TE AO HOU
The New World
the maori affairs department april 1956
I TETEHI AHUA
Ko Aotearoa i tino waimarie i te riro ma nga kereru hei rui te mano kakano rakau ia tau.
He take tenei e pa ana ki te katoa, engari ma te manawanui o te takitahi e taea ai te whakatika. He tino toimaha nga whaina whakawhiu mo nga tangata e takahe ana te tiaki ara e kore tonu ana e tino rahui kia kore rawa e patua.
No reira kia mau mahara tonu ma te nui o te kereru e nui ai hoki era atu manu me nga rakau tupu hei matakitaki mau me nga uri kei te haere mai, a tera mehemea ka puhipuhia nga kereru tera e kore atu tenei momo manu i a tatou.
I TETEHI ATU AHUA
Ko nga iwi o Aotearoa i te whai pohehe i te kai ma ratou, e tino patu kino ana i nga kereru i mua o te haerenga mai o te pakeha, a i te timatanga o te whakanoho-noho tangata ki te mahi ahu whenua, i te wa hoki e kore ana te miiti, e tika ana te patu kereru hei kai. Inaianei kua kore tenei ahuatanga i a tatou.
TIAKINA TE KERERU
He mea tuku mai kia perehitia na te Wahanga Tiaki Manu me era atu ahuatanga o nga Ngaherehere o te Tari Whakahaere i nga Take Ake o Niu Tireni.
Issued by the Wildlife Division, Department of Internal Affairs
TE AO HOU
THE NEW WORLD
The publication in this issue of the winners of our first successful literary competition is a landmark for Te Ao Hou. We have now begun to receive a steady flow of stories and articles from Maori writers from all over the country. Many are being published and some have now been judged worthy of a literary prize.
There have been Maori writers since the alphabet was introduced. Many of the beautiful stories published in Sir George Grey's Nga Mahi a Nga Tupuna were originally written by Maori historians and it was to a great extent their powerful story telling that was responsible for the great popularity of that book. Fine examples of Maori writing are found in magazines like Te Waka Maori, Te Hokioi, Te Wananga, Te Pipiwharauroa, Toa Takitini, The Polynesian Journal, and so forth.
Much of the best writing by Maoris today is in English. All the same, Te Ao Hou has received some fine contributions in Maori and it has been our policy to stimulate it. The preservation of the Maori tongue depends on its continued use for literary purposes, as in song and oratory. As there are only a limited number of people who reach a high standard in literary Maori, they do a great service by publishing their work so that their example can be more widely followed.
The truth about Maori life would be better understood, if more stories were published describing the life and efforts of the people from a Maori point of view. They would be useful to the pakeha, but that is not the main value of these stories.
A story like that by Mr Wikiriwhi in this issue (originally written in Maori, but translated by the author) would never have been written by Europeans as they experienced the Royal tour in a very different way and to get a description of the full depth of the Maori experience one must go to a Maori author.
In our view, writing is a very important activity and Maori writers do a great service to their race. Most Maoris think a good deal about their people and the things that affect them. To a great extent, the future of the people depends on how good that thinking is. To think well, one needs to know what other people, placed in similar circumstances, have done and thought. This is what the writer tells us. He may describe how a meeting house was built, or how the old people used to live, or what it feels like to live in a town, or to own a taxi business.
The subjects need not be practical. Family life, love and death, have been subjects for writers and poets from time immemorial. People like to tell stories and people like to listen to them. There should be more good stories about Maori subjects. Maori writers will have to write by far the larger number of them.
The people are hungry for news and those who write for us do an important job in spreading knowledge and understanding.
IDEAL on Fruit and Cereals
Pour Ideal straight from the tin! Try it too on breakfast porridge, puddings and in your coffee. You'll be surprised at the difference it makes. Write to Nestle's, Box 1784, Auckland for copies of two handy recipe books with 24 sure, easy recipes.
MORE SIZES AVAILABLE-
HAERE KI O KOUTOU
Erana Muriwai of Hokianga died recently. She was a chieftainess in her own right of the Ngapuhi Tribe. She was said to be 110 years of age. She left a large family. One of her daughters is Mrs Sue Te Wake of Panguru who is in her 80's. Another is Mrs Ripeka who is farming in the Otoranga District. Her grandson is Superintendent of the Sydney Fire Brigade. Her great-grandson is the Reverend Mark Mete, chaplain for St. Stephens College.
Mr Mahoe Wineera, a son of Mr Hohepa Wineera, of Porirua, has died at Hawera. He was 53. Mr Mahoe Wineera, who was of fine physique, quickly made his mark as a Rugby footballer. He was a New Zealand Maori representative for the 1926–1927 tour of the British Isles and France as an inside back.
