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No. 15 (July 1956)
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TE AO HOU
The New World

the maori affairs department July 1956

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Fit the right tyres for the job
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GREYS is GREAT

FINE CUT and the new COARSE CUT

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TE AO HOU
THE NEW WORLD

No. 15 (Vol. 4 No. 3)

RACE RELATIONS

Those who come to New Zealand from foreign countries frequently express amazement at the excellent relationships they notice between Maori and European. Yet the maintaining and developing of good relations cannot be achieved without an effort, particularly during a period when the Maori is rapidly moving into much closer contact with Europeans. It is understandable that the question of race relations has been much discussed during recent times.

The problem of ‘race relations’ in this country is different from some others, because there are no laws discriminating against any minority. On the contrary, it is the policy of the country that the Maori should have the same rights and accept the same obligations as the rest of the population. Generally, Maoris can play any role in the community for which they are educationally, socially and culturally fitted.

Once we have made laws that are just and honest, we are still left with a more difficult job, to be done by each of us individually, of inwardly understanding a member of another race and accept him as one of our own. Sir Apirana Ngata, in a speech to the Polynesian Society in 1947, stressed that not only the European but also the Maori still did not fully accept ‘the other fellow’. ‘It takes a long time’, Sir Apirana said, ‘to make up your mind that he is a human being—longer perhaps than you realize.’

If we were only honest with ourselves and recognized our lack of understanding, the harm would perhaps not be so great. But few people do: it is far more common to accept the first idea that comes along ‘all Maoris are lazy’ or ‘all pakehas are mean’—and judge our fellow men of another race as if such rules of thumb were absolutely true and trustworthy. Instead of making a real effort to understand the ‘other fellow’, who may in fact be a most industrious or generous individual, we close our eyes and remember merely some current belief—sometimes partly right, often mainly wrong—about all Maoris or all pakehas.

There are few people who do not—consciously or unconsciously—carry such pictures around in their heads. Research has shown that many such ideas can grow up without any kernel of truth whatsoever; for instance many people think that intelligent people have high foreheads, yet in fact there is no connection between intelligence and the height of foreheads. The notion that a criminal bears in his features the mark of his criminality is equally without foundation.

It is everyone's task to put such ideas completley out of his mind and to try understanding every person as an individual. If this is a difficult task—then how much more difficult would it be to reach any reliable conclusion about the character of a large group of people.

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HAERE KI O KOUTOU
TIPUNA

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HAERE KI O KOUTOU TIPUNA

TE RETIMA PORAUMATI

Te Retima Poraumati, a well-known Arawa, recently died at the Rotorua Hospital. He was 56 years of age. Mr Poraumati had spent a lifetime dealing with major welfare problems of the Maori race. As a housing officer of the Maori Affairs Department he had a wide and helpful contact with his people. He received his primary school education at Rotorua and later attended St Stephen's College in Auckland before going on to Te Aute College. In 1917 he left college to enlist in the armed forces, when he was only 16. On his return he was appointed secretary of the local branch of the R.S.A. until he joined the Maori Affairs Department in the early 1920's. He was a member of the Arawa Trust Board for several years and also chairman of the Mokoia Trust Board, was a foundation member of the Arawa Returned Servicemen's League and over a period of years held every official position in that organisation. He was also a member of the Hereheretau World War I Maori Soldiers' Trust Board, chairman of the Arawa branch of the National Party, secretary of the Arawa tribal football team and an executive member of the Rotorua Rugby sub-union. Mr Poraumati who was a son-in-law of the late Tai Mitchell, is survived by his wife, six sons, two daughters and three grand-children.

DAVID JONES

Mr David Jones, of Ongarue, a well-known King Country identity, died at Taumarunui last Monday. He was aged 77 years. The funeral was held at Taumarunui on Wednesday after a tangi at Kiakaitupeka Pa. On his mother's side, Mr Jones was a member of the Ngati-Hine tribe of the Ngapuhi people of Northland. Born at Kamo, near Whangarei, he left for the Thames goldfield at an early age before going to the King Country in 1900. After working on various contracts in the construction of the main trunk railway line, he finally settled at Ongarue, where he worked in the timber industry. Mr Jones also farmed in the Otangiwai-Ohura district for a few years. He took part in the development of the Waimiha district, where two of his sons took up farming. Mr Jones is survived by a widow and a family of four sons and three daughters.

WILLIAM KIHITU HARAKI

Mr Wiliam Kihitu Haraki, J.P., has died at his home at Raupunga. Mr Haraki was a farmer, and was respected by both Maori and Pakeha as a man of outstanding character. He had been a representative Rugby player. He is survived by a wife and adult family.

WI CARROLL REYNOLDS

The death has occurred at Te Puke, of Mr Wi Carroll Reynolds, formerly a well-known resident of Wairoa. He was aged 58. Mr Reynolds was born in Wairoa, and was a nephew of the late Sir James Carroll. For some time he was secretary of the Wairoa Tennis club, and he was an enthusiastic player, winning several trophies. The burial took place at Te Puke.

MRS CHESNEY DUNNE

Mrs Chesney Dunne, who has died at her home at Paihia, aged 74, was a direct descendant of Judge Manning, who played an important part in the planning for the Treaty of Waitangi. Because of this she was presented to the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh when the Royal visitors were at Waitangi, as was her sister, Mrs W. H. Simmons.

REV RAKENA PIRIPI RAKENA

A widely respected leader of the Maori work of the Methodist Church of New Zealand, the Rev Rakena Piripi Rakena, died in Hawera recently, in his 66th year. He was of both Ngapuhi and Taranaki descent. The son of the Rev Piripi Rakena, he was born at Mangumuka, Northland, and was educated at the first Wesley College, in those days at Three Kings. Auckland. He entered the Ministry in 1908, and for some years made his home at Rapaki, Lyttelton, where he met and married Miss May Couch. In 1912 he became a Maori missionary, serving in Hokianga, Taranaki and the King Country. For the past few years he had lived in Hawera. He is survived by his wife, six sons and four daughters.

REV WIREMU MATENE

The Rev Wiremu (Paki) Matene, Maori mission priest at Kaikohe and former New Zealand Maori Rugby representative, died at Kaikohe recently. He was aged 56.

After attending St John's College he was ordained deacon in 1924 and priest in 1925. Mr Matene was mission curate at Whangarei in 1924 and at Mangakahia from 1925 to 1927. After serving as mission priest at Otiria from 1929 to 1940 he transferred to Kaikohe.

Mr Matene represented both Taranaki and Northland on the football field. He played for New Zealand Maoris in 1922 and 1923 and toured Britain and France with the 1926 team.

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TE AO HOU

TE WHANAUNGATANGA O NGA IWI

Ka haere mai te tangata o tawahi ko tetahi o ana korero tuatahi he mihi ki te pai o te noho tahi a te Maori raua ko te pakeha. Otira i roto o enei ra kua horapa ki te motu nga mahi pakeha a kei te uru nui te Maori ki aua mahi. He mea tenei kei te korero nuitia i enei ra ko te whanaungatanga o nga iwi.

Ko te “Kiriweti o te kiri ma ki te kiri mangu” he rercke ano i to tatou nei whenua notemea kaore he ture e whakakaupapa ana i tenei ahuatanga. Ko ta tenei whenua e orite ana te Maori raua ko te pakeha. Ko nga taumata e eketia e te pakeha ka eketia hoki e te Maori i runga ano i tona kaha.

Kaunga nga ture ko te mea tino nui ko te ngakau aroha o te pakeha ki te Maori o te Maori ki te pakeha. I te whaikorero a ta Apirana Ngata ki te Ropu o nga Iwi Maori o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa i 1947 ka mea ia ehara i te mea kei te pakeha anake te ngakau kiriweti engari kei te Maori ano “He wa roa” e ki ana ko ia, “Katahi ano ka tatu nga whakaaro he tangata ano te pakeha, he tangata ano te Maori—he wa tino roa noa atu”.

Mehemea e tino whakaaro ana tatou ka mohio iho kei a tatou ano te he. He nui o tatou whakaaro pohehe. Inahoki e ki ana ko etahi pakeha. “He mangere te Maori.” Ko etahi Maori e mea ana “He tangata hakere te pakeha”. Na enei whakaaro pohehe i patu, ko te mea nui ko te ngakau aroha.

Ko etahi tangata ano kaore e whakaaro penei ana. Kua kitea i tipu noa mai enei tu whakaaro. Inahoki ko te whakaaro e etahi he tangata matauranga te hunga rae tiketike otira he whakaaro pohehe noa iho tenei. Pera ano hoki te whakaaro kaore e ngaro te tangata kohuru te tangata tahae.

Me ata whakaaro marika te tangata—he kororia ke ano to tena tangata, he kororia ke ano to tena tangata kaua e ukuia te hara o te tangata kotahi ki te katoa.

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Contents

Page
Rora Paki: Ka Pu te Rua—Second of a series of short stories by Maori authors 6
Toby Rikihana: An Outpost of Maoritanga 10
H. Te M. Wikiriwhi: He Korero Hararei—A Holiday Story. Conclusion: The Queen in Rotorua 12
Elsdon Craig: How can we help the young who ‘get into trouble’? 16
W. W. Bird: Songs of the Maori 18
Rita Atkinson: What is a Pakeha? 22
W. J. Phillipps: Make fire and cooking food 24
Stanhope Andrews: People of Tokerau 26
Rangi Harrison: Tahiti 28
E. G. Schwimmer: Kennedy Bay 32
The Turakina Chapel 37
Mordecai Richler: Birmingham leads the way 41
Encouragement of the brighter child—He awhina ma te tamariki hihiko 44
Paul Potiki: Playing the Springboks 46
Maori Reserved Lands Act 48
Moko: Ka Haere a Tawhaki ki te Kanikani 50
Rev Kingi Ihaka: Proverbial and Popular Sayings of the Maori 53
R. Falconer: Tree-planting in the home garden 55
J. C. Sturm: Books on the South Pacific 56
Crossword Puzzle No. 15 58
Women's World
Betty Johnston: Sewing Baby Clothes 59
Jane Emery: Fascinating Shellcraft 61
Tuhingia Barclay: An American High School 62

The Minister of Maori Affairs: The Hon. E. B. Corbett.

The Secretary for Maori Affairs: T. T. Ropiha, i.s.o.

Management Committee: C. J. Stace, l.l.b., C. M. Bennett, d.s.o., m.a., dip.ed., dip.soc.sc., W. T. Ngata, lic.int., E. G. Schwimmer, m.a., M. J. Taylor.

Editor: E. G. Schwimmer, m.a.

Sponsored by the Maori Purposes Fund Board.

Subscriptions to Te Ao Hou at 7/6 per annum (4 issues) or £1 for three years' subscriptions at all offices of the Maori Affairs Department and P.O. Box 2390, Wellington, New Zealand.

Registered at the G.P.O., Wellington, for transmission through the post as a magazine.

published by the maori affairs department 1 july 1956

Our Literary Competition: We should like to remind our readers that the Third Te Ao Hou Literary Competition closes on August 31. Full details were given in our last issue. The judges will be: Mrs E. Garrett, Mr M. R. Jones and Mr W. Sparks. Te Ao Hou is still anxious to receive stories of every kind.

Renewal of Subscriptions: Please see whether your copy of Te Ao Hou contains one of our renewal forms. If there is a form in your copy, this indicates that renewal of your subscription is due. Please do not delay and send us your renewal today.

Back Issues: We still have a few copies of past issues of Te Ao Hou from issue 4 onwards. These copies can be obtained from The Editor, Te Ao Hou, P.O. Box 2390, Wellington, for 2/- each. These are also some copies left of a memorial of the Royal Tour consisting of a portrait of the Queen (with a Maori background as in our Royal Tour issue) and the text of her Address to the Maori people in Rotorua. These memorials are printed on the best art paper (17½; × 11½ inches) and can be had from the Editor, for 1/6x per copy.

Maori Authors in this Issue: No less than fourteen authors of Maori or part-Maori blood have contributed to this issue. They are: Rora Paki, housewife, of Oparure; Toby Rikihana, public servant, Auckland; Hirone Wikiriwhi, University lecturer, Auckland; Rangi Harrison, timber worker. Tokoroa; Paul Potiki, public servant, Wellington; Moko, school teacher, Minginui Forest; Rev Kingi Ihaka. Minister of Religion, Wanganui; J. C. Sturm, M.A., housewife, Wellington; Jane Emery, housewife. Te Kuiti; Tuhingia Barclay, student, from Russell; Te Mahuika Kaikoura, school teacher, Wellington; Hoterene Keretene, of Otiria; the late Tawhai Kohere, of Rangitukia; and Reo Takiwa, of Waiohau.

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Ka Pu Te Ruha Ka Hao Te Rangatahi

THE IS THE SECOND OF A SERIES OF SHORT STORIES BY MAORI AUTHORS

Ka pu te ruha ka hao te rangatahi” is a well known proverb which has truly come to pass. As we look around to-day, few are the grannies left for us to look to, they have truly made way for the younger generation to carry on, just as the proverb implies. Even those who remain have not the same influence as of old, when one kaumatua could speak for a whole hapu, or perhaps several.

When I was young, our household consisted of Grandma Tomoana and Grandpa Wehi, as well as two aunts and our Uncle Wi. Aunt Rebecca had three children, a girl and two boys, while Aunt Rehia was childless and Uncle Wi had one adored son, then there was my brother and I and a distant cousin. I couldn't remember our mother as she died when I was very young, nor our father, since he never presented himself, but we did not miss them, since we hadn't known them, and besides, we had our grannies who cared for us. Well can I remember those good old days, when I belonged to the “long tailed

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shirt” brigade, when all we seemed to do was eat, and hatch up lots of fun, while the grannies toiled at their self imposed task, of tending the family garden. In season we had ample stocks of potatoes, kamokamo, corn, water melon, strawberries, kumara, and other vegetables all at the hands of our two grannies. All the other homes round about were similarly endowed with two, or at least one granny.

We were all related one way or another with the result that the “long tailed shirt” brigade roamed from one end of the community to the other, mobbing up in gangs of the various age-groups, not always with good intent.

Life for us was rather uneventful, apart from the childish pranks we used to get up to, but our real thrills came when there was a tangi or some other such meeting at the pa. How we revelled in these get-togethers, when crowds came from far and wide, bringing many more children with them, which pleased us greatly, since we were ever ready for any “new ideas”. Sometimes we mingled ourselves with the older folk and got to peering round doors and corners and through windows to see and know just what was going on, till hunted away by some elder who would brandish a knotty old stick and order “tamariki ma, haere ki tahaki”. Needless to say, we obliged, and scooted for our lives, back up onto the hills that skirted the pa, and from vantage points we could watch all that went on on the marae. There we played many a game of hide-and-go-seek, among the rocks and native trees, or perhaps we climbed to the very top of the hill to the old pa, where we staged real attacks and defences, or perhaps just played trains, steaming through the deep trench that had once served as an obstacle to the enemy that attempted to approach our forefathers' pa.

Those were days of deep adventure, when we children moved in gangs and planned our adventures to last just precisely to the next meal, and we invariably arrived back to the pa to take up our positions on sunny knobs or banks just in time to hear that welcome call, “tamariki ma haeremai ki te kai.” Needless to say we obliged, needing no second bidding.

In our quieter moods, we would all lie on our pukus, on the edge of the marae and just watch proceedings. The tangi of the women folk never failed to interest us, and we often pinpointed some who, one minute, gave a perfect interpretation of a broken heart and spirit, and the next minute would be placidly smoking an old pipe and chatting away quite gaily. Then to watch the old men and listen to them ‘taki’. How proud we felt if our own particular grandpop stood to ‘taki’ and how we vied with one another as to whose granny was best—of course, the one who yelled the loudest and shook his stick the hardest was the best. They stood up one after the other all day long it seemed, and when evening came they adjourned to the meeting house and carried right on into the night. The old women too, often joined the men in singing the waiata, sometimes for long periods, while everyone seemed to enjoy everything, and an atmosphere of loving comradeship ran high. Forgotten were the gardens for these periods, no one ever dreamed of breaking the spell by leaving the meeting. It was a time when the grannies really “held the floor”, as it were, and we children were to be seen (and that even very little) but not heard, yet we loved the excitement of everything and the sweet abandonment, and happy good-fellowship. After these breaks from the simple quiet life, we childern found it hard to settle down and so we roamed from home to home practically at will, since no one bothered much, as we were all related anyhow, and all the old people were our grannies one way or another. They always guided our thinking and acting into channels of “koutou koutou—tatou tatou.” They always taught us to respect one another's feelings though we often had some childish scraps, but no one took much notice, except perhaps to say “e pai ana ko koutou ano.”

Our Granny Tomoana was a very industrious person and laboured constantly; when not at gardening she prepared flax, or muka or perhaps kie kie, for her whariki and korowai, of which she made a large number. Grandpa always helped her in preparation of dyes, etc., and often other grannies would come

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to watch them at work, and they made a fine picture as they sat around chatting and smoking as Granny Tomoana did her work. Those were easy, unhurried days, and it was common to see eight or nine kaumatua gathered around at our home, smoking and talking.

Another of our elders, who lived not far from us, was a learned orator, and often journeyed to far off meetings and tangis, and when he was leaving Granny Tomoana would cloak him with one of her fine korowai as a token of her confidence and pride in him. On his return from one of those trips, this old man would call at our place and one by one, or two by two others would happen along, and then they would listen to a full account of the traveller's trip. He was the “Big Noise” in our community and what he said was law, especially where the marriages of any of the young folk was concerned, always preferring that they should be able to trace to one another, and he could rattle off a genealogy like nobody's business.

When one of our cousins, Aunt Rebecca's son, was a young man, and extremely popular with the lady folk, our elders decided that before he made a wrong move, it was best to have him married off and so forthwith a pretty young lady was brought on holiday to our home; of course we were told why she was brought and to us younger ones, it was good fun, a change; but our cousin had no idea of settling down as yet and as soon as the old folks began to put on a bit of pressure such as “me rongo koe ia matou, kaore koe e tika ia koe ano,” our cousin promptly took himself off to another district, where he got a job, and so after a few months with us, the young lady was returned to her family and my thoughts were—fancy turning down such a good looker. Then our other eligible cousin got ideas which did not suit our elders, and so the pow wows started again. Grandpa Wehi never said much, neither did Granny Tomoana, but the other grannies and uncles and aunts usually had all the angles and after several meetings in which everyone was consulted, except the cousin in question, and all the pros and cons weighed, it was decided that he should marry his own cousin, and though he pleaded his own cause, “she is too close to me” or “she is much older than I” it was useless and soon they were married, and his wife was added to our household. Cousin Wiri was rather bitter, since at that time his career as a romeo was at its height, and so he often went off for days on end. The old folks never said much and soon he became resigned and so settled down to be quite a good husband.

We were all subject to our elders and though some kicked over the traces, as it were, this did not often happen, our elders seemed to know just what was in our minds and had the knack of always winning the day eventually. It was a sad thing when an elder passed away. When one became ill, all the others would crowd around day and night to watch the sick, often dozing off in chairs or just dossing down on the floor, and as the climax hour approached they pressed closer to linger on every dying work and look, and when it was all over they would recall all this with mournful exactitude. We young folk, not to be beaten, would push and peer for all we were worth and I can say I saw many of our elders die, by peeping in at windows or doors, when everyone was not noticing.

