawa, Ngati Haua, Ngati Paoa, Ngati Maru, Ngaiterangi, it can be said they are one, with Waikato, one body, under one command. In appearances he is as any other Maori. Perhaps in his time, before the advent of Christianity, there was not one uninhabited place along the rivers' banks. But now I observe that there is a diminishing population. Many young people have married, there are many still of marriageable age but are single: indeed, the birthrate does not offset the death rate. That is a bad sign, a mark of a people's decline.


The country appreciates Waikato's predicament of being landless. Therefore such sources of revenue as rates, sales, or mortgages are denied Waikato, there are few sub-tribes who have land, not considering of course those holdings for small gardens, which a Maori may cultivate as he pleases, the sub-tribes have such small holdings to say the least. Now, previously, a lucrative source was rabbit skins, that income was on a par with daily wage employment. This year the Government terminated rabbit killing, so that source of income has disappeared. In some parts of Waikato, from Hauraki, and extending to Tairua kauri gum also was a great means of revenue, and many Waikato people made gum digging their chief occupation. Another Waikato industry is flax milling. Now also it must be said that this is one of the main sources of Waikato food, where flax grows in abundance. Perhaps the Waikato wives are invalids for only a few mats are plaited for the homes. Europeans offer little work in the way of wood-cutting, bush-felling, shearing and ploughing. What, I ask, is the sustenance of Waikato? It has four brass bands, there is a substantial annual subscription for the administration of the Movement; great annual meetings are help food and money consumed; the people are we provided for in European food and clothing and other requisites, comparable with those who are land-owners. I marvel. If this were some other people, they would have succumbed. Sustenance here for the Maori, even without the land, to sweat alone of each man will find food for his children, and clothing to cover his wife's back.


My friends will recount Te Karaka (Arc deacon), when he addressed a Church gathering at Te Pourewa, Waipa, on 25th April last. Thist is part of his address:

‘Now that seven years have lapsed since the Revs. Taimona Hapimana and Nikora Taut ministered in these parts, we look for the fruits. It is said that there has been a return from the

– 21 –

Te Whakapono

Ma nga hoa e korero iho nga kupu a Te Karaka (Atirikona) i te hui o te Hahi ki Te Pourewa, Waipa, i te 25 o nga ra o Aperira ka taha ake nei. Ko tetahi wahi tenei o tana whai-korero:—

“Ka pau nei te whitu o nga tau i mahi ai a Revs Taimona Hapimana raua ko Nikora Tautau ki enei takiwa, a e rapua ana nga hua. Ki te korero kua whakarerea te karakia Hauhau a kua hoki mai ki te whakapono Karaitiana. Tena, ka hia whare-karakia ka tu puta noa, puta noa i Waikato? Ka hia kaikarakia kua whakaritea hei karakia i te iwi i te mea kahore he minita? Ka hia kaumatua kua iriria? E tata ana ki te wha tekau o nga tau i whakarerea ai te karakia me te iriiri tamariki, a he tino whakatupuranga tenei kahore ano i iriiria, koia te patai na, ka hia kaumatua kua iriiria? Ka hia tangata kua whakaungia e rite ana ranei mo te whakau? E neke haere ana ranei te hunga tango i te Hapa Tapu? Ka hia nga kura Ratapu tamariki ka tu? Ka hia moni ka puta hei whangai minita? Rapua i te aronga o ena patai te ahua o te Hahi: ma nga mahi ka kitea ai nga hua. He tika te taenga mai o nga tangata ki te karakia i nga huihui noa iho a te Maori, otira ko tetahi wahi anake tena o nga mahi a te Hahi. He rau ano te rau, he hua ano te hua. E hoa ma, kei ki koutou hei whakangakaukore ena kupu aku, kahore, engari he mea kei whakamanamana noa, hei whakaoho hoki.”

He tika ka wha tekau tau i whakarerea ai te karakia. Kia taka ra ano pea he whakatupuranga ka ea ai te patai a Te Karaka. Ko te tangata e akiaki ana i ta te Atua mahi a e pai ana, ko te tangata hoki nga kai mahi i raro nei.


Hauhau to the Christian Faith. Well now, how many churches have we erected throughout Waikato? How many lay-readers are there to make up for the lack of Pastors? How many adults have there been baptised? It is nigh on forty years when last there was a church service, and children were baptised. So I ask you, how many children, how many adults have had the benefit of baptism? How many condidates have there been presented for confirmation, or, are ready for confirmation? Is there an increase in the number of communicants? How many Sunday Schools are there? How much has been collected for stipends? Look for the fruits in the light of those questions, the fruits that show the Church's progress. It is true that people come to church at ordinary Maori meetings, that is one of the church's duties. The leaf however is leaf, but the fruit is fruit. Brethren, you may say that my fore-going words are disheartening, no, but lest you may glory in false praise, they are given to stir us.”

It is true that the Church was abandoned for forty years. A generation must pass perhaps, before Te Karaka's questions will be answered. Advancing God's work and practising them are tasks for man on earth to perform.

No Pure Race on Earth

Racial Mixture is a law of God, said His Excellency the Most Reverend Romolo Carboni, Apostolic Delegate, in a meeting at Tuahiwi Pa last October. The Delegate who came as Ambassador of the Vatican State and is also in charge of Roman Catholic ecclesiastical matters in Australia, New Zealand and Oceania, was welcomed to Tuahiwi by Mr Henare Jacobs, the Hon. E. T. Tirikatene, M.P., and Mr Te Ari Pitama.

In an address to the Maori people, Monsignor Carboni stressed his desire to see Maoris in every place and position in the hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church in New Zealand and abroad.

“It is a universal law,” he said, “that the different races of different places in different centuries move from one country to another, from one continent to another. For their very preservation, for their very strength, they mix together… there is no pure race on earth. What we call a pure race is an amalgamated race, resulting from different races. It is the law of God that the different races constituting the very same human family move from one country to another, from one continent to another and they mix with different races for their very preservation and strength. Here in New Zealand there are two or three different races and in the future there will be only one race resulting of the different races of today. There is a process which follows the laws of God—that process of assimilation and integration which should not be pushed unduly and should not be stopped. All the people of different races living together and particularly their leaders and authorities should be intelligent, wise and prudent to see in that process a law of God, a law made, not by human beings, not by human laws, but by God himself. That law shall not be changed, and we must discover, we must recognise, and we must follow that law. Here in New Zealand, the different races are mixed together in a very natural, supernatural and beautiful way. I congratulate all the New Zealand people, the people of European origin and the Maori people and their leaders in the Church and State. I do believe that the New Zealand people and Government treat the different races in a more human and Christian way than any other country in the world.”

– 22 –


Prizes awarded by the Ngarimu V.C. and 28 (Maori) Battalion Memorial Scholarship Fund Board were announced after a meeting in Wellington.

The prize list announced by the Minister of Education, Mr Algie, is as follows:

Winners of the– Ngarimu Essay Competition held in November: Forms 1 and 2, J. Murray, Kereru, Hastings; Forms 3 and 4, G. Manunui, Maori Girls', Marton; Forms 5 and 6, M. Durie, Te Aute, Pukehou.

Essays in Maori: Forms 1 and 2, G. Ormsby, Oparau; Forms 3 and 4, J. Apanui, Rerekohu Maori D.H.S.; Forms 5 and 6, Piki Don Herewini, St Stephen's, Auckland.

After consideration had been given to the reports received from principals and headmasters, the scholarships held by the following students during 1956 were approved for continuation in the current year: D. Paul, Te Aute; R. Bennet, New Plymouth G.H.S.; D. E. Yates, Dannevirke H.S.; E. Edmonds, Queen Victoria, Auckland; Te Waari Ward-Holmes, Nelson College.

The Ngarimu V.C. University Scholarships awarded last year to W. W. Hikaka, of Hawera, and A. P. Hura, of Taumarunui, who are both attending the University of Otago, were approved for continuation this year. Of the 12 students who were applicants for these scholarships this year, awards were made to F. P. T. Bennett, of Te Hauke, near Hastings, and R. M. Taiaroa, of Timaru.

News in Brief


The Maori community on the Manukau peninsula in the Auckland-Waikato area, is raising money to renovate Tahuna Pa, Waipipi, near Waiuku—one of the oldest inhabited pas in the Auckland district.

The ancient meeting-house and dining-hall are falling to pieces and are almost beyond repair.

A committee has been formed to raise funds to replace these buildings, and if there is sufficient public support a cultural centre for Waiuku Maoris will be incorporated in the new pa.

One aim is to provide suitable premises for a youth club for Peninsula Maoris—a need which leaders of the Ngatiteata tribe have long felt necessary.

The campaign opened recently with a sports day and a feast prepared in the traditional hangi.

Mr Sonny Kaihau, a chief of Ngatiteata, heads the campaign committee. He hopes to provide a Maori queen carnival in Waiuku later this year, and believes that if this first sports day is a success it may become an annual feature of Anniversary Day weekend and be broadened to include a full track and field athletics meeting, combined with a full-scale Maori concert.


Three Maoris have been appointed deputy-mayors of borough councils in the Horowhenua district, following the recent local body elections. One member of the Maori race contested elections at Levin, Shannon and Otaki. A striking tribute was paid to them when each was returned with more votes than any other candidate, and each has since been appointed deputy-mayor. At Levin, the honour went to Mr Nepia Winiata, who is also the first. Maori ever to be elected to the council. At Shannon, Mr Charles Hill, and at Otaki, Mr Hema Hakaraia, have had the same success.


Two well-known Maori personalities were included in the list of New Year honours awarded by the Queen.

The Rev. Canon Poihipi Mokena Kohere has been awarded the O.B.E. (Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire). Canon Kohere lives at Rangitukia, East Coast. He is a member of a well-known Ngati Porou family. His grandfather, Mokena Kohere, was a member of the Legislative Council. Canon Kohere's brother, the late Reweti Kohere, was also well known.

Canon Kohere is the oldest living Church of England Maori clergyman.

Guide Rangi was the other Maori personality included in the New Year Honours list. She was awarded the M.B.E. (member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire). Guide Rangi—in private life Mrs Rangitiri Dennan—said she was deeply grateful for the honour bestowed upon her. She was grateful that people had appreciated her work as a guide. She had always sought the respect of the public for herself as a guide and as a member of the Maori race. She had realised when she started what a wonderful opportunity she had to gain respect and to create understanding and friendship between peoples.

⋆ ⋆ ⋆

The recent Junior Chamber of Commerce International conference held in Wellington honoure the Rev. Hohepa Taepa, vicar of Rangiate Church, Otaki, by making him senator of the Junior Chamber International.

– 23 –

From Tamaki Makaurau

(1) A Site for Auckland Marae

Initiative, enterprise, and sheer determination are having their reward for the Maori people in Auckland who are attempting to establish their own marae. For months past they have been facing disappointments, delays, and apparently insurmountable difficulties in bringing the scheme to fruition. Since a group of enthusiasts acquired the use of a piece of land at New Lynn the prospects of laying the foundations of a marae which will satisfy the cultural ideals of the Maori and gain the wholehearted support of the pakeha, seem to be brighter than ever.

Credit for the revived activity of the marae committee goes to the chairman of the Waitemata Tribal Executive, Dr Maharaia Winiata, the Dominion President of the Maori Women's Welfare League, Mrs Whina Cooper, and the Director of the Maori Academy of Arts and Crafts, Mr Henare Toka. They sought a way out of the dilemma which faced the committee when consideration of two possible sites—at Orakei and next to the Community Centre in Freeman's Bay—suddenly had to be abandoned. They searched for and found a section at New Lynn.

This area of 4 ½ acres in Golf Road is owned by a pakeha. As it was overgrown with weeds he was only too willing to let the Maori people use the ground for cropping while the committee negotiated with him to purchase it. A start was made in December with planting the land and already the occupiers have produce for sale to augment the marae funds. The kumeras grown here are competently judged to be among the best produced in the district.

Mrs Cooper and Mr Toka have since approached the Mayor of New Lynn, Mr Hugh Brown, with a view to obtaining the approval of the council of a marae on the site. An inspection by the Mayor with Dr M. Winiata and Mr T. P. Paikea. M.P., has led to the council sanctioning the scheme. It will tell members of the original deputation that it “welcomes them to the district and appreciates the good work they are doing to preserve the best in Maori culture.”

“It will be an investment by the committee”, said Dr Winiata, when announcing the appointment of a sub-committee to negotiate the purchase of the land. Consideration of it as the location of the future marae would come later.

Dr Winiata explained that the land on Orakei heights given to the Ngati Whatua by the Government in compensation for the loss of the old Orakei village site, was not considered suitable for a marae serving all the Auckland Maoris. It was only natural that parochial interests would intervene there as the Orakei Maoris considered the land to be essentially a replacement of the former traditional settlement and for the loss of which money could not be regarded as adequate compensation.

Furthermore, Dr Winiata explained, if the marae were established at Orakei, which the Ngati Whatua regarded as their own, it would be on a scale which would preclude the local inhabitants from performing their traditional obligations as hosts. Members of other tribes would not feel they could go there as freely as they would go to a marae which served in every way the interests of the Auckland Maoris as a whole. However, there was nothing to prevent the Orakei people establishing a smaller centre for their local needs.

Dr Winiata also said efforts to obtain the site adjoining the Community Centre had failed. The committee had hoped to secure this from the Government on a long-term lease, but it was informed that the Government and the City Council had other plans for it.

– 24 –

The marae committee will be considering possible plans for the marae and meetinghouse which is expected to show the best aspects of traditional Maori life for the benefit of tourists and other Europeans, as well as serving the needs of the Maori people. A suggestion to develop housing in the vicinity has been made. If this comes about the council wants the owners to feature native trees and shrubs in their gardens. The authorities have gone into the question of roading costs in the event of a subdivision and have obtained a satisfactory offer on this point.

(2) Achievements in Maori Education

The Auckland Education Board has expressed publicly its determination to give Maori children in board schools the best possible education. This aim recognises the special needs of Maori children, conforms with the trend in modern education which is to concentrate on the needs of the individual child, and implies a policy of cultivating mutual respect and understanding between Maori and pakeha.