Mr Wineera farmed a family property at Manawapou Road, Hawera.
He was chairman of the Hawera Tribal Committee in 1949. Latterly he was a member of the Dominion executive of the Social Credit Political League.
He was a direct descendant of Te Rauparaha being a fifth generation descendant of that Ngati Toa chief.
A well-known resident of the Taihape district, Mr Whai Pine, died recently. Mr Pine was born in the Moawhango area and received his education at the Taihape District High School, Te Aute College and Wanganui Technical College.
In his younger days he was a prominent sportsman. Latterly he was equally prominent in sports administration.
He was 55 years of age.
TE KAHUWAERO RIKIHANA
Te Kahuwaero Rikihana, a chieftainess of Ngati Pikiao, Ngati Whakaue, and other tribes of Te Arawa has died recently. She was aged 53.
She was an elder daughter of the late Pararaki Wikiriwhi of Maketu.
The chieftainess was educated at Hukarere College and later became a well-known personality amongst both Maori and Pakeha. Deceased is survived by husband and family.
Mr Angus Christie, of Nuhaka, was killed recently while felling a tree at Kaikariki Station. He was a married man, aged 32, with a family. Mr Angus Christie was the son of the late Mr Sid Christie, one of the leaders of the Mormon faith at Nukaka, and a prominent man in tribal affairs.
NIHO HEMI PAPAKURA
A noted Maori scholar and singer, the Rev Niho Hemi Papakura, of the Methodist Church, died recently on the evening of his 75th birthday at his home in New Plymouth.
He was born in the Hokianga district and was related to Taranaki, Rotorua and Northland tribes. He attended Auckland and Otago University Colleges, and while in Otago shared rooms with Sir Peter Buck.
In 1919 Mr Papakura toured the United States with a party of Maoris lecturing about New Zealand, and explaining Maori folklore and musie.
Mr Papakura is survived by his wife and a son.
MRS EMMA TAINUI
One of the most distinguished Maori women in the South Island has died. She was Mrs Emma Tainui, the widow of Hoani te Waewae Tainui, who in turn was a grandson of Werita Tainui, paramount chief on the West Coast in the early days of Pakeha settlement. Of her twelve children three are living—Mrs O. Mason, Mrs Emma Weepu, and Mr Tuhuru Tainui. Mrs Tainui belonged to the Piper family, of Rapaki, near Lyttelton.
Toki Kingi Pangari of Kohukohu died at the age of 85. He was a chief of Nga Puhi and an authority on Maori history and tradition. He used to make his own canoes to cross the Kohukohu River.
Wiremu Eremiha Paikea from Otamatea died at Toetoe, Whangarei, aged 90. He was a grand uncle of Mr T. P. Paikea, M.P. He was a leader of Ngati Whatua and prominent in the Ratana Church.
Rangatira ana tera a Te Ao Hou i tenei o ona putanga ki te panui i te rarangi ingoa o te hunga i riro i a ratou nga koha mo te whakataetae tuhituhi. Kei te maringi mai te korero i nga pene a te iwi Maori o te Motu kaingakau ki tenei mahi ki te tuhituhi. He nanakia nga mea kua taia, a i te pai o etahi whakawhiwhia ana ki nga honore mo nga whakataetae tuhituhi a Te Ao Hou.
He iwi korero, he iwi tuhituhi te Maori o namata mai. Tirohia te pukapuka a Hori Kerei, Nga mahi a nga tupuna, na te pai o te whakatakoto o te korero a te Maori i kaingakautia ai e nga whakatupuranga. Kei nga pukapuka pera me Te Waka Maori, Te Hokioi, Te Wananga, Te Pipiwharauroa, Te Toa Takitini, a te pukapuka a Te Ropu Whakakawhaiti i nga ahuatanga mo nga iwi o te Moana nui a Kiwa, ka kitea te tohungatanga o te Maori ki te whakatakoto korero.
Kei te reo Pakeha etahi o nga korero tohunga a te Maori i enei ra. Otira kei te puta tonu mai ki Te Ao Hou etahi korero tohunga i te reo Maori, a ko te tumanako kia kaha tonu mai taua hunga ki te tuhi korero mo ta tatou pukapuka kua momohanga hoki te hunga tohunga ki te whakatakoto korero ki te reo Maori.
Ko te whakaaro o Te Ao Hou he mea tino nui te tuhi korero. He tokomaha nga Maori whai whakaaro kei te haere nga whakaaro ki te rapa huarahi e ora ai to ratou iwi. Ma nga whakaaro o etahi kua takoto ki nga pukapuka e whakapakari aua whakaaro hohonu. Kei aua pukapuka nga korero tohunga mo nga mahi o namata me nga mahi hoki e ora ai te tangata i roto o enei ra.