When Grandpa Wehi died I felt I had lost my father and we all gathered around him and wept, and wept, clinging to Grandma Tomoana as though she were all we had left. Many times we recalled his ways and habits and especially the hour of devotion he always led us in at bed time. His prayers were alway's long and interspersed with many amens and as children, we were often guilt of staring at grandpa as he prayed and often mocking him, but even now, can see his old white head reverently bowed as he led us to the Throne of Grace While he was ailing it was my duty to bring his drinking water from a certain spring, for, though we had our own spring handy, he remembered the sweetness and coolness of this certain spring, and so several times a day, I ran over to the foothills with all my gang in tow, to “fetch that pail of water.”

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One by one our elders “passed on” and we, who were once richly endowed with “kaumatua”, are now without a background. In the old days, when one of the younger generation showed promise in any way, our elders would always rally around him with knowledge and advice, but to-day we know not where to turn for this vital advice except perhaps to books, once it was there for the taking, yet often neglected, but to-day it is often sought after but hard to come by.

Recently, it was fully brought home to our little community just how the times have changed, when one of our kaumatua suddenly passed away. Only a few days before, he had visited another old pal who was seriously ill and exhorted him “kia kaha ki a koe,” then a few days later he himself was dead. As the first crowds from other communities began to arrive to mourn, we realised that our plight was a sad one since these two old men were our last spokesmen, and here they were—one dead, and one very ill; and so our younger men had to leave the job of cooking and endeavour to fill the gap and carry on the traditional “taki”, and that's just what it amounts to. Gone are the days when we could, but didn't often bother to, sit and listen, as beautiful words and phrases flowed forth from a heart and mind, well versed in the things of his generation and with songs that were history and geography in themselves! Gone are the unhurried easy going days of our forefathers! Even if there are a few still with us, it is not the same, for they seem unable to cope with the times, we seem to move at such a tempo, that they are out-of-date. A new era has dawned for us! It has crept up on us unsuspectingly, we either didn't see it coming or perhaps wouldn't admit to ourselves that it was coming—and lo—it is here! And as we cast around for a way of escape, or else a way to combat it, we find our minds straying back to the days when responsibility was, for us, a community affair, when, by the combined efforts of our elders, almost anything could be overcome, and no one was unduly weighed down as it were, since your affair was everyones affair and treated as such. But to-day our defences are burst wide open and our foundations shake beneath us and we can repeat the old proverb in fact and in truth—“Ka pu te ruha, ka hao te rangatahi.”

HALL FOR MARAENUI

A Maori dining hall was opened at Maraenui in the Bay of Plenty recently by the Hon W. Sullivan, Minister of Labour and M.P. for the Bay of Plenty. The new hall has an interesting history. Originally the children of Maraenui settlement attended the Omaio School, leaving their homes at the beginning of the week and returning home at the weekends. During floods the children were ferried across the Motu River by canoe. In 1900, 16 children and two adults were drowned during this process. In 1905 a monument to those who lost their lives was unveiled by Taa Timi Kara, the then Minister of Maori Affairs. For this occasion a dining shelter was built. In 1909 this structure was replaced by an iron-roofed structure, which served till the completion of the new dining hall. The new dining hall was first suggested in 1932. Funds were raised by concerts, assignments of rents and stock drives. These functions were carried on tilll the beginning of World War II, and it was intended that the hall be used for utility purposes. However, at the end of the war Sir Apirana Ngata felt that as so many local Maori boys had been killed overseas it would be fitting for the hall to be a memorial to all the Maori soldiers killed in the Boer War and both World Wars. The hall was built by labour-only contract at a cost of £3,383 of which £1455 was contributed by the Government. The people themselves raised £2,430. Mr Sullivan praised the community fo the effort and sacrifice that such a small community had made to erect such a fine structure.

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AN OUTPOST OF
MAORITANGA

Hidden away in the southernmost portion of the South Island, 17 miles from Invercargill, lies the small town of Bluff. In this town which shelters beneath Motupohue hill, I found a small compact Maori community amidst a predominantly pakeha settlement, furthermore a Maori community keen on preserving its identity or Maori status through supporting its tribal committee, and through the learning of waiata, haka and action song. This keenness was evident when the local Maori people farwelled the Queen and when they entertained the visiting Fijian athletes.

From what I could gather the local people are descendants of the Ngai Tahu, Ngati Mamoe and Waitaha tribes. Located in this area are several well-known southland families such as the Whaitiri, Bradshaw, Te Au and Tupi families. Fishing plays an important part in the activities of these people due to the proximity of the town to the sea. The Bluff is perhaps best known as the source of the titi and the oyster in the Maori world. Most of the locals have interests in the mutton bird islands and annual visits are still being made to these islands.

Bluff's population may be termed a floating one, due to the influx of young seasonal workers from other areas. These workers most of whom are Maori lads from the North Island find temporary work at the local freezing works and increase the population by five or six hundred. These young Maori visitors play an important part in the Maori activities of the community due to their knowledge of Maori culture.

With the commencing of new civic projects such as the construction of the new Bluff wharf, the Maori population may perhaps undergo an overnight change. Permanent work will soon be assured and it is possible that a number of these seasonal workers will become permanent residents.

Old South Island Waia [ unclear: ] ta

The Maori people of Bluff unlike several other communities are fortunate in still having several elders in Tom Spenser, Ted Cameron, Mick Anglem and Maramu Te Au from Invercargill and also elderly women in Riti Cross, Ani Rita, Hilda Anglem and Phyllis Shephard. I once heard Maramu Te Au recite an old South Island waiata beginning “Whakarongo ki te tangi a te ruru.” He suggested that it be taught to the young people. As I listened to him I could not help but think how fortunate these people were in having such elders, and also how close we were to the time when watching and listening to these old timers of the South would be but an item of history.

This community of Bluff is again fortunate in being served by an active tribal committee under the chairmanship of Bob Whaitiri. At a meeting of the Maori people with representatives of the Invercargill governing bodies the main topic under discussion was the part that the Maori people were to play in the Southland Centennial Celebrations. Plans were brought forth, discussed, finalised and promptly acted upon. On the appointed day the Maori people appeared in full force and did full credit to the Maori people on the two occasions that they appeared before the public.

Every Maori community should have its marae or civic centre and so whilst Auckland has its Community Centre and Wellington its Ngati Poneke hall so Bluff has its Whare Maori. A marae consisting of an assembly hall or whare nii and an open courtyard is essential to Bluff.

Through the existence of a place of this nature I think that there is a greater opportunity, than there would otherwise be, for the promotion of the spirit of co-operation and understanding between the two races. A good illustration of this is the meeting—already mentioned—between the Maori people and the Invercargill representatives, which was held in the Whare Maori, a meeting to make plans for a combined effort of both races in marking the Centenary of the Southland Province. A marae would give the people a sense of belonging to something, a quiet pride in something that is Maori yet something they can call their own. Unlike the centres of Auckland and of Wellington which cater for any number of people, the Bluff centre has been found to be small on numerous occasions so efforts are now being made to have a newer and bigger hall erected. Receiving little response from some

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responsible bodies the local people are nevertheless going ahead in raising the necessary finance.

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The Bradshaw Family

It is only right that some mention should be made of the efforts of the Bradshaw family in upholding and in teaching the arts and crafts of our race. To them it is not so much a job as a dedication towards imparting their knowledge to the young people of today.

“Wednesday nights in the Whare Maori are given to the very young children, who are under the tuition of Norman Bradshaw. These children are taught the same songs as their older brothers and sisters. Prior to the departure of the Queen from the Bluff all these children with their elders banded together to make their Maori costumes under the instructions of Norman Bradshaw.

The busiest night of the week however is on Sunday when all the people, young and old, troop along to the Whare Maori to take part in the night's entertainment. A typical evening is as follows, from 7.30 to 8.30 there are organised games such as table tennis, darts, and quoits after which the gear is packed away and the haka and action song practisebegins. Visitors are always encouraged to take part in the practices and I once saw Hemi Ruwhiu and two other boys from the East Coast teaching the crowd a new action song, “Hora hora atu ra.” In one evening I have heard a song from North Auckland, an action song from the East Coast, an action song and a haka from Rotorua, and some new action songs from the South Island. While all this singing is in progress Mrs Whaitiri, Mrs Bradshaw, Myra Ryan and others are busy in the kitchen preparing the supper. Ten p.m. and Leslie, Shirley and Moana start serving the supper. About this time Mrs Whaitiri is busy selling the raffle tickets During the supper period light entertainment is provided by anything that the young people have to offer in the form of solos, guitar playing, a hula by Deima, or a poi exhibition by Nora. Maku and Wara, and Rena.

After this little breather the practise goes into full swing again and so throughout the evening and late into the night, the hall resounds to the echo of spirited haka and Maori melody.

SCHOLARSHIPS

The first post-graduate scholarship to be awarded by the Ngarimu V.C. Scholarship Fund Board has been granted to Lieutenant-Colonel C. M. Bennett, D.S.O., Controller of Maori Welfare. Colonel Bennett is a Master of Arts and also holds a Diploma of Social Science and a Diploma of Education. He intends to take up his scholarship next year at a university in Britain, where he will study for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. The board expressed great satisfaction at the calibre of the students offering for the various awards. Ngarimu V.C. Scholarships were awarded to Waari Geoffry Ward-Holmes, previously of Nelson Intermediate School, who is holding his scholarship at Nelson College, and to Eliza Edmonds, previously of Karetu Maori School, who is holding her scholarship at Queen Victoria School, Auckland. A Ngarimu V.C. Secondary School Scholarship was awarded to Frederick P. T. Bennett, of Te Hauke School, Hastings, who is holding his scholarship at the New Plymouth Boys' High School. Ngarimu V.C. University Scholarships have been won by Wairehu W. Hikaka, of St Patrick's College, Silverstream, who proposes to begin a medical course at the University of Otago this year; and by Anthony P. Hura, of St Patrick's College, Silverstream, who also proposes to begin a medical course at Otago this year. He belongs to the Ngati Tuwharetoa tribe, of Taupo. Ngarimu V.C. Essay Competitions (essays in Maori)—Primary section: Nan Herewini, of Te Kaha Maori District School. Post-primary sections: Tukaki H. K. Waititi, of St Stephen's School, Auckland; and Mac Walker, of St Stephen's School, Auckland. Essays in English—Primary section: Steve Lambert, of Te Aute College, Hawke's Bay. Post-primary section: Mason Durie, of Te Aute College, Hawke's Bay.

KAWHIA DEVELOPMENT

Two major land development schemes in the Kawhia country, involving 2840 acres and costing £143,300, have been approved by the Government, the Minister of Maori Affairs, Mr Corbett announces. One scheme known as the Oparau Scheme, is of 1410 acres and is some eight miles from Kawhia on the main Kawhia-Te Awamutu road. The estimated cost of development and settlement of this land is £68,500. The property will be farmed as a station for eight years to offset the excess of development costs over valuation for settlement. The property will eventually be subdivided into one dairy and four sheep farms. Work has started on the cultivation and grassing of the first 400 acres. The second project, the Waipuna scheme of 1430 acres, is situated 18 miles from Kawhia. The estimated cost is £74,800. The plan provides for eventual subdivision into four sheep farms and two mixed sheep and dairy farms. Initial development work will begin this autumn.

– 12 –

HE KORERO HARAREI A HOLIDAY STORY
na H. te M. Wikiriwhi

The Queen in Rotorua
part ii

Haere taku wai, kua peke whakamuri te rangi o taku patere. Kua:

“Tapapa i te hiwi ki Horohoro,
Ka matai tonu au ki Tarawera
Ko te Hemahema,
Ka rere titaha te rere …
E oma ana i te tai pouri,
Ki Rotorua …!”
Tihee Mauri Ora ! ! !”

Kua tae ki te waka, ki a Te Arawa, ko Maketu ki Tongariro, kua wharona te karanga mo te Kuini te take, ko Te Arawa, atu i te Taitokerau ki Raki-ura, ki Wharekauri.

Ko te marae tenei mo te motu katoa. Kitea atu ana i reira nga mana, nga reo, nga karangatanga o tena waka, o tena waka, o tena waka. Kua utaina katoatia ki runga i te tuara-nui o Tamatekapua.

I te papa-purei-hoiho o Rotorua te marae. He mea hanga ki reira te mahau whakairo hei taunga atu mo Te Kuini. He mea whakatu he puhara. Ko Hunuhunu rangatira o Ngati Rangiwewehi te tutei, te tohunga, nana i karakia te marae me te ra.

Na te Horana raua ko Te Kopata me Hoani Herekiekie i arahi te manuhiri ki to raua ahurewa atahua i wenganui o tena whakaminenga wehi.

Kaore i arikarika te tangata, iroiro ana i nga hau e wha, taiawhio noa i tena marae.

No te timatatanga tonu o tena powhiri ka tumeke te Kuini.

Ina te take.

Ka puta atu raua ko tona hoa i te mahau whakairo i te waharoa o te marae, ka purei mai te pene o Rotorua i te waiata mo Te Kuini:

 

There is a momentary lull in the melody of my song:

“It skims the summit of Horohoro's tableland,
Swooping down to Tarawera
And there stands the chief Te Temahema,
Angling onwards the flight continues,
By the dark waters,
To Rotorua … breath of life eternal.”

It has reached the canoe, Te Arawa stretching from Maketu in the Bay of Plenty to Tongariro in the heart of the island, and the call for Her Sovereign the Queen has reached its uttermost boundaries, unto the tribes of the North, the South, and of the Chatham Islands.

This was the courtyard for the whole of the island. It was there that the aristocracy of each canoe was seen and heard. They were the guests of the broadbacked Tamatekapua. The Rotorua Horse Racing Club's course was the venue for this welcome. A Maori carved archway was erected upon it. A sentinel's watch-tower was raised nearby. It was a Mr Hunuhunu, a Ngati Rangiwewehi elder and chieftain who acted as the lookout man, and tohunga, and he pronounced the dedicatory prayer for the day.

The Right Honourable Mr Holland, Prime Minister, and the Hon Mr Corbett, Minister of Maori Affairs with his private secretary Mr Herekiekie Grace escorted the distinguished guests to the garlanded ahurewa that stood as the central feature in the middle of that great concourse of people.

Men, women and children were present in thousands, and were literally crawling all over the place, to surround and fill completely that vast marae.

At the very beginning of the welcome, the Queen was mildly amazed. Here was the reason … as she and her husband emerged from the carved mahau at the entrance to the inner court, the Rotorua Brass Band commenced to play the National Anthem:—

“God save our gracious Queen, etc.”

When the crowds heard the first bars of the familiar song, they all stood to attention in the customary manner, but just where the Queen stood, and facing her, was the main body of tattooed warriors, a picked band of fighting men from the Taupo and the Rotorua districts, and, strange to relate, they remained crouched on one knee closely to

 
– 13 –
 

“Me tohu e te Atua
To tatou Kuini nui …”

Tera atu te roanga o te waiata nei.

Ka rongo tena huihuinga i te tangi a te pene, tika tonu ta ratou takitutu haere, kati no te tirohanga atu o te Kuini, tera te matua, ko te Hokowhitu a Tuwharetoa, a Tuhourangi e tuturi tonu ana ki te whenua. Kaore nga tangata ra i tu mo tana waiata.

A haha, he aha hoki i penei ai nga Maori nei; na ka huri awangawanga ona kanohi ki a Te Herekiekie i tona taha, he uri no Ngatoroirangi. Ina tana whakamarama.

“E Ma, ko te ope e tuturi pepeke atu na ki a koe, ko te matua tapu tena, kua tohia ratou ki a Tumatauenga, te atua o te tangata, te atua o te riri. Kia watea te wahi ki a ia, katahi ano ratou ka whakatika ki runga.

Ko te rite o tenei ture, i pera ano me te ra i tohia ai koe i tou Koroneihana, i whakataua ai runga i tou pane te karauna o tipuna, e te Atipihopa o Kautaperi, i roto i to koutou wharetapu i Ranana, i te Api o Wetimita.”

A, koia ano. Ka tungou nga kanohi o te wahine ra.

Tokorua rawa nga tangata wero i a raua.

Ko Rupene, tama o Hoko o Tokaanu he rangatira no Ngati Tuwharetoa te tuatahi; ioio ana tona tinana, ka kani atu te weriweri nei; hokai ana te whiu o te waewae, me te taiaha, whetero atu ana te arero, ina ra hoki tana Kuini. Makere kau atu tana pere ki nga waewae o te manuhiri, na ka toi atu te ngarara tuarua, a Anania Taiamai, uri o Te Amohau o Ngati Whakaue. He tangata nui tenei, he kotore-huia kei te rae, kua waia ki tana mahi, na, ka maranga te whawhapua, ka riro mana Te Kuini e waha mai ki runga i te matua e tuturi atu ra.

“Whiti whiti … ue.”

Tino whakatikanga o Hepi, te uri o Te Heuheu, te rangatira o te hokowhitu a Tuwharetoa, he tewhatewha te rakau, he kirakau katoa tana ope.

Te marangatanga mai ki runga, e rere ana te waewae, te tewhatewha, te huruhuru, haruru ana te rangi me te whenua i te peruperu, nana, ko te rite he manu kua momotu i te mahanga.

“Uhi mai te waeroa
E ko roto ….
Ha, hei!”

 
 

the ground. Those men did not stand up to salute the anthem.

What can be the matter with these Maori men? and turning to her escorts, she wondered why they did this, and then, Mr Herekiekie Grace, a direct descendant of the High-priest Ngatoroirangi, who was standing beside her, respectifully volunteered the following explanation:—

“Madam, the fighting men who kneel before you are dedicated to today's ceremony, and they are bound by the unwritten code of Tumatauenga—the Maori deity of War and of Man. Until his portion is fulfilled these men must crouch before you, before they burst into their dance of acclamation. The custom bears some resemblance to the coronation ceremony when the traditional crown of your ancestors was placed upon you by His Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, in London's most sacred tabernacle—the Abbey of Westminster. That was the position. It was graciously acknowledged.”

Two men led the challenging dance of welcome before them … the tangata wero. Reuben the son of Mr Hoko of Waihi, Tokaanu, a Tuwharetoa chieftain was the first; a youth with a lithe and willowy body, he pranced in typical style towards them, an ugly and fearsome sight, but he was an adept in the art of thrust and parry with the Maori quarterstaff or taiaha, and his eyes rolled full and wide, his tongue lolling in defiiance; here was the Queen. As he dropped the challenge-dart at the feet of the visitors. Mr Anania Te Amohau, the second demon and a descendant of Ngati Whakaue's Rotorua paramount chieftain ran forward in a controlled sprint. He is a giant in figure, and the treble plumes of the extinct huia bird fluttered from his brow, and as an accomplished warrior, he was greeted with a roar of applause, for it was he who had the honour of metaphorically carrying the Queen to place her in the forefront of the crouching band of warriors.

“Whiti whiti … (leap to your feet!) ha!” shouted Hepi, scion of the Heuheu aristocracy, ariki of the Tuwharetoa contingent as he leapt to his feet, a clubbed spear or tewhatewha in his hand, with his men stripped for battle. As they leaped off the ground in response to the call of the young and handsome leader, the plumes of their tewhatewha waved sprightly in the breeze,

 
– 14 –
 

Ko te matua tuatahi tenei. Mutu kau ana, na ko te matua tuarua. Ko te tutu-ngaruhu a te Hope-o-Tuhourangi. He koikoi te rakau a enei, hipae ai te whakanoho, ano e arai atu ana i te hoariri kei taea te Kuini.

