In our last issue, we printed the late Sir Apirana Ngata's comments on Waikato and the origin of the King movement; here we have an appraisal of that important historic figure, King Mahuta. This article is reprinted from Pipiwharauroa, of the year 1900, and the translation is by Rev Hohepe Taepa. The photograph of Apirana Ngata (left) and Peter Buck (right), taken about the time the article was written, is from the Turnbull Library.
He tangata te kingi o Waikato e tau ana hei hapai i te ingoa rangatira, hei whakatopu i nga whakaaro o nga iwi i roto i te porotaka o Te Kingitanga. Haunga ake te waihanga o te tinana, kaore he wahi hape, engari ko nga whakaaro. E titiro ana au he tangata marama, he tangata hohoro ke te whawha i te kupu tika engari e tupato ana ki te whakaputa, e araitia ana pea e nga tikanga nunui kei te takiwa o Waikato. Kei mua ona whakaaro i o tona iwi ki taku mahara, e whai ana ki te hopu i nga mea pakari e ahu ana mai i te taha pakeha hei painga mo tona iwi, otira e tino uaua ana a Waikato ki te whakapiri atu ano ki te taha o te pakeha, na reira ka mate whakaroto nga whakaaro o nga tangata e titiro ana e taea noatia ana e te Maori te pupuri nga wahi pumau o tona maoritanga i tuku mai i ona tipuna: engari i te mea kua ara ake he aronga hou i te taenga mai nei o te pakeha me tiki atu ano i te pakeha he ringaringa he kaha he matauranga hei whawha i enei mea tauhou.
The King of Waikato (Mahuta) is a personage who can well bear the honourable title, and in whom the hopes of those within the circumference of the King Movement may well be centred. He has personality, but more he is a thinker. To me he is keen to discern, quick to consider good advice, and diplomatic, perhaps somewhat stunted by the authority of custom prevalent in that Waikato region. I think he has shown initiative in advance of his people, striving to turn to their advantage those things of worth in the European way of life; but Waikato is reluctant to co-operate again with the European which is a burden the other people confident in the retention of their cultural heritage. Since with the advent of the European a new way of life has been introduced, the new problems created must be met with European methods and education.
Ko nga kupu enei a Mahuta ki a matou ko aku hoa o Te Kotahitanga i te taenga ki Waahi i te marama o Mei nei:—
“Haere mai e taku papa (Te Heuheu Tukino) te pou hereanga o te tangata o te whenua o te tikanga. Haere mai whakawaha mai nga rangatira o te motu. Haere mai nga rangatira o te motu, i te ngaro hoki a ka kitea mai. Haere mai ki te mahi tahi, ki te whiriwhiri tahi. Haere mai e nga mahi matau ki te titiro i tenei hanga i te tikanga i te kupu. Haere mai e nga mahi matau ki te titiro whetu.” Katahi ka whakahua te waiata.
Kei waenganui o Waikato me te pakeha e takoto ana ko te pakanga, ko te whakahekenga toto, ko te raupatu, he awa nui e hamama tonu ana ka toru tekau tenei nga tau. Kia roa e karapiti ai: engari tenei kei te whakatutata. Kua hopu a Mahuta ki te kupu a Potatau “Kia mau ki te ture”—kei te whaiwhai hoki i tera kupu na “Kia mau ki te whakapono,” e manaakitia ra a Nikora ma e noho mai ra i Te Pourewa, e whakatapua nei te Ratapu, e puare nei nga whare o Waikato ki nga kauwhau a nga minita. Na Mahuta te kupu ki te taina mo te kakahu kanukanu o o raua tipuna. Maku e tapiri atu tenei, kaore he mate e Waikato ki te kanihitia e koe nga pakaru o te kakahu na, hei whariki mou a ko ake nei. He tikanga toitu tenei kei te ao e takoto ana, na te ringa o te Atua i tuhi ki te rangi ki te whenua, ko te whakapono anake te kaupapa hei utanga mo nga mahi a te tangata e tu ai, e ora ai. Ehara te ture, ehara te ahuwhenua, ehara te uaua tangata, ehara te matauranga he tapiri kau no te whakapono, no te wehi ki te Atua.