Ina noa ake nga kaupapa mo te tuhituhi. Noho noa ai te tangata ka pupu te aroha ki tana wahine ki ana tamariki ka mau ki te pene ka tito i tana waiata aroha, otira ki nga tipuna Maori ka pupu noa ake te waiata. Ko nga korero o namata he mea tohu ki te waiata no muri noa nei i tuhia ai. Kaore ano kia mimiti te puna o te korero, e tika ana ma te Maori ano e tuhi nga korero mo o ratou na tupuna.
Kei te tono atu a Te Ao Hou kia tukua mai a koutou korero hei korero ma te tokomaha.
Kei te tuhia he wahanga korero e manakohia e te raugatahi. Ka taia nga kupu o nga haka penei me “He putiputi pai” me era tu haka a ka nekehia ake te wahanga o nga tuhituhi mo nga takaro.
Kei te takare mai te iwi mo nga korero kei Te Ao Hou, na reira tukua mai he korero.
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|News in Tokerau||6|
|From Te Hapua to Invercargill, by Elsdon Craig||7|
|Marae and college, by Ngata P. Pitcaithly||8|
|Te Kauwhau a Hamuera Matenga, na Hoterene Keretene||10|
|Te Rangiatahua Royal, by Pei Te Hurinui Jones||12|
|Our Literary Competition||15|
|Winning stories: He Korero Hararei—A Holiday Story, by H. Te M. Wikiriwhi||16|
|I failed the test of life, by Mason Durie||22|
|The sky wept at Waitangi, by Stanhope Andrews||24|
|In the Shadow of Ruapehu, by E. Schwimmer||28|
|The Kaitaia Lintel, Is it Maori? by Dr Gilbert Archey||32|
|Achievement of a conference||37|
|Te Pua a Hinemahanga||45|
|The home garden, by R. Falconer||51|
|I shall play tennis all my life, by Michael Lindsay||52|
|Books for older children, by J. C. Sturm||54|
|Seasonal work on the farm, by Dixon Wright||56|
|Crossword puzzle no. 14||57|
|Women's world—The hand that rocks the cradle, by Lucienne Noblet||58|
|Making cushions, by Betty Johnston||60|
|Mothercraft, by Keritapu||61|
|The Magic Tree (Cartoon)||63|
The Minister of Maori Affairs: The Hon. E. B. Corbett.
The Secretary for Maori Affairs: T. T. Ropiha, I.S.O.
Management Committee: C. J. Stace, LL.B., C. M. Bennett, D.S.O., M.A., DIP.ED., DIP.SOC.SC., W. T. Ngata, LIC.INT., E. G. Schwimmer, M.A., M. J. Taylor.
Editor: E. G. Schwimmer, M.A.
Sponsored by the Maori Purposes Fund Board.
Subscriptions to Te Ao Hou at 7/6 per annum (4 issues) of £1 for three years' subscriptions at all offices of the Maori Affairs Department and P.O. Box 2390, Wellington, New Zealand. Retail Price: 2/-.
Registered at the G.P.O., Wellington, for transmission through the post as a magazine.
published by the maori affairs department 1 april 1956
Stories Wanted: Te Ao Hou still requires more writers and artists. We want fact and fiction; we want Maori or English writing; we want drawings and photographs. Here is an opportunity for an absorbing pastime, and the chance to earn a little extra as well. Let us know what is happening where you live. News items on happenings throughout the country, sports news and obituary notices are always gratefully received.
Renewal of Subscriptions: Almost daily Te Ao Hou meets innocent looking ex-subscribers who vaguely complain they have not seen Te Ao Hou for some time and why did we not tell them their subscription had expired. It is our practice to enclose a renewal form in the copy of every subscriber whose renewal is due. Please have a look whether your copy includes such a form. It it does fill it in and send us your renewal today.
Our cover: Two worlds. Cathleen Rangiahua Garlick, of Taupo, is photographed here against a background of some fine wood carvings in the garden of her grandmother, Mrs Lucy Rongoheikuni Reid. Cathleen has worked in Auckland for some years but is back home now with her husband, who is a builder.
Northland Issue: In this issue we have published far more stories about the Far North than in the past. Our stories range from ancient culture—the famous carving called the Kaitaia lintel—to modern news stories, e.g., the recent torch relay race to Waitangi, the hui at Waitangi. There is one story by a Tokerau author in Maori: the coming of Samuel Marsden; and an essay by Mr Pitcaithly about the educational progress in the North.
Maori Songs: We publish in this issue the final part of the essay by W. W. Bird about Maori songs. This article is largely based on the introductions to Nga Moteatea, Parts I and II, by Sir Apirana Ngata. These have never been translated previously.