He kai-tangata tonu atu te ahua o etahi, ko nga uri ra hoki o Tutanekai, o Tuohonoa, o te Rangikatukua, o te Rangiteaorere, o Kawatapuarangi, o Puwhakaoho. Ina ta ratou puha;

“Koia ano koia ano,
Koia ano he peruperu,
Ina hoki te taiaroa,
Whakatirohia mai ki te whana,
Parerewha, parerewha ….”

Tutu ana te hei-hei i ta ratou ngaki. Ka oti ka whakatika ratou, na, katahi ano te Kuini ka kite atu ano hoki i nga kuini Maori, e kui ma, a whre ma, e hine ma. E toru rau ratou. Ko nga nunui, ko nga rarahi o nga koata e wha o Te Arawa.

Na Tu Morehu, toa o Ngati Pikiao i whakaara tenei puni wahine, na te kanapa tonu o tana patu pounamu i tataki te karanga;

“Tena i ruia i ruia!”
“Utaina e,
Utaina e.”

Tau ana te tu a te wahine, he mea tia ki te piki raukura, ki te huia, ki te korukoru, tatua rawa nga hope ki te piupiu, kei raro ko nga maro whero, he kanohi to te wahine he kanohi to te tangata, titiro ki runga, titiro ki raro. Ka kori te tinana, ka tirohia atu nga taonga o te ra:

He Hei-tiki, he pekapeka, he mako he huruhuru kiwi, kereru, kaka, he korowai, he topuni, he kaitaka, he tewhatewha te rakau, he patu pounamu he paroao, he taoroa, he koikoi, he poupouwhenua, he tokotoko.

“Toia ma i te waka,
Ki te urunga te waka,
Ki te moenga te waka,
… … …”

E piu ana te kapa wahine me te huri whakawatea haere, na, kua tuwhera te ara hei haerenga atu mo te manuhiri ki to raua ahurewa.

Kua oti te wahi ki te matua-powhiri a Te Arawa, kuaeke mai te Kuini:

“Ki runga ki,
Te Paepae poto,
O Houmaitawhiti.”

Heoi ano inaianei, ko nga whaikorero, ko nga tuku taonga, me nga poi, me nga haka a nga iwi o te motu, hei whakanoa i nga tapuwae o Erihapeti raua ko Piripi.

Hoki ana i konei nga whakaaro ki a Apirana, te tangata i manako ki to tatou Maoritanga. I Waitangi ko te poi ki te Kuini he mea waiata ki te rangi rara:

“He putiputi pai koe,
Katohia … ….”

Na Apirana tenei waiata i tito, na, i ona ra ko ia tonu te kaitataki i nga haka-taparahi i kawea mai i tenei ra e ona iwi o te Tairawhiti. Ko nga tino haka enei a taua a te Maori: ko Kapanapana

 
 

and from the throats of a hundred men their first chorus swelled into a roar, and the war dance thundered as they landed back on the ground, only to rise in the air again, the compact leaping force was like a bird soaring from its snare.

This was the first war-party. Ending their spirited challenge, the second force immediately started the peruperu—the war-dance of the waist of Tuhourangi. Their weapons were the koikoi—long spears sharpened at both ends—and these were held in the horizontal position, as if in readiness to deny access to their Queen. Some of these men looked like real man-eaters, for were they not descendants of the fighting chiefs Tuohonoa, Tutanekai, te Rangikatukua, Rangiteaorere, Kawatapuarangi and Puwhakaoho. This was their chorus:—

it is quite so, it is quite so
the peruperu is quite so—
when a captive man
is flaunted before the clansmen
his eyes are wide open, wide open.

The welkin rang as they danced. When it was over they leapt aside and ran back to reveal rows of women ready to welcome their Queen—they too were Queens of their respective tribes, many were grandmothers, others were mothers, and many were maidens. Three hundred altogether. They came from every hapu and whanau of the Arawa Confederation, all were big women, great women in their own right.

Mr Tu Morehu a Ngati Pikiao chief from Rotoiti was the fugleman, an expert with the greenstone mere, his flashing blade was the signal for the mixed party of men and women to break into the final dance of the powhiri:—

“Now the weapon is shaken, shaken.
Embark
Embark.”

This was an awe inspiring sight, as the women were decked and plumed with feathers of rarest colours, the white, the red, and the black, and the korukoru, the piupiu skirts rattled as they swished to and fro, with red foundation skirts beneath, and men and women flashed their eyes glancing upwards, then down to the ground. Their bodies were trembling in excitement, so gaze upon them, feast upon them, see the precious greenstone hei tiki, and the pekapeka, ear-rings from the Mako shark, the cloaks of feather from kiwi, pigeon and parrot, the cloak of the extinct Maori dog, the taniko bordered cape, the weapons of polished maire clubbed spears, the greenstone axe, and the whale bone mere, the long spear, the shorter doubled pointed spear, the pointed taiaha, and the carved walking stick.

“Drag hither the canoe,
To its resting place the canoe,
To its sleeping place the canoe,
… ….”

The ranks begin to open out as the dance reaches its climax, and the way is open for the visitors to walk forward to their raised balcony.

The traditional Arawa welcome ceremony is complete, the Queen has walked,

 
– 15 –
 

a ha ha!” me “Te Kura Tiwaka Taua.”

Ka tapiri atu ki enei ko te haka a Wairangi, ko “To Aea o ia Rangi.”

Kua mutu tonu aku korero. He rangi poi taku patere, taku wai, me te tika ano i te mea e hangai ana ki enei momo korero. Ko te pi te Kuini katoa o a tatou kanikani.

Titiro ki te poi a te Taihauauru, tapu ana tera, he mea karakia tonu te rangi, tau ana te tangi ki te taringa Maori, i whanau mai i nga paparinga o te maunga i te uru—i Taranaki.

Ka tau ta Tapuika, he heriatorope te kakahu o te wahine, engari ka ta te Arawa he poi whakakotahi i nga iwi. E ono ona wakawaka, e toru rau wahine nga kai-poi, engari kotahi ano te unga atu.

Me mihi tatou ki te “poi” ara, hoki i poipoi mai te Kuini i tona nohoanga tapu, porotiti tapara patu atu hoki te Tiuka.

Kua noa, e Te Arawa, ou marae i to tatou Kuini, nau hoki i whakae kia tu mai ki te whakahoki i o mihi.

“Kia ora koutou katoa,” tetahi o ana mihi, a, “Kia mau ki to koutou re, pupuritia kahatia to koutou Moaritanga,” etahi atu o ana poroporoaki. Ko te Aohou tenei, ko te ra o te rangatahi.

Kua tui ahau i taku patere inaianei.

Ko enei mea katoa i rangona e oku taringa, i kitea e oku kanohi, kati, kaore oku tikiti ki enei powhiri e toru. Kaore noaiho ahau i mohiotia mai e nga kai-whakahaere o tena marae, o tena marae.

Engari, i pai noaiho taku kuhu haere, pahi atu ana i te rau o te pirihimana, Maori me te Pakeha, tae atu ana ki te taha o te manuhiri tuarangi, o te kotuku rerenga-tahi.

Na toku Maoritanga ahau i puta atu ai ki mua tonu o te tini o te mano. Ina ra ona tohu:

“He huruhuru kiwi kei oku pakihiwi.
He piki huia kei taku tipare
He piupiu taku rapaki, tatua rawa,
Titia rawa ki te patu pounamu.
Te rakau i taku ringa he pouwhenua.”

Ko enei aku tikiti, i piri ai ahau ki te taha o Te Kuini. Tuia te wai:

“Hei whakamutunga,
Mo aku haere ruahine
Ki te motu, ki te tonga,
E poi, e!”

 

“On to,
The threshold,
Of the lord Houmaitawhiti.”

There but now remains the speeches of welcome, and the presenting of gifts, the lighter dances of the poi, and the haka by the visiting tribes, and thence the ancient custom of welcoming distinguished visitors will have been fulfilled in respect to the Queen and her husband, Philip.

One could not help but recall the spirit of the late Sir Apirana Ngata who had for many years propounded the creed of Maoritanga. At Waitangi, the host tribes had danced the poi with the melody:—

“You are just a flower
To be plucked …”

It was one of Sir Apirana's compositions, and in today's haka or posture dances by the East Coast tribes, in his day, if Sir Apirana were present, he would have invariably been the leader. Two very famous chants are those which he always led “Ka panapana,” and “Te kura tiwaka taua.”

We must add to these two the haka by Wairangi, “Te Aea o ia rangi,” “It is Te Aea of every day fame.”

My story is almost finished. My ballad was chanted to the rhythm of the poi ball, and this was appropriate for this type of story. The poi dance is the most queenly of all our dances.

We beheld such a gem in the poi chanted by the Aotea tribes of the West coast, the melody was a ritual incantation, which is beautiful to Maori ears, and this classic was composed in the villages which have as their inspiration the snow capped peak of Taranaki mountain in the West.

The Tapuika tribes of Te Puke danced in heliotrope blue, but the Arawa team aimed at combining six rows of dances into one … to symbolize tribal unity and a unified future.

We greet the poi ball, Her Majesty twirled one in her hands, and even the Duke played with one too. The tapu has been lifted from all Arawa courtyards, as Her Majesty was graciously permitted to make a personal reply to the speech by the assembled tribes.

“Greetings to you all,” she said, “Hold fast to your language, and preserve your Maori-hood,” was another of her parting instructions.

This is the New-World, the world belonging to the youth of the Maori race.

“Upon my shoulders a cloak of kiwi feathers,
A huia fluttered from my head band,
And around my waist was a piupiu skirt,
Girdled firmly with a greenstone mere at the alert,
In my grip was a taiaha with dog hair and sharpened blade.”

These were my tickets, that enabled me to meet the Queen. My song continues:—

“To complete,
My travels,
On the island, southwards,
Twirl on, oh poiball, twirl.”

– 16 –

How can we
help the young
who ‘get into
trouble’

Picture icon

Moana Raureti (N.P.S. Photograph)

This year the Maori section of the National Council of Churches of New Zealand met at Ruatoki during February. The meeting was one of the most successful that the section has held. Discussions took place on a great variety of subjects, including Maori schools, segregation, delinquency, and the drink problem.

Many key people in social work spared time to come along and contribute to the discussions.

Maori clergy and lay workers were generous in their support for this year's gathering but it would be an advantage if families, individuals and tribal communities sent along representatives to listen to the discussions, even if they do not take part.

The first thorough survey of the Maori Borstal population has just been completed. Details of it were given to the conference of the Maori section of the National Council of Churches at Ruatoki by the Rev Hohepa Taepa, of Otaki, and Mr M. Raureti, District Maori Welfare Officer for Waiariki.

In many cases the inferences made by the two men coincided and were confirmed by others engaged in redemptive work at the institutions. The survey showed, significantly, that all causes of deliquency cannot be loaded on housing. More than half the Maori borstal inmates come from fair or excellent homes.

The Rev Taepa said Maoris were 31 ½ per cent of the inmates of Invercargill Borstal and Burwood Girls' Home, in Christchurch. Between 60 and 70 per cent of them were below average intelligence. Eighty per cent had no direct contact with Church or clergy.

The results of the survey are not regarded as conclusive but as being a valuable guide in future examinations of the position and providing a sound basis for more work along these lines.

Following are some of the trends which Mr Raureti's examination of 67 Borstal cases revealed:

* Maori crime is mainly against property. Breaking and entering, theft, and conversion accounted for 43 of the 67 cases. The difference between the Maori and pakeha attitude to property is attributable to differences in cultural background. A communal way of life has dictated the Maori's different attitude. But both are subject to the pakeha law so that a conflict ensues and many Maoris are gaoled for theft of property committed unknowingly because of their different cultural background.

* There is an alarming increase in conversion. This trend does apply to Maoris alone. It is due largely to the carelessness of car owners who are inclined to think of the law only in terms of the protection which it affords. The culprits are subjected to temptation which they cannot resist so that their crimes are unpremeditated and spontaneous.
* About half the inmates, 31 out of 67, had come within the scope of a welfare organisation at some stage. Twenty-eight had previously been in institutions.

– 17 –

* Seventy-two per cent of the crimes were committed when the culprits were away from home and 28 per cent when at home. Most of these crimes were committed in urban areas, with Auckland the main trouble spot.
* More than half the inmates (37 out of 67) were in private board when they committed their crimes. Of the rest, 21 were at home, seven were away from home with relatives, and two were in hostels.
* The average time for adolescents to get into trouble was found to be 15 months after leaving home.
* Only 13 out of the 67 Maoris had legal defence when they appeared in court. That is when the delinquent needs all the moral support possible. Therefore, welfare officers should attend court cases involving Maoris whenever possible. Most Maori prisoners do not know how to plead and some plead guilty to escape quickly from the environment of the court.
* Whereas pakehas avail themselves of the right of appeal, Maoris do not (four out of 67 used the Borstal appeal service). In 10 cases they had the services of probation officers at the court sitting, in seven the Child Welfare organisation helped and in 5 welfare officers of the Department of Maori Affairs.
* Maori delinquents have less assistance from parents than do pakeha delinquents. When the magistrate asks the whereabouts of the Maori parent he or she is rarely there. On the other hand the pakeha father or mother is in court to fight for their child.

Mr Raureti pointed out that the year after the adolescent leaves Borstal is the most crucial year in his or her rehabilitation. Either they commit another crime in this time or they fight, with the help of others, the pressures of the outside world. In order that the delinquent gets this assistance, welfare officers should co-operate with the probation officers.

Mr Raureti reminded members of the public who might be in a position to help in this rehabilitation, that the boys receive excellent farm and trade training in Borstal and can, with advantage, be employed on back stations where they are away from temptation. Prejudice against them must be broken down if they are to get a chance to reform.

To relatives, Mr Raureti pointed out that it was important that they keep in contact with their children in Borstal. Only four out of 67 had any visits from relatives in a year. Some had no contact with the outside world and it was from these that the institution received the group which returns for another term.

Regarding parental control, Mr Raureti said it was wrong to allow the grandmother to bring up the children. They should not be under the elders' control after a certain age when they must learn to face the outside world. Too often they received everything they wanted from the grandparent and when she had gone and they could not get money they stooped to crime.

The discussion on Mr Raureti's conclusions was led by the chairman, the Very Rev J. G. Laughton. He said he was pleased to see Maori men like Mr Raureti equipped and qualified to grapple with the delinquency problem. It was most important that the problem should be viewed from the Maori angle.

As a Justice of the Peace with the law in front of him and an obligation to administer it to the best of his ability, Mr Laughton was conscious of a tremendous stress when a Maori appeared before him. How much greater was the strain for a member of the judiciary without the knowledge of the Maori which he (Mr Laughton) possessed.

Mr G. T. Ford, senior lecturer in education at Canterbury College, said the significance of Mr Raureti's survey was the lead which it gave to forestalling delinquency. It might give a lead toward determining when a boy was heading for crime. That was the time to deal with the problem. The theft might be the precipitating cause of a boy's commital but there were other predisposing causes. To take the one cause was to overlook the essence of the case. Every case of delinquency had a large number of causes.

Miss K. Scotter, superintendent of the Burwood institution, emphasised the need to build up the self respect of the girl inmates. There should be a close link between the section and Burwood and the Invercargill Borstal so that those who were discharged could be looked after immediately they returned to their districts.

“It would indeed be remarkable if Maori people remained uninfluenced by the drinking habit. On the other hand it is easy to see the dangers when alcohol becomes wedded to any expression of the Maori spirit of aroha … The pakeha host determines what and how much his guest shall have, while the Maori host's attitude is that of the father to the prodigal son: ‘All that I have is thine!’ Liquor is a problem amongst the most stringent of individualists but it is a multiplied problem amongst a warm-hearted, hospitable, friendly people with a strongly developed sense of community.” Extract from report on drink among the Maori people presented to the Maori section of the National Council of Churches conference at Ruatoki in February.

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SONGS OF THE MAORI

The next group contains the tangis or laments inspired by misfortune or disaster. They have a close resemblance to those arising from the preceding causes. There is the element of suddenness by which the spirit is aroused and the heart stricken so that the feelings burst forth in mournful song. One of the most striking of these, really magnificent in expression, is that of Te Heuheu Iwikau for Te Heuheu Tukino II, buried in the great landslide at Tokaanu in 1846. The following account is given by Sir Apirana Ngata in his explanation of the tangi:—

“This is one of the most famous laments of the Ngati Tuwharetoa and it is fitting that there should be a solemn character in the tangi for the death of the mighty chief of Taupo—Te Heuheu, and his people—in the landslip of one side of Mt. Kakaramea in the night of the 4th of May 1846. It is said that the slide was caused by the eruption of a mud volcano on the east side of Kakaramea. (The visitor to Tokaanu may still see the traces of this immense slip and the steaming hillside whence it came).”

Te Heuheu Tukino was a great chief by descent, he was also a distinguished leader in many fights around Taupo, in Waikato and in the southern part of the North Island from Hawkes Bay to the Hahia Peninsula. He was also a renowned tohunga, and as such was tapu or sacred in his person, keeping apart from the people. It is said that he himself had seen signs of coming disaster. The black shags had settled one after the other on Te Upoko o Waipare—a rock in the lake near his home. But he thought that such a warning could not possibly be meant for him. He and his people lived at Te Rapa, situated immediately below Mt. Kararamea between Tokaanu and Waihi. It was night when the sides of the mountain began to rumble, the trees shook and the stones rattled. Hearing the noise, Te Heuheu appeared at the door of his whare and, thinking it was some monster of the lake—the taniwha, Te Upoko o Waipare—he directed a powerful karakia or incantation against it. In his ear, he wore the famous Kaukaumatua, a greenstone pendant which came from Hawaiki. The village was completely buried in the slip and Te Heuheu and his people—from 40 to 60 in number—were overwhelmed, there being only one survivor. The body of Te Heuheu was found and his bones were carried to be placed in a cave on Tongariro mountain.

This is a translation of some of the verses:

See! the dawn leaps up from the ridge of Tauwhara's peak
It is my dear one, perhaps, who thus returns to me
Here am I left alone to weep in the world
Thou art gone from me, my treasure.
Farewell, thou great one, farewell thou terrible one
Farewell, thou rata tree which sheltered us from the breeze.
What fell demon hurled thee from us?
Sleep on, o father, in thy house of death,
The cord of Kaukaumatua is fastened in thine ear,
But Te Ika a Ngahue is left behind
As a keepsake for us.
Turn hither thy stately form, thy broad figure
That I may see thy skin graced with the dark tattoo
Thy face lined with a hundred markings.

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Thy people are left behind, leaderless and unrestrained.
The stars in the heavens have acquired a new grace
Atutahi and Hehua are eclipsed.
Spurning the common host in all the Milky Way
Thou shinest alone.
O son of Rangi, awaken from thy sleep
Arise once more, take thy weapon in hand
Tell us of thy glorious deeds, of thy prowess in the fight
How in the midst of serried ranks thou stood'st
Like a rock against the angry waves, despite the storms around thee.
Thou hast fallen; thou liest beneath the ground
But thy fame resounds throughout the land
And reaches up to heaven.