One of the main concerns of the board is that 12,000 Maori children in Maori schools under the Department are receiving an education designed for their needs, while 20,000 children in board schols are being denied this advantage. Already something has been achieved in a small way, but much more remains to be done.

Whatever personal views may be held on the future of the administration of Maori schools, no doubt was left in the minds of those who attended the last meeting of the board that it was aware of its responsibilities toward the large number of Maori children under its care.

Senior inspector of primary schools of the Auckland Education Board is Mr W. Parsonage, who is well-known to the Maori people as a former Senior Inspector of Maori schools.

The Board has appointed a special committee to deal with Maori education. Mr J. C. Henare of Motatau is the Maori representative on this committee. Two inspectors, Mr K. J. Hayr, in the eastern district, and Mr A. F. Budd in the western, have been instructed to take a special interest in the Maori children. Both inspectors have taught in Maori schools and Mr Budd was headmaster of several, including Te Kaha Maori District High School.

Mr Parsonage recalled that 32 board schools have between 26 and 50 per cent Maori pupils; 25 schools, 51 to 75 per cent; and seven, 76 to 100 per cent. He advised the board to concentrate its efforts on the 32 schools which contain mainly Maori pupils.

As well as insisting on the highest standards of personal cleanliness and tidiness, the board hopes to foster Maori history, arts and crafts, games, music, social organisations and the language in the schools. It also aims to give special instruction to Maoris in the English language.

Maori parents are urged to co-operate as closely with the board schools as they do with those run by the Department and every encouragement is to be given trained Maori teachers to take appointments under the board. Mr Parsonage considers it is essential for teachers to be sympathetic toward the Maori people and help them deal with various problems.

He sees in the work ahead of the board “one of the greatest challenges today” which he regards as an opportunity to show the rest of New Zealand what can be done in educating Maoris in board schools.

Some of the achievements were outlined by Mr Parsonage. He said a grant toward medical supplies at Towai had benefited the health of the children considerably. At Hikurangi the senior girls were given a special course in homecraft and Plunket work. Maori arts and crafts had been introduced at other schools. One difficulty here was that board schools did not always have people qualified for the work. However, the Maori people had co-operated by coming into the schools and teaching these things themselves. The same difficulty was encountered in teaching the Maori language, but, with the language compulsory in district high schools and Maoris entering the training colleges, there would be more instructors available to teach the language.

At Moerewa the emphasis was on teaching English. Great success was achieved in a few months in encouraging the children to take library books home and to look after them. Mr Parsonage said the good use which both parents and children made of the books was very pleasing.


Some 25 slabs of rock, varying in size from 2ft to 6in in thickness have been cut by the Ministry of Works from a recess at the bottom of a cliff at the Waipapa State hydro project.

On them are primitive red and black Maori paintings. The slabs were crated and sent to the Auckland Museum.

The director, Dr Archey, has photos of the cliff recess before the slabs were cut out, and he will try to display the slabs as near as possible in their original order.

Experts are undecided about the paintings, and when they were done. They are in charcoal and red ochre. Some depict animals and tikis, others are just lines.

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The Maori population of Wellington consists of some traditional settlements (such as Porirua, Petone, Waiwhetu) and a large number of people from other districts who have come to settle there. Over the last few years, these people have increased enormously in number, and at the same time their place in the general community has changed. They now look like city people, dressed in the latest fashions, many with an air of sophistication that might stun their country cousins.


How is this urban community of Maoris, the second largest in the country, shaping today? Perhaps a scientist will one day make a full study of the subject. My own knowledge is purely what I have discovered as a Minister of the Church working in Wellington for a number of years.

In this article I am giving my own impressions and on the whole they are optimistic ones: I think the Maori has adjusted himself very well in Wellington, getting the advantages of city life (social, economic and educational) and on the whole avoiding the dangers.

In 1949 the Maori population of Wellington City, Hutt City and their suburban districts, numbered approximately 1,100. Today it is 3,229. The problem of breaking this population down statistically under the headings of sex, age and occupation, is a very difficult one. It is I am sure, quite obvious to even the casual observer that the bulk of the Maori population here is made up of groups

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Miss Diana Mutu, of Ahipara, has been in Wellington for three years. She likes being a tram conductress, takes all the overtime she can and believes in saving. She has become very attached to the city. (PHOTO: JOHN FUN

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of young people, largely youths, young adults, and young married couples. Secondly, that there would be in the total population in this urban area a greater number of females than males. Thirdly, the behaviour pattern of the Maoris in the Wellington-Lower Hutt area would be somewhat different from the behaviour pattern of Maoris resident in areas where there is a predominance of menfolk.

Taken all round, the behaviour and conduct of Maoris in the Wellington-Hutt area is fairly good. Incidence of Maori delinquency, of crime and drunkenness is so occasional as to be negligible in regard to court convictions. The scale of misdemeanours amongst the Maoris in the city, generally ranges from rowdiness to petty theft. In the last two or three years, there has been no serious crime amongst the Maoris of Wellington-Lower Hutt and very few convictions or arrests even for drunkenness.


Occupations of the people cover the whole range, from unskilled labourers to highly qualified professional men as well as those in the field of private enterprise and business. The bulk of those living in and around these two cities fall into the classification of unskilled labourers. The next largest group amongst the Maoris in this area would be in the Public Service. Many of these people so occupied are girls, some of whom are to be found in the offices of the Department of Maori Affairs, but I think a greater proportion are to be found in the offices of other Departments, notably, the Post and Telegraph Department. I think it would be safe to say that in nearly every Department in the city one may find some Maoris at work. If we also consider people of part-Maori blood who have a closer identification with the pakeha, we then find some girls with highly

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Below: One of the many housewives in the Wellington district who are settled with a comfortable home of her own is Mrs Charlotte Solomon of Porirua.(PHOTO: JOHN FUN)

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specialised jobs among them, such as private secretaries to high executives, both within the Government and also in business. Some of our men too have earned for themselves places of very great responsibility in the life of the city, in the Police Force, in Departments other than Maori and in private business. However, these are men who have reached these positions as a result of years of service. In the younger age groups we have young men of outstanding promise in the trades and professions. In one of the big chemist shops in Wellington the head druggist, a qualified chemist, is a Maori boy aged about 21 or 22—Mr Riri Harris. We have in the city yet another qualified young man who practises his profession as a part-time chemist while studying to complete his B.Sc. degree at Victoria University. We have also a young boy from Otaki, Mr Whata Winiata, a qualified accountant and completing his B.Com. degree as well as working at his profession. We have many others tucked away in odd places who from time to time appear with their Maori folk. While these are encouraging signs, greater things need yet to be done in these fields by a greater number of our young people.


The students who reside for a certain period of years in order to further their education, are a section of our urban population whom I firmly believe merit the wholehearted support and admiration of all the Maoris at large. They are young, eager and ambitious, but many also are immature and impecunious. They are the group who I feel meet with the widest range of conflicts of any Maori group resident in the city. Theirs is a very difficult lot. Although problems of accommodation are not nearly as acute as they used to be, it is still a problem for impoverished students whether they be Maori or pakeha.

In the body of Maori Students in Wellington we must include (1) Training College Students, (2) Dental Nurses, (3) Student Nurses, (4) Trade trainees, (5) University students. While difficulties which confront this group are many and varied, the biggest problem is that of adjustment.

There has been a large measure of success amongst those who fall into the first four categories, but with those attending University, results are not so good. University students are left more to themselves and are required to organise themselves much more than the others, and from observations it seems that their great cause of difficulty is the problem of organisation of the personal life and the budgeting of individual time.

Coming as they do from either the quiet of the country or from the ordered ways of a disciplined institutional life, such as is found in our secondary schools, like Te Aute College and other places, it would seem that once they hit the lights of city life their equilibrium becomes upset and they need

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Training College students spend a good deal of their time in the college library. Here are (from left to right): Marjorie Glover and Rawinia Te Hau. (PHOTO: JOHN FUN)

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Above: The Latter Day Saints chapel Porirua is attended by most of the Maori the Porirua settlement. Community dancin a church activity. (PHOTO: JOHN FUN)

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Above: Children are given religious education at the Latter Day Saints chapel at Porirua. (PHOTO: JOHN FUN)

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Mr Riri Harris, of Ngati Raukawa, is the head pharmacist in one of the city's principal chemists' shops. He is a member of the Pharmaceutical Society, a qualification obtained after four years of part-time study with the Pharmacy College in Wellington. There are very few Maori pharmacy graduates, another recent one being Mr Hiki Heke who qualified in Taumarunui. (NPS PHOTOGRAPH)

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One Wellington girl with a fascinating and responsible job is Miss Pamela Ormsby, shorthand-typist in the office of the Hon. E. H. Halstead, Minister of Industries and Commerce.

a great deal of time to settle in and become accustomed to the requirements of life in town. Therefore, I would think that the average Maori student entering University requires at least one year before he can even begin successfully to tackle his course—for most Maoris full-time attendance should be aimed at: there are too many adjustment difficulties for him to face in the city which preclude his chances of success on a part-time basis.

On the other hand, at the Training College, the Dental Clinic, Trade Training Centres and the Hospital, there is a continuance of a degree of institutional discipline and supervision and seldom do those places produce failures amongst Maori students.

It might be argued, that the University failures are due to the fact that the course is much stiffer than the others. Yet, judging from the students' educational background. I think that their adjustment difficulties are far more important than any intellectual ones.

Despite these difficulties we can find today a greater number of Maoris in all walks of life who sport a University degree than was the case 10–15 years ago, but a lot needs to be done to make all our people a little more education conscious.


Slow but pleasing progress is being made in regard to housing. It is impossible to obtain an accurate estimate of all the houses built for or occupied by Maoris in 1956, but the Department of Maori Affairs has reached a new record by building a national total of 527 houses. In certain towns also there is a pool of state rental houses made available for Maoris. Add to these the houses that Maoris have got from other sources and the number must be the most satisfactory so far. The Maoris in Wellington and Lower Hutt have obtained their fair share of these, and as a parson it has been pleasant to me to note the good number of parishioners who a few years ago eked out an existence in rooming houses and now have their own homes. I contend that the terrific improvement evident in the behaviour patterns of the urban Maori of the Wellington area is, in its largest measure, due to better housing conditions.

We have two neighbourhoods where these new houses are grouped together which provide an interesting background for the comparative study of evolving community patterns. In both these communities the people are in danger of preserving their Maori entity less with the norms and mores of a truly Maori culture than with some of the worst pakeha behaviour patterns. It is I think true to say that week-end parties are much more robust in these two centres than in any other part. Also in these two Maori communities there is practically no social interaction between the Maori adults and the rest of the neighbourhood.

Yet, at Waiwhetu, a very large number of second generation young people reaching adolescent age have made wide contacts at the local High Schools and in sporting bodies and acquired a much more sophisticated type of deportment and behaviour pattern, so that they are unconsciously demanding new standards within the home, and in my five years as a resident of the Waiwhetu Maori community, social and domestic improvement has been beyond all recognition due I feel to these new demands on the parents.

On the other hand the majority of Maori householders are scattered about amongst the community at large and as their parson I find them completely at ease and fairly satisfactorily integrated with the pakeha neighbourhood community:

(continued on page 51)

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During his visit to the Tasman Mills. Kawerau, the Duke of Edinburgh had a conversation with Judy Brady of Matata, who has been a typist at Tasman for the last two years. She was typing sawmill production figures on her typewriter when Prince Philip looked over her shoulder and asked what these figures were and where she got them from.

Judy explained that she was given rough notes from which she made a typed copy, and then she made a photograph of the typed copy for distribution to all those who needed to know them.

Judy has since been promoted to teletyping. The machine in the picture is used for wiring messages direct to Tasman's Head Office in Auckland. (PHOTO: PETER BLANC)

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The two brothers Delamere. Mrs Delamere and Mr Joseph Matthews own this spotless dry-cleaning shop which is the only one in Kawerau. It provides prompt service (overalls done between 6 p.m. Friday and the next Monday morning) and Mrs Delamere sees to it that there are always flowers in the window. It is a good example of modern Maori business enterprise. (PHOTO: PETER BLANC)

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The Duke watches the final preparations for the hangi. On his left is Mr Jack Kamo, on his right, Mr J. Patterson, resident commissioner, and Mr S. Hough, president of the jockey club. (NPS PHOTOGRAPH)

Royalty's First Hangi

What may easily be Royalty's first hangi was prepared for the Duke of Edinburgh during his visit to the Chatham Islands last December.

This luncheon was served during the Duke's visit to the Waitangi race course. His Royal Highness was sitting in a marquee in the middle of the paddock. The whole event was run entirely after the pattern of a typical Chatham's race meeting.

A great moment during the luncheon was when a few children, mainly Maori, whose curiosity knew no bounds approached the table at which the Duke was sitting.

The Duke held out a plate of cakes and smiled encouragingly. One child sidled up tentatively, was obviously tempted, and suddenly took a cake. Soon the Duke and his private secretary, Lieut-Commander Parker, were surrounded and kept busy dispensing cakes and oranges, and offering large jars of milk to any who wanted a drink.

It was a supreme moment for the children and the Royal visitor's enjoyment of the situation was tremendous. He talked to the young islanders, won their complete confidence with case, and eventually had them removing the used dishes from the tables.

Before going to lunch the Duke stopped at the site of the large hangi, whose fires had been alight since 4 a.m. and food cooking since 10 a.m. The food was cooked by Jack Kamo, the island's expert on cooking by hangi methods.

After lunch the Duke told Kamo it was marvellous how well the food was cooked. He discussed the whole affair again with Kamo, who had been up all night. Kamo was dressed in a thick blue neck-high jersey, working trousers, gumboots and old motor-cyclist's leather helmet. His face was covered with a white stubble.

Among the people Prince Philip met, were several members of the county council, a representative of the Moriori race, Mr T. T. Solomon, whose famous 32-stone father was the last full-blooded member of that race; a descendant of the first Maori people to reach the Chathams, Mr J. Pomare, and a descendant of the first European to settle on Pitt Island, Mr Gregory Hunt, members of whose family now farm the whole island.