Purchase of Photographs: It is possible to buy prints of most Te Ao Hou photographs. Those interested should write to the Editor, who can supply further information.
Correction: The article “Proverbial and Popular Sayings” in issue 13 was written by the Rev Kingi Ihaka and not by Mr Wikiriwhi as stated.
News in Tokeran
A meeting was held at Kawakawa recently of the trustees of Kaka Porowini Hostel. (The old building has been removed). The trustees agreed that the idea of a hostel would be left over in the meantime and that a Community Centre project be gone on with.
* * *
The first meeting of the Taitokerau Maori Trust Board was held at Whangarei recently. Those present included Riri Maihi Kawiti and other prominent Maoris of the Taitokerau District.
The District officer, Mr Souter, welcomed the members, and pointed out to those present the need for more education amongst the young Maoris of Taitokerau. Possibly the Board would consider making available money or part of its income to assist promising scholars.
The following comprise the Board—Chairman: Anaru Ngawaka of Whangape. Deputy Chairman: Piri Mokena of Whangaroa. Secretary: Tawai Riri Kowiti of Waiomio. Members: Miss Pipi Tito of Tangiteroria. Hone Wi Kaitaia of Kaitaia, Kerei Mihaka of Kaikohe.
There is still a vacancy on the Board in respect of a member from the Ngati Whatua-Uriohau.
The meeting decided on the principal that the income be invested in local bodies throughout the North and possibly in the Electric Power Board.
* * *
Miss Huia Riki. Northland Junior Tennis Champion is joining the Maori Affairs Department.
* * *
Tiny Karetu school (Bay of Islands); roll 45, has provided two Ngarimu Junior Scholarship winners over a period of four years. As the scholarship is open to all Maori school children and only two awards per year are made (one boy and one girl), this is a fine result. Last year's prize-winner was Miss Eliza Edmonds now at Queen Victoria Maori Girls' College. Bessie Munn, Karetu, was successful in 1952.
An impressive service was held recently at Waiomio, Kawakawa, at which Maoris paid tribute to Mr C. B. Shortland of Matawaia on the eve of his departure for ordination at All Saints, Palmerston North.
* * *
Kura Taylor, 23 years of age, is in charge of the infant department of five infant mistresses at Ruawai District High School. The headmaster. Mr Holyoake, believes Miss Taylor is the youngest teacher in the country with that grading.
* * *
With the guidance of Mr Selwyn Te Paa and other local leaders. Naumai Pa (near Ruawai, Northland) has for some years now conducted its own library. Books are obtained from the National Library Service, and so far it seems to have been a successful concern, helping greatly in bringing good reading matter to young and old.
* * *
Rati Te Ami Awarua, aged 105 or 106, of Waima, Hokianga, is one of the oldest people in that part of the country. The generation following hers has entirely passed away. She has no children. Rati showed great generosity in giving land away under the consolidation schemes.
* * *
The owners of the Poutu Maori Land Development Scheme have agreed to the settlement of twenty-eight farmers on long-term leaseholds. They will choose the settlers who will be appointed after approval by the district land committee. Five settlers will be settled each year, starting with 1956. Estimated production will be 12,000lbs of butterfat.
* * *
When the 86th anniversary of the Ngunguru School was celebrated recently former pupils and teachers gathered from far afield. The first school at Ngunguru was for Maori pupils, and was built on the property of Paratene Te Manu and Henare Te Monanui—chiefs of the tribe living in the pa close by. Te Manu deeded the property to the Government for all time, on condition that provision would be made for a school in which both Maori and pakeha children could be taught. At that time—about 1850—the next nearest school was at Waihaha in the Bay of Islands.
* * *
It is estimated that 80 per cent of the Maori population in Auckland comes from Northland.
* * *
At the recent opening of Whangaruru Hall (tribe: Ngati Wai) by Mr B. E. Souter, District Officer of the Department of Maori Affairs, Whangarei, five hundred people were present.
FROM TE HAPUA TO INVERCARGILL
The Southland Centennial torch relay from Waitangi to Invercargill last month gave the Maori people an opportunity to prove themselves as runners. Athletics was well developed in the days of tribal warfare, when success in battle depended largely on the ability of fleet-footed messengers and young men were eager to prove their physical fitness by engaging in marathons which tested the staying power of the potential warriors. As a competitive sport, however, running is comparatively new in the Maori world.
Although they received no official encouragement to take part, the Nga Puhi contingent from the Far North showed their enthusiasm by organising a preliminary relay from Te Hapua to Waitangi. They completed the course in four hours under the estimated time.
Veterans who took part paid a tribute to the younger athletes—including several women—some of whom ran bare-footed over stony ground through the night. There were more volunteers to join in the event than the organisers could accommodate. Among those who were chosen was 10-year-old Ian Gregory of the Aupouri tribe at Te Kao. He ran a four-mile lap as well as two shorter laps and his times would have done credit to a seasoned runner.