Ka ara te pepeha kei Waikato te rakau e tupu ana ka toro te Kauhanganui hei taunga mo nga manu o te motu. Tera kei Maungakawa e toro ana, ko te wahi tera i te torona o te kingi, ko te huinga tera o te iwi i raro i tera whakahaere. Hei te 2 o nga ra o Mei i ia tau i ia tau ka tuwhera te Kauhanganui, ka hui nga Matariki, nga Manukura, nga Whakamarumaru, me tenei i te parangeeki nei. (Ko wai oti i rangatira ki te kore he huruhuru mo nga waewae?). Kei reira ka puaki te kupu i te kingi, ka whiriwhiria e nga rangatira nga take. I te wa e tu ke ana te kingi i nga mahi o te Paremete, i nga whakahaere hoki o era atu wahi o te motu, kaore au e marama he aha ranei nga tino take hei whiriwhiringa. Engari i nga tau i ara nei Te Kotahitanga ka tuatoru nei taenga ki te Kauhanganui; i te wa hoki o Mahuta nei i uru ai me Waikato katoa ki te whiriwhiri i nga ture e hangaia ana hai i te Paremete, ka nui nga take korero o nga hui a te Kauhanganui.
Na e Waikato! he taonga nui tenei te ahu ki waho i ou rohe tirotiro ai whakarongorongo ai hoki: he taonga ano hoki te tuku atu i nga maramatanga o waho ki tou takiwa, kia marama ai to titiro ki roto ki waho, ki tetahi taha ki tetahi taha, kia ahei ai te whakariterite, a, te whakatikatika i nga tikanga me te whakahaerenga o nga kupu nunui kei to awa e takoto ana.
When my friends of Te Kotahitanga and I visited Waahi this month of May, Mahuta addressed us in these words:
“Welcome my uncle (Te Heuheu Tukino) the mooring for man, land, and custom. Come, bearing with you the leaders of the country. Come and let us work and consider together. Come, thou magi to examine such things as planned and discussed. Welcome, thou astrologers.” Then the song was sung.
For nigh on thirty years a great river has flowed between Waikato and the European, a river of hostility, bloodshed, and confiscation. This status quo has prevailed for a long time: but there is a coming together. Mahuta has seized Potatau's advice “Uphold the law”—and furthermore pursues that other “Hold fast to the Faith,” which Nikora nurtures and those with him at Te Pourewa, where Sunday is observed, and where the homes are open to the ministering evangelists. Mahuta exhorted his younger brother concerning their ancestors' tattered cloak. I will add this, no misfortune will befall you, O Waikato, if the torn cloak were patched, and in the future used for you to lie on. This has universal authority, God's hand has written it in the heaven and on earth, the Faith is the only foundation upon which man and his accomplishments will stand and survive. The law, economics, manpower, and education are but subsidiary to the Faith and the fear of God.
(II) TE KAUHANGANUI
The saying arose—the tree groweth at Waikato from whence stems Te Kauhanganui, a perch for the feathered flock of the land. It stands at Maungakawa. It is there that the King is enthroned and the plaza upon which the Kingites assemble. Te Kauhanganui is opened annually on the 2nd May, when the galaxy of leaders gather as though boding great events. (For who can lead who is destitute?) There the King commands, and there the people deliberate. When the King stood aloof of Parliamentary influence, and of affairs concerning other parts of the country, I was not sure what matter should be discussed. But in the years of Te Kotahitanga's existence, there have been three visits to Te Kauhanganui; during Mahuta's time when he and all Waikato with him participated in the discussions on Parliamentary acts, there was ample material for Te Kauhanganui meetings.
Therefore, O Waikato! It is of great importance to venture outside your boundary, that you may observe and listen also: it is to your advantage to permit into your domain, outside, sound opinion, that you may consider clearly both sides, and make fair comparison, amend policies, and act on such important deliberations which abound throughout your territory.