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We Keep Our Land for Our Children

You will find the Major by the haystack, we were told, and there he was, keeping young by manipulating large sheets of corrugated iron to cover the stack. Three younger people were with him.

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Major Vercoe (NPS PHOTOGRAPH) We sat down together on u tree stump. I had previously met Major Relwhati Vetcoe. D.S.O., O.B.E., D.S.M., at large huis where he represented the Arawa tribe, or the soldiers of the first world war, an orator noted in both Meori and English for his clear, precise and measared spceches. But this was different; he was now on his family land working as a farmer, remarkably athletic for his seventy years.

Soon we were talking about one of the subjects closest to the Major's heart: seltling Maoris on their ancestral land. Major Vereoe has taken a prominent part in land development in his district ever since the government scheme started and even several years before that. It has been a life work to him.

His tribe, Ngati Pikiao, thirty-five years ago had hardly any experience of farming their own land. Today, after a long struggle by the tribe, many thousands of acres of good undulating sheep land surrounding Lake Rotoiti are farmed by Ngati Pikiao incorporations and individual settlers. As an old soldier, Major Vercoe takes particular pleasure in the fact that many of the settlers and some of the managers are returned servicemen from the second world war.

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Pataka at Mourea Pa. Lake Rotitl. (PHOTO: PETER BLANC

One of the things Major Vercoe has learnt is the wisdom of splitting up incorporations into areas belonging as much as possible to one family group. Often a block of Maori land contains several thousand acres and has a very complex ownership. It is easier in practice to manage such a block simply and harmoniously and far better results are obtained if ownership is confined to immediate relatives and the ultimate ideal around Lake Rotoiti is to have areas of about 400–500 acres settled by the nominee of one family, as an individual settler.

This is often not so easy to achieve but it is an ideal worth working for. Some parents of Ngati Pikiao have helped by vesting their interests in their children which helps them if they are farming on land they own in part. Rei Vercoe has one of these, but as he explained to us, thE duties were very heavy. Once he had given his land, how did people think he could pay gift duties? The Major does not regard this of the more brilliant European inventions.

The land on which we were sitting was T block, the most recent of the Ngati Pikiaoing ventures. It lies just a few miles away Lake Rotoiti, at the end of Hongi's Trac years it was leased to miller and the mill there. In 1954 the owners, from their own and with some finance from the Maori Trustee began to develop it as a sheep and cattle station Under the management of Mr Pirimi Wha of the owners of the block, new areas are

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Mr Mapu Morehu, chairman of the Taheke Incorporation is drafting fat lambs. He takes a few minutes off to give his views on incorporations to Te Ao Hou. (PHOTOH 6ETER BLANC)

and stocked each year. The long range purpose is to settle the owners in family groups when development is sufficiently advanced.

The incorporation's policy will be not to allow settlement before all debt is repaid, the land is fully stocked and enough cash is available to give the new settlers a financial start.

The chairmanship of Tautara Incorporation is the only formal position Major Vercoe now holds; the other incorporations now being on a sound footing and administered by his own people, he has left them to the younger generation to run. He also gave up the chairmanship of the Arawa Trust Board, content to play the role of the elder statesman in all tribal affairs.


The history of Lake Rotoiti goes back to Ihenga, one of whose dogs discovered the lake when chasing a kiwi, not long after the landing of the Arawa canoe. The dog dived into the water of the lake, ate some fish and freshwater crayfish, caught the kiwi and returned to its master carrying the kiwi in its mouth. Then it vomited up the raw fish and crayfish. Ihenga, led by the dog, then found the lake. Shoals of inanga were leaping on the water. Ihenga named the lake ‘Te roto iti kite a Ihenga,’ thus claiming it as a possession for his children.

It is a long story, still known to the elders, from Ihenga to European times, and as the nineteenth century ended the shores of Lake Rotoiti were still covered with dense forest as in pre-pakeha days. A number of fine carved houses still surrounded the lake, one of them being the meeting house at Mourea belonging to Pokiha Taranui, Major Fox, one of the celebrities of the time.

Much of the Maori land was leased and sold around the end of the nineteenth century, while the Ngati Pikiao's own farming was on a very limited scale.

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Generous haystack at Tautara, the latest of the Ngati Pikiao incorporations. (PHOTO: PETER BLANC)

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Rams on the property of Mr T. R. Kingi, Ahuwhenua Trophy winner for Sheep, 1956, came in for much praise from the competition judge. (PHOTO: PETER BLANC)

In the nineteen twenties, the Arawa Trust Board advanced money to twelve people to help them improve their farms. However, advances could not be on a scale that would really place these properties on a good financial basis. The people then formed an incorporation with Messrs H. Tai Mitchell, Morehu Te Kiri Kiri and Peti Tareha as a committee of management, and this committee continued development with a loan from the Waiariki Maori Land Board. Everyone participated in the work of clearing and grassing, without much thought of who the owners were of any particular part, and the work proceeded for some years before money was again exhausted. The full development of the 11,462 acres of Taheke 3D and the other blocks was far beyond the means of the Waiariki Maori Land Board. It was then that the land was brought under the State development scheme, which allowed the work to proceed, with the gradual adding of new Maori land and some purchased blocks as time went on.

In 1953 the Department of Maori Affairs, handed back Taheke and Okere Blocks to the Maori owners. By that time, their value was thought to be over £200,000 and they were free of debt. In fact some £30,000 cash credits had accumulated. The blocks were also fully stocked. Part of the cash was paid direct to beneficiaries while the rest was held to help the new incorporations in their first year's farming operations. However, the incorporations formed in 1953 were very different from the one which started development thirty years ago. Whereas in those days there was one incorporation for all the people, now there are five: Taheke. Pukahukiwi, Okere, Waerenga and Te Karaka. Two out of the five have managers who are themselves owners in the blocks. The rest have European managers.

Instead of communal enterprises, these farms are now entirely run on business lines, earning profits for the owners, who in most of the blocks number several hundreds.

Peter Whata, manager of Te Karaka and secretary of the Taheke Incorporation, told us that this is the form of incorporation, most suited to modern circumstances. He thinks separating the scheme into five incorporations was wise, as each family group now has its own station to administer. It

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made for harmony among all.

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Many incorporations today are able to make use of the administrative training of some younger members of their tribe to whom responsibility can be handed over. One of these younger helpers is Mr Bert Kingi, secretary of the Okere Incorporation. (PHOTO: PETER BLANC)

However, the spirit of co-operation is by no means dead. On our second visit to Rotoiti we found Peter Whata, with at least twenty others between the ages of five and fifty at the Taheke Incorporation's woolshed, helping to sort out the fat lambs. In charge was the chairman of the incorporation. Mr Mapu Morehu, who described the station's policy to us. It was to develop about 130 acres of new land each year, and as far as possible to breed their own sheep and cattle. Once the fat lambs were selected, the rest were held to be sold as hoggets. All the best of the ewe lambs were kept for breeding.

We asked Mr Morehu whether he thought the future of all the young people we saw on the station was on their ancestral land. ‘If you have a trade or profession, then go to town,’ said Mr Morehu, ‘but if you will be a labourer, then stay in the country. Naturally, however, education and business ability are essential for those who manage and own farms.’

The Rotoiti incorporations give a good deal to the younger people, appointing them, for instance, to posts of responsibility in the administration. Secretary of Okere incorporation is Bert Kingi, a young public servant, appointed for his administrative experience, although there is a large number of older owners. Undoubtedly this policy will help to provide future leaders for Ngati Pikiao.


Wherever possible, individual farmers were settled as lessees or owners. There were altogether 6,000 acres near the lake, either leased or sold to Europeans and then recovered by the Maori owners with finance provided by the State. The areas were farmed by the Department of Maori Affairs for a while until the debt on the blocks was repaid and in 1954 the owners took over and subdivided the land into unit farms settled by families, in many cases of returned servicemen.

Seven Ngati Pikiao ex-servicemen were settled on another Rotoiti block under Rehabilitation. This block of 3,446 acres bought by the Crown in 1948, was originally part-Maori and part-European land. The Maori part was sold to the Crown on condition that only Ngati Pikiao servicemen would be settled. A number of these who aspired to settlement worked on the scheme during the development stages, but final settlement had to be, according to the Rehabilitation system, by ballot.

Of the men settled, one (Mr T. R. Kingi) won last year's Ahuwhenua Trophy competition for sheep and cattle, and another (Mr E. C. Pohio) became second in the same competition. Mr Foley Eru, of Horohoro, winner of the 1956 Ahuwhenua Dairy Trophy, also has Ngati Pikiao affiliations.

What happened at Lake Rotoiti happened also in many other parts of New Zealand. Right through the country, Maori farmers, often quite independent of State aid, are tilling their own land and safeguarding it for their children.

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Standing above the Takeke woolshed, you can see most of Lake Rotoiti. (PHOTO: PETER BLANC)

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Suddenly the ordinary vegetation comes to an end; a smell of sulphur; the ground covered with a white crust. Nothing grows on it; it feels warm underfoot. A notice warns visitors not to proceed without a guide. The narrow path is occasionally crossed by a crack or interrupted by an irregular hole where the silica eaten ground has collapsed into an unplumbable cavity.

Near the path, there are larger holes out of which steam is curling up continuously; from others fountains of hot water spurt forth into the air at regular intervals. Elsewhere, dark mud is slowly bubbling at enormous heat like simmering porridge. There are also lakes embedded in the brittle silicified ground, some of them lightly steaming, coloured pink or green or dark blue.

Places such as these are among the most popular tourist haunts in New Zealand; there are seventeen of them along the 150 mile stretch of the Rotorua-Taupo volcanic zone. Romantic names have been invented such as Witches' Cauldron (for one of the mudpools) and Bridal Veil (for a geyser). One pond of delightfully warm water, overhung by large trees, is known as the Honeymoon pool.

Charming though such names are, the visitor feels a primative awe at the immense forces roaring and bubbling at him derived from the steaming magma deep below.

It may seem surprising that the Maoris who first landed in New Zealand some 600 years ago were not frightened away from these threatening places. On the contrary, they soon developed a linking for them and settled in their immediate neighbourhood. They tell of a priest Ngatoroi-

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rangi, who came from Polynesia to New Zealand on one of the canoes. Ngatoroirangi, nearly dying with cold in the unfamiliar and less kindly climate, called on the goddess of fire to rescue him. She flew to him and on the places where she rested today's thermal phenomena are found. Ngatoro was revived by the fires brought by the goddess and ever since the Maori people have used the hot pools for cooking, washing and bathing.

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Many Maoris are working on the geothermal project at Wairakei, most of them as labourers, while some have been given important jobs on the drilling gangs. Two newcomers are Tarawa Whiu and Tom Te Karu, both from Reporoa.

The European settlers, too, saw how helpful the steam could be to them. The remarkable fact was discovered that in many places appreciable amounts of steam or hot water could be tapped by drilling a shallow well. Particularly in Rotorua, hundreds of householders have sunk bores in their own back yards and laundries and so obtained a cheap hot water and central heating system. Now and then the earth has rebelled and a laundry or outhouse has been blown sky-high, but the people have not given up this way of cutting their fuel bills.

Hundreds of other uses of the steam have been suggested or tried; from heating glasshouses and dehydrating eggs to recovering sulphur and making salt from sea water. The most vital potentiality of all, the generating of electric power, was not seriously considered until recently, because people used to think that the hydro-resources of New Zealand were virtually inexhaustible.

The truth, not fully known until 1949, was different. While the South Island can depend on its rivers for electric power for many years to come, in the North Island the end of suitable locations for hydro-stations is in sight, with the demand for electricity continuing to rise as rapidly as ever.

What previously had been the dream of idealists, now became an urgent demand; a group of scientists and engineers were sent to investigate the hidden stores of geothermal steam in the volcanic plateau, carry out a programme of drilling and report to the government whether an economic electric power supply could be obtained.

When drilling started, the “cores” of rock cut out by the drilling bits were brought up to earth so that geologists could study them. From this study it gradually became known what went on underneath the earth and what was the history of the geothermal region.

The top layer of the area is a pumice rock called pumice breccia which is from 1,000 to 4,000 feet thick.

This pumice breccia is a highly porous layer. Ground water has penetrated all the voids and it is this ground water that is being heated by the steam deep below. At a temperature of perhaps 1000 deg. C, it rises through fissures to penetrate, and then makes contact with the ground water seeping down towards it.

When this water surges up to the surface of the earth and the heavy pressure on it is removed, a portion of it is turned to vapour. For this reason steam and water both emerge from the well-heads.

Although small flows of this hot water probably occur throughout the volcanic region, quantities suitable for economic development are only present in the thermal areas. Geologists have mapped a great number of fault lines in the region, invisible on the ground, but appearing on aerial photographs as straight lines like fences. Practically all the visible thermal activity is related to these active fault lines which are thought to carry the hot

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This young Wairakei worker has found a practical use for geothermal steam: with an ingenious contrivance of copper wire, steam issuing from the bowels of the earth at enormous pressure is made to boil the billy, then gushes out into the air. (NPS PHOTOGRAPH)

water and steam to the surface. Developing the steam resources has become a matter of striking them at depth.

The location chosen for exploratory drilling was Wairakei, near Lake Taupo. Previously known only for its tourist hotel, attracting guests to the picturesque thermal phenomena, by 1952 Wairakei produced enough steam from shallow bores to provide adequate supply for a 20 megawatt power station.

The exploratory step was over. The establishment was enlarged and placed in the charge of a special project engineer, Mr A. L. C. Fooks. Mr Fooks, like most of the other engineers at Wairakei, had gained his experience on the building of the hydro-electric dams, New Zealand's biggest engineering projects. He was supplied with two rotary rigs much bigger than the water-drilling equipment used previously. It was soon confirmed that deep bores (1500–2000 feet) were generally more productive.

Now steam began to gush out in prodigious quantities. Wellheads continued roaring day and night, making so much noise that workers lost their sense of equilibrium. Silencers were designed, reducing the pressure of the steam.

Drilling in the loose pumice soil presented its own peculiar difficulties. Blowouts and blockages occurred easily during the early investigations.