The first leg of the journey from Te Hapua to Te Kao was completed by eleven Maoris whose time of one hour 25 minutes was favourably commented on by the athletic officials. The entire course was run in the time equivalent to a six-minute mile.
A Maori, Peta Paraone, of Opua, a pupil at Northland College, was singled out for the honour of carrying the torch from the base of the historic flagstaff at Waitangi to a point two miles along the road to Kawakawa. From there the torch was borne alternately by European and Maori runners, symbolising the unity of the two peoples.
After completing his task, Peta was handed a certificate indicating his part in the relay. Immediately after receiving it he obtained a lift to Whangarei, where he was working on a farm during the holidays. He capped an eventful day by helping his employer to milk eighty cows.
Greetings from the sporting fraternity of Northland to the New Zealand and Southland athletic officials present were expressed by Mr S. W.
Maioha. He presented a greenstone ear pendant which belonged to his grandfather Haoni Te Maioha, to Mr J. Matheson, president of the Southland Amateur Athletic Association, with a wish that the heirloom should return to its birthplace, Te Waipounamu.
Mr Riri Maihi Kawiti, O.B.E., J.P., paramount Nga Puhi chief, reached those heights of oratory for which he is noted in the message which he delivered on behalf of his people to the residents of Southland.
“The close of Southland's first century,” he said, “has now been reached. Metaphorically you stand on the lofty peak of Aorangi (Mount Cook). As you turn your backs to the past you look forward into the dark valleys and plains of the future—a future bristling with uncertainties. However, the accomplishments of yourselves and those early settlers will inspire those generations yet unborn to carry on where you leave off. As the old century dies, the new century will take over, reminding me of my people's ancient proverb, ‘The old net is cast aside and the new net goes fishing.’
The Southland athletic and centennial officials praised the enthusiasm and co-operation shown by the Maori people in helping to make the relay a great and truly national event.
MARAE AND COLLEGE
The post-primary education of the Maori, especially in those areas where there is a predominantly Maori population, is a problem which has exercised the minds of both educationalists and Maori leaders for many years. It would now appear that the greatest benefit will be derived by educating Maori pupils during the adolescent stage alongside their pakeha brothers and sisters. This has proved very successful for many years at Rotorua High School and at Dannevirke High School.
In 1947, in the centre of the Ngapuhi country at Kaikohe. Northland College was established to provided academic, technical and agricultural education for the whole of Northland. The district had been served by a District High School which comparatively few Maoris attended. There was but slight realisation by the Maori people concerned of the advantages which education might bring their children, and of the opportunities which awaited the educated Maori in the professional and business communities, and in the skilled trades.
The first step therefore was the education of the Maori elders. There was only one place where this could be done—on the marae, by someone who understood the Maori people and who was acceptable to them. The principal of the college visited each marae and spoke to large and enthusiastic gatherings. Many of these were practically all day affairs, quite often occupying all Sunday. The Maori people, with their traditional hospitality and deep interest in any matters which so seriously affected their own welfare attended the meetings in full numbers.
At these meetings the people and the college agreed as to exactly what the responsibility of the tribal committees, the parents, the women's welfare leagues and the college would be. It was certainly made clear that the college expected the tribal committees to accept the responsibility for the moral and social welfare of all college pupils under its jurisdiction. This responsibility was gladly accepted by the committees with the chairman being personally responsible to the principal. In all these talks the Maori Welfare Officers of the Maori Affairs Department took a prominent part. There was thus established the closest possible link between the marae and the college. In many areas the head teachers of the Maori schools were also closely linked.
The personal contact with the marae was able to give the Maori people first hand guidance on the problems of parental responsibility without in any way disturbing customs, thus dispelling the fear that was rife that education would turn Maori pupils into pakehas by insisting that education would merely make them better Maoris, well able to earn a comfortable living in a pakeha economy. It was also soon made clear that many Maori communities needed instruction on fundamental things—things which most Europeans simply take for granted.
It is, however, in the follow up work that the greatest benefit has been seen. The fact that the principal has appeared on the marae and has met people on their own terms has broken down the reluctance of Maori parents to come and see him and discuss problems on his “marae”—the school.
The greatest advantage has been seen in the treatment of delinquency and unsatisfactory behaviour. It has been found that in many cases delinquency and unsatisfactory behaviour is a
direct result of poor home circumstances and parental control. The college can have but little direct control over these circumstances but the tribal committee and the Maori welfare officers have a direct and positive influence. The full circumstances of any case are therefore reported in writing to the chairman of the tribal committee and to the Maori welfare officers. The chairman then calls a meeting (either full or tribal committee) at which the welfare officers are present. The whole matter is thoroughly discussed and the tribal committee, through its chairman, makes recommendations to the principal concerning the future of the child. The principal usually adopts the committee's recommendations.