Pahoe was swept away in a flood and his body was washed ashore at the mouth of the Waiapu River. As he was a chief of note, the tribe was stirred by his death. We can imagine how they made a hurried search amongst the drift wood on each side of the river, examining the shingle bars and waiting till the body rose at the mouth of the river. There he was found by Marumarupo:—

E takoto ana me he kumukumu
Te tahutitanga i roto i te taita
Ko he aruhe tawatawa
Ka tere te koheri, ka tere te kahawai
Lying like a shining fish
Fleeting amongst the driftwood
His tattooed face showing like a speckled caterpillar
Or mottled like the mackerel or the gleaming kahawai.

The child of Hinekaukia was burned to death and the mother pours forth her grief in a very fine lament, one of the most beautiful in the Maori language:—

Whakaangi mai ra, e tama, me he manu
Mairatea iho te waha, kai rongorongo, e
Hei whakaara po i ahau ki te whare.
Float hither, my child, like a birds,
Changing with your beautiful voice,
That I may hear it once again
To keep me awake at night in our desolate house.

The lament of Te Wharepouri for Nukupewapewa is one full of devotion. They were closely knit in friendship. Te Wharepouri was a chief of Te Atiawa. When Wellington was established in 1840 he lived at Ngahauranga and he was a well known figure in the young community. Nukupewapewa was a chief and great warrior of Wairarapa. He is said to have been commanding in stature and handsome in person. In the times of Te Rauparaha, the Wairarapa people were attacked by Te Atiawa and in one of the battles Te Wharepouri's wife and daughter were taken captive. Out of his chivalrous instinct, however, Nuku restored the two women safely to Te Wharepouri. Hence Te Wharepouri formed the idea of going to visit Nukutaurua, at Te Mahia to which place Nuku with the survivors of his people had retired. Te Wharepouri and his folk were making the journey by sea when Nuku was drowned off Napier. Upon his arrival at Nukutaurua, Te Wharepouri poured out his sorrow in this lament:—

Wairua i tahakura nou, nei, e Nuku
Kia whakaoho koe i taku nei moe
Kia tohu ake au ko to tinana tonu.
Spirit of my dreams are you, o Nuku
Come to awaken me in my sleep
That I may think it is really you again in the flesh.

Some very fine expressions occur in the lament for Te Kotuku who was drowned in the river Mokau:—

He aha te roimata te wa mutu te haramai?
Why have those tears no space in their coming?

Then cries the singer: My name is bruited about on everybody's lips, as if my thoughts had been like the western wind driving the fleecy clouds to grace the land breeze from the south. I am like a canoe broken to fragments by the rushing waters of kohau seeking in vain to reach those that have returned safely to land.

The tangi of Te Heuheu Tukino for his father Te Heuheu Herea and that for his younger brother killed in battle near Te Horo are other examples of the tohunga diction. These three laments are made so excellent by the grandeur of the words which; indeed, are like the words of prayer to the goods before the sacred altar. Whoever has mastered thoroughly the words of these laments has reached the pinnacle of the Maori tongue, and can boast of his knowledge of Maori.

The laments of the tohungas are not, however, always expressed in the awe inspiring language or the priestly terms of the tohunga. Take for example Rangiuia's lament for his

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son, Tuterangiwhaitiri. His tohunga position is laid aside, he descends from the altar to the front of the house and there he mourns as a father, crying bitterly over the loss of his only child.

He rangi au e tatari, he raro au e manako
Mo taku mea ra, kaore ano i puta mai
I te ra ka taau, ka tu mai kei uta
I te tai ka taui, ka maunu mai te hukinga
Ko wai ka tohu iho ko te rangi tonu tenei o te mate
Ka hupeke ra koe, te akito rawa iho
Ko te ngenge ra, e ka waiho nei ki ahau.
Kuru rawa aku iwi, i te ra roa o te waru.
Kia noho ake au i konei, e hika ma, e.
All day long I wait, with every breeze from the north my hopes arise
For my beloved one who has not yet appeared
As the sun declines, and stands yonder in the west
While the tide falls slack, and leaves bare the headwaters.
Who can say that this is, indeed, the day of death
So suddenly have you withdrawn and have not chosen to linger
Only weariness remains with me: my bones ache in the long days of summer.
Let me remain here, my friends, alone in my sorrow.

It is said that Tuterangiwhaitiri's death was caused by witchcraft. He was dearly loved by his father who cherished him in his heart that he might carry on the treasures of Te Rawheoro, the great house of learning, when this disaster overtook him.

A great number of tangis refer to the child, to the husband, who is dead or absent or has been taken away, or for the absent lover. Then again we have tangis for the homeland, for the tribe that has been lost, for a wrecked canoe, for a basket of seed that has become rotton, or the crops that have failed. The style of composition in all these is the same as those in the preceding groups.

Amongst the songs published in the two volumes to which I refer,8 are three composed by a person on his sickness. These are, however, treasures in themselves. That of Harata Tangikuku is confined to the district of Ngati Pourou, that of Te Rohu on her leprosy circles the island, and that of Timotiu on his asthma remains a favourite with all the Maori orators speaking of some calamity on every village green. In these songs, the spirit is directed inwards as are the thoughts of the speakers on the marae taking unto themselves the death which they are lamenting:

Listen to Harata Tangikuku, dying of consumption:—

Tiro iho ai au ki ahau;
Rinoi ra e te uaua;
Te koha kore o te kai ki ahau
Heke rawaho ki te kiri ora,
Waiho au kia poaha ana
He rimu puka kei te akau.
I turn my eyes upon myself;
My veins stand out like twisted cords;
Food no longer sustains me,
And I gradually decline in strength.
Soon I shall be only a hollow frame
Like the dried seaweed lying on the strand.

In all the languages of the world there is perhaps no better example of a soliloquy composed by a singer in respect to his own sickness. Consider also the following quotation from the lament of Te Rohu, a beautiful girl stricken with leprosy:—

Ka ura mai te ra, ka kohi au he mahara
E hoa ma, e, he aha tenei hanga
E te tau, e pae, tirohia mai ra
Aku pewa i taurite, tenei ka titoko
Kei te ngaru whakateo e tere i Taupo.
The sun glows red and I sit here and ponder
Oh! my friends what is this affliction?
Oh! all of you before me, look at me
See how my eyebrows once so straight and smooth
Are now raised up in sharp ridges
Like the ruffled waves that break on Taupo's shore.

The second verse in the lament of Timotiu is known to all Marois:—

Whakarongo e te rau
Tenei te tupuna o te mate
Ka piri ki ahau.
Listen all you people!
This is the ancestor of all ills
That afflicts me closely.

* Sir Apirana Ngata's Nga Nateatea, Vol. I and II.

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Now let us deal with the love songs—waiata aroha as they are called. This is an extensive group. It will be always recognised that love is the chief source of the emotions of the human heart. There are many ways in which this sentiment can be expressed. In these songs, the love of the woman for the man forms the most frequent theme, or the separation of the woman from the man as in the case of Puhiwahine separated by her brothers from Toko Mahutu, or desertion for another, or being left at home while the husband is away to war, or being supplanted by another, or the love of a maiden for a secret lover.

In this group of songs, therefore, will be found the language of love, however simple may be the words. Take a few verses to illustrate this style of poetry:—

Ko taku hoa moenga, ka riro ke
Ka maunu ke atu, he pae ke
Ko te whakawerawera o taku poho
Kaitahi tonu au ka matao.
My love has forsaken me
He has been carried away by a new fancy
It was he who kept my bosom warm
Now indeed do I feel chilled.
E kui ma, e heoti tou te manako.
Ko koe nei te tane ki roto ki te ngakau, e
He aha te inaina, e kohi ai te mahara
He aha te ao pango, e kapo ai te aroha.
Oh! my friends, only one thought fills me
You are the only one who dwells in my heart
Whatever breath of news comes from the seat of war
Whatever black cloud floats by, my love grasps at it.

Here is Topeora the gifted singer of Ngati Toa and Ngati Raukawa, daughter of Rangihaeata, relative of Te Rauparaha, sighing for an absent lover:—

He manu aute au
E taea te whakahoro
Ki te aho tamairo
E hira hoki au
I aku tumanako
E kai nei te aroha, i.
Oh, would I were a kite
That, with the letting out of the twisted string
I might soar to lofty heights
Whence I might look down upon my heart's desire
With love of whom I am consumed.

And finally this one from Rev. Taylor's book:—

E to, e te ra, rehu kit te rua
Ringiringi a wai, te roimata i oku kamo
He mea mahue au, te hikoinga wae
Nou, e Taratiu, whakangaro atu ana.
Sink, o sun, sink into thy cavern
In showers like rain, the tears gush from my eyes.
I am left all lonely since thou hast departed
O Taratiu, now hidden from my sight.

There are many similar fine passages which appeal to one from their wisdom and their sweetness. For the purpose of Maori oratory there is nothing better than the language of these songs. Therein are to be found the words suitable for every occasion, for every mood of the Maori mind. They show, too, that the heart under the brown skin throbs to the same impulses as that under the white.

This, then, is a brief outline of the character of Maori poetry. Life to the Maori was one continuous struggle for existence. He had little time for quiet contemplation of the beauties of Nature—his songs deal instead with war and love, birth and death. But from the examples I have been permitted to present to you, I am sure that you will realise that the Maori composers, savages though they were, had in their nature the true poetic instinct, and that their songs are well worth a high place in the literature of primitive tribes.

In conclusion, let me remind you that these poems were not written down; they were chanted and sung from memory. Moreover, the music of the chant is peculiar to each poem and cannot be applied to other poems. Finally, the metre of the poem depends entirely on the song, the singer varying his syllables to suit his music or his music to suit his syllables.

It is thus impossible for a pakeha to render the poem as a Maori would chant it. The only way to achieve this is to have the waiata sung by a group of Maoris who are familiar with the song to be recorded, and New Zealand is the only country in the world where records of the primitive Polynesian music can still be secured. Are they not worth securing?

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WHAT IS
A
PAKEHA

She was taller than the other children in her class and this alone made her feel conspicuous and awkward. She had learned their language but she spoke it with an accent and far too quickly, especially when excited, as she often was, so they called her “Dutchie” and said she spoke “Double Dutch.”

She had been homesick at first but she found she was beginning to like her adopted country more as time went on, in spite of the teasing. There would be days when the other girls were very friendly; when they allowed her to join in their various amusements; told her secrets, whispered in her ear and walked the playground with her, arm in arm. Then she was happy. Then she was one of them.

But there were other days. Days when the rest of the girls ganged up against her; when they jeered at her and teased her, when even those she thought her best friends laughed at her speech, her size and her different cast of features. They teased her about her family, about her father, who was different from their fathers, and about her mother who, ever homesick, still clung closely to her Dutch ways and her Dutch speech.

“Pooh! You all talk Double Dutch at home,” they would tell her.

Rushing her words one on top of the other, her accent becoming thicker in her excitement, she would try to explain her mother's love of her country and her uncertainty about this new one.

“Listen! She's talking Double Dutch,” they would yell, crying, “Double Dutch! Double Dutch!” in a sing song imitation of her accent.

Then came a day when the girls were choosing sides for a team game.

“Let's play pakeha against Maori,” suggested one girl, so the brown-skinned girls began to line up on one side and their fairer sisters on the other. The Dutch girl walked towards her white playmates but a yell went up from one of the Maori girls.

“Hey, you. You're not a pakeha.”

“Yes I am.”

“You're not. You're not a pakeha. You're not a Maori.”

“I am a pakeha. Ya!”

“You're not. You can't play.”

“What am I then?”

“You're Dutch. Double Dutch. That's not pakeha.”

The Dutch girl had stood much teasing but she had had enough of it so she rushed to the attack, her arms and legs flying and charged at the girl who tormented her.

Others soon joined in the fray and a first class battle was on. There were yells of “Go it, pakeha!” “Go it, Maori!” and even “Go it, Dutchie!”

Soon a teacher came running and attempted to restore peace, though there were some torn frocks and scratched knees and faces.

“What is all this?” she wanted to know.

“They say I'm not a pakeha!” cried the Dutch girl.

The Maori girl who had taunted her grinned.

“You're all right,” she said. “You may not be a pakeha but you're a good fighter. How about being a Maori, eh?”

“Dutchie” wondered if she was still teasing but, hesitating a little, decided the offer was genuine.

“All right,” she agreed.

So, arm in arm, brown team and white, off they went to play.

“Look at them,” the teacher said to another member of the staff. “A minute ago they were all fighting. Now they're bosom pals. You never know what will happen next with children.”

Out in the playground the Dutch girl's long legs were taking her over the ground in double quick time.

“Come on the Maori! Come on the Maori!” yelled her brown team mates encouragingly.

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NEWS IN BRIEF

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NEWS IN BRIEF

Mr T. T. Ropiha, Secretary, Department of Maori Affairs, opened the new dining hall at Ranana, Wanganui River, last April. The site of the dining hall is an old Maori pa. Ranana is the centre of some 5,000 acres of Maori lands belonging to the Wainui-a-Rua people, which was put under the Maori Affairs Department for development under Sir Apirana Ngata's scheme.

* * *

The biggest gathering of its kind ever held in the Far North was attended by about 1000 people at Te Kao last weekend, when many representatives of Waikato and Rotorua tribes travelled northward to escort Piki, daughter of King Koroki. Piki was paying a special visit to the Aupouri people, who are relatives of her husband, Whatu Wetere Paki, through his mother, a former Aupouri woman, Frances Brown. To mark her visit to Te Kao, Piki unveiled the cornerstone of a new meetinghouse to be built in full traditional style. The meetinghouse is to be named Rongo Patu Taonga. It will be the only carved house in Mangonui County and the first to be built in the district for generations.

* * *

Mr R. L. Whatu has been awarded the Hugh Jenkins Memorial Scholarship, which entitles him to almost the whole cost of fees for a course at the Palmer School of Chiropractics in Davenport, Iowa, United States. Mr Whatu was awarded the scholarship for his thesis on Man as an Evolutionary Vertebrate. He is the first Maori to gain the award, which was made to him by the president

* * *

The Rev Warren Foster and the Rev Te Teira will gain preacher status at the Presbyterian Maori Synod meeting at Murupara during Easter. Mr Foster is the first student to complete the full course at the Maori Theological College, Whakatane. Mr Foster, who comes from Dargaville, is a member of the Ngapuhi tribe. Older students, including the Rev Te Teira, have previously completed shortened courses at the College. Mr Foster will now be licensed as a preacher and will be ordained after two years' probationary service. During these two years he will take extramural studies. Mr Foster has been appointed to Taumarunui as assistant to the Rev Hemi Potatau.

* * *

An Order-in-Council was recently published in the New Zealand Gazette, redefining the boundaries of the various Maori Land Court Districts. The new boundaries make adjustments between the Tokerau and Waikato-Maniapoto Districts, where the new dividing line is the northern boundary of the Waitemata County and between the Waikato-Maniapoto and Aotea districts where the new line runs along the northern boundaries of the Clifton Ohura and Taumarunui Counties. It is more than forty years since the boundaries were last defined and it was considered advisable to set all the boundaries out again and to ensure that the descriptions all referred correctly to current blocks and maps.

* * *

A young Maori naval man has had the distinction of playing Rugby for a Welsh team. He is Vivian Hata, of Te Karaka, the former Poverty Bay representative, now a leading seaman in the Royal New Zealand Navy. Hata went to England in H.M.N.Z.S. Bellona to join the new New Zealand cruiser Royalist, and at Devonport made friends with a Welsh naval man, with whom he spent his Christmas leave in Wales, As a guest player, he took the field for Aberavon against Cross Keys, Pontypool, and Maesteg. Welsh sporting writers wrote that he was an acquisition to the team.

* * *

Former Maori Battalion men are-taking a prominent part in the running of the Te Kaha Dairy Co., Bay of Plenty. Hone Waititi, who held the rank of Major with the battalion, has recently been appointed chairman of directors. All the directors are Maori. Secretary of the dairy company is Norman Perry, who served in the battalion with the Y.M.C.A. Though a pakeha, Mr Perry was until recently District Maori Welfare Officer for the Rotorua-Bay of Plenty area. The first assistant buttermaker, Tiaki Parata, and the manager of the company's new general store, Tini Paora, are both ex-C Company men. This year the company has produced an attractively illustrated calendar for suppliers setting out fishing and planting times in relation to the phases of the moon.

* * *

For the first time for 32 years, a Maori Rugby League team is to make an overseas trip this year. A 15-match tour of Australia has been arranged to begin at the end of July, following a tour of Australia by a New Zealand Kiwi team which will end on July 4. The tour has been booked by the New Zealand Rugby League on condition that all Maoris chosen must first be available for the Kiwis, which means that some Maori players will do two tours. All players selected must have one-quarter or more Maori blood. The Maori team will play mostly in Australian country districts, but two games have been arranged in Sydney, with another in Bris-

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bane. If the team does well on tour, a match against New South Wales at Sydney may also be arranged.

* * *

Friends of Joseph Kumeroa will be pleased to learn that he is now a student at the Royal College of Music, London, where he commenced his studies early last month, having done well in his entrance examination. He is studying the piano with Mr Arthur Alexander, accompaniment with Mr Stubbs, and theoretical subjects with Mr Churchill. He also attends lectures on musical appreciation, and is a member of a choir. Altogether he appears to be leading a very busy life. At the time of writing he had not thought the English winter unbearably cold, although he found his first taste of “smog” an unpleasant experience.

Maori University Scholarships have gone up in value this year. They are now worth £50 per year for board, plus college, lecture and examination fees, and a bursary allowance of £40, plus free passage to and from university once a year. Previously, board allowance was £40 and bursary £30. Six are awarded every year for which applications close 31st October.

* * *

A pamphlet on ‘Some Educational Facilities for the Maori People’ was published by the Maori Purpose Fund Board in November last year. It gives full details on accommodation, scholarships and bursaries available to young Maoris in search of education and is available free of charge from P.O. Box 2390, Wellington.

MAKING FIRE AND
COOKING FOOD

Fire represents heat, warmth, and even life to man. To generate fire, the Maori used to use a fire plough—that is, a pointed stick (hika) was rubbed in a groove formed in a lower piece of wood (kauahi) until smoke, then a red spark, and then fire, appeared in the abraded dust at the lower end of the groove. The wood of three trees was suitable for this purpose—the makomako, kaikomako, and the mahoe.

In and around bush areas of the North Island it was customary to collect a dried bracken fungus (Polyporus) which, when dried, ignites rapidly, and it was on this that the tiny mound of glowing fire in the kauahi was usually tipped. In districts remote from bush areas, dried moss and leaves were used for this purpose.

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Looking down on the old ritual oven after the manner explained by Wiremu Te Aweawe (W. Larkins), Rangiotu. (Stella Bagnal del.)

Little has been recorded of this bracken fungus and its importance in the generation of fire and in carrying fire during wet weather. Dr G. B. Cone informs us that she has spoken to an old pakeha bushman who has used it in the Thames district where it was known as “punk” to the early settlers, who learned of its use from the Maoris. Punk burns very slowly and persistently. It can be put out only when smothered. Putawai and putawa are names which have been supplied for this fungus around Gisborne while Mr Arthur Beauchamp gives the Waikaremoana name as popotawai.

Elsdon Best tells us that the particular punk used to carry live fire “was the puku tawai found growing on beech trees; that found on tawa trees is useless for the purpose.” Another material of slow combustion used to carry fire was a dried stem of the flowering stalks of New Zealand flax. At night again to quote Best “torches used in travelling were made of bark, dried leaves of cordyline or resinous wood such as mapara.”