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To the expert, these little sticks tell the whole story of drilling at Wairakei. Each of the sticks represents a bore. The marks on the sticks show the temperature at every level and the type of rock that is found in the bores. From these sticks scientists can deduce at the glance what is going on thousands of feet beneath the surface of the earth. (PHOTO: PETER BLANC)

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Most of the trouble is due to the really high temperatures found at shallow depths; considerable steam or hot water pockets are not unusual at 400 to 600 feet. Here the pressure of the steam easily exceeds the weight of the drilling mud in the bore, leading to a blowout. Experienced drillers know how to shield such cavities with a cement mixture hard enough to resist the pressure. Because of the risk, it is usual to consolidate the area surrounding the pit by pouring grouting under pressure into little holes all around it so that the whole earth up to 100 feet deep is filled and hardened with cement.

A power house is now being built to produce 69 megawatt, utilizing the steam only. The government is considering putting in further turbines bringing production up to 200–250 megawatts. Not only the steam, but also the hot water from the bores will be utilized, for this water (which constitutes the larger part of the bore output) will produce a vast quantity of steam when pressure is reduced.

An important part of geothermal development is the measurement of output

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Below: A typical drilling site showing the elaborate precautions that are made to prevent blowouts (prevention equipment, cementing of the earth surrounding the bore). PHOTO: PETER BLANC

and the careful keeping of detailed records. Some bores decline in output over a period probably due to cementing of the feeding fault zone by silica and other minerals carried in the water. So far there is no sign of the supply of hot water being overdrawn.

Nobody knows what will happen when the hot water stored in the rocks is taken out. Will the flow of hot magmatic steam increase or is the flow constant and less than the present rate of steam extraction? Even in the least favourable case, the known reserves of stored heat at Wairakei will last for many years. It is also likely that there are other thermal areas in the graben where large supplies can be tapped.

For instance, the mills of the Tasman Pulp and Paper Company, built near a known fault line at Kawerau, will probably ultimately have a geothermal power-plant of at least 20 megawatts, while in the near future geothermal steam is to be used for kiln drying of timber.

Wairakei drilling crews have also started shallow drilling for a second geothermal steam station at Waiotapu, 20 miles from Rotorua.

Will this solve the North Island's power problems? It is too early to say just what the final capacity of the volcanic plateau will be and New Zealand is not slowing down its efforts to bring power to the North Island by more orthodox means. It seems however that the cost of geothermal power generation will compete with that from hydro-electric dams, which alone justifies this new effort of man to exploit some strange resources below the surface of the earth.

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E kore e piri te uku te rino.” Ko enei kupu, no te haka nei “Mangumangu Taipo”, a ko tenei haka, no Taranaki kei te hakangia tonutia e nga hapu maha o runga i te waka nei o Aotea. Kua noho enei kupu inaianei hei whakatauaki. He kite no te kaituhi o te haka nei i te kaha o te Maori ki te whakapiri ki nga tikanga me nga whakahaere a te pakeha, ka tuhia enei korero, hei whakamahara ki nga whakatupuranga e tupu ake nei, kia kaua e wareware he Maori ratou. Kei te mohiotia e kore e piri te uku ki te rino me maku ra ano te uku. Maroke ana te uku, horo tonu te makere. Kei te pai tenei whakatauaki mo enei ra; he whakaatu ki nga Maori katoa kia kaua rawa e whakarerengia nga taonga ataahua a taua a te Maori, ka tahi. Tuarua, kia mau mahara i nga wa katoa he Maori tatou, a kauaka e whakahihi i nga haereretanga i runga i te mata o te whenua. Ko te uku, he momo paru, ki te reo pakeha, he “clay”. Na ahakoa pehea te kaha o tetahi ki te panipani i a ia ano ki te uku, me maku tonu ka piri taua uku. Waihoki, ahakoa pehea te kaha o tetahi Maori ki te panipani i a ia ki nga tikanga pakeha, taro ake te wa e ngahoro ai aua tikanga e hoki ai a ia ki tona taha Maori. Engari kaua e waiho kia mate taua tangata ka pera ai.

Ko Hinetitama koe, matewai ana te whatu i te tirohanga”. I moe a Ranginui i a Papatuanuku, na, e ai ki nga korero e whitu tekau ma tahi a raua tamariki, he tane katoa. Ko tetahi o a raua tamaiti ko Tane-te-waiora. Ka haere te tangata nei i ana haere, ka tae ki tetehai kainga, ko Kurawaka. I reira, ka pokepokengia e ia he oneone kia rite te ahua ki to te tangata Ka whakahangia e ia te wai-ora ki roto, ka puta mai he wahine, huaina ana tona ingoa ko Hineahuone. Ka moengia e tane a Hineahione, ka puta ta raua uri ko Hinetitama, a ko tetahi atu ano o ana ingoa ko Hinenui-i-te-po. Na, e ai ki nga korero, he wahine tino ataahua taua wahine. I nga wa mua, ki te kite ana tetahi tangata i tetahi wahine tino ataahua, ka hoki nga mahara ki te ataahua o Hinetitama. Waiwai ana nga whatu (kamo, karu, kanohi) i te


Clay will not adhere to iron”. This is taken from the famous haka “Mangumangu Taipo”, which originated from the Taranaki district and is still in use by the sub-tribes which claim Aotea as their ancestral canoe. The composer of the haka, realising that the Maori people were beginning to lose all that was precious and good in their own culture, warns them of the danger of neglecting and forsaking that which should be preserved in Maori culture. It is a well-known fact that clay will not adhere to iron unless it is wet. As soon as it is dry, it falls off. And so the composer appeals to the Maori of today that in spite of the trend to move more into European associations, they must at all times remember with pride that they are Maoris and that no matter how much of the Western culture they adopt, the time will come when this (referred to as ‘clay’) will fall from them and that eventually they will return to their ‘Maoritanga’.

You are Hinetitama, for my eyes are filled with tears on looking at you continually”. Ranginui married Papatuanuku, and according to legend, they had 71 children, all males. One of their sons was Tane-te-waiora. It was he who in his travels arrived at a place called Kurawaka. There he fashioned earth in the form of man. He breathed into this form the breath of life and the outcome of this was the first woman on earth! She was named Hineahuone. Tane took Hineahuone as his wife and begat Hinetitama whose other name was Hinenui-i-te-po and, again according to legend, she was a very beautiful maiden. In ancient days, an

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tirohanga atu i taua wahine ataahua—i te roa tonu ra o taua tangata e titiro makutu ana. Koia nei te tikanga o tenei whakatauaki, ara, mo tetahi wahine tino ataahua.

He aroha whaerere, he potiki piri poho”. He whakatauaki tenei e mohiotia whanutia ana. Na te nui o te aroha o te whaea ki tana tamaiti, ka piri tonu te tamaiti ki te poho o tona whaea. Ko te taonga nui o te ao ki nga whaea whakaaro, ko tana ake tamaiti. Pai ke te maru o te tinana i te tinana i te pa o te mata ki te tamaiti. He whakatauaki whakanui tenei i te nui o te aroha o te whaea ki tana tamaiti. “He aroha whaerere, he potiki piri poho”.

He iti pou kapua, ka ngaro, ka huna tini whetu i te rangi”. Ka tono a Ngatokowaru o Ngati-Raukawa ki a Marangai- paroa kia awhinatia a ia, notemea kei te whakatata te ope taua. Te taenga atu o Marangai me tana ope, he tokoiti nei a ratou. Ka whakahaweangia te ope a Marangai. Ka whakahokingia e Marangai, “He iti pou kapua, ka ngaro, ka huna tini whetu i te rangi.” Kei te marama te takoto o te whakatauaki nei. Ahakoa he iti noa iho te kapua, he maha nga whetu e hunangia e ngaro hoki i taua kapua iti. E ai ki nga korero, te tunga mai o te ope taua a Marangai Paroa, katahi ano te hoariri ka patungia. He maha nga rerenga o te whakatauaki nei, kati me tango ake kia kotahi noa, e pa ana ki a taua ki te iwi Maori i tenei ra. He he, he kino ranei no tetahi Maori kotahi, ka horapa mai te kino ki nga Maori katoa. “He iti pou kapua, ka ngaro, ka huna tini whetu i te rangi”.


attractive girl was likened to Hinetitama and admirers fastened their eyes so long on such attractive girls that tears ran freely.

A mother's love, a child clinging breast”. This is a well-known Maori proverb. Because of a mother's love for her child, the child clings to her. A mother normally treasures her child more than anything else in this world. She would rather suffer than see her child in any form of misfortune.

Though a cloud may be small, it is sufficient to obscure the many stars at night”. Ngatokowaru of Ngati Raukawa applied to Marangai-paroa for assistance in view of an empending attack by a war party. The assistance was given but when Marangai and his party arrived. Ngatokowaru on seeing the numerical weakness of the party doubted their possibilities of defeating the enemy. It was then that this proverb was quoted by Marangai-paroa. Now of course, it could be applied to practically all phases of life. For instance, one ill deed done by a single Maori is sufficient for the whole race to suffer. A small act done, and the whole race or nation either suffers or profits.

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We continue our series of Maori legends, told by children of various Maori schools and collected for us by the headmaster and pupils of Papamoa Maori School, Bay of Plenty. Perhaps you have heard these stories in a different form; if so, we should be glad to hear from you.

The Legend of Torere


I te taenga mai o nga Maori i te tau 1350, tetahi o nga waka ko Tainui, a, ko te rangatira o runga, ko Hoturoa.

Ko tana tamahine ko Torere, a ko te hiahia o Hoturoa kia moe tana tamahine i tetahi o nga rangatira, ko Manakiau te ingoa. Engari ko te hiahia o Toreere ko te kai arahi i a Tainui ko Rakataua, ko tana tau aroha.

I to raua taenga ki te Hanoa ka kite a Hanakiau i a raua katahi ka whaia e ia. I te kitenga o Torere katahi a ia ka karakia i tetahi karakiamakutu. I te karakiatanga, katahi ka puta mai etahi toka hei arai i waenganui i a raua me Manakiau.


In the great migration of 1350 there was a canoe named the “Tainui” which was navigated by the chief Hoturoa. He had a daughter named Torere and he had intended her to marry the young chief Manakiau. But Torere had no intention of marrying him, for when the Tainui was beached at Hawaii, she had fallen in love with Rakataua, a steersman.

Coming to the point which is called the Hanoa they were sighted by chief Manakiau and he gave chase after them. Torere then said a magic chant and all at once rocks appeared which made a barricade between them and Manakiau.

The chief when reaching the barricade thrust a paddle three times into it and so made a cave.

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I te taenga o Manakiau ki te arai katahi a ia ka wero i te arai nei i tana hoe. E toru nga weronga hanga ana he ana.

I a Torere raua ko Rakataua e whakata ana, ka mu i a Manakiau, katahi raua ko Rakataua ka maumau mate ana a Manakiau. No te whakaarotanga ka raruraru, hoe ana a Torere i runga i te awa, engari i kitea e Rakataua katahi a ia ka whai i a Torere, kahore a Torere i tu. I peke ke a ia ki rotoki te awa, a i a ia e ngaro atu ana i roto i te wai ka kite a Rakataua engari kahore a ia i aha no te mea i a Torere a ngaro atu ra ka puta mai he kohatu ma.

Ka hoki a Rakataua ki tana waka a i te mea kua mate tana tau aroha katahi a ia ka whakahuri i a ia hei nikau i runga i te paretai o te awa kahore hoki i tino tawhiti atu i te kohatu ma nei.

Mai o tera ra ki tenei, kei reira tonu taua kohatu ma me taua nikau.


Meanwhile Torere and Rakataua were-resting not far away. When Manakiau found them, the young chief and the steersman had a fierce fight and Manakiau was killed. Torere sensing trouble paddled up the river but she had been seen by Rakataua who gave chase after her, but she made no effort to stop.

She jumped into the river and as she was disappearing under the water she was seen by Rakataua, but he could do nothing, for in an instant a white rock sprung up in her place. He thought of the misery lying ahead of him if he went back to the canoe so he changed himself into a Nikau palm on the banks of the river not far from the white stone.

From that day of long ago to the present there they remain, the white rock and the Nikau palm tree.

So ends the Torere Legend of our district.


A Dog Barks in the Night


Ko to matou kainga kei Whakatane, i tua mai o Ruatoki i te putatanga mai o te awa i nga awaawa ki te mania. Nga korero o te pakiwaitara nei mo Taneatua teina o Toroa, te Kapene o Mataatua.

I nga wa o mua, tera te tamaiti tuatahi a Taneatua ko Mariko te ingoa me tana kuri. Te Kuri nei he tipua a te ahua he atua hoki ina e maharatia ana e nga tangata o enei wa. Te ingoa o te kuri nei ko Okiwa, a i ana mahi whekiki i tetahi tangata ko Irakahanui te ingoa, patua ana e Irakahanui kia mate, whiu atu ana ki roto i tetahi roto. Kahore te roto nei e kitea ana i enei wa, engari, ka ta ana te kuri nei i tana manawa, ka pupuhi te hau Okiwa i waho o te awaawa o Whakatane, ka hari mai hoki i te kohu mai o Ruatoki ki Opouriao.

Kei te po anake pupuhi ai te hau nei, kia kore ai e mate nga hua i te huka, a, mehemea he toa koe ki te noho i reira, ka rongo koe i te kuri nei e pahupahu ana i etahi o nga po.


We live in the Whakatane Valley near Ruatoki where the river flows out of the gorges on to the plain. This story concerns Taneatua who was a brother of Toroa, captain of the Mataatua canoe.

Long; long ago, Taneatua's eldest child named Mariko owned a demon dog. Evidently this dog was a tipua with supernatural powers, because it is still known to the people of today. This dog, Okiwa, annoyed a certain man called Irakahanui who killed it and threw the body into a pond. Nowadays the pond is invisible but whenever the dog breathes the Okiwa wind blows out of the Whakatane gorge, bringing fog and mist from Ruatoki to Opouriao.