The strongest factor in this system is that the committee exercises its powers in welfare work. It is brought forcibly to realize that it has a responsible duty to the young people. It has been found, without exception, that the Committees welcome these often unpleasant duties and the results achieved have been nothing short of remarkable. One of the key factors in this scheme is the close co-operation of the Maori welfare officers who not only acts as a liaison between the college and the marae but who also report to the principal and advise conditions which may exist in any home or locality. The principal and staff are then able to react with a full knowledge of these conditions. On many occasions the Maori welfare officers have attended staff meetings at the college where their knowledge has been readily made available, and a deeper understanding of individuals has been obtained.
The marae-college relationships at Kaikohe are probably unique, but over a period of nine years a pattern has been evolved upon which could be developed a similar organisation in other districts. I would suggest that there are three main factors which would influence its application elsewhere.1.
That the person representing post-primary school should have a knowledge of Maori customs, aspirations and history. There is no question of a pakeha going on to the marae as a superior being. I have learned much from my experiences on the marae—the relationship must be one of mutual benefit. The college representative must however be firm regarding his requirements.2.
The Maori people must accept the college representative with more than customary courtesy. He should be regarded as one of their own elders and matters brought up on the marae should be discussed in truly Maori fashion—not just accepted as words from a distinguished visitor—accepted in silence in his presence and then discussed and criticised after his departure. I have gained a deeper insight into the requirements of the Maori pupils after hours of such discussion.3.
The Maori welfare officers must realise the great importance of this youth work and be prepared to spend many hours investigating, observing, advising, reporting and being a quietly efficient advisory body to the college. The results which Mr Eru Pou and Miss Mate Toia have been able to achieve have resulted from their realisation that they are as much a part of Northland College as the pupils, prefects or staff.
TE KAUWHAU A HAMUERA
E te whanau, e te iwi, e nga pakeke o tenei ra titiro ki te hari a Ngapuhi i muri tonu o te karakia tuatahi ki te iwi Maori o Niu Tireni i te uinga mai o Rev. Hamuera Matenga ki Oihi, i te ra Kirihimete 1814.
Te tokomaha o te iwi nei 1500 a ko nga rangatira enei i roto i taua whakaminenga:—
Ruatara, Korokoro, Waikato, Hongi Hika, a ko Ruatara anake te Karaitiana notemea i tutaki ia ki a a Te Matenga ki Ranana, he mahi heramana hoki tana i whai ai a ka tae ki Ingarangi. Nona ka u ki Ranana, ka mau ia i te makariri, a ka mare. Ko te timatanga tera o te mate kohi ki a ia. Ka kite te kapene o te kaipuke kua kore he mahi e taea e ia ka panga ki uta. Ka waiho kia mate. Ka whakarerea ra ki tona ritenga tuturu a kihai hoki i utua. Kaati, ka kite iho, tatou i te ngakau kino o tenei pakeha, he tinihanga ki te rangatira Maori. Na tera a Te Matenga kei te haereere i te wahi tonu kei reira a Ruatara e takoto ana e mare ana hoki natemea he kohi. Ka rangona e Te Matenga, a ka rapua a ka kitea. Ko te timatanga tenei o te mihana Maori ara ka whakatokia te purapura a te Atua ki roto i te ngakau Maori. Ka mauria a Ruatara ki tona kainga a ka tiakina te turoro a ka atawhaitia a Ruatara, ora noa. No konei, ka whanau te Karaiti ki roto i a Ruatara tae noa ki tona matenga. Otira, whai tonu a Te Matenga kia mohio ia ki te iwi Maori. Ko te timatanga tenei o tana whakaaro kia mauria mai te taonga nei te Rongo Pai, ki a tatou ki te iwi Maori. Tera ano ka tonoa mai ia ki Poihakena hei Minita tuturu mo reira. He takiwa ano tera kua whanui ke te tokomaha o te tangata i ahu mai i Ingarangi—a he iwi