(III) THE PEOPLE
Waikato is a big tribe, and if those people on its borders or under the Movement's influence were included no other gathering of people could
He iwi nui a Waikato, a ki te huia atu nga iwi e pae i nga taha, a e uru ana ki te whakahaere kotahi, kaore he huihuinga iwi o te motu nei e rite, no te mea ahakoa he maha nga wehewehenga tupana, hapu i roto, he Maniapoto, he Raukawa, he Ngati-Haua, he Ngati Poao, he Ngati Maru, he Ngaiterangi, e taea ana te ki he kotahi enei iwi me Waikato, kotahi te waka taua, kotahi te tangata kei runga i nga kai-hautu. Mo te ahua o te tangata, ehara he Maori nei ano: he tangata i pai tona waihanga he tangata i kino: he tangata i parauri, he tangata i kiritea. Engari ka nui te tangata. I tona wa pea i mua atu o te whakapono nei kaore he wahi matatea o nga taha o nga awa. Engari ki taku titiro kei te hoki haere. He maha nga taitamariki kua moe i te tane i te wahine, he maha e rite ana mo te pera engari e takakau ana: otira kaore i maha nga tamariki ririki nga mea hei tiriwa i nga matua. He tohu mate tena ki a au, he tohu e whakaheke ana te iwi.
Nga Huarahi Oranga
E marama ana te motu ki to Waikato ahua he iwi e mate ana i te whenua kore. Kaati ko nga huarahi oranga i ahu mai i tera mea i te whenua, te reti, te moni hoko, te mokete ranei i kore i a Waikato, tera ano ra nga hapu e whiwhi ana. Haunga ia nga wahi whenua hei tupuranga kai, i a te Maori i ana mahi o te kai, e whiwhi whenua ana nga hapu mo tena. Na, i mua ake ra he oranga nui e puta ana mai ki te tangata i te kiri rapeti, e rite ana ano ki nga mahi utu ra e mahi nei te Maori ki te pakeha. No tenei tau ka whakamutua e te Kawanatanga te patu i te rapeti, ka kore tena huarahi oranga. Kei etahi wahi o Waikato, a, kei Hauraki ahu atu ki Tairua he kapia te huarahi moni, he tini o Waikato e ahu pera ana ki te whakarawe hereni. Tetahi mahi o Waikato he tapahi harakeke mo nga mira mahi muka. Engari tenei, ko te kai nui tonu o Waikato he tapahi harakeke mo nga mira mahi muka. Engari tenei, ko te kai nui tonu o Waikato he harakeke, e tu ra he wao, e tu ra he wao o taua taputapu. He haua noa pea no nga wahine o reira i kore ai e rangaia he takapau kia maha hei whariki mo nga whare. Ko te mahi pakeha kaore i nui, ara te tope rakau, te tua ngaherehere, te kutikuti hipi, te parau. E kimi ana au na te aha a Waikato i ora ai? E wha ona peene (he paana ki etahi iwi): e kohia ana he moni nui i ia tau, i ia tau, mo nga whakahaere o te kingitanga; e tu ana he hui nunui i ia tau, i ia tau, hei iki i te kai i te moni: e whiwhi ana te tangata i te kai pakeha, i te kakahu, i era atu mea, penei ano me etahi iwi e whai oranga nei i nga whenua. Ka miharo au. Mei tupono tenei mate, te mate i te whenua, ki etahi atu iwi o tatou e kore pea e penei te ora. Kei konei te ora mo te Maori, me tango te oranga whenua kia waiho ai ma te werawera o ia tangata, o ia tangata, e whakarawe he kai mo te poho o ana potiki, he kanukanu ranei hei uhi mo te tuara o tana whaereere.
equal it, for though there are many parts and subtribes, claiming descent from different ancestors, Maniapoto, Raukawa, Ngati Haua, Ngati Paoa, Ngati Maru, Ngaiterangi, it can be said they are one, with Waikato, one body, under one command. In appearances he is as any other Maori. Perhaps in his time, before the advent of Christianity, there was not one uninhabited place along the rivers' banks. But now I observe that there is a diminishing population. Many young people have married, there are many still of marriageable age but are single: indeed, the birthrate does not offset the death rate. That is a bad sign, a mark of a people's decline.