The wind blows only during the hours of darkness, to protect the crops from frost on certain nights. If you are brave enough to camp where this happened, you will hear this dog barking on certain nights.


The Battle of the Mountains


Kei te taha puawanga o Te Awamutu, he maunga e tu ana, a ko Kakepuku te ingoa. Na te tohunga o te Tainui na Rakataura, tenei maunga i whakaingoa.

E karangahia ana, i haere mai te maunga nei i te tonga ki te rapu i tana matua. I te taenga ki nga mania i Waipu, ka kite a ia i tetahi maunga wahine ko Kawa te ingoa, katahi ka uru te aroha me te hiahia ki roto i a ia mo Kawa.


A few miles to the southwest of Te Awamutu there is a lonely mountain, a landmark in the district, called Kakepuku. He was given his name by Rakataura, the priest of the Tainui canoe.

It is said that a long, long time ago this mountain was not where he is now; he came from the south looking for his father. When he reached the Waipu plains, he saw the soft round form of Kawa, the female mountain, standing a little to

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E rua ano hoki nga maunga i reira ko Puketarata me Karewa, a na runga i to raua hiahia ki a Kawa, kino ana raua ki a Kkepuku. I to raua kitenga i te hiahia o Kawa mo a Kakepuku ka mea raua ki te patu i a Kakepuku. I te kakaritanga, kaore i roa, hinga ana a Puketarata, engari a Karewa, tino kaha tana whawhai.

Haruru ana te whenua wiriwiri ana te rangi i te mahi whiu kohatu wera me te wai wera a nga maunga nei ki a raua ano.

(I enei wa e kitea ana nga kohatu nei i era takiwa)

Te mutunga iho i riro te wikitoria i a Kakepuku oma atu ana a Karewa ki te taha uru i tena po katoa a no te whitinga ano o te ra i te ata i mutu ai te oma. I te mutunga o te oma tau ana a ia a ko te wahi i tau ai kei waho o Kawhia a ko tonga ingoa pakeha ko Gannet Island.

Whiwhi ana a Kakepuku i a Kawa, a ahakoa e haere ana te rerewai a te pakeha i waenganui i a raua, kei te kotahi tonu raua.


the south. He loved Kawa, but he had rivals in Puketarata and Karewa. These two resented Kakepuke's coming and they tried to get rid of him, especially when they saw that Kawa favoured him. Puketarata, small and unshapely, was soon defeated, but Karewa fought fiercely. The two rivals hurled molten rocks and streams of liquid at each other; the earth shook and the heavens trembled. Even today the countryside is covered with some of the huge boulders they threw. Finally Kakepuku won and Karewa withdrew. He uprooted himself in the night and retreated to the west, pursued by the flaming rocks hurled by his victorious rival. He ran all night, but was stopped by the first rays of the morning sun. He settled down in the Tasman Sea off Kawhia Harbour and his pakeha name is Gannet Island.

So Kakepuku gained Kawa, his heart's desire, and although the pakeha's Main Trunk Railway passes between them they are united as ever.


The Legend of the Angry Mountains


I nga tau maha kua pahure nei. i noho nga maunga i Taupo, te karu o te lka a Maui. Ko ta ratou noho he noho i runga i te hari me te koa, engari kahore hoki i roa ka uru mai te riri ki waenganui i a ratou haere atu ana nga maunga ririki, etahi ki te raki etahi ki te tonga. I haere i te po a na te whitinga o Tama i te ata i whakamutu te haere.

Ko nga maunga i mahue ko Tongariro, ko Ngaruahoe, ko Ruapehu. A Pihanga, ko te wahine a Tongariro a ko a raua tamariki koa Ua, ko Whatu, ko Hukarere, ko Uira.


Many years ago the mountains lived happily together at Taupo which is the eye of Maui's fish. After a time anger arose between them and some of the smaller ones travelled north and south during the night until stopped by Tama the rising sun. The only remaining mountains were Tongariro and their children were Rain, Hail, Snow and Sleet. Mount Taranaki (Egmont) tried to win Pihanga from Tongariro who became very angry and spat flame, lava and smoke. Taranaki fled to safety leaving a long channel which became the Wanganui River. When Taranaki is covered with

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Tera a Taranaki e whakamatau ana kia riro i a ia a Pihanga, riri ana a Tongariro puta ana te mura, te paru wera, me te auahi ia ia. Katahi ka oma a Taranaki a i tana omanga waiho ana e ia tetahi awaawa. Ko taua awaawa, ko te Awa-o-Wanganui inaianei.

Ka taupokihia ana a Taranaki e te kohu, e tangi ana mo Pihanga, a ka mahara ana a Tongariroki a Taranaki ka uru mai te riri a taupokihia ana tona mahunga e te auahi.


mist he is weeping for Pihanga. When Tongariro remembers Taranaki he becomes angry and a cloud of smoke covers his head.


The Three Waves


Tena te miharo ki te matakitaki i nga ngaru e haeremai ana ki runga i te tahuna i te kuhunga mai i Hokianga.

Ma te pakiwaitara nei pea e whakamarama te timatanga o enei ngaru.

A Kupe, e hoki ana ki Hawaiki. Kua haere a ia i te tahauru me te taha rawhiti o Aotearoa, a e hoki ana ki tana iwi i Hawaiki ki te korero atu i nga mea papai o Aotearoa a he tino kainga hei haeretanga mai. Te nui o te manu i nga ngahere, nga ika i roto i nga awa, ae ra whai hua o tenei whenua. Engari i mua o tana hokinga he mahi ano tana ki te whakatika i tana waka, i a Tokimatao-whaorua mo te moana, a ko te wahi i u ai a ia ki te mahi i tana waka ko Hokianga otira kahore ano kia whakaingoahia ko Hokianga. I tana porangi ki te hoki ki Hawaiki, mahue ana tana kuri me tana kupenga i runga i te one i te wahi e kiia nei inaianei ko Onoke.

I te roa o tana rangatira e ngaro atu ana, ka mea te kuri nei kia kohatu a ia mo te tupono hoki mai o tana rangatira kei reira tonu a ia e tatari ana. Kei reira tonu taua kohatu i tenei ra. I haere atu a Kupe i tenei wahi a i te mea e hoki mai ana ano tapahia ana tenei wahi ko Hokianga ara ko te hokinga mai.

I te taenga ki te tahuna, ka whakahau a Kupe i nga e toru ki te tiaki i te kuhunga atu ki Hokianga. Ko te ngaru tata ki uta ko Ngarupae-ki-uta. Ko te ngaru i waenganui ko Ngaruroa, a ko te ngaru i waho ara ko te mea nui o enei ngaru e toru ko Ngaru-nui.

Akakoa kua maha ke nga rau tau i te haerenga atu o Kupe, kei reira tonu nga ngaru nei, na Kupe nei i whakahau kia tu tiaki i taua wahi.

Mehemea ka tae koe ki Opononi, me haere koe ki Hokianga. Kei reira ka kite koe i nga ngaru nei, a Ngaru-pae-ki-uta. Ngaru-roa, me Ngaru-nui, i mahue nei i a Kupe i nehe ra.


A most fascinating sight is to watch the rollers come eternally tumbling in over the bar at the entrance of the Hokianga Harbour.

The following story is the key to their origin.
Kupe's destination was Hawaiiki.

He had cruised the east and west coasts of Aotearoa and had many things to report to the Polynesians when he arrived back at Hawaiiki.

Aotearoa was indeed the land to migrate to.

There were forests teeming with bird-life, rivers alive with fish; in all it was indeed a land of plenty. Before his departure from Aotearoa he had to make his canoe Tokimataowhaorua seaworthy, and what better place to do it than on the shores of the Hokianga Harbour (at this time he had not named the harbour).

In Kupe's haste to return to Hawaiiki, he left his dog and fishing net on the shores of the Southern Hokianga Harbour at a place called Onoke.

The dog fretted in his master's absence, so as time marched on he willed himself to change into stone, so if by chance one day his master were to return, he would be awaiting him right where he had been left. He is still there today. And because of this “Hokianga” was the name that Kupe gave to our harbour—meaning of course “Returning”. Kupe departed from Aotearoa at this point.

On his way out over the bar he commanded three waves to guard the entrance to this harbour. The wave nearest the shore he named “Ngarupae ki uta”, meaning “safe landing”. The middle wave he named “Ngaruroa” meaning “The long wave.” Lastly the largest of the three waves he called “Ngarunui” and as the name suggests it means gigantic wave.

Although it is hundreds of years since Kupe's departure from our shores, these waves are still at the entrance of our harbour. It was Kupe who commanded them to stand guard. If by chance some of you may happen to pass through Opononi one day, you should make a point of going out to the Hokianga Heads. There you will see the mightly rollers coming in in groups, one, two, three—Ngarupae ki uta, Ngaruroa and Ngarunui—just as Kupe left them away back in the dim past.

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Part 2: Housing and Land Development

In a series of three articles, Mr T. T. Ropiha, Secretary of the Department of Maori Affairs, is giving his views on the position of the modern Maori. Last time, he wrote of the historic causes of the present situation; this time he sketches briefly the part played by his department in coping with the problems. The last installment will deal with future planning.

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A new house is built at Wairahi Station in the Far North: the workers are Umuroa, Rima and Heumate Wiki, from Te Kao. (NPS PHOTOGRAPH)

Traditionally the old-time Maori had little conception of individual ownership of land and houses which were regarded as belonging to the family (in its broad sense) or the community rather than the individual. Fully communal buildings such as meeting houses were symbols of the standing of the community, so work and skill were lavished upon them without stint and they were built for long life. Dwelling places however, were of simple types designed only as shelter from the elements and not with a view to permanency. In those less complicated days, therefore, the building of a dwelling house was a simple matter of rallying kinsmen and friends, gathering materials from the nearby forests, and after a few days working moving into the finished house.

From this simple, easily erected shelter to the

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type of home introduced by the European, serving as a living place for the family group and provided with electric stove, sewerage, title deed, rate payments, mortgages and all the advantages and disadvantages of the modern home, was a revolutionary change. That change which the European made over a period of many centuries, the Maori has had to make in less than a hundred years.

Until the 1920's the Maori generally was able, from the use of his lands or his land revenues, to find the money for the erection of an adequate dwelling to the relatively simple and inexpensive standards ruling for European housing at that period. But as the numbers of Maori owners in Maori lands increase, their shares of the proceeds become less; and at the same time the general housing standards of the community become more elaborate and more costly. The Maori thus

There, in a nut shell, lie the reasons for the special facilities offered for housing by the Department of Maori Affairs.

In about 1937 the Department embarked on the business of home finance and building for Maoris. It began in a small way and during the first year it built 13 houses and purchased 4. Output has fluctuated as a result of the war and other circumstances, but we reached a peak with 527 houses built and 11 purchased. Since the scheme has begun, the Department has built, through private contractors or its own building organisations, 5,218 houses, caried out 1,224 house renovations and financed the purchase of 432 houses or about 40 per cent of the houses occupied at present by the Maoris. Put in other terms, make a city a little smaller than Timaru.

Operations on this scale entail a great deal of expenditure. Our total expenditure in this direction has been slightly under £5,000,000 as at 31–3–35, but our operations pay their way. In connection with this sum, the Department has been repaid £1,700,000 in repayment of principal in addition to the interest charges amounting to £500,000 leaving £3,000,000 to be repaid on houses built during the last 3 or 4 years. So far no loss has been incurred in respect of the expenditure of this large sum. There were only two cases where the Department had to step in and exercise its rights as mortgagee. In both cases the mortgagors had substantial interests in the security, and the Department received the full amounts owing to it.

Our lending basis in practically 98 per cent of the cases is about 90 per cent of the value of the land and building offered as security. In any case the Department does not lend more than £2,000 which is the loan limit irrespective of the value of the security offered. Most of the houses cost somewhere about £2,250. In addition we give a great deal of service not given by other financial agencies—we help to straighten out difficulties of site ownership; we help the Maori to get a site if he does not own one; we act as his legal adviser; and where necessary we act as his agent for the building of the house and organise the actual work of building. However, we make charges for most of these services, and our rates of interest and our general rules of administration are comparable with those applying to Europeans who borrow for housing. What I have said about our lending and building activities and terms, applies to the general run of Maoris. There are two groups who are, in different ways, exceptions to the general rule.

Those on Very Low Incomes

One of these comprises Maoris on very low income—usually Social Security beneficiaries, often with large families to support. These people can not cope with home ownership on our usual terms; but their need is as great as—often greater than—the need of those who can. For them we finance and build specially economical houses to meet in a simple way their family requirements. We take from them a reasonable proportion of their income to cover all their housing outgoings; we look after rates, insurance and maintenance, and apply the rest of the money to our loan. There is usually not enough left to meet all our interests and principal, so the loan banks up. By the time the family no longer need the house the debt may be pretty heavy, and we may have to write off some, but the important thing is that the family has undisturbed use and ownership of the house while it is needed.

Please do not misunderstand the term I have just used, in dealing with our lower income group when I mentioned specially economical houses. By this I mean houses so planned and designed to get all the facilities of a good home for the size of the family, at the lowest cost. I most certainly do not mean any lowering of the standards of workmanship or amenities—that is a thing we will not put up with.

Those Who Can Look After Themselves

The second of the two exceptions to our general housing policy is the group—I am glad to say a steadily increasing group—who have grown up in the European way of life and are able to make their financial and other arrangements for housing on the same footing as their European fellow citizens. To these people we say in varying degrees: “We are very busy helping your kinsmen who cannot look after themselves in housing You can look after yourselves. You must do so and let us concentrate on the others”. Some we send straight over the road to the State Advances Corporation or other lending organisations; some

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we help only with advice; some we assist in straightening out little difficulties and let them carry on from there; some we help with loans but leave them to arrange for the actual building themselves.

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Dave Wiki of Ngataki examines his cream. Ten years ago. Ngataki was an unproductive expanse of sand; now its butterfat production competes with the rest of the Far North. (NPS PHOTOGRAPH)

Land Development

At the very beginning of the investigation as to the best means to be employed in the settlement of Maori lands by Maoris, it was soon found that the root difficulty was the character of the communal title as evolved by the Maori Land Court. In the course of time successions and inter-marriages have congested the titles. The difficulties of titles with its multiple ownership and ponderous methods in getting a title in severalty have always been obstacles in the way of the Maoris obtaining financial aid to farm their own lands.