herehere tonu—ara i peia mai kia noho manene ki Ahitereria i raro ano i te ture o Ingarangi. No reira ka whiriwhiria ko te Matenga tonu te Minita Tuturu. Mo Poihakena a i Paremata tona kainga noho. I tenei wa kua waiutia ke a Ruatara ki nga tikanga whakanui a te Pakeha i ona nei manuhiri ahakoa Pakeha. Kaati ra, ka ohia a Ruatara kia tae mai te Rongo Pai ki tana iwi Maori, a ma te Matenga tonu e mau mai. Koia i riro ai mana tonu e whakangawariwari te oneone o te hinengaro Maori. Ka rite te wa ka rere mai a Ruatara ki te Pewhairangi. Ka hoki ano a Matenga ki Ingarangi ki te korero i tana whakaaro ki nga tangata nunui o te Hahi kia awhinatia tana take. Te take nui he moni kia taea ai te hoko he kaipuke hei haere mai ki Niu Tireni, a kia whai heramana hoki hei whiu i te kaipuke. Otira i mahi nui a Te Matenga, a awhinatia tana take. Ka kitea he kaipuke, he heramana, he hoa mahi hoki hei ako i te iwi Maori. He kamura, he kai mahi hu, ara humeka, he kai whakaako, a he hunga piripono katoa ki a Ihu Karaiti. Na ka rite katoa ratou mo te rere mai ki Niu Tireni i te tau 1805, ka tupono tonu ki te kohuru a te Paira ki Whangaroa. Heoi ano ra ka wehi a Te Matenga ki te u mai ki te Pewhairangi i te noho raruraru o nga Maori
o Whangaroa i haere pera i a Ruatara ra hei heramana mo tetahi kaipuke. Te Ingoa o taua Maori ko Hoori Tara. He aha ranei tona hara ka hereherea e te kapene ki tetahi pou a ka whiua te tuara ki te wehi. Heoi ano ra ka waiho tera hei putake ki te ngakau o te Maori. Tena ka u to ratou kaipuke ki Whangaroa (he tari kauri roroa hoki ta ratou ki Ingarangi) hei haahi mo nga kaipuke a te iwi hoko mai, hoko atu o Ingarangi. Ina hoki ka u ki te takiwa tonu o te ropu o Tara ka hari te Maori nei notemea mana tonu te iwi nei e arahi ki te ngahere. Whai hoki i haere ia ki mua kia mohio ai tana iwi. Te ture hoki a te Maori o tera wa e kore e ahei kia pa te ringa o tetahi tutua ki te rangatira Maori. He hunga hoki ratou e ki ana i te mana i te ihi i te tapu! Heoi ano ta rite tana tikanga wha, a mate i te ope Pakeha ra. Ka kohurutia ratou katoa. Heoi ano te mea i ora he kotiro iti nei nga tau i mahue atu ki runga i te kaipuke. Ka hokia atu hoki e te ope Maori ka murua nga taonga o runga i te Kaipuke ra a ka tahuna ki te ahi. Ko te he nui tenei a te Pakeha ki te Maori. Ka kite iho tatou ki te take i kore ai te Rongo Pai i tae wawe mai ki o tatou wheinga!
Engari ano no te tau 1814 ka rite te karaipiture “Ano ka rite te wa, ka tonoa mai e te atua tana tama.” Koia tenei e te whanau ma i tuhia ai tenei hari a aku tupuna e whai ake nei:—
E! Ka nukunuku: E! Ka neke neke
E! Ka nukunuku: E! Ka neke neke
Kia kite i te Au o Waitangi
E hora nei mehe Pipiwharauroa
Takoto te pai! Takoto te Pai!
Whiti! Ta tata! Whiti! ta tata!
E rua nei nga ra kei tua
Takoto te Pai! Takoto te Pai .….
Na tana rima rau tangata i waiata tenei hari ki te one o Oihi.
E ahei ana ano kia hari a Te Matenga notemea he iwi hou tanei a Ngapuhi—a i hari ai—no te taenga mai tonu o Te Karaiti.
Te Mahi Ma Te Hunga Tohunga Ki
Te Reo Maori
Ka nui te mahi kei nga Tari Kawanatanga ma te hunga tohunga ki te Reo Maori ara mo nga mahi whakamaori whakapakeha kei te Tari Maori.
Kei te watea etahi tuunga kai whakamaori mo nga Kooti Whenua Maori. Ko nga mahi ma enei tangata he haere i nga rohe Kooti Whenua, hei karaka ma nga Tiati, a he whakamaori he whaka-pakeha i nga korero i nga wa e tika ana ki te aroaro o aua kooti. Ko nga mea e pirangi ana ki enei tu mahi, a kaore ano kia whiwhi raihana whakamaori noa, kei nga Tari Maori etahi tohunga hei whakaakoako i a ratou ki nga tikanga e whiwhi raihana ai. Kei nga Tari Maori nga whakamarama mo enei mahi me tuhi tika mai ranei ki “The Administration Officer, P.O. Box 2390, WELLINGTON.”
News in Brief
For the first time, a Maori has won the title of “Mr New Zealand,” which is competed for annually at the New Zealand weight-lighting championships.
He is Mr Murray Rupena, a 35-year-old driver from Wanganui. Mr Rupena is described as having a massive body with superbly developed muscles.
There were 53 entries in the contest.