The earth oven is usually a more or less circular pit some 3 to 4 ft. in diameter and up to 18 inches deep. The oven is usually termed umu by the older people but the modern generation is more accustomed to the term hangi. However, these names vary in different parts of New Zealand. Quantities of wood large and small are placed in the pit and piled up to at least ground level. Over the large top-logs are piled specially selected stones termed taikowhatu or para ngahu—stones which will not easily crack with the heat. As the wood of the oven burns, the stones drop to the floor of the pit. Embers are raked aside, the stones levelled out, some being removed to place on top of the food when it is arranged in the pit.

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Above: Fire generation is sometimes a ritual process in which both sexes participate. Paitini Wi Tapeka, of Tuhoe, one of Te Kooti's fighting men demonstrates the custom assisted by his wife Makurata. (After Best)

If deemed necessary, the stones on the bottom may now be cleaned by being sprinkled liberally with water. Quantities of green stuff such as fern fronds or sour thistle are now placed over the stones, then a layer of food such as potatoes, then more greens and above this a layer of meat or fish and then perhaps another layer of greens. After this should come a layer of birds over which would be placed the ruatao, special leaves to cover all. The hot stones should be placed above and quantities of water liberally used. Then a mat covers all.

We supply here only an outline of the procedure with the hangi. It will be seen that this is a steam cooking process which preserves the quality of the food in its entirety. Methods vary from tribe to tribe. The old oven made according to the manner explained to me by Mr Te Awe Awe has not been recorded elsewhere.

Food is also cooked by enveloping the object to be eaten with clay mixed with water and placing this in a hot fire or by enclosing the food in leaves and placing it in the ashes. These methods may have been a great deal more common than we have been led to imagine, particularly in lesser communities where little time was available for the preparation of food. The staff of life, fern root cakes or loaves, Komeke or raumeke were cooked in the ashes while bush birds required for a quick meal were often wrapped in clay “feathers and all” and placed individually in the fire. In half an hour the feathers came off with the clay—the intestines, etc. came out in a lump and the cooked bird remained.

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Below: The fire plough in use by a tohunga. (After Best, drawing by A. H. Messenger)

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People of Tokerau

At every meeting you see them—the people from the back places often very quiet but wrapped up in what the speakers say, or looking for friends and relatives they have not met for years. Our roving photographer, Mr Stanhope Andrews, took these shots early this year at Waitangi and Te Ahuahu.

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Guardian: his job is to watch over the carved house at Waitangi

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Below: Two good listeners.

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Audience: Reception for Mr Rangi Royal, retiring controller of Maori Welfare.

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Below left: Mrs Romana of Waima.

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Below right: Sam Maioha, chief and orator.

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TAHITI

I landed in tahiti on the 23rd of June and from this date on to about the 12th of July, I spent my time travelling around the island, mixing with the people and studying the language. The island of Tahiti consists of two parts, the bigger part being called Tahiti nui and the smaller Tahiti iti. These two parts are joined only by a narrow strip of land, with a road right around Tahiti nui, and on Tahiti iti on the east side the road goes as far as Tautira and on the western side as far as Te Ahupoo, leaving the end of the island (or the district of Pari as it is called) with no roads and quite in its primitive state. It is a very mountainous island with a strip of flat land running right around it, making it appear some-what like a hat in shape, with the hills covered in tropical forests and shrubs and coconut trees growing down to the water's edge.

On the 13th of July Papeete was teeming with people, from England, America, France, Australia, New Zealand and many of the surrounding islands such as Fiji, Samoa, Rarotonga, Aitutaki, Hawaii, and from the Society Islands—Borabora, Raiatea, Hauhine—from the Tuamotu group and as far away as Rapa nui known as Easter Island.

This great mixture of people were all here for the July Celebrations on the following day. That afternoon at 3 o'clock the guns were fired, being a sign that the Bastille celebrations were about to begin. I have never experienced anything like it, outside of Tahiti. Hundreds of Tahitians all dressed in their own costumes, filled the park or marae, and from there we all marched through town to the beat of Tahitian drums, ending up at the house of the Governor. Here before the Governor, speeches were made by all the different chiefs, gifts of sucking pigs, fowl and bananas were presented, and after all this was over we again followed the beat of the drums down to the waterfront. So began the Tiurae, as the Tahitians call it. I was surprised at the variety they had here, for there were merry-go-rounds, spinning wheels, darts, rifle range, food stalls, ice cream and drink stalls, and best of all, the dancing halls. All these places were built up along the waterfront, the frame work was timber, the roofs iron, and all the sides were thatched with ni-au leaves, the place being all lit up with many coloured lights. At night the show went on until one or two o'clock in the morning only closing in order to prepare for the next day which was only a few hours off. For two weeks this went on day and night, and I began to wonder how the people managed to carry on financially, as I was told that this was a very poor season for copra and prices were low.

For three nights the dancing competitions were on from 8 o'clock until 12 o'clock, and I thoroughly enjoyed every part of it. From where I was sitting I was able to look down on the dancers as they performed, and what a performance. All the teams were competing in such dances as the otea, aparima, paoa, himinau, and finally a chant, or pehe as it is called. Each team had their own style of uniform and their own style of dancing. On Wednesday, 27th July, I went to the island of Moorea, about 20 miles away. As we entered Pao Pao Bay, you cannot imagine how thrilled I was at the sight before us, such beauty I had not seen before.

That night we visited a village called Te Mae, where we were to see a dance done in real Tahitian fashion. On arrival at Te Mae, we were met on the road by men carrying flaming torches to show us the way, and as we entered the gateway I heard the cry of “Ia orana outou, haere mai.” When I heard this it was as if I was back home among my own Maori people. We were seated underneath trees on one end of the lawn, and after the chief had spoken to us and welcomed us to this island and his village, the fun began. Although I had seen the on' Tahiti in Papeete during the July celebrations, it was nothing like this. This was the on' Tahiti in reality. It was a lovely warm night, a green lawn surrounded by huge shady trees, and sweetly smelling flowers. The lawn was lit up by many hundred

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burning torches and lanterns, and sitting around in front of us were the people of Te Mae village. Everyone dressed in their beautifully coloured on' costumes, and around their necks hung leis of gorgeously coloured flowers.

Moe, piti, toru, yelled the dancing leader, and as the pahu's beat out the age-old island rythmn of Polynesia, so also did these people, old and young alike, perform dances that exist nowhere else in the world but Polynesia.

AN ANCIENT MARAE

On Tuesday, 9th August, I persuaded a friend of mine to run me out to Tautira in his car. On reaching the district of Paea we visited an ancient Tahitian marae called Arahurahu, this being the only marae in all Tahiti that has been rebuilt and looked after. It was very interesting to walk through and inspect this marae, very different to what we call a marae in New Zealand. For here in Tahiti, the days of the marae are over and forgotten, for the original purpose of the marae was to provide a place for the crownings of kings, and a place where sacred events were practised. Now there is neither king nor queen. No do they perform sacred rites any more. Reaching the district of Papara we called in to see another marae called Mahiatea, the biggest marae of Tahiti and probably of the whole of Polynesia. It is one of the most recent maraes having been built between 1766 and 1768 by Queen Purea for her son Teri'iere. The altar called an ahu measured 26ft long and consisted of eleven tiers reaching a total height of 51ft. The courtyard, called a Pae Pae (377ft) at the end of which stood the Ahu, extended towards the west on a spot where a private dwelling now stands.

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Ceremonial dance at Bastille day celebration. Papeete. Instead of the poi. Tahitians swing bundles of dried grass in some dances. (Pacific Photos

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Tahitian houses have thatched roofs and walls are thatched reed panels. The same method of weaving is used as in Maori baskets but the strands are closer together. (Pacific Photos)

On the whole this marae is about four times the size of the one in Paea and is situated on a point of beach land over looking the bay.

Tautira is a fair sized village with a picture hall, two grocery stores, a bakery and a little wine shop. I rented a bach from an elderly Tahitian called Pepe and also arranged to have meals at his place. My friend went back, leaving me to spend my first night in this district of Tautira, gateway to the land of Pari, land of rugged bush-clad hills, waterfalls, caves and cliffs to the water's edge. Early the next morning I set off in a canoe for the reefs, to do a spot of fishing. Pepe fished while I swam around looking at the coral and walking up and down the reef, which is a wonderful sight. A few weeks before I had seen this from the air, and now I was right in among it all. It seemed so unreal that had I not seen it. I should not have believed. While awaiting tea. I marvelled at the coral which is able to stand up to such a battering from the waves and yet still remain intact.

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This dance is known as the Otea. Leading woman is Germaine, most famous of South Pacific dancers. Her troupe are all male dancers from the island of Borabora. Main decoration of these elaborate dresses and headbands are shells with which all garments are studded. (Pacific Photos)

“Haere mai ta maa.” I heard Pepe call, and away I went to join him in the evening meal. Pepe could speak a little English. We used to talk in Tahitian, until I couldn't understand; then he would explain things to me in what little English he knew, which was enough to be understood.

It is a very pretty place, but as we walked through the forest, I noticed that the trees never reached the size of our New Zealand trees, although the tree ferns were the same. One day returning from a canoe trip we pulled in to the shore, and Pepe and I climbed up the face of a cliff to see an old grave, which was under an overhanging rock, but only a few bones remained of the skeleton that was once inside. Later we pulled into an island off the shore of Pari, which was only a quarter of a mile from the other island called Fenua' ino. After a meal we crossed over to the shore to a place called Mauoro. Now Mauoro is a small flat piece of land measuring about a quarter of an acre overgrown with Purau trees. Through these trees we went until we reached the foot of a steep hill side, and here facing the east and the rising sun were two stones, about 3 to 4 feet in height and width, and upon them are ancient drawings. On one is a drawing of the sun, which actually faces the rising sun. The other stone facing south has drawings of a star and quarter moon, exactly like the Whetumarama or badge worn by members of the Ratana movement here in New

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Zealand. According to Pepe, his grandfather had told him that this place in the days gone by, was tapu, and, that it was a place of worship. From here we walked about 20 chains along the hillside to where, down by the sea was another huge stone about 10ft high and about the same width and length. Near the top was a round, clean hole bored through the stone. By looking through it, one could see out to sea. According to my friend, this was also one of the many things done by the folks of old. The name of this rock was “Te here a Umere.” We walked on around the island for about a 100 yards to where on a small hillock, was yet another rock, and a fairly large one too. What interested me was the fact that it had two holes about the size of a saucer and about 9 to 12 inches apart, one hole being blocked with a rock and the other being open. Pepe took hold of a branch of the coconut tree and with this he beat upon the open hole and it let out a booming sound. Pepe told me that in the old days this rock was used as a pahu or drum. When the surrounding people heard that drum it was signal to gather in the valley of Vai' ate. During their “hui raa tira” as the Tahitians called it, they even danced to the beating of this drum which was known throughout Tahiti as ‘Te Pahu i Vaiate.’

KNOWLEDGE OF HISTORY LACKING

After spending a week here, I moved on to Pura ania, where I again rented a little ni-au whare which was right down near the sea. I spent a week here also, then went back to Papeete where I had to call on a few people before leaving for New Zealand. Among the many people I met, both young and old, I failed to find a person who knew much about the history or genealogies of Tahiti. I was told that there were possibly one or two old folk that would know something of the history in Tahiti, but if I went out to the other islands such as the Tua Motu group I would find people there versed in history. Unfortunately time was short for me, so I will leave that part of my business for another time. In my studies I also found that the language spoken in Tahiti today is not true Tahitian or parau tumu as it is called. The arrival of European settlers and missionaries with their laws, customs and beliefs, changed everything. Nevertheless this is Tahiti, or better known to the elder folk as, Tahiti nui i te vai uri rau te rau te oto o te Manu, meaning Great Tahiti of many waters and many coloured birds.

On Friday, 9th September, I said farewell to Tahiti. As our boat pulled away from the wharf. I could hear the cries of “bon voyage,” and from my friends came their Tahitian farewell, “Parahi oe e raei,” and from the depths of my heart I answered, “Parahi ra-a to-u hare rahi ia outau e hoa ma” (farewell my love to you all my friends). As the flying boat circled above Papeete I took my last look until next time, at this island of Tahiti, Mother island of French Oceania.

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Partly based on European church singing, but still very Polynesian in character is the weird beauty of the Tahitian ‘himene’. The leader closes her eyes and buries her head in her hands. Suddenly she breaks into a clear-cut phrase to which the others reply in a close-knit harmony. The music has a fast and vigorous rhythm. As the women chant, the men on the outside clap their knees and sway side to side, singing deep short notes which give an effective ground work for the tune.

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The Tahitian spear is about ten feet long and the greatest agility is needed to wield it. A fishing net is drying in the foreground.

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KENNEDYS BAY

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At Te Kopoai, near Kennedys Bay, many ancient tools and weapons were found by Selwyn Te Moananui Hovell (now in Christchurch) and the late Reginald Bell, whose widow has many of them in a private museum at her home. Above shell hooks are made from the shell Cookia sulcata (top left). Upper series is in the process of making.

Gold and Timber vanished but the Land and the People remained

The road from Coromandel Harbour to Kennedys Bay is only eight miles long, but inhabitants of the Peninsula claim it proudly as the worst road in New Zealand. There is a blind corner overhanging a cliff every hundred yards and the surface consists entirely of clay and large type of boulders.

During the first stages of the ascent we took a tourist interest in the splendid view over the grey fiords and islands sitting like introspective beavers around the pale blue expanse of Coromandel Bay.

When the gradient of the road made the car engine cut out we were forcefully pulled back to the laborious physical details of bringing the engine back to life.

This was a good introduction to Kennedys Bay where life alternates between the commanding scenery and the laborious physical detail of kerosene lights and crossing inlets in dinghies.

The purpose of our visit was to discover the Maori history of this little-known spot which was the scene of one of the most generous land gifts ever made in the Country, where towns were built and burnt for firewood, within a century, where several other different economies followed each other in a century and where the eyes of tired men still light up at the suggestion of an eeling expedition.

In Kennedys Bay one can see how in so young a country as New Zealand towns can come and go and leave no monument, hardly a trace except a few acres that cannot be ploughed because of stone foundations still buried just below the soil surface. The tidal flat a furlong from the school, now covered with short grass, was the main town site in the milling days. One of the inhabitants, Mr Fred Anderson, possesses all that is left of it: a faded photograph.

Generous Gift

Early in the ninteenth century the original Maori inhabitants of Kennedys Bay disappeared. Many were killed during an unfortunate fight with the brigs Trial and Brothers in 1815, many more during the Ngapuhi invasion coinciding with the invasion of Port Jackson. The survivors left the Bay.

Later, little yachts belonging to the Ngati Porou visited the place on their way to Auckland to sell their wheat and maize. The Hauraki chief, Paora te Putu of the Ngati Tamatera, treated them with noble generosity. When Ngati Porou asked him for permission to land in the Bay during rough weather, he answered ‘this land is given to you’ and as he spoke his outstretched hand traced the area between the Harataunga River. Piripirika Hill, and the main range, extending to the far point where the bay ended.

It was one of the most generous gifts that ever passed between one tribe and another. When timberfelling started, it obtained great monetary value and the land was partitioned among the settler families by the Maori Land Court.

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View of Kennedys Bay with the old milling town site in the foreground. Only the church and the Hovell homestead are still standing.

The present population of the Bay is partly Maori, partly pakeha, and many have some Maori blood. We were welcomed by a large Maori audience at a meeting during which we found little interest in the revival of the Maori tribal committee and the building of a hall, but definite interest in the idea of an Adult Education course and a library.

The one remaining pillar of Maoritanga is Ben Ngapo, the acknowledged expert on local history, a fine orator, who has experienced the most difficult years at Kennedys Bay.

The Chief's Story

The Ngati Porou settlers, Ben Ngapo told us, at first grew maize and wheat. Cropping in those days was co-operative: the whole community worked first one man's land, then another's, until the work was done. In the late sixties when the goldminers and millers came, this was dropped and Maoris began to work as loggers and gum-diggers. Everybody earned a living, but nobody grew rich.

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Te Urupa (Ben) Ngapo, Kennedys Bay elder.

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This drawing is made by Mr E. Mervyn Taylor from an old photograph in the possession of Mr Fred Anderson of Kennedys Bay. It is the only relic of the old milling town and sheep graze today where houses and workshops stood.

Gradually the bush area receded. A tramway was laid to bring the trees to the jetty. On the mountains, a town with 700–800 people developed digging for gold but they disappeared as they had come, and left no trace except some treacherous holes hidden by the manuka.

When Ben Ngapo grew up, the Kennedys Bay timber mill was already deserted; only a few kauris were left standing in inaccessible places. The Maoris cut these down and shipped them to Auckland. Around the time of the Boer war, these trees too gave out. Mr Ngapo went to Northland to work as a logger, leaving his wife and children behind. Many did this. Others started cutting the flax and selling that on the Auckland market. But the flax too was quickly exhausted and today not much of it is seen around Kennedys Bay. The carved meeting house collapsed and was never rebuilt.

A few years later a butter factory opened up in Coromandel. This was a great event for the whole population of the northern tip of the peninsula. Mr Ngapo returned home and bought some cows. Where did you get the money from?—I booked it, Ben Ngapo replied.

The first year Ben Ngapo carried the cream over the mountain on a packhorse, for years after it was a buggy. The herd and the yield of the pasture remained small until the Maori Land Development scheme started. Then he saw his kinsman Sir Apirana Ngata, who made finance available.

The Modern Age

There are 10,000 acres in the Harataunga Maori block of which 3000 are now in grass. Development of the rest is complicated by the many owners who now live on the East Coast. Sheep and cattle farming is now almost as important as dairying. Two men live by selling crayfish on the Auckland market. The sea still provides a large proportion of the people's protein: fishing is traditional, kept up even in these farming days. Many farms still can only be reached by dinghy and one child has to row to school every day. The education board pays him 9d for providing his own school transport.

Daily life on the Bay is still tough, but there is always joy in nocturnal eeling expeditions, in making a day-long trek through the bush to bring your horses to the show, in expeditions to the pa site where Maori adzes and fish-hooks are found, in the growing of ‘tropical gardens,’ and perhaps, as this modern age penetrates the settlement, in a library and adult education.

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Horses too like to escape into the Harataunga River.

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Left: George Hovell, part-Maori, who works on his father's farm, spends his spare time digging for archeological remains at Te Kapoai and the nearby grottos, and also has a tropical garden with bananas, guavas, pineapples, papinas, avocado, paupau and numerous other fruits.

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Right: Boy with his school transport, a rowing boat in which he crosses the bay morning and night. As the distance is more than two miles, the State pays for this school transport at ninepence a day.

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Left: Mrs Maremare Whitiwhiti, president of the Hauraki M.W.W.L. Council, is devoted to the revival of Maori crafts. Weaving was almost a lost art in Hauraki when Mrs Whitiwhiti started teaching: today the Hauraki crafts displays attract much attention at annual shows in Hamilton (Photo: Peter Blanc)

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Below: Rapaki Concert Party farewells the departing Controller of Maori Welfare, Mr Rangi Royal, in Christchurch. (Star-Sun Photograph)

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Formal opening of the chapel.

THE
TURAKINA
CHAPEL

Some of the finest Maori decoration of modern times has been made for churches and chapels. Well-known are the buildings at Rotorua, Wanganui, Otaki, Ruatoki and Tikitiki. They show how artistic traditions originating in the stone-age found their place in the worship of the new religion, Christianity. Because Christianity is preached as a universal religion, every race can express its worship in its own language and its own art.