It was not until 1929—nearly 90 years after the Treaty of Waitangi—that Parliament assumed direct financial responsibility for a policy of encouraging and training the Maoris to become industrious settlers under the Government's direction and supervision. It was the scheme Sir James Carroll, Sir Apirana Ngata, Sir Maui Pomare and Sir Peter Buck and other leaders of the Maori people pleaded for 38 years earlier. The main features of the scheme were these:

1. To overcome delays in difficulties arising from the nature of the land titles, the Minister of Maori Affairs was authorised to bring such lands under the scheme. The difficulties as to title were literally stepped over and the development and settlement of the lands made the prime consideration;
2. The funds for development were provided by the State and were extended under the supervision of Government officers;
3. Private alienation of any land within a scheme was prohibited;
4. The jurisdiction of the Maori Land Court in all matters affecting title of land brought under the scheme other than succession and trusteeship of persons under disability was exercisable only with the consent or at the instance of the appropriate Government Department.

The main aim was the training of Maoris to be efficient farmers in the course of developing their lands and to assist them when they settled down to the business of farming.

The future historian will have to pass judgment on the soundness or otherwise of this far-reaching policy. Those who formulated the policy helped to shape the canoe for its, fateful voyage and heartened them on with cries reminiscent of the old time sea shanties of their race. The Maori knew that he was being driven back to the last stronghold of the culture and individuality of his race and so the policy had an appeal that enlisted the goodwill and self-sacrificing support of Maori leadership and evoked from the rank and file of development workers an enthusiastic and gratifying effort.

On the financial side, this support has been remarkable.

From 1930 to 31st March, 1956, the gross expenditure on Maori land development schemes reached £23 ½ million. The receipts up to that date were £18 million. It will therefore be seen that the debt amounts to £5 ½ million.

Of the total 4,000,000 acres of Maori land, some 2 ½ million acres are estimated to be useable for farming. Of this area, approximately 1,100,140 acres are leased to Europeans, 473,248 acres are under departmental control, 39,000 acres are under control of the Maori Trustee, 498,000 acres are farmed by individual Maoris or by major incorporations, and 460,000 acres are lying idle.

As at the 30th June, 1956, there were 473,248 acres of Maori owned land gazetted under Part XXIV Maori Affairs Act 1953. Of this area, 25,623 acres were embodied in the 1956 development schemes in the course of development, and the balance of 220,625 acres were occupied by 1,351 farmers who are at present under the control of the Department.

The production and the stock carried on all schemes under development unit farms and Maori Trust stations as at the 30–6–56 were as follows:

Bales of wool 7,220

Butterfat produced 4,579,533 lbs.

Total number of sheep carried 297,172

Total number of beef cattle carried 29,676

Number of dairy cows and other dairy stock = total of 65,499

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Cost to the State

Land development is conducted in two stages. The first is the development of the land from its unimproved state up to station stage when sheep and cattle are reared and run for a number of years until the pasture is thoroughly consolidated. During this period of consolidation all the profits that accrue are credited to the scheme in order to ensure that on final settlement by units no loss would be carried by the State.

These stations, with the stock on them, were valued at about £14 million in 1955. The debt to the State at that time was £5 million.

The second stage of land development is settlement of the land by unit farmers. There are at present 1351 unit farms whose total assets are valued at £9 million, and these farmers owe the State £1,390,000.

It is clear from the figures that the assets created far exceed the outstanding debts, that the security is sound and the rate of repayment reasonable.

We should also include with the assets created by Maori Land Development the value of debt-free stations returned to Maori incorporations after development was complete, and the value of several hundred unit farms handed back to settlers after they had repaid their liabilities to the department. The value of such released stations and farms is estimated at over £3 million.

In the twenty-seven years the Maori Land Development Scheme has lasted, there have been some small sums written off as bad debts. However, it should not be forgotten that all lending has been at 1 ½% above the normal lending rate and the proceeds of this extra 1 ½% exceed several times the total written off.

So we may conclude that this scheme, which has been such an inestimable boon to the Maori people, has not been an undue burden on the resources of the Government.


The drowning rate among the Maori people has become so serious that the National Water Safety Committee is launching an all out campaign aimed at impressing the Maori people with the need to take care to prevent water deaths. It is determined to reduce the tragic number of Maori lives, particularly young lives, which are ended each year by drowning.

At the same time the national campaign directed at teaching all New Zealanders water safety continues. The demand for a special Maori campaign has been brought about by the fact that the Maori drowning rate is much higher than the pakeha. Though last summer 24 Maoris were drowned compared to 63 pakehas, when the comparatively small total Maori population is taken into account compared with the large pakeha population, it means that the Maori drowning rate is nearly six times that of the pakeha.


Three Maoris forming a group known as The Maori Trio have just returned to Western Germany after receiving an overwhelmingly rousing reception from audiences at Erfurt, in Eastern Germany, where they performed hakas and traditional Maori action songs.

The leader of the group, Mr Te Waari Ward-Holmes, formerly of Takaka (Golden Bay), and Nelson, said that in the ten days they were in the Soviet-occupied sector, the reaction of the German audiences was so great that the trio was performing twice as long as it anticipated. Its performances were given before the showing of a film.

“We were on stage for 35 minutes for the first house and 40 for the second, making a total of 75 minutes each night,” he said.

The other members of the group are Mr Henare Gilbert, of Waikaremoana, and Mr Te Manu Rawiri Paraki, of Ruatahuna, Urewera Country. Mr Paraki is better known as Mr Patrick Rawiri.

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THE MAORI PEOPLE OF WELLINGTON (continued from page 25)

Maori women serve on neighbourhood projects such as the free kindergarten at Naenae; they are members of young wives' groups; their children attend local Sunday schools. In the Waiwhetu community the people insist on a separate Maori Sunday School and take little part in the P.T.A. or the Free Kindergarten.

In the mixed communities pakehas baby-sit for Maoris and vice-versa, but in a Maori neighbourhood generally children and all go out: babysitting is an institution with only a few. On an average I would say, from my observation, that Maori homes scattered about in the community at large are if anything better kept than the average home in a Maori neighbourhood. Therefore it would seem that, from the point of view of the desirability for greater respect and fuller participation in the life of the urban community as a whole, the policy of scattered Maori housing would be better than the other.


With improved housing and economic conditions, there is an increase in the group of Maoris who find adjustment easy. More and more of our unskilled labourers, are securing permanent homes in and around the city and as they grow domestic roots a change also occurs in their attitude towards their work.

The “Will-o-the-Wisp” type of existence is replaced by a more stable one, leading to change in behaviour patterns and social habits.

One of the beneficial results is the wider and more spontaneous acceptance by the pakeha of his Maori neighbour as an integral part of his community. A fundamental of good social progress is the sense of belonging to a community, and to reach this there must be a free play of inter-action. The participation of Maori mothers in community projects and the exchange of baby-sitting favours, has already been mentioned, there is also now a much stronger tendency than before to visit each other's homes. Pakeha participation in things Maori at the community level can be gauged by two events, at least, which have involved direct Maori interests. First is the ever increasing numbers of pakeha participants in the activities of the Ngati Poneke Club: on an ordinary club night the numbers of regular pakeha visitors as spectator participants increase, and from these visitors have been enrolled several active members.

The second thing of a purely Maori nature, not as romantic as the club but even more vital to a Maori community, was a very large canvass arranged, organised and operated by pakehas in Lower Hutt for the meeting house at Waiwhetu. Over £6,000 was raised in a week by these pakehas, and what is just as significant is the fact that that money was raised not only by them, but from other pakehas.

Such inter-action is taking place at the personal level, the group level and the community level. Although it is not yet extensive enough, such interaction as has taken place indicates that there is a latent widespread acceptance of the Maori, not so much as a Maori, but more as an ordinary member of the community.

Another important field in the social development of the urban Maori is participation in recreational activities: dances and other festive gatherings.

At nearly every Maori wedding and all pakeha weddings of mutual interest, there is a joint sharing of joy. Of weddings it is interesting to note that of the marriages performed by me over the last twelve months 50% exactly have been mixed marriages. I have attended other mixed marriages performed this year by pakeha clergy who happen to be the vicar of the pakeha bride or bridegroom. At all funerals conducted by myself there has been a deep and joint sharing of sorrow. So it would seem that for Wellington-Lower Hutt at least, the tendency is towards more mixed marriages, and much wider and freer social inter-action.


In this urban situation, the religious needs of the Maori are adequately supplied by some churches and not by others.

Besides myself, the Roman Catholics have a permanent priest, and use Ngati-Poneke once a month. The Ratana also have monthly services there. The Latter Day Saints have at least six men in the area which constitutes my Pastorate.

Church attendance comparatively is poor. An interesting development over the last two years is the increase in the number of Maori families who have affiliated with a local parish church after Maori arts and crafts were introduced there as a social activity. It all started with the sending of the children to the local Sunday school.

It is my opinion that where this tendency exists it should be allowed to continue or even encouraged, for the greater the sharing within the community, the more successful will be the integration and the less will be the frustrations and tensions.


The development in the lives of the urban Maori of the Wellington-Lower Hutt area has been phenomenal, and shows every sign of continuing at an increased rate. However, this progress necessarily involves urbanisation and may give full concern to those who insist on keeping Maori culture pure and Maoritanga alive as a separate social characteristic. Some, however, could say that the essentials of Maoritanga can indeed survive in the cities, but only if most of what remains to us now finds a new setting in the world of the pakeha of which we must become part, if not by design then certainly by the continuing force of circumstance.

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On North Island dairy farms paddocks may be closed for winter-saved grass up to about the middle of June; for subsequent feed fields may be closed from then on after concentrated grazing of dry stock which have been heavily fed with hay and silage.

Application of nitrogenous fertilisers in July on these later-closed fields may be worth while to increase early spring grass growth, the Department of Agriculture considers.

The effect of close winter grazing and winter spelling on sward composition should be carefully watched, for hard grazing subsequently encourages white clover growth and spelling encourages grasses, particularly Yorkshire fog. Adverse changes in sward composition should be avoided by not subjecting pastures to the same management each winter; fields which were winter spelled last year should normally be hard grazed this winter and vice versa. Wintering on the same fields year after year weakens the grasses and allows clovers to become dominant; they come away very quickly when spring growth starts, producing a flush of immature feed which is very liable to cause bloat.


Worms are sometimes still troublesome in May and June, and if lambs or calves are not doing well, they should be drenched with phenothiazine at the full dosage rates recommended by the manufacturers. Information about worms and drenching will be found in Department of Agriculture Bulletin No. 171, which is obtainable free from offices of the Department.


Autumn-sown pastures in their first year should be grazed closely to keep the vigorous winter growth of ryegrass in check and to allow clover to become established. In their second and third seasons young pastures are often clover dominant and spelling during late autumn and winter helps to thicken up the grasses.


As soon as the cows have been dried off arrangements should be made for the milking machine to be overhauled by an expert. The Department of Agriculture warns farmers against installing complicated gadgets and suggests that they simply make sure that all parts of the machine are working efficiently. This will not only ensure rapid, trouble-free milking, but is likely to increase production and will help to reduce mastitis.


Red worms can seriously reduce the efficiency of horses and are responsible for many deaths in foals. Phenothiazine is a very effective remedy, but the Department of Agriculture recommends that with horses it should be administered under veterinary supervision. In certain conditions it may prove dangerous. Treatment should be given before winter.

Maori people of South Taranaki are playing big part in celebrations at Hawera for the 75th birthday of the town.

Maori floats took part in a parade through the town and one of them included an ancient canoe as the main exhibit.

Group and massed items of Maori song and dance were performed, and the meanings of the hakas, pois and ceremonials were explained to the public.

In charge of the Maori part of the celebrations is Mr Tini Whareaitu.

⋆ ⋆ ⋆

The Maori Land Court at Rotorua has decided not to allow any sub-dividing of Mokoia Island into lakeside sections unless a majority of the members of the Arawa tribe wish it so.

The future of the Island was reviewed by the Court when it heard members of the trust committee which administers Mokoia on behalf of the 1600 tribal owners speak unfavourably of an application to have the land partitioned.

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Our knowledge in New Zealand of the “Red” Indians of the United States is limited pretty much to what we have picked up from films and adventure stories of the pioneer days. Many of these have dealt with the Indians as a dying race. But there are today very considerable numbers of Indians throughout the country, living often in groups on reservations and under the special protection of the Federal Government. In more recent years the Government has set up a wide and complicated range of special services to Indians. Discussion now centred on the stepping down of the Government from its position of special protector and trustee and the taking by the Indian of his place in the community as an ordinary citizen.

Although the position of the Indian is not the same as that of the Maori, the facts about the Indians as discussed in this article must be of interest to many readers

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United States Indians

House of Representatives Report No. 1503. 82d Congress 2d Session, Union Calendar No. 790. Report with Respect to the House Resolution authorising the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs to conduct an Investigation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Pursuant to House Resolution 698 (82d Congress)

This is a weighty title and the volume concerned is correspondingly heavy. It contains some 2,000 pages of closely printed material on the Indians of the United States and the Bureau of Indian Affairs, which is the department of the Federal Government concerned with Indian administration. This book probably contains more facts about the Indians than could be found in any other single volume. Certainly there is more information in it than most of us would ever have the time or the inclination to take in.

The material was assembled for or by a Committee (actually a sub-committee of a Committee) of the United States House of Representatives which in 1952 was directed by the House to investigate the activities of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. In a “Summary Statement” of one and a half pages (1 ½ pages out of 2,000), the Committee sets out its belief “that all legislation dealing with Indian Affairs should be directed to the ending of a segregated race set aside from other citizens” and recommends that the objectives should be “(1) the end of wardship or trust status as not acceptable to the American way of life, and (2) the assumption by individual Indians of all the duties, obligations and privileges of free citizens”. It should be noted that in the statement the Committee expresses doubts about some of the information provided by the Bureau and reproduced in the book.