(IV) MEANS OF LIVELIHOOD
The country appreciates Waikato's predicament of being landless. Therefore such sources of revenue as rates, sales, or mortgages are denied Waikato, there are few sub-tribes who have land, not considering of course those holdings for small gardens, which a Maori may cultivate as he pleases, the sub-tribes have such small holdings to say the least. Now, previously, a lucrative source was rabbit skins, that income was on a par with daily wage employment. This year the Government terminated rabbit killing, so that source of income has disappeared. In some parts of Waikato, from Hauraki, and extending to Tairua kauri gum also was a great means of revenue, and many Waikato people made gum digging their chief occupation. Another Waikato industry is flax milling. Now also it must be said that this is one of the main sources of Waikato food, where flax grows in abundance. Perhaps the Waikato wives are invalids for only a few mats are plaited for the homes. Europeans offer little work in the way of wood-cutting, bush-felling, shearing and ploughing. What, I ask, is the sustenance of Waikato? It has four brass bands, there is a substantial annual subscription for the administration of the Movement; great annual meetings are help food and money consumed; the people are we provided for in European food and clothing and other requisites, comparable with those who are land-owners. I marvel. If this were some other people, they would have succumbed. Sustenance here for the Maori, even without the land, to sweat alone of each man will find food for his children, and clothing to cover his wife's back.
(V) THE FAITH
My friends will recount Te Karaka (Arc deacon), when he addressed a Church gathering at Te Pourewa, Waipa, on 25th April last. Thist is part of his address:
‘Now that seven years have lapsed since the Revs. Taimona Hapimana and Nikora Taut ministered in these parts, we look for the fruits. It is said that there has been a return from the
Ma nga hoa e korero iho nga kupu a Te Karaka (Atirikona) i te hui o te Hahi ki Te Pourewa, Waipa, i te 25 o nga ra o Aperira ka taha ake nei. Ko tetahi wahi tenei o tana whai-korero:—
“Ka pau nei te whitu o nga tau i mahi ai a Revs Taimona Hapimana raua ko Nikora Tautau ki enei takiwa, a e rapua ana nga hua. Ki te korero kua whakarerea te karakia Hauhau a kua hoki mai ki te whakapono Karaitiana. Tena, ka hia whare-karakia ka tu puta noa, puta noa i Waikato? Ka hia kaikarakia kua whakaritea hei karakia i te iwi i te mea kahore he minita? Ka hia kaumatua kua iriria? E tata ana ki te wha tekau o nga tau i whakarerea ai te karakia me te iriiri tamariki, a he tino whakatupuranga tenei kahore ano i iriiria, koia te patai na, ka hia kaumatua kua iriiria? Ka hia tangata kua whakaungia e rite ana ranei mo te whakau? E neke haere ana ranei te hunga tango i te Hapa Tapu? Ka hia nga kura Ratapu tamariki ka tu? Ka hia moni ka puta hei whangai minita? Rapua i te aronga o ena patai te ahua o te Hahi: ma nga mahi ka kitea ai nga hua. He tika te taenga mai o nga tangata ki te karakia i nga huihui noa iho a te Maori, otira ko tetahi wahi anake tena o nga mahi a te Hahi. He rau ano te rau, he hua ano te hua. E hoa ma, kei ki koutou hei whakangakaukore ena kupu aku, kahore, engari he mea kei whakamanamana noa, hei whakaoho hoki.”
He tika ka wha tekau tau i whakarerea ai te karakia. Kia taka ra ano pea he whakatupuranga ka ea ai te patai a Te Karaka. Ko te tangata e akiaki ana i ta te Atua mahi a e pai ana, ko te tangata hoki nga kai mahi i raro nei.
Hauhau to the Christian Faith. Well now, how many churches have we erected throughout Waikato? How many lay-readers are there to make up for the lack of Pastors? How many adults have there been baptised? It is nigh on forty years when last there was a church service, and children were baptised. So I ask you, how many children, how many adults have had the benefit of baptism? How many condidates have there been presented for confirmation, or, are ready for confirmation? Is there an increase in the number of communicants? How many Sunday Schools are there? How much has been collected for stipends? Look for the fruits in the light of those questions, the fruits that show the Church's progress. It is true that people come to church at ordinary Maori meetings, that is one of the church's duties. The leaf however is leaf, but the fruit is fruit. Brethren, you may say that my fore-going words are disheartening, no, but lest you may glory in false praise, they are given to stir us.”
It is true that the Church was abandoned for forty years. A generation must pass perhaps, before Te Karaka's questions will be answered. Advancing God's work and practising them are tasks for man on earth to perform.