The latest place of worship decorated with Maori carving, tukutuku and kowhaiwhai is the new chapel at Turakina Maori Girls' College. This is the first chapel built by the Presbyterian Church in this style.

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The chapel window.

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Pupil of Turakina College.

It has sincerity, simplicity and at the same time a warmth and richness always typical of Maori interiors. Like the other Maori churches, the outside has no Maori features. The structure too is European.

The fine tukutuku panels in the chapel are the girls' own work although some expert crafts-women of the district helped them. It was started in 1943 when the Rt Rev J. G. Laughton laid the foundation stone.

The carving was done by a party from the Bay of Plenty, led by Barney Rangitauira of Waiohau. The figure work is very vivid and expressive in places.

JUBILEE OPENING

The opening of the Chapel last December served to mark the fiftieth jubilee of the college and the close of the first hundred years of Maori Mission work by the Presbyterian Church of New Zealand.

The first eight pupils were in residence in the manse at Turakina in 1905. The building was opened that year by the Rt Hon R. J. Seddon. In 1928 the present school at Marton replaced the manse. Its present capacity is 56 pupils. At first the college offered only a primary school course but after the transfer to Marton the school gradually became wholly secondary. After 1940, the girls began sitting for the school certificate examination. The main object of the school however, in

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the words of the principal, Miss M. Mitchell, is still to teach the girls to become good Christian homemakers.

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Pen and ink drawing by Eric Lee-Johnson, of the building in Turakina where the college was housed from 1905 to 1928.

Conducted in brilliant sunshine, the opening celebration attracted many hundreds of visitors who thronged the college grounds in an informal manner and then congregated in the chapel precincts to welcome the guests of honour. The Hon Mrs Hilda Ross and members of the official party were received in traditional style by the women elders who, as the party advanced, receded before them—slowly leading them on to the marae. And here, Mr Ngakohu Pera, Chief representing the Matatua canoe, voiced the welcome of those present and his own pleasure in introducing to them the first woman Member of Parliament brought to the marae according to Maori tradition and as an honoured guest.

In her remarks, Mrs Ross paid tribute to the work of the college. She said its effects were being felt not only in the district but throughout the country.

After the official opening of the chapel door by Mrs Ross, the Very Rev D. N. McDiarmid, M.B.E., performed the act of dedication and Rev T. Cairns conducted a brief service of worship.

Next came a part of the proceedings to which many had given much thought and preparation beforehand and to which many more were now to do full justice. Under the expert guidance of Mr Tenga Takarangi the catering arrangements worked smoothly and with precision. A tower of strength was Mr James Henare who, with his willing helpers of the Marton Kotahitanga Club, gave yeoman service as chief cook and stewards respectively. One must not fail, however, to pay tribute also to the Kurahaupo District Tribal Executive, the wardens of the district, and the Marton Women's Welfare League; for all worked together with a will and in perfect harmony to produce a repast well fitted to the occasion.

Five of the original pupils of the College stood to answer to their names when the opening Roll was called. They were: Mrs M. te Rangi (Tokaanu), Mrs A. Poananga-Moore (Palmerston North), Mrs L. Spooner (Taihape), Mrs M. te Maari (Whangaehu) and Mrs H. Pohe (Putiki); each received a rousing reception.

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EUROPEAN
FIGURES
in WOOD
CARVING

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Left Pakeha figures in meeting house panels are very rare; perhaps this one is unique. It belongs to the Turanganui o Kiwa meeting house near Manutuke, opened in January 1883. All the carvings in this house relate to early settlement of Poverty Bay. Billy Brown with his dog was one of the first pakeha settlers in the Bay and in a way completes the story. The house has been fully described by W. J. Phillipps in ‘Carved Maori Houses of the Eastern Districts of the North Island.’ Dominion Museum Records, Vol. 1. No. 2, 1944.

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Below Africans, like the Maori, were accomplished woodcarvers and interpreted their European contacts much in the same way as the carving from Manutuke. Left: A missionary dressed in austere clothes and reading his Bible. (Belgian Congo.) Rijksmuseum voor volkenkuade, Leiden. Right: Queen Victoria portrayed with great majesty and motherliness. (West Africa)—Berkeley Galleries, London, Reproduced from UNESCO Courier.

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BIRMINGHAM LEADS THE WAY
IN SOLVING IMMIGRATION PROBLEMS

At Kingston, Jamaica, early in May 1955, a ship came in from England with fifty returning Jamaicans on board. One of them, Mrs Seh, said: “I would never go back. I left Jamaicans crying because they didn't have the money for the journey home”.

But the very next day another ship sailed for England with more than 700 West Indian emigrants on board.

In fact, Jamaicans, and other West Indians, are emigrating to England in such numbers that the supply of passports has been exhausted and the government is issuing temporary identity papers. For West Indians, as members of the Commonwealth, are entitled to unresticted entry into Great Britain.

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Africians look at Europeans: District officer sitting at his desk and dispensing justice, a Yoruba carving (Rijksmuseum voor volkenkunde, Leiden, Holland. Reproduced from UNESCO Courier)

There are now approximately 35,000 in the United Kingdom. More than 5,000 migrated in 1953; another 10,000 came in 1954; and, it looks as if last year's figure will be double that.

Some borrow the eighty pounds required for single fares. Others, a minority, arrive as stow-aways. Few come with much money, and lots of them have no idea of where they will go once they land.

Why do they Emigrate?

The primary motive for this migration is the widespread unemployment, low standards of living, and poor prospects for skilled workers in the West Indies. There was a falling off of emigration early this year when Mr Manley, Jamaica's newly-elected First Minister, promised more jobs. But conditions cannot change overnight, and emigration quickly picked up again.

The vast majority of the migrants consists of the better-off members of the West Indian labour force, the more skilled workers, the better educated, the more ambitious and courageous. But as levels of skill vary according to economic structure, the person who legitimately is rated as a skilled man in the West Indies may well be accepted in Britain as only semi-skilled.

It is also true that many West Indians come to Great Britain hoping to learn a trade—seeking the experience and knowledge that they feel are the key to their successful return to the colony. There are sentimental reasons too. West Indians have had a thorough-going British education and many of them think of England as “Home”. Some, unfortunately, believe that the streets of Britain are paved with gold. Others are encouraged by letters from relatives and friends, who have found secure jobs and better standards of living in Great Britain. Still others are tempted by the many advertisements that appear in West Indian newspapers: ads. for policemen, bus conductors, miners, London Transport workers, firemen, and so on.

On arrival in Great Britain, West Indians are met by welfare officers from the Colonial Office. They are advised where to stay and told to register with the nearest employment exchange. Conditions of full employment in Great Britain at the moment favour the colonial workers as well as foreign immigrants. And at a time when,

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according to Sir Anthony Eden's speech on August 27, British exports are in peril, West Indians can certainly help in the “battle for production”. In fact, a recent survey by the National Assistance Board showed that unemployment among West Indians was lower than the national average. It must be remembered, however, that most West Indian immigrants are of working age and, should there be a fall-off in employment, they might be the first to suffer.

This is not to say that West Indian workers are unpopular. Far from it. Mr Sidney Hill, chairman of Nottingham City Transport, says that coloured conductors are a great success, while in Birmingham a widely-seen B.B.C. television documentary about the coloured question has done a lot to quiet suspicion and prejudice. Princess Margaret's West Indian tour has also done much to make coloured workers popular. In fact, there have been very few incidents. The British people in general have proved themselves friendly. Mixed marriages are being accepted calmly. Of course, some West Indians have found it difficult to settle down. There have been cases of friction with prejudiced landladies; the odd quarrel in a pub. But, above all, many West Indians do not expect the cold hardships of the British winter, and they have no advance knowledge about the soot-soiled slums of industrial towns.

Living and Working Conditions

Apart from a job, accommodation is the most acute problem facing the new arrivals. The majority settle down in London, in already crowded working-class districts like Brixton or Lambeth, where earlier arrivals have already established themselves. In Lambeth, after a few incidents in the early days, a fact-finding committee of white and coloured citizens was set up by the Mayor and both sides were encouraged to be as frank as possible. As a result, there will probably be a permanent organization to ensure that white and coloured people in Lambeth work and live together to make their borough a better place.

In the provinces, Birmingham has proved most attractive to West Indies. About 4,600 coloured people live there in the crowded slum areas of Balsall Heath and Aston, and, in 1950, a voluntary body known as the “Co-ordinating Committee for Overseas Nationals” was set up to discuss their problems. As a result, the Clifton Institute for Coloured People was opened in the beginning of 1951. Over 100 coloured students passed through the Institute in the first year, and several former graduates have now enrolled at the College of Technology.

West Indians are now to be found in a wide variety of jobs, from unskilled ironfoundry workers to skilled arc-welders, electricians and motor mechanics, and both employers and labour exchanges confirm that most of them are doing excellent work.

Outlook for the Future

The heavy influx of West Indian immigrants in recent months has led to pressure in Parliament and in certain sections of the press to limit immigration. But free entry enables Great Britain to claim the distinction of affording equal opportunities to any British subject, regardless of colour. And West Indians themselves are proud of their Mother Country which maintains the ideal of equal citizenship for all. They believe that the problem is one for the local authorities. Great progress has been made, for instance, in Birmingham by intelligent co-operation between the Corporation, the trade unions and employers, and in many places clergymen have been leaders in helping to overcome obstacles to community acceptance, while the Colonial Office is doing excellent work in offering advice and guidance to newly-arrived immigrants.

With patience and continued effort on both sides, there is every hope that peaceful assimilation will continue, (UNESCO).

The Junior Chamber of Commerce movement on the East Coast has presented £128 to the library fund at Te Aute College, and this will make posible the first major addition of books to the library for some years. The money was the result of a project sponsored by the Waipukurau branch of the movement, and taken up by the whole of the movement from Wairoa to Dannevirke.

* * *

Another of the fruits of the special committee which inquired into the educational needs of Maori children has been announced. It is the appointment of the Education Department of an officer for Maori education. He is Mr K. I. Robertson, senior inspector of Maori Schools at Auckland, and he will care for Maori children in ordinary education board schools as well as special Maori schools. Mr Robertson said boards would consider setting up sub-committees with Maori representation to advise on Maori education. They would also consider appointing Maoris to lecturing staffs of the teachers' training colleges, and board inspectors would be attending to particular problems affecting Maoris. Mr Robertson said the official attitude toward the Maori schools was not immediate abolition but of evolution until they reached a stage where they could be abolished. He reviewed the progress which the Maoris have made in education in the last 15 years and said the percentage taking secondary education was approaching the percentage for Europeans.

* * *

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WAIOHAU

Members of patuheuheu sub-tribe of Tuhoe, numbering two hundred, live and work in harmony with our few pakeha friends here in this valley of Waiohau.

Whakapono is the real work of life, and Waiohau has four churches. Its members help and attend each others services and functions.

Led by chief Iki Powhare, widely known as an expressive speaker, the Ringatu Faith heads the list. Te Teira Wi, 1914–1918 soldier, holder of many important positions both past and present, in church and tribal matters, college educated, has in his hands the reins of the Maori Presbyterian Church.

Waerengahiko College has one of its ex-pupils, Parau Nuku, as the leading light of the Roman Catholics.

Wiremu Tete Allison, college educated, one of the sons-in-law of that great chief Wiremu Papanui Mekore, has as layman the care and leadership of the Church of England.

Also of the same faith, Mohiti Taipeti, educated 1939–45 soldier, takes ANZAC services and leads the Waiohau Maori R.S.A. movements. The churches in helping one another, form a small council of churches, not official, but in its way holding fast to our tupuna's teachings, “Kia u, kia kotahi, kia mau ki tou whakapono.”

Tama Kihikurangi Wharenui stands proudly guarding our marae, whilst his gaze passes sadly over his two friends—Wakapango the carved flag-pole, and Tupapakurau the concrete shelter—who are the shadows of our fallen boys.

Arts and crafts are still taught to us by the few who are well versed in such things. In this group we have a young man Te Po Rangitauira who with his natural gift of the art of “whakairo,” helped by Hare Anderson of Ruatoki, did the carvings in Turakina Maori Girls' College Chapel.

Education was first started in Waiohau by mission workers of the Presbyterian Church, who laid the foundation and lived to see their wonderful work bear fruit.

Today, we the people of this community give our heartfelt thanks to them who carved the way and to our present master and his wife (Mr and Mrs Munn), with their helper, Miss Read, who have in their short period here, taught our children well. Thanks also to our pakeha friends, school committee members, mill employer and employees, for help given in many ways.

Night is here, we wait the dawn.

We wonder what lies ahead, but we thank God that we are alive and free today.

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SPORTS
Playing the Springboks

By the time this is published the Springboks will have completed their tour of Australia and will have begun their tour of New Zealand.

As I write they are in Australia, on the eve of their first game, but already New Zealand is seething with interest and speculation about our prospects. Every province has planned its programme and is developing its tactics with a view to meeting the visitors.

On paper South Africa seems to have the typically formidable side we have come to expect from them. After all they have been the premier Rugby nation for a long time and they are never likely to field anything but a strong team.

Although we Maoris will have more than a small interest in the provincial fixtures, our main interest naturally will centre on the four tests and the Maori game. Most of us are hoping to see a number of Maoris in the Test teams. Last year several Maoris made the team against Australia—Pat Walsh of Ardmore Teachers' College at second five-eighth and later at fullback, Bill Gray of Rotorua at centre, Keith Davis of Auckland at half-back, Stan Hill of Canterbury on the side of the scerum, Tom Katene of Wellington on the wing and Doug Hemi of Waikato as hooker (although we are in some doubt about whether Hemi is a Maori, most of us like to think he is one of us and hope he will be available for the Maori All Blacks).

It is too early to speculate on how many of these will play for New Zealand this year. As things stand I would count no one a Test certainty, except of course the incomparable Ron Jarden.

We can be safe in assuming that form in the trial matches, including the North v. South Island game will do more to influence the selectors than will reputation alone.

The race will be to the swift and the fit. Mr Morrison has already let it be known that only the very fittest will be considered.

As far as the Maori Team is concerned one thing seems certain and I am afraid that it does not augur too well for our hopes of victory. There will be a surplus of very competent backs but a dearth of forwards capable of holding the power-

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Scene from the match between New Zealand XV and Maoris, in Eden Park, 1954. T. Goldsmith is carrying the ball.

ful visiting pack. The pattern of play in Maori football of recent years, has tended more and more towards orthodoxy. This is probably occasioned by the increased number of Maoris playing in city football. Such a pattern requires big, heavy, fit forwards who can pack tight but still move fast in the loose. Too many of our contemporary Maori representatives are too small and far too loose.

If we are to beat the Springboks we desperately need three or four men of the Lance Hohaia type—hard, rugged, fit and exceptionally strong men. If we can unearth two locks and two props who can match the visitors in the tight our talented loose forwards and backs may turn the scales in our favour.

Despite this apparent weakness in the forwards we can be sure, however, that the team to play in the big game at Auckland on 25th August will have been more adequately prepared than any previous Maori side to play a visiting team in New Zealand.

A series of Maori trials will be played. The selectors will also have the advantage of seeing aspirants play in provincial fixtures and in the month before the big game a Maori team will tour in the South Island.

The following programme has been arranged:—

19th May: Prince of Wales Cup—Taitokerau v. Tairawhiti at Whakatane.

12th June: Taihauauru v. Te Waipounamu at Wanganui.

20th June: Final trial at Hamilton. At this stage the touring side will be chosen. This team will fly South and play:—

23rd June: West Coast at Westport.

27th June: Buller-West Coast at Greymouth.

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30th June: Nelson-Golden Bay-Motueka-Marlborough at Nelson.

4th July: Sth Canterbury-Mid Canterbury-North Otago at Timaru. The team will then disperse and re-assemble to play:—

22nd August: Counties (Sth Auckland) at Waiuku.

25th August: South Africa at Auckland, the spirit of true football will prevail. Our hope of victory lies in speed, backing up and attack.

There will be thousands of Maoris at Eden Park and I am sure we will all want to be proud of our representatives—whether in victory or defeat.

Let us have hard, fast, intelligent football.

ON THE LAND

The Maori shareholders of the Mangatu Block near Gisborne, one of the largest and richest farming enterprises in New Zealand, have voted for a new committee to govern their incorporation. Voting was on a share basis, and the election was controlled by the registrar of the Maori Land Court at Gisborne, Mr V. Holst. The following committee was elected: Hemi Kauta Wharekino, Mahanga Brown, Iru Ruru, Rongowhakaata Albert, Panapa Tuhoe, Nehe Tu, and Kingi Areata Keiha. Mr Hemi Wharekino received the most votes. The procedure now is for the incorporation to apply to the Maori Land Court for the appointment of those elected. Final responsibility for making the appointment rests with the Court, which has wide powers of discretion, and which is also responsible for appointing the chairman. The election itself was ordered by the Court under the terms of special legislation passed last year. At a meeting just before the election the shareholders decided to vote on a share basis and to limit the committee to seven members. There were 14 nominations.

* * *

The Maori Affairs Department will bring two new Maori land schemes under development in North Auckland this year. The two new schemes amount to 8,688 acres and bring the total area being developed by the Maori Affairs Department in North Auckland to 88,000 acres.

The new schemes are at Onepu, situated between between Ngataki and Wairahi, Mangonui County and Omapere which extends from Kaikohe borough boundary to Lake Omapere. Eventually these schemes will be sub-divided for settlement by 43 Maori farmers.

As well as bringing idle land into production, the schemes will provide work for Maori families in the area both during development and after settlement. On settlement freehold titles will be given where possible and in other cases, long-term leases will be made available.

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Ka Haere a Tawhahi Ki te Kanikani

na MOKO

I tetahi po ka tu he kanikani ki Parahaki. Ka whakaaro a Tawhaki raua ko Ngaheu me haere raua ki te kanikani ki te whakangahau. No reira, i taua ahiahi tonu ka haere raua ki tetahi ano o raua hoa kia kutikutihia o raua mahunga. Kaore a Twahaki i pirangi kia potopoto rawa ana makawe. Ka mea atu ia ki to raua hoa, “E hoa, me kutikuti ahau pera i a “Caesar Romero” ra. Te tau ke o tera tahae! E tama, ka reka ke!” Ka whakahoki to raua hoa ka mea, “E tama, kia ahua totika ano te kanohi, ka whakapiri atu ai a koe ki a “Caesar Romero”. Engari ia, he tangata ataahua. Ko koe! e tama” Ka ki atu ano a Tawhaki, “Hei aha hoki, ko te me nui, kia pera oku makawe i ona.”

Mutu ana te kutikuti, kaore e mohiotia atu i kutikutihia a Tawhaki. Heoi ano, kua marakerake ona taringa!

Ka mea atu te hoa kutikuti ki a Ngaheu, “A, me pehea hoki te tapahi mou?”

Ka whakahoki a Ngaheu, “Kia pera i to Hoani Wehimira ra. He tau ake tena tahae i a Romero.”

Ka kutikutihia a Ngaheu. Kaore hoki i tino rereke atu i to Tawhaki. Ka mutu, ka hoki raua ki o raua kainga ki te whakapaipai i o raua kakahu.