At the date of compilation of the figures, there were something like 403,000 Indians on tribal rolls, of whom 19,000 were “full-bloods”. About 61,000 Indians are said to be unable to speak English, and almost the same number to be illiterate. Nothing is said of the definition of “Indian” as used, and it is presumed that there must be at least some individuals with a degree of Indian blood who are submerged in the general population and not included in these figures.

The Indians reside in 26 states and in the Territory of Alaska. The greatest number, 93,000 odd, is in Arizona, and the smallest, 392, in Louisiana. There seem to be about 80 main tribes or tribal groups, broken up into several hundred bands and clans and living on or around some 375 reservations, which range in size from less than

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This is the home of a modern Indian of the Hopi tribe. The ceiling construction has not changed for centuries and the floors are usually hard-packed earth, though some of the newer ones have linoleum covering. Behind the wall at the left are storage spaces. At night mattresses are taken from these spaces and spread on the floor. One modern cot is seen on the rear. (USIS PHOTOGRAPH)

10 acres to over 2,000,000 acres. Apparently, the majority of the large reservations contain much desert and infertile land.

The Bureau of Indian Affairs is a huge organisation, dividing the country, for administrative purposes, into eleven geographical areas each with a large Area Office. These Area Offices among them control a total of about 60 Agencies together with various Field Offices. The number of employees is not shown, but must run into many thousands. The Bureau covers a wide range of activities. It is concerned with banking, collection and distribution of rents, control of land transactions, education, farming, forestry, health, irrigation, law enforcement, roads and welfare. And these are on no small scale. For example, the Bureau operates 61 hospitals and over 300 schools of varying grades. In effect, the Bureau is the whole of Government for most Indians. State Governments in all but a few cases have no jurisdiction whatsoever over Indians. Indian relationships are direct with the Federal Government, almost as if they were collectively a fortyninth state.

Our interest in New Zealand must go in the direction of comparing the Indian position with that of the Maoris. The result of any comparison can be surmised fairly well from the Statement of the Committee of the need for ending the special segregated status of the Indians and for their assumption of the privileges and obligations of free citizens. It is clear that the nature of Indian administration is intensely paternal and bureaucratic and that the status of the Indians is verging on what we might describe as that of persons under disability.

The general character of the administration is due, apparently to several essential features of long standing which tend themselves to militate against any slackening of Government leading strings. These are, I would say, the reservation idea, the communal ownership of much property; and the concept of the State as trustee for the Indians. The origin of these features is, of course,

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historical. The Indians, generally, are not on their original ancestral lands, and many of them were pushed thousands of miles towards the west, in stages until they were placed on reservations which were at last to be really reserved. Naturally enough most of the reservation lands are those which appealed least to the settlers. Land was reserved for tribes as a whole and individuals did not receive title other than their beneficial rights as members of a tribe. Tribal funds were built up by tribal land use and the like and are still tribal. The tendency in the relatively few cases where groups have been released from tutelage, has been to incorporate the group by statute thus continuing the communal notion.

The difficulty now lies in fully releasing shares of land and other property to individuals and withdrawing the paternal tentacles of the Federal Government without too serious a shock. Some steps in this direction have been taken by issuing individual grants to land, but on an extremely small scale.

Many other comments could be made by those of us familiar with Maori Affairs. In particular, one cannot but feel that the setting up of an independant judicial tribunal to control and effect land transactions would have been a vast improvement on the system whereby the Bureau itself by means of its administrative officers does this work. It is also interesting to see how the old familiar trouble of involved multiple ownership is adding to land troubles.

The impression one gets from the statistics and other material in the book is that the social and economic status of the Indians, generally speaking, is low, and that the primary reason for this is their segregation and special status as mentioned in the Committee's statement. The old communal organisation has in my view unjustifiably been made to live on, long after its appropriateness has dwindled.

Apart from all these more serious considerations there is a wealth of fascinating stuff in the book. In particular, the “Directory of Indian Tribal and Band Groups”, of about 450 pages, giving historical and other data on all known Indian groups, is, one would think, an invaluable reference work for anyone connected with Indian Affairs, and for many who are not. A directory of this sort for Maori tribes and hapus would be invaluable to New Zealand historians and Maori scholars.


The Old Man and the Sea‘—Ernest Hemingway. With illustrations by C. F. Tunnicliffe and Raymond Sheppard. Jonathan Cape. 1955.

Ernest Hemingway was born at Oak Park, Illinois, in 1898. At sixteen he began to earn his own living at a variety of labouring jobs, and after

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serving in the 1914–18 war, returned to newspaper work. His life-long interests in fishing, shooting, ski ing, and the bull ring have supplied much of the raw material of his books, and taken him to many different corners of the world. He now lives in Cuba.

Hemingway published his first book before he was twenty-five, and was immediately recognised as an outstanding writer and one of the most influential figures in the field of modern American fiction. In 1954 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature for his narrative art as shown in his most recent book, ‘The Old Man and the Sea.’

This is the story of an old man who fished alone in a skiff in the Gulf Stream. His closest friend was a young boy who loved him and served him like his own son; and his only other interest, now that the days of his youth were far behind him, was baseball. Fishing was his life and his livelihood, and he had gone eighty-four days without taking a fish. In the early dark of the eighty-fifth day he put out to sea alone, out past the other boats, out of sight of land, out to where the big fish lived in an ocean a mile deep. And there he hooked his fish—a giant marlin eighteen feet long and stronger than a strong man in his prime. For two days and two nights he followed and fought the fish with all the patience and experience that the spent years had left him, and on the third day he won. Then came the sharks.

It is a simple tale about an old man, a fish, and a boy. Nothing more. But into it Hemingway has put all the courage, humility, endurance, and suffering that can be contained in one man's life. It is written in a quiet and deliberately restrained prose, but its excitement and terrible suspense make it a book to be read at one sitting. This 1955 edition is a beautiful example of book production, and the excellent black and white illustrations are entirely suitable.

Four of Mr Hemingway's earlier novels have been published by Penguin Books and are easily obtainable. They are: ‘Men Without Women’, ‘A Farewell to Arms’, ‘To Have and Have Not’, ‘For Whom the Bell Tolls’.—J.C. Sturm.


The War History Branch advises that the Unit History of the 28th Maori Battalion, 2 N.Z.E.F., is now completed. Any ex-member, or next-of-kin of any deceased member, is entitled upon application to receive a free copy.

Applications should state Army Number, Rank and Name, and give the address to which the book should be sent.

Forward applications to War History Branch, Department of Internal Affairs, Wellington.


Ki te Etita

Katahi ano ka kite iho i te Ripoata o ta matau hui i Turangawaewae Marae, Ngaruawahia, i te Koroneihana o Kiingi Koroki.

Kei te he te korero o te Ripoata ko taku kaupapa he whakakotahi mai i te iwi Maori ki raro i Te Kiingitanga. Kaore tena i te huarahi e kotahi ai taua te Maori. Otira, e kore ke taua te Maori e kotahi, i te kotahitanga tinana. Na te whakahaere a Ratana ka ahua tata te kotahi. Ko te kotahitanga o te Maori he kotahitanga i runga i nga whakaaro mo nga take e pa ana ki te iwi Maori katoa.

Ko te kotahitanga o Te Kiingitanga, he kotahitanga i roto i a Tainui ake. Ko tona waewae kaha ko nga komiti marae i taua takiwa. He komiti enei no mua iho, ko tana mahi he hapai i Te Kiingitanga i roto o Waikato.

Na te patai a nga iwi o waho, me pehea matau e whai waahi atu ai ki ta matau Mokopuna? Ka whakautu a Waikato, koianei pea tetehi huarahi he tuku mai i nga terekete o o koutou komiti marae.

Ko te korero aku a Waikato ki nga iwi o Te Motu, he kotahitanga toku, kei whea tou? I te taenga ake o Peta raua ko Nehe, ka kitea atu tera pea ta raua kotahitanga mo te iwi Maori ko Te Social Credit. I manaakitia ta raua take i Te Koroneihana. Heoi, kaore he whakahoa roopu pooti mema a Te Kiingitanga. Na reira i te korero-tanga o Peta raua ko Nehe i te marae ka tukuna hoki tetehi taima ki a Iriaka kia puta ai te waahi ki a ia.

Kia kaha tatau ki te whakatuputupu i o tatu roopu, ko Te Riiki tena, ko Te Ringatu tena, ko Te Ratana tena, a me Te Kiingitanga. Ko te waahi ki Te Kiingitanga ko te pupuri i te mana Maori hei tirohanga atu ma nga uri whakatupu, he taonga penei ano toku to te Maori. Kei hea afu koia i roto i a taua i te iwi Maori te mauri ranga tiratanga Maori penei i ta Waikato raua ko Maniapoto? Toitu tonu tana tu mai ra no. Ahakoa pehea te tineia e nga tikanga o te a o hou, u tonu, mau tonu.

Ko taku tenei, hui mai taua te iwi Maori, ki te waihanga i taua, ahakoa he aha te roopu, te kotahitanga ranei. Tuituia o taua hinengaro a whaia hoki he huarahi e mau ai nga taonga ataahua ao taua tupuna i tenei wa o te pakeha

Kia ora mai,

Na ta koutou mokai,

Maharaia Winiata.

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I would like to draw your attention to the game of Indoor Basketball. This game is played by both men and women and is ideally suited to our Maori people. This article deals with the women's game which is developing quite rapidly.

The game produces a good team spirit besides developing individual talents such as quick thinking, fast movements, skill at ball handling and the ability to weave and dodge besides the enjoyment of participating in a rapidly spreading fast, clean sport.

A typical example of some of our Maori people who take or who have taken an active part in this sport is May Smith of Auckland many times New Zealand representative and one of the most outstanding players in the country. May is still playing and her generalship is responsible for the Auckland team's run of successes in the past few years. This woman has developed an unorthodox hook shot that would be the envy of many a man player. Other well known players from Auckland are June Waititi, a fast, accurate shooting forward prominent at the last National Tournament, and Vi Harrison. When this player is on her shooting she is deadly from any position under the basket.

One of the Wellington players who has contributed to the sport on a National basis is Mahi Potiki many times a Wellington representative guard who has also taken part in the administrative side of the sport. Among the players coming on is Hinea Hikitapua who if she makes the progress expected should develop into a first class player.

At the moment there are a great many Maori girls in the B Grade teams in various centres, one of which Rotorua won the B Grade title in the last National tournament. As these B Grade players develop their skill they must ultimately reach A Grade honours and could worthily represent their Association at the National Tournaments.

From a spectator's point of view this game has much to recommend it. Spectators can derive keen enjoyment from watching two teams in fast, clean sport that gives the players physical and mental fitness of a very high order.

⋆ ⋆ ⋆


Two Fijian Sports Teams—Rugby and basketball—will tour New Zealand this year.

The chairman of the New Zealand Rugby Union's executive committee, Mr C. S. Hogg, said that the Fijian Rugby team will tour next July and August, and will play between 13 and 15 matches. Mr Hogg had just arrived from Fiji, where he had negotiations with the Fijian Rugby Union. He said that the Fijians were most enthusiastic about making the tour, and officials had told him that the team would be stronger than either of the two previous sides which have toured New Zealand.

The president of the New Zealand Basketball Association, Mrs R. Lane, has announced that a Fijian basketball team will begin a month's tour of New Zealand on the 11th of August. The itinerary for the team has not yet been decided, but it is intended that the players should travel as widely as possible. The team will play matches at the Dominion championship tournament at Greymouth, and it will also probably play against a team drawn from minor associations in New Zealand. A team from New Zeauand minor associations visited Fiji two years ago.

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M. Harvey (Auckland) won the New Zealand Maori Men's Singles Tennis title in the annual Maori Tennis Tournament held at Hastings recently.

There was an upset when the previous men's title holder, J. Cosgrove (Auckland), was defeated in the semi-final by R. Smith (Nuhaka).

The women's singles was won comfortably by Miss Morrison.

Results of the tourney are as follows:—

Men's singles, final: M. Harvey (Auckland) beat R. Smith (Nuhaka), 6–1, 6–1. Men's doubles, semi-finals: Cosgrove and Harvey (Auckland) beat Herewini and Ormsby, 6–0, 6–0, Eru and Smith (Rotorua) beat Nepia and Whaanga, 6–1, 6–2.

Women's singles, final: Miss R. Morrison (Rotorua) beat Miss J. Edwards (Hastings), 6–0, 6–0. Women's doubles, final: Miss E. Maaka and Mrs T. Maaka (Gisborne) beat A. Rupuka and Miss J. Edwards (Hastings), 6–0, 6–2. Girls' singles, final: Miss K. Christie (Wairoa) beat Miss M. Edwards (Gisborne), 6–2, 6–1. Boys' singles, final: E. Hopa (Rotorua) beat A. Horsfall (Gisborne), 9–7, 6–3.

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At Waikanae beach, Mr John Edwin recently caught a shark with his bare hands.

He was on the beach when the alarm went up that a shark, six feet in length, was in the water. Swimmers came running out of the sea. Mr Edwin ran into the sea and placed himself into position for a grab at the tail with both hands. He quickly hauled the shark backwards onto the beach. Then he killed the big fish with a piece of wood.

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The Home Garden


Spraying programmes should be strictly adhered to. Unfortunately gardeners start off in the spring with very good intentions, but after spraying their crops and orchards two or three times, they refrain from continuing the good work until such times as infection is apparent. Always remember that spraying is a preventative method and not a cure. Spraying materials are very costly and must be used continuously, otherwise their effectiveness is useless. Therefore, for late crops of tomatoes, potatoes, and the later varieties of peaches, apples and pears, continue to apply a covering protective.

Where potatoes have been harvested from the garden, continue to sow carrots for winter use. If the previous crop has been well manured, refrain from using any further fertilizer. Sow onion seeds for transplanting later in the year. A sowing of cabbage, cauliflower and lettuce can now be made at intervals, so that a complete succession of the crop may be utilized later in the season. The variety of cauliflower known as Phenomonal Early can be strongly recommended. When planting out, always remember to fertilize with a nitrogenous manure such as blood and bone, and plant on ridges allowing three feet between the rows and eighteen inches between the plant. As spring grown crops mature, harvest carefully and avoid bruising so that the crops will not deteriorate during storage. All proportions of the garden not required for other use should now be sown down with a cover crop. Blue lupin is a most suitable type of crop for digging in at a later date. Owing to the fact that in most home gardens there is a need for continuous and usually intensive cropping, it is very important to dig in all available organic material. All rubbish and trash which has not been infected by insect pests and fungoid disease, should be returned to the soil either by composting or dug directly into the land. As a rule the home gardener is never likely to have more organic material available than his garden will require.


Home gardeners realize that most soils in New Zealand require applications of lime from time to time, but it must be understood that while lime does have an influence on soil and crops owing to its calcium content and while calcium is essential for plants, lime is not regarded as a fertilizer. For instance, when lime is applied to very heavy clay land the effect is to neutralize the acidity and therefore, make the land more friable and easier to work. Another feature of liming the garden occasionally, is the fact that often phosphorus and potassium, although they are in the soil, are not available as plant food. An application of lime will often liberate these elements. The best time of the year to apply lime is in the late Autumn, an always apply on the surface after digging so as to allow normal winter rains to take the lime into the soil. Lime is not required for potatoes and tomatoes, and only to a small degree where pumpkins, squash, watermelons and kumaras are to be grown. On the other hand where peas, bean cabbage, lettuce and spinach are grown, ample quantities of lime may be applied.


As the later varieties of fruit mature, harve carefully and store for later use. Fruit which not noted for its keeping qualities, should be immediately preserved. Where plantings of your fruit trees are desired, place orders with the local nurseryman early, so that the best selection of trees may be procured. Too often, due to the lateness of ordering, intending purchasers have not been able to procure a satisfactory variety of trees.

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The Judge Carr Cup for Maori citrus growers was won last year by Mr Peta Taukamo of Ruatoria. Points are awarded for the general care the citrus area; the tidiness and appearance of the grounds and garden have an important bearing on the number of points awarded.

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The first Maori to qualify as a Government inspector is Mr R. T. Walter, son of Mr and Mrs R. Walter, Turihaua, Gisborne.

Mr Walter has been assistant inspector at the Horotiu freezing works, Waikato for the past two years, and was recently advised of his success the Agriculture Department's meat inspection examination. He is an ex-pupil of the Whangara Maori school and the Gisborne High School.

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Here are some of the many plaiting techniques known to the ancient Maori, and studied by the Dominion Museum over the last thirty years. All those detailed here are of raw flax, each part of the flax blade used in the plait being termed a weft or whenu. It is hoped that many of the younger generation will be able to learn these plaits. If you try, please write and let us know how you get on.

We start with a simple two plait. About the year 1930 a two plait was made for me by an elderly Maori, Mrs Atkinson, of the Ngati Raukawa tribe at Rangiotu. As she was unable to speak, I could not ascertain anything about it, but other Maoris assured me that it had been taught her by her elders, together with other plaits, many years previously. No Otaki Maoris or others whom I questioned later could do this plait though it is known elsewhere. It is made as follows:

Two wefts are crossed, right over left. Bring left weft upwards and bend to the right. Bend right weft underneath and to the left, bringing it over the top of left weft which has just been laid down on the right. We now have the position as seen in fig. 1, left. Continue always bending weft on right underneath and weft on left upwards, placing weft which comes from right side over the top of weft which comes from left side as in fig. 1, right. If this plait be done very tightly we get a remarkably good two-ply twist. It was probably a children's plait.

A plait known as whiri kawe was first shown to me in 1930 by Mrs Rikihana, Ngati Taukawa tribe. Since then I have found that this plait was widely known to older Maori women every here and there from Wellington to Awanui. Mrs Rikihana had learned the plait from her mother when very young. She had been instructed that this was the old type of tipare used as a circlet for the head before the present four-type plait came into vogue. Two ties of this particular three plait were necessary, one around the forehead to hold the hair in place and the other just below the top-knot to hold its base in position. The whiri kawe is simply and readily made by following the accompanying diagrams to be seen in fig. 2. In these diagrams the butt is held towards the worker, and three wefts are retained on a single blade.

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Figure 1: Two-plait from Rangi-otu—Left: Beginning of the plait. Right: Final form of the two-plait, widely plaited to show construction. (W.J.P. del.)

First, to prevent the blades from splitting down to the butt end it is necessary to bend the blade over sharply backwards and forwards. This bending backwards and forwards is called “hetope” in Otaki, and it certainly prevents the blades splitting down to the base. Holding the butt towards you, the wefts are pointed away and the centre weft is pulled sharply downwards towards the operator. The weft on the left is turned as in fig. 2 so that it ranges alongside the weft on the right. We now turn the weft on the right over the weft on the left, as in no. 3. Weft no. 2, which had been pulled towards the worker, is now raised to the extreme right as in no. 4. This process is repeated continuously, as will be seen in nos. 5 and 6, the instructions being as follows:

The central weft towards you, the one on the left a turn or twist, the one on the right over that, weft that was pulled towards you up on your right.

The four plait was formerly used as a rope at Otaki, and was a very common plait indeed. It is a square plait which could be made either of raw flax or of muka fibre. This plait is rather remarkable because in its initial stages it becomes a toy or windmill for Maori children, and was apparently in universal use at the time the Europeans arrived in New Zealand, and probably very much earlier. Like the other plaits, I have verified its use not only at Otaki but also in Taranaki, North Auckland and the Bay of Plenty. Mr J. M. McEwen knew the plait at Feilding as a boy where Maori children made windmills of raupo. At the

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start I could find no other Maori name for this toy than mira hau, literally the mill of the wind, and mira is obviously a corruption of the English word mill, so almost reluctantly I at first decided that in spite of its wide usage the mira hau must be an early European toy taught to the Maori children by early whalers and traders. However, later on I noticed how Sir Peter Buck (Trans. N.Z. Inst. Vol. 56, 1926, fig. 54) illustrates this plait as a bait rest (paemounu) for a form of net (torehe) used on the East Coast and Bay of Plenty.

In 1951 I visited Tatana Whare-papa, Te Kaha, Bay of Plenty, and met his family. Mrs Whare-papa was formerly Kerama Ngakau Tuhou, daughter of the second Lady Ngata. In course of conversation the Maori wind-mill, mira hau, was mentioned; but Kerama Whare-papa said this was an old Maori toy. She was brought up by her grandmother, Tererino Ruku Hine Tiurangi of Mangahanea, Ruatoria, who made the wind-mill sixty or more years ago. It was known as Tititi parerera, and was correctly made of raupo. As they used this toy, children made their avocation to the god of the wind to make their wind-mills turn: “Homai ra he hau motaku titi parerera.”

We have in fig. 3 a series of three drawings made to illustrate this plait. The first drawing illustrates very well the method of manufacture. Two blades of flax of equal width are taken. We cross these as seen on the back of the completed toy, no. 2, then we bend each blade in the shape of a letter N. Study how cleverly the two ends are folded into each other as in the first and last figures. Then try it. Pull the two ends together tightly and the first stage is completed. If the arms are cut off short, a hole placed in the centre and a fern stalk used as a handle, we have our windmill complete, but when making rope naturally we would continue to fold the ends one into the other continuously as in the first operation, new pieces being added as required.

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Miss Patricia Mathison, a 29-year-old Maori policewoman, recently topped the examination marks for policewomen passing out of the police training school. Trentham. She is one of the few representatives of the Maori race in the women's section of the force.

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Figure 2, Nos. 1 to 6: The beginning of the plait called whiri kawe. (E. H. Atkinson del.)

Miss Mathison's police school “dux” consisted in gaining highest aggregate marks for three final examinations. When her marks were included with those of men candidates in the same training course she was second highest for the whole school.

In two debates held at the Trentham school she was leader of her team and in each debate she was adjudged best speaker.

She won most of the athletic events contested among women candidates at the school, carrying on a record she started when she served in the Army.

Miss Mathison joined the police force in October 1955. Her people are farmers at Okato, on the Cape Egmont coast in Taranaki.

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Figure 3: A Maori windmill, No. 1: How the windmill is constructed. No. 2: Back view. No. 3: Front view of completed windmill. (S. Traill, Mrs Natusch, del.)

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Puddings for this Winter

The colder days of winter sharpen appetites. Children, always hungry after school seem hungrier, and menfolk working out of doors come home at the end of the day ready for a good dinner. After a generous serving of meat and vegetables a hot pudding rounds off a satisfying meal for a hungry family.

These recipes are not new but have proved their worth over a period of many years.


1. quart of stewed or boiled fruit
4. oz. of sugar
2. oz. of butter
1. egg
4. oz. of sifted flour
1. level teaspoon of baking powder
A pinch of salt
2–3 oz. of milk

Heat the fruit in an ovenproof dish. Cream the sugar and butter together and then beat in the egg. Add the sifted dry ingredients, alternating with the milk, being careful not to over beat the mixture. Pour it on top of the hot fruit and bake it in a moderate oven (350 deg. F) for about 20–30 minutes, depending on the depth of the sponge.


I quart of hot stewed apples. ½ a cup of clean, washed sultanas and some chopped, fresh lemon rind may be cooked with the apples to vary the flavour.

Flaky Pastry

8 oz. of sifted flour
4–6 oz. of butter or a mixture of butter and lard—3 parts of butter to 1 of lard
½ teaspoon of salt

A squeeze of lemon juice (about 1 teaspoon). Sieve the dry ingredients. Cut the fat into small pieces and drop them into the flour. Add the lemon juice and sufficient cold water to make a stiff dough. Chop the mixture with a knife to mix it; do not use a spoon. Roll out the dough and fold it in half twice. Leave it to cool for a few minutes in a refrigerator or in a draughty place. Roll it thinly and place it on the dish of apples. A pie funnel or an egg cup in the centre of the fruit will hold the crust out of the fruit juice. Bake the pie in a hot oven (450 deg. F) until the pastry has risen (about 5–10 minutes) and then reduce the temperature a little (or put the pie on a lower shelf) for he next ten minutes until it is cooked.

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Mr Rome Hemi Davis was married to Miss Grace Te Aorewa Henare at Otiria by Rev. Henare Paraone, Uncle of the bride, and was assisted by Rev. W. N. Patiawa of Kaitaia before a large gathering of over 1,000.

Mr Davis is the second son of Mr and Mrs W. T. Davis of Kawa Kawa, and Miss Henare the eldest daughter of Lt. Col. and Mrs J. C. Henare of Motatau, Bay of Islands.

The Bay of Islands Tribal Executive with Mr S. W. Maioha had full control of the marae. It was a day full of incident and festivity. Only three cartons of beer were confiscated by the Wardens. But there is still a mystery “What happened to the three cartons?” They disappeared!

In the evening a dance was held where over 500 couples enjoyed themselves in varying “Rock'n Roll” gestures to the popular music of the Ngawati Brothers Orchestra, all of local talent.

Mr D. Wynyard, Maori Warden of Moerewa, was M.C. and indeed controlled the dancing with ability and co-operation.


Mr Hotu Kuru was married to Miss Mereana Pouahia Cherrington before a large assembly of Maoris and pakehas. Mr Kuru's people came by bus from Porangahau, Hawkes Bay, Rev. Canon Paki Tipene, vicar of Kawakawa, assisted by Rev. Canon W. H. Cherrington, M.B.E. (grandfather of the bride) officiated at the wedding. Mr and Mrs Kuru will reside at Orauta, Bay of Islands. Mr Kuru is a school teacher in the Motatau District High School Staff, and is a North Auckland halfback (Rugby) and Bay of Islands rep. and Tai Tokerau Maoris half. He is also a skilled tennis player in the Bay of Islands. Mrs Kuru is a Northland basketball representative and Bay of Islands B. rep. too, and is in the Bay of Islands Dairy factory office staff.


Mr Walton Whareunui Davis of Kawakawa, was married to Miss Te Aue Hinenuiitepo Cherrington at Otiria. Mr Davis is the eldest son of Mr and Mrs W. T. Davis. Miss Cherrington is the second daughter of Mr and Mrs G. W. Cherrington, Motatau. It was a grand wedding full of incident, and good Maori entertainment.

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More News

Miss Hannah Pareunora Tatana of Taupo, and a pupil of Queen Victoria school for Maori Girls, Auckland, has been awarded the Hemi Matenga scholarship tenable at Queen Victoria school, She is the daughter of Mr and Mrs D. Tatana. This is the first occasion on which the scholarship has been awarded.

The award sprang from a legacy left by the late Hemi Matenga who set aside in his will £1,000 to be administered by the New Zealand Mission Trust Board. Year by year it is intended that this award will go to a worthy and capable pupil who, after passing school certificate wishes to take the extra year to prepare for university entrance.

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The Bishop of Aotearoa, the Rt. Rev. W. Panapa, officiated at St Luke's Church, Rotorua, on December 14 at the wedding of Lieutenant Anthony Taroa Averill, son of the Rev. W. P. Mataira, of Manituke, and the late Mrs Mataira, to Marjorie (Billie), third daughter of Mrs R. Rogers, of Mourea, Rotorua, and the late Mr Rogers.

Assisting Bishop Panapa was the bridegroom father. The newly-married couple will reside in Tauranga, where Lieutenant Mataira is adjutat of the 1st Battalion of the Hauraki Regiment.

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More than 400 Maoris of the Mormon fait gathered at the Mormon Community Centre in Kaikohe recently to farewell Dr M. N. Paewa who left for the United States of America the week-end to further his medical studies. He wi be away for about a year.

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A resolution of sympathy with South African suffering in present race disturbances was passed by the Maori section of the National Council of Churches. The text of the resolution was: “We Maori and European members of the Maori section of the National Council of Churches learn with deep concern of the suffering being experienced in the relationships among the peoples of South Africa through the application of the apa theid policy.

“We wish to assure all who seek a Christian solution to the troubles, of our prayerful sympathy and hope that from their suffering may soon come a healing and reconciliation to work for the well being of all peoples in that land.”

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