Ko te hate, me te tarau o Tawhaki kei runga i te taiapa e iri ana kia maroke. No taua ata tonu i horoia ai e tona whaea. Tae ake ana a Tawhaki ka tahuri ia ki te haieana i ona kakahu. No te mea mo te kanikani aua kakahu ka whakaaro a Tawhaki mana tonu e mahi, kia tino pai ai. He roa tonu e perehi ana. ka oti.

Tau ake ana te po, ka puta mai a Ngaheu, kua mau ke ia, i ona kakahu kanikani. Ka mea atu ia ki a Tawhaki, “E hoa, kia teretere! Ha aha ke to mahi? Ana, kaore ano koe kia reri noa.”

Ka whakahoki a Tawhaki, “E tama, i te matakitaki komeke ke ahau. Taihoa, kaore e roa, ka reri ahou”.

Ka haere ia, ki tona takiwa o te whare ki te whakamau i ona kakahu. Kaore tonu i tino roa e ngaro atu ana, ka puta mai, ka mea atu ki a Ngaheu, “E hoa mau e whakamau taku neketai, kia torotika ai?”

Ka whakahoki a Ngaheu, ka mea, “E hoa kia tika koia te korero. Kaore koe e mea mai, kaore ke kia mohio noa ki te whakamau tai. Haere mai.” Ka kata a Tawhaki, haere atu ana kia whakamaua te tai. Ka mutu tena mahi,

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ka tahuri ia ki whakapiata i ona hu, ki te hinu i ona makame, ki te pani hoki i a ia ki te wai kakara. Mutu ana te whakapaipai ka haere a Ngaheu raua ko Tawhaki ma runga i o raua hoiho, ki te whare kanikani.

Tae atu ana, ka herea o raua hoiho ki te taiapa, ka hunaia nga tera ki waenga manuka, he nui hoki nga mea whanako tera o Parahaki. He tera tetahi taonga i tino whaia e te whanako. Ko etahi ano, he hoiho, he merengi, he kanga, he peke kanga kopiro, he tuna.

Ka korerorero a Tawhaki raua ko Ngaheu ki etahi o o raua hoa i waho i te whare. Kaore ano kia tangi mai te pene. Kua tekau karaka pea, ka kuhu atu nga taitama nei ka hokona mai he tikiti, ka tu ki te takiwa o te kuaha, ki reira matakitaki ai i te iwi.

Ko te pene, katahi ano ka mutu atu te mahi whakatikatika i te tangi o a ratou taputapu. Katahi ka tu mai tetahi tangata ka korero pakeha ki te iwi, ka mea kia tu ratou ki te kanikani tuatahi. Tangi mai ana te pene, ka tu nga pakeke ki te kanikani. Ka tirotiro haere nga taitama mo etahi kotiro ataahua hei hoa kanikani mo ratou. Haere ana i a ratou haere. Ka oho ake a Tawhaki, koia anake kei reira e tu ana. Ka titiro ia. Aue! kua tu katoa nga kotiro ataahua! Ka rongo ia, i a Ngaheu e tiwaha ana. “E hoa Tawhaki, tikina a Kuia hei hoa kanikani mou!” Ka kata mai. Ka tiwaha mai hoki ko Hoani,” E hoa, ara a Kuia e mokemoke mai ra. Tikina hei hoa mou!” Ka kata mai hoki tena. Ka tiwaha ake ano tetahi, “E Tawhaki, tikina te kotiro ataahua e noho mai ra hei hoa mou!”

Ka titiro atu taua tahae ki te takiwa e noho mai ra a Kuia, ka kata. Ka tiro atu hoki a Tawhaki ka kite ia i te whakama o Kuia, na te mahi whakatoi a ona hoa. Ka aroha ia, ki a Kuia, ka haere ia ki te tiki. Ka mea atu ia. “Haere mai taua ki te kanikani. Kaua koe e whakarongo atu ki aku hoa whakatoi.” Tu ana raua.

Ka tutaki ana nga hoa i a Tawhaki ka kata atu ki a ia, ka whakatoi no te mea kaore i mau i a ia tetahi noa kanikani ataahua. Kaore a Tawhaki e aro atu. Ka mutu tena kanikani, ka whakahokia nga wahine ki o ratou turu. Ka hoki ano nga taitama ki to ratou wahi, ki reira whakatoi ai i a Tawhaki.

Ka haere tena kanikani, ka haere, a, ka tu mai tetahi tangata momona ko Kaihuka te ingoa, ki te waiata. Ko Kaihuka he tangata tino tohunga mo te waiata pera i nga Maori o Hawaii. Ka tangi mai tona reo, he tino reka hoki ki nga taringa o Parahaki. Mutu ana, haruru kau ana te whare i te pakipaki. Ka tonoa taua tangata kia waiata ano. Katahi ka tonoa ko Kuia kia waiata. Ka akina e te iwi kia tu. Ahakoa ruru mai te mahunga me nga pakihiwi ka akina tonu, a, ka tu mai tetahi Kuia tino whakama. Ka waiata tena kohine i tetahi waiata pakeha ko “Trees” te ingoa. Ko te reka ke o tona reo, ano he manu ke e tangi mai ana. Ka haruru ano te whare i nga pakipaki me te miharo ano ki a Kuia mo tana whakamanawa nui ki te waiata ki a ratou.

Ka timata te whakahihi a Tawhaki ki ona hoa, ka mea atu, “Ka rawe ke taku hoa kanikani ki te waiata ne! Kaore he take o a koutou na, he pera ke i te poraka ki te waiata!”

Ka mea ake a Hoani, “Kei te koa katoa to tatou hoa. Ano, mona ke nga pakipaki ra.”

Katahi a Ngaheu ka tiwaha ki te kai-whakahaere i te kanikani, “Hei, kei te pirangi a Tawhaki ki te waiata ki a tatou!” Rongo kau ana a Tawhaki i tenei, kotahi atu tana oma ki waho. Kore rawa i mau i ona hoa. Ka kata te iwi.

A, ka kanikani ano. Ka uru mai ano a Tawhaki ki waenganui i te iwi kanikani.

No te toru karaka i te ata ka mutu tena kanikani. Kua ngenge katoa nga waewae, kua hiamoe nga kanohi.

Ka haere a Ngaheu raua ko Tawhaki ki o raua hoiho, ka tu. Ha, he aha hoki tenei! Kei hea nga hoiho? Kua kore!

Ka mea a Tawhaki, “E hoa, i te ahua nei, kua mauria o taua hoiho e nga kehua o Parahaki hei hoa kanikani mo ratou!”

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TE RAE O TE RA
na Te Mahuika Kaikoura

Kohe rae te ra nei, he rae hamama ki nga ao!
Ko kura kei te pohutukawa a Mahuika
Kei te maro o Rai'atea
Kei Taputapuatea, te rae o Te Opoa e!
Haere mai ana, ki ahau nei, te waiata
Na te ara o te wai roa, Na te ara nui o Kahukura.
Haere mai ana ki ahau te ngeri o raurangi e.
Karanga ki ahau i roto i te rae o te po—
Te Marae pouri o Whiro e
Noreira ko ngaro au!
Engari, E Karanga Ki ahau, E Hina,
I roto i Te rae o Te Ataahua, noreira mehoki ka tito au!
Ka tito au te waiata o he ao hou;
Ka tito au o te kakara kowhai kei te Hapuku!
Ko reira he whenua ma.
Ka tito au te tiwhaiwhai kakariki e
I runga i nga ronaki o Kaitarau.
Te ngaherehere o te atua-maori
Ko te tiwhaiwhai ra!
No reira, he rae ko te ra nei, Te Tohunga ko Te Ra!
Ko te ra naku e!
Te Ihinga-moana, ko tera toku patere.
Ko he rae te ra nei, he rae hamama ki nga maunga.
Kura kei te rata!
Kura kei te maro kura o Rai atea
Kei te pou tapu o Opoa e
Kei Tapu Tapuatea.

KUA MATE A OPO
na Hoterene Keretene

Kahore i mohiotia tera te ika nei a Opo ka tangohia atu e te Atua. He ika tenei i arohaina e te mano kaumatua, tamariki hoki mona i pai ki te whakahoa ki tetahi tamaiti kohungahunga ko Julie Baker, he kotiro pakeha. Na tenei kohine ka rarata a Opo—a ki te korero i pangia te kohine e te mate, a ka noho ki te kainga mo te rua ra. Otira e tutaki ana raua i nga ra katoa i mua atu! Na wai a ka whakamomori a Opo a ka huri ka rapu i te kohine nei. Heoi ano ra e penei ana te korero ka whakamomori te ika ra a haere ana, ki te whakamate ia i a ia ano!

Kaati ra he nui te mano i heke nga roimata. i tangi hoki i te rongonga kua mate a Opo. Kei te mohiotia ra nga korero mo tenei ika—heoi ano ta te Maori he korero i ana korero! He ika tenei no te hapu i haerea mai ai e Kupa Aotearoa—a tera pea ko te uri ano tenei o te ika i horomia ai a Hona te poropiti wete a te Atua i tona tononga kia haere ki te kauwhene ki te iwi o Niniwa! Whai hoki he ika aroha ki te tamariki—engari kahore i pai ki te pakeke.

I ki ana Hohepa Heperi he ika tapu a Opo—a i heke mai i nga tupuna!

Ae pea engari kia manawanui ki nga korero Maori. He pai ki te taringa a he kino ki nga mahara!

Anei to kuri tata nei ano o te wa kainga to Tori ranei to poaka ranei to hoiho ranei? Kia pehea enei kararehe aroha!

HE POROPORO A TE
WHAKAMUTUNGA
Kia R. T. Kohere - na Tawhai Kohere

E Re-i te hokinga ki Rangiata ka kite ahau e piko ana nga matenga i te pouri o Pukeamaru o te Whetumatarau o Maungaroa o Taumatakaka o Ahikaroa o Tiki me te motu o Waiawa. Ka rongo ahau e tangi ana nga wai o Awatere o Orutua o Waipapa me Tunanui. Ka rongo ahau e ngunguru ana nga tai o te akau o Kariri o te Hekaroa o te Wharariki o Orutua o Tokararangi o Hautai o Pouretua o te Puarata. Ka kite ahau e wiriwiri ana nga rau i te mamae o te waha o Rerekohu o Teteko nga rata o Orutua o Tapuarata. Ka kite ahau e puare ana te tatau o Tipene.

Ka puta mai a te Houkamau a Hori Mahue me ta raua ope ka mauria korua. Tae atu ki Awatere ko Tuwhakairiora me tona iwi. Tae atu ki Orutua i reira a Mokena raua ko Hone Hiki. Tae atu ki Taumatoakura ko Tuhorouta me tona hapu. I te Rangiotara ko te Whanau-a-Hunaara. Tae atu ki Rangiata e tu mai ana a Po me ana mokopuna a Henare me te Kuata a Rangitakaia me Kaiawa. Ka mutu ka waiata nga ope “E hike ma e huia mai tatou.” Ka rongo au e ki atu ana koe ki a Kaka. “E te moe e te moe ta te Atua rongo ngawari hoki mai ki te pehi i aku kamo. Ki te wahi o te warewaretanga. “E te po kei hea tou wero. E te mate kei hea tou wikitoria.” Haere ra.

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PROVERBIAL AND POPULAR SAYINGS OF THE MAORI

PROVERBIAL AND POPULAR SAYINGS OF THE
MAORI

NGA WHAKATAUAKI ME NGA PEPEHA A TE MAORI

E rua nga whakatauki i tuhingia e H. T. M. Wikiriwhi ki te Nama 12 o Te Ao Hou e hiahia ana ahau kia ahua whakamaramatia e ahau. Ko te tuatahi, ko tenei: “Ka tere Raua, ka tere Pipiwhakao.” Ko Raua, he kainga kei Te Wairoa (o roto i Ngati-kahungunu). Ko Pipiwhakao, he kainga ano kei roto o Turanga, a i mua, he ngahere rongonui enei. Ko te tikanga o tenei whakatauki mo tetahi ope taua e haere ana ki te pakanga, a mo tetahi huihuinga nui ranei. Ko te ingoa nei Pipiwhakao he mea whakaingoa (tapa) e Pawa, te rangatira o te waka nei o Horouta, te waka o Ngati-Porou, Katahi te koroua nei ka haere ki te rapu i tana kuri, ko Marewaiteao te ingoa, ka whakawhiti i tetahi whenua e karangatia ana, tae noa mai ki tenei ra, ko Te Aroha. Ka tae a ia ki te ngahere nei, ka pipi (ara, ka ata titiro), ka kite a ia i te whakao (he huihuinga tangata) e kato tawhara ana. Kahore a ia i hiahia kia mohiotia mai e nga tangata i roto i te ngahere ra, kei reira a ia e rapu ana i tana kuri. Na konei, ka karangatia te ingoa o te wahi ra, ko Pipiwhakao, ara he haerenga no Pawa ki te ngahere ki te rapu i tana kuri ka kite a ia i tetahi huihuinga nui i reira. Ko te korero a etahi, ko Whakao he ingoa tangata, engari kei te he tenei he ai ra ki nga korero mai.)

Ko tetahi o nga whakatauki kei roto ano i taua nama o Te Ao Hou wharangi 49. “Ko Turanga makau rau.” Ko te whakamaori-tanga kua oti te tuhi ki roto i Te Ao Hou e penei ana: Turanga me nga whaiaipo e rau—na ra ki te reo pakeha, na ki te pukapuka whakamaori a Wiremu ko te kupu nei “makau rau” mo nga whaiaipo maha. He take ano i peneingia e Te Wiremu, ara he kino mo te whakahua ki te reo Pakeha. Ko te tikanga ke o te whakatauki nei, mo te hua o nga tangata o Turanga, ara e ahua penei ana, ahakoa pehea te kaumatua o te tangata ki Turanga, ka puta he uri. (I te korerotanga o te kaituhi ki te reo irirangi i enei marama maha kua pahure ake nei mo nga whakatauki me nga pepeha Maori, ka tono a ia ki nga tangata e whakarongo mai ana, kia tukuna mai ki a ia, a ratou whakahe whakatika ranei i ana korero. Na, ko nga whakamarama e mau i runga ake nei, he mea tuku mai ki te kaituhi e Te Kani te Ua, he tohunga mo nga korero Maori, o Turanga, a e tika ana a ia kia mohio ki nga whakatauki o tona ake kainga. Na reira ka tuhia enei korero ki konei, ehara i te

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mea hei whakahe i nga korero kua puta ke mo enei whakatauki, engari hei whakamarama noa, a hei tautoko i nga wahi kei te tika.)

He taru tawhiti; He kupu whakarite tenei mo nga mate kino o naianei. E ki ana nga tuhituhi a nga tangata mohio katoa, i mua kahore rawa nga mate wetiweti penei i te kohi nei, me era atu momo mate, i pa ki nga Maori i mua atu i te taenga mai o te pakeha ki tenei motu. Ka whakaritea nga mate e mohiotia whanuitia nei i tenei ra, ki nga taru kino i mauria mai i tawhiti, na reira ka puta enei korero, “he taru tawhiti.”

E iti noa ana, na te aroha: Kei te marama te takoto o tenei whakatauki. E pa ana tenei mo te tuku takoha ki tetahi atu, ara ahakoa iti te taonga, ko te aroha ke te mea nui. Ehara tenei i te whakatauki hou; no mua mai ano tenei, a kauaka e whakapohehetia ki nga korero e rangona nei i tenei ra mo te nui ke o te whakaaro i te taonga ka tukuna ra.

He tao huata e taea te karo, he tao na aitua, e kore. He whakatauki tenei mo te mate, a kei te marama te takoto o nga kupu. Ka taea e te tangata te karo nga taonga o te pakanga, engari ko te mate, ahakoa ko wai taua tangata, e kore rawa e taea e ia te karo. I mua hoki he pakanga tetahi mahi nui a te Maori, na reira pea ka hoki nga whakaaro o te tangata nana tenei whakatauki ki nga taonga o te pakanga, ka whakaritea ki te mate. Na konei ka puta tenei korero, a he korero tino tika, e hangai ana ki nga mate tini o tena takiwa, o tena takiwa.

Kia mahara ki te he o Rona! E ahua rite ana tenei ki te korero o te Paipera e mea ra: “Kia mahara ki te wahine a Rota.” Ko te wahine hoki a Rota i whakahuringia e te Atua hei tote mona i te mea ki hai ia i whakarongo ki nga tohutohu atu ki a ia. He po te wa i tonongia ai a Rona raua ko tona tuakana ko Tangaroa-a-roto ki puna ki te tiki wai. Katahi raua ka tango i a raua taha, ka haere ki te tiki wai. Ko te po e haere nei raua, he po tino pouri, a kahore ano te marama i puta mai. I a raua e haere ana, ka tutuki haere raua, ka hinga, ka tu; penei haere raua, a tae noa ki te puna. Katahi a Rona ka whakatakariri ki te marama mo te roa ka puta mai. No te putanga mai o te marama, horo tonu te rere o te kanga a Rona—Pokokohua! Te tahuringa ake tena o te marama, katahi raua ko tona tuakana ka hutingia ki runga. Na ko te kanohi e kitea atu nei i te marama i tenei ra, no Rona. (He korero purakau noa ra enei). Na konei i puta ai tenei korero “kia mahara ki te he o Rona.” He whakatauki pai tenei he whakatupato i te tangata, ara kia tika tana korero mo tetahi mea, a kia tika ano hoki ana mahi, kei he, ka huri hei tote, ka hutia ranei e te marama ki runga tarewa mai ai!

Kahore a te rakau nei whakaaro, kei te tohunga te whakaaro. Kei te mohiotia e kore e taea e te rakau te ki ake ki te tangata me penei, me pera ranei tana whakairo i a ia, engari pai tonu kia tuhingia tenei whakatauki, hei whakaoho i te iwi i te tangata ranei, kia mau mahara ai ia, he tangata tonu a ia, ehara i te rakau. I etahi wa hoki me te mea nei he rakau tonu te tangata!

Two proverbs mentioned by Mr H. T. M. Wikiriwhi in the No. 12 issue of Te Ao Hou, need further explanations. The first is: Ka tere Raua, ka tere Pipiwhakao. Raua is a place at Wairoa, and Pipiwhakao is in the Gisborne district and both were formerly famous forests. The literal meaning of the proverb is: When Raua is active, Pipiwhakao is also active. This proverb is applied to armed men on a war expedition, or to any large gathering where there are crowds of people. Pipiwhakao derived its name through the ancestor Pawa of the Horouta canoe of the Ngati Porou tribe. Whilst in search of his pet dog Marewaiteao, he passed through a block of land which is known to this day as the Aroha Block. He entered the forest and looking askance he sees a whakao or a multitude of people. He had to be careful whilst searching for his dog, lest members of his tribe who were in the forest collecting tawhara (the fruit of the kiekie) should know what he was doing. Hence the origin of the name Pipiwhakao. There are some who hold that whakao was the name of a man, and pipi the “callingout for the dog.” Moi is the word for calling a dog, and the previous explanation is the correct one.

The other proverb, mentioned on page 49 of the same issue, is: Ko Turanga makau rau, and the interpretation given is, “Gisborne of a hundred lovers.” Williams' Dictionary gives the meaning of makau-rau as having many lovers, but this does not apply to the term used in this saying. There is no doubt that the meaning many lovers as given by Williams, was meant to tone down the real meaning of the term. A more correct interpretation of the saying is: Gisborne, noted for its fertility. A free rendering would be—However old a man of Turanga (Gisborne) may be, he is fertile.

(Note: During the course of several talks given by the writer from the National Broadcasting Stations on this subject, he invited listeners to forward to him any comments and criticisms they wished to make. Mr H. Te Kani Te Ua, noted Maori leader and historian of Gisborne, forwarded the above comments, and the writer felt that his material should appear in Te Ao Hou.)

He Taru tawhiti: Literally, a weed from afar. This saying is applied to bad diseases. Historians record that in pre-European times, the Maori people did not suffer from most of the diseases of today, such as tuberculosis, cancer and so on. These terrible diseases are likened to a noxious weed from distant lands, hence the origin of this saying.

E iti noa ana, na te aroha: Although the present is small, 'tis all love can give. This is an ancient saying and must not be confused with the modern idea of “it is not the present that matters, but the thought behind it.” Maoris were noted for their hospitality and on several occasions they would part with treasured gifts not only to noted visitors, but to all and sundry. This saying, could well be used even today.

He Tao huata e taea te karo, he tao na aitua, e kore: The shaft or thrust of a spear may be parried, that of death, never. Whenever a death occurs in a Maori community, the people assemble for the tangi, or the paying of respects to the dead, and at such gatherings, proverbs and texts from the bible are often quoted. The one quoted, is of ancient origin. In ancient days, the huata or spear was a common weapon of the Maori, and he being a noted warrior, the origin of the saying is obvious. (Note: A number of pakehas refer to feasts and receptions as a “tangi.” We were recently asked to entertain a Chinese soccer team, and one of the officials—local and not Chinese—asked whether there would be a tangi. For the benefit of those who view a tangi in this light, it would perhaps be best for them to attend a tangi when one is held near their homes.)

Kia mahara ki te he o Rona—Remember the sin (or fault) of Rona. This is somewhat similar to the biblical saying: “Remember Lot's wife” whom God had turned into a pillar of salt for not obeying His word! Rona too disobeyed. Rona and her elder sister Tangaroa-a-roto were requested to fetch some water at night. They obtained calabashes and went on their errand. It was a very dark night, and as they went, they both stumbled and fell and rose up again. As they approached the well, Rona was quite annoyed that the moon had not risen, and just as the moon appeared, she cursed it. The moon was not going to take any curses from a mere woman, and so it stretched its hands(?) down, and lifted both Rona and her sister up. The face which appears on the moon today, is that of Rona. Hence the origin of this proverb, the moral being, to be careful what one says and does.

Kahore a te rakau nei whakaaro; kei te tohunga te whakaaro: The block of wood has no business to dictate to the artist who carves it. The meaning of this is quite clear, but there are times when one can very well be “the block of wood”!

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TREE PLANTING IN
THE HOME GARDEN

HORTICULTURIST
DEPARTMENT OF
MAORI AFFAIRS
TAURANGA

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Pruning young trees

This is the time of the year, when those with new homes are purchasing fruit trees and of course planning their gardens and home orchards. Too often one observes perfectly good trees that have not been planted properly or have been crowded into a small area without sufficient room to develop and consequently within a few years are a liability rather than an asset.

Firstly plan the area available and if possible plant mid season varieties of peach, plum and apples, and, if climatic conditions allow, a grape-fruit and standard Lemon or Meyer which ever is the choice. It is far wiser to plant a few trees and thoroughly maintain them. Allow 16 to 18ft between the trees and dig holes sometime before planting. The top soil should be removed and the sub-soil forked over, an application of bonedust can be liberally worked into the soil removed, and allowed to weather until planting time. In areas that are fairly wet a dusting of lime may be beneficial.

At planting time when the trees are received from the nursery the roots will probably need attention, trim and cut back any damaged or malformed roots. The main roots should be cleanly cut and small roots trimmed hard back to the main roots. Spacing roots when planting is also very necessary for if for instance two main roots are allowed to grow in the same direction the tree when fully grown may suffer damage in a storm and be blown over, often the result of not being anchored in every direction. Actually the tree has a duck foot appearance when dug up. This trouble can often be avoided if care is taken at planting time. Citrus trees are usually received balled and a little attention to the roots is necessary as the nurseryman attends to this work prior to balling operations which take place in the autumn.

After placing the tree in its permanent position be careful to see that the tree is firmly imbedded by tramping the soil thoroughly to exclude all possibility of air holes which become waterlogged after heavy rain, be sure also that your trees are not planted too deep. This fault seems to be

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Pruning three and four-year-old trees.

common, always plant at approximately the same depth that the trees were grown in the nursery rows, this can be defined by the colour of the trunk, usually the bark is a light colour below the surface of the earth and darker above ground level. When planting is completed the top soil can be placed about 1 to 2 inches higher than the surrounding surface and by late spring will have settled down.

If trees are at all exposed staking may be necessary, but after one year these may be removed as decaying wooden stakes often cause root trouble.

Pruning of the young trees at this stage is also desirable. The main leaders should be cut back to about one-third of their length, allowing only three defined well spaced leaders to remain, if trees are not pruned often, poor, weak and unhealthy establishment is the result. A good practice is to grow vegetables between the trees for the first year or two, so as to continue cultivation. Only grow small crops such as cabbage, cauliflower, carrots, parsnips, etc. Crops such as pumpkins are rather troublesome as they tend to climb over the young trees and if not prevented will spoil the shape of the young trees. Tomato culture should also be avoided near peach trees owing to disease, which is transferred to the soil, and at times affects the young peach or nectarine.

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BOOKS
on the South Pacific

Most people form their own private pictures of the places they have never seen. These are usually inaccurate, frequently romantic, and always incomplete. After reading some recent books on the South Pacific area I have had to give my ideas about island life a complete overhaul. And books that can correct a false impression are always worth reading.

During coronation year, Queen Salote and her Kingdom of Tonga became headline news in Britain. This six foot three Polynesian Queen charmed English crowds with her gracious dignity and warm spontaneous smile. She will always be remembered as the Queen who drove to Westminster Abbey in an open carriage in spite of pouring rain. Queen Salote and Her Kingdom, by Sir Harry Luke, published 1954, and Ten Years in Tonga, by J. S. N [ unclear: ] 1, published 1955, both give full-length portraits of Tonga's Queen, and in different ways attempt to cover Tonga's historical background, her independent relationship with Great Britain, and her socio-economic conditions today. That is a big order for any author, no matter how small the country he is studying, and neither of these writers really probes far below the descriptive level. After a first quick reading several historical landmarks and figures stand out. There is Will Mariner, a fifteen year old boy who was captured by Tongans in 1806 and lived with them for four years. King George Tubou I, Queen Salote's great-great-grandfather, became the “Grand Old Man of the Pacific and the Maker of modern Tonga … and preserved his throne when other Pacific monarchies fell.” Shirley Baker was a missionary who “clearly meddled in politics, became Prime Minister of Tonga, but overplayed his hand and paid the penalty.” There are some mouth-watering descriptions of Tongan cooking and feasting, a startling account of Falcon Island which is sometimes above the sea and sometimes below it, and Mr Neill ends his book with an extremely interesting and thoughtful study of Pitcairn Island. Of the two books, Sir Harry Luke's is the more readable and entertaining. At his best, Sir Harry writes with mischievous humour, as in his account of a young Tongan noble whose sweetheart was in danger. “One night he spirited the girl away in his canoe and concealed her in a cave, where he visited her every night with bananas and yams and other food.” Mr Neill's book gives a more detailed picture but his painstaking thoroughness of an ex-administrator makes for slower and more sober reading.

Doctor to the Islands, first published in 1952, is written and illustrated by Tom Davis, a half-caste Raratongan educated in this country, and his wife, Lydia Davis, born and bred in New Zealand. This is only one reason why the book should appeal to a New Zealand public. I have seldom read such an absorbing account of how two people decided to do something and set about doing it. Their story begins: “I was married in Dunedin in the South Island of New Zealand on the 4th of September, 1940, and for my wedding I wore a black fur coat.” That sentence is typical of the whole book—lively, accurate and personal. From the Registrar's office we follow them through Tom's last years as a medical student in Dunedin, his interneship in Auckland, seven years in the Cook Islands as a doctor, and an incredible trip in a small ketch from Wellington to Boston in mid-winter with two small children. Tom Davis's job in Raratonga was a hard one, and he makes no bones about the struggle he had with a conservative administration.

Through persistence and sheer hard work Tom Davis won the confidence of the Raratongans, gained the co-operation of the witch-doctors, and persuaded the authorities to approve of at least some of his reforms. Lydia had her own problems as housewife, mother and unofficial district nurse, and some of her chapters are uproariously funny. But when it comes to supporting Tom's work and sharing in his hopes, Lydia speaks up as plainly as her husband. “The lessons we learned in the islands have made the obligation of helping the people of the Pacific the most steadfast thing in our lives.”

Arthur Grimble, author of A Pattern of Islands, published 1952, went to the Gilbert Islands in 1913 as a cadet in the Colonial Administrative Service. In a sharp, witty and very entertaining style, Mr Grimble crams into one

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book the story of his work among the Gilbertese—which included, apart from administrative duties, a study of their social etiquette, mythology, fishing, mid-wifery, burial rites, and cooking among other things. He has some hard things to say about the Colonial Service and the shortsightedness of some of the first missionaries, but his loudest jokes are always cracked at his own expense. There was the time of his first speech in Gilbertese before a large and not very sympathetic audience, when his lack of grammar led him to say, “I am glad to meet you today, but I shall always be very, very glad to say goodbye to you.” It brought the house down. Some of his other experiences must have been truly terrifying, as when he went after an octopus with himself as live bait, and tiger shark fishing in a frail canoe scarcely big enough to hold him. He describes how the Gilbertese “call” the porpoise to their islands, inviting them to a feast, and after guiding them through the shallows to the beach with loving care, butcher them wholesale with shouts of derision. This was a feat he could not admire. But on the whole, he has only good to say of the island people he came to love, and if they taught him one tenth of the wisdom and humility that has gone into his book, they must be very fine people indeed.

TWO SCHOOLS NOW UNDER BOARD

In keeping with unanimous decisions by the parents of the children attending them, two Maori schools will soon come under the control of the South Auckland Education Board. The Education Department has now agreed to the change. The schools are the Rangitane District High School, near Murupara, and the Waotu School, near Putaruru. This change in control is one of the first fruits of recommendations made to the Minister of Education by the special committee on Maori education late last year. The committee said it was not in the best interests of the Maori people for Maori and pakeha schools to exist side by side in the same small community, but it stressed that before making a change in control the Maori parents concerned should be fully consulted. In the case of the two schools which are now to come under the South Auckland Education Board all the parents had a chance to vote, and in both cases the vote was unanimous. Two-thirds of those who voted at the Rangitane School were Maoris, and the rest pakeha. It is expected that there will soon be other schools transferring to education board control, but the Education Department says that in all cases the safeguards for the children and for the Maori people suggested by the committee will be faithfully observed.

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WOMEN'S WORLD

Baby clothes are much cheaper and can be much nicer if they are made instead of bought. Many women's organizations hold competitions to stimulate the making of baby clothes and this undoubtedly does much good. The article below is specially written for Maori housewives by Betty Johnston, Rural sociologist of the Department of Agriculture, Wellington.

SEWING BABY CLOTHES

Anew baby's first clothes are very simple—a shawl, napkins, vest, and a nightgown, with bootees, mittens, and a jacket for extra warmth. Later he will need pilches, petticoats, dresses, and some bibs. These small garments can be bought ready made, but the mother who takes pride in the appearance of her baby will undoubtedly feel an added sense of satisfaction in making some of the clothes herself. By making the nightgowns, dresses and petticoats the mother will also save money.

Patterns that are simple to make into garments that later may be easily washed and ironed are best. The openings should be big enough to allow them to be slipped over the baby's head with as little fuss as possible. The patterns which can be bought from the Plunket Nurse for a very small sum are excellent for the beginner, as they are very easy to follow, all the directions for cutting out and sewing being included with the patterns.

The most suitable materials for the nightgowns, petticoat, jacket, bootees, mittins and pilches are ones which combine lightness in weight with a considerable proportion of wool to provide warmth. Flannelette which is cotton with a fluffy surface is not suitable, as it does not hold sufficient heat when it is on the baby. White or cream is the best looking as well as being the most serviceable colour for a young baby's clothes, although pastels such as pale pink or pale blue are often used for dresses and jackets especially for the older baby. Summer dresses and petticoats may be made of fine cotton such as batiste, voile, lawn or muslin.

Cutting Out:

Carefully smooth the pattern and pin it on to the uncreased material. Make sure that the pattern pieces lie on the material in the proper direction—the up and down threads in the material must run up and down in the finished dress or petticoat. Cut out the pieces according to the directions which come with the paper patterns. Leave the proper seam allowances.

Making Up:

The next step is to fit the pieces of material together. Tack them together first, leaving the correct amount of material for seam allowances. Then, when every part fits together properly, sew up the seams using matching cotton. The long seams at the sides and round the waists may be machine stitched, but hems, and neck and sleeve finishes look better when sewn by hand. Make small neat stitches and finish the sewing firmly. Double seams may be used for the sides and shoulders,

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but waistlines and other raw edges should be either bound with fine cotton or silk material or oversewn by hand. Raw edges would soon fray with the repeated washing that is necessary to keep babies' clothes clean.

Buttonholing, feather stitching or scolloping round the neck and sleeves gives an attractive finish to hand sewn clothes.

Proud will be the mother who has worked hard to make some pretty and practical clothes for her new baby.

*If there is no Plunket Nurse nearby from whom to buy these baby patterns it is suggested that the Public Health Nurse be asked if she could help to obtain them.

Miss Nita Ropata, aged 20, is belived to be the first blind New Zealander to become skilled at working a sewing machine. She learnt at the New Zealand Institute for the Blind, Auckland, and she uses an ordinary sewing machine which has had one or two small adjustments to provide protection for her fingers. Miss Roparta has so far been using the machine for only a short time, but she has already developed remarkable skill.

ERANA MURIWAI

Mrs Erana Muriwai of the Ngahengahe subtribe of the Ngapuhi tribe, died at Maraeroa, near Horeke, Northland, recently.

Mrs Muriwai, who was 110, was born at Rawene five years after the Treaty of Waitangi was signed.

All her life she had lived on the shores of the Hokianga Harbour.

It was in January, 1954, that Mrs Muriwai was presented to the Queen at the Rotorua aerodrome.

She regarded this meeting as the highlight of her long life.

She had been sitting for two hours and was dressed in black for the occasion.

Mrs Muriwai had seen the Queen for only a moment in Northland and had made the long journey to Rotorua so she could see her again, staying with her daughter Mrs G. Yates.

She did not expect to meet the Queen personally and did not know until a few minutes before the Queen's arrival, when she was told by the Prime Minister (Mr Holland), that the Queen would speak to her.

Mrs Muriwai said after meeting the Queen for a few moments: “I did not say much to her but I said how proud I was to meet our Queen Victoria's great-great-granddaughter.”

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FASCINATING
SHELLCRAFT

It all happened when we spent last Easter with some new found friends in the Wairarapa. Their white living-room shelves scintilated with eye fetching pieces of attractive shell-work, novelties fashioned from gleaming pauas, matt mussels and pipi-shells. Life like flower arrangements were assembled from a variety of whole and broken shells, with their delicate finish.

On the bedroom dressing table two large pearly pink scollops linked together with a tiny posy of dainty shell flowers were an invitation to drop earrings and bobbypins into their accordian pleated depths. But the masterpiece of the lot, was a bedside lamp which looked like alabaster bejewelled with treasures of the deep, tiny green and white cats-eyes, miniature scollops and other tiny shells, topped with a sky-blue fringed lampshade. Its effect was charming. Originally it had been an attractively shaped liquor bottle.

I could hardly wait till the morning to be initiated into the craft of making such things.

“There is really nothing to it,” said our charming hostess smilingly. First you need all the shells you can gather. Do not despise any—pick up all the odd and broken pieces as well as the whole ones. They will all fit in somewhere. It is surprising how soon your pile of shells will disappear once you start. So make sure you collect shells at every opportunity. Next you need a big box of water-colours and brushes, a tin of clear varnish and a packet of plastic putty. These are the ingredients of this shell-craft plus the gamut of your own ideas. That is why this handcraft is so fascinating.

The plastic putty is readily obtainable at all hardware shops. You mix what you feel you require with a little water to the consistency of soft plasticine and plaster it all over whatever you fancy for a base. Then you press your shells into the surface in the pattern of your choice. When this operation is completed the shells are wiped clean of any clinging putty with a damp rag, and the whole thing left to harden and dry out. This completed the shell work can be painted in what ever colour is desired. Finally when the paint is dry a coat of clear varnish is applied and your handwork is finished ready to adorn your home or to market for pocket money.

What better way to pass the winter evening than this captivating handcraft which provides full scope for your self-expression and enjoyment?

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In the News

The Te Ao Hou cup for the best-kept Maori home garden in Hauraki went to Mrs J. F. Martin, Whitianga in December last year. This was the first time that the cup, donated by Mr and Mrs Stanley Wyborn, has been competed for. The judge, Mr H. O. McWalker, Field Supervisor, Pareoa, was impressed with the excellent standard of all entries. Unusual feature of the winner's garden was a hangi, complete with stones, on the lawn.

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The outstanding young Maori tennis player. Miss Ruia Morrison, of Rotorua, who is a student teacher in Auckland now, has been selected by the New Zealand Lawn Tennis Association's management committee as one of a team to tour Australia next October and November

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The Rev J. T. Tamahori and Mrs Tamahori have returned to Tonga after spending most of their three months' furlough in Rotorua. Mr Tamahori is a former vicar of St Faiths Church, Chinemutu, and he is now the head of the Anglican Mission and principal of the Anglican school in Tonga. At the school he has a staff of 12 Tongans and two pakehas, and there are 417 pupils. Mrs Tamahori is also a teacher there. The school, called St Andrew's, takes children through from Primary school to the Tongan Higher Leaving Certificate. Mr Tamahori said he found it easy enough reading the church services in Tongan, but it was about 18 months before he felt he could preach in that language.

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Photo: Miles Wislang

Raukawa League Celebrates Third Birthday

Photography, library work and teaching are among the new activities undertaken over the last year by the Raukawa District Council of the Maori Women's Welfare League. All these things were told in a very businesslike report from the secretary, Mrs J. Cowan, read at the annual progress day of the council at Aorangi Pa, Feilding, on Saturday, February 18.

The great event in the area had been the work on the Bulls meeting house. Many of the women in several leagues had helped in the tukutuku and other craft work under the tutorship of Mr and Mrs Henare Toka. The leagues had also brought school children to the classes given by the Tokas.

The district council had raised almost £500 for a projected community centre in Palmerston North. Further money was raised for the Peter Buck Memorial Fund and for the M.W.W.L. Conference fund.

The display of work from the various branches for the first time included photographs. The main items, as usual were taniko, kits, whariki, produce, preserves, cakes and needlework. The Ngatokowaru Branch, Levin, won the competition for displays.

Mrs Webber, of the Waikanae Branch, reported that her members had taken a great part in the work of the local Parent-Teachers' Association and that a free library had been started by the league.

Other activities organised by the leagues were adult education classes, in conjunction with Maori Adult Education officer Mr W. Parker, hospital visits and housing surveys. There are also plans for Maori language teaching among girl guides and for establishing a badge for proficiency in Maori.

PRINTED BY THE PEGASUS PRESS, 14 OXFORD TERRACE, CHRISTCHURCH, NEW ZEALAND

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