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Eight acres at Te Tii—opposite the treaty grounds at Waitangi—have been set aside as a recreation area for the common use of the Maori people of New Zealand and their descendants. This is the place to which the chiefs retired to consider signing the Treaty of Waitangi. It contains the Treaty House.
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When the plans are completed, in about two months' time, tenders will be called for a new Maori girls' hostel at Spotswood, New Plymouth, the minister of the Whiteley Memorial Methodist Church, the Rev E. T. Olds, announced. The hostel, which will cost between £50,000 and £60,000, is designed to accommodate 50 girls, said Mr Olds. It will include an administrative block, the matron's flat, and two living blocks, one for girls attending school and the other for girls at work. The girls will come from all over the North Island. The hostel will be built on rising ground with a fine view of the sea.
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More than 1500 people from all parts of New Zealand, including a group from the Ngati Poneke Young Maori Club, attended the opening of the meeting house at Pirinoa (Wairarapa). The meeting house was opened by Mr E. C. Holmes, who received the praise of many speakers for the part he had played. It was said that without his efforts the meeting house might not have been built. Religious services were conducted by Mr E. T. Tirikatene, M.P., of the Ratana Church; Canon Paul Temuera, of Otaki, and Elder Harris, of the Latter Day Saints. A special Roman Catholic service was held at Martinborough.
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Graham Puka Barney Anderson, of Te Aute College, has been awarded the William Robert Friar Memorial prize for the best school cadet in the Central Military District, Wellington. Previous winners of this prize have included some of New Zealand's most distinguished soldiers.
Te Rangiatahua Royal
Ka mutu nei a Te Rangi Roera i tona tuunga Tumuaki o te Ropu Toko i te Ora mo te iwi Maori, he wa tenei kua homai ki te nuinga o ona hoa hei whakapuaki atu ki a ia me tona hoa aroha, ki a Puhi, i nga tumanako kia whiwhi raua i nga mea papai katoa o roto i nga tau kei mua i te aroaro. I tenei wa kua tairanga nei nga ahuatanga ki a Te Rangi, a kua manaakitia ana nei mahi e te Atua, e kore ia e tawhiti, kia whai waahi mai ai a ia ki te awhina i nga mahi, hei painga hei oranga ngakau hoki ki te nuinga i ana mea e mea ai.
I te wa ka wehe mai a Te Rangi i te Upoko o te Motu ka noho ai ki Rotorua ka mahue pai atu ona rongo pai ki muri. Ko nga iwi o Tainui, o Aotea, o Kurahaupo, o Tokomaru ka ara atu te ringa ki te kapo kau atu, he tikanga no nehera tenei, hei tohu mo te manako me te aroha; a ko ona nei whanaunga o Pare-Hauraki ka maimoa mai ki a ia, i a ia ka ahu whaka-te-Rawhiti ki reira tau ai ki raro, kia noho tahi me nga iwi manaaki o te waka nei o Te Arawa.
Ko Te Rangiataahua i whanui ona nei ara whakapapa, a he waahi nui o ona toto no Te Arawa
The retirement of Mr Rangi Royal from the post of Controller of Maori Welfare is an event that gives his many friends an opportunity of wishing him and his helpmate, Mrs Royal, the best of everything in the years that lie ahead. At this high time in Rangi's life of service, God having favoured his many undertakings, we can depend on him to keep within hail, so as to be ready to give a helping hand, that profit and pleasure for all may be the result.
When Rangi leaves the capital city to live in Rotorua he will leave behind him a good report. The peoples of Tainui, Aotea, Kurahaupo and Tokomaru will raise and cup the hand in the ancient manner of our people, as a token of regard and affection; and his kinsmen of Pare-Hauraki will wish him well as he advances to the East to settle down and take his place with the hospitable people of the Arawa canoe.
Te Rangiatahua is genealogically well endowed and he has his goodly share of proud Arawa blood; and from his home on the shores of the sparkling waters of Okataina, he can, metaphorically speaking, weave his ancestral canoe genealogies
mangai nui, no reira a ia ka noho ki nga tahatika o nga wai kanapanapa ki Okataina, kei reira ia tui a-wairua ai i ona kawai atu tetehi tihi maunga ki tetehi, atu i te Rawhiti ki te Hauauru, mai i te Hauraro ki te Tonga.
I a ia ka hoki komuri ki Rotorua e rite ana he whakahou i nga ara whanaunga, a e hoki ana ki te wa kainga. He whakahou ra tenei mo nga ahuatanga ki ona hoa o nga Marae o Tumatauenga, te Atua o te Pakanga, a he hokinga aronui atu ki nga iwi i noho tahi ai i te moanga o nga tau i mahi ai a ia ki te Tari Maori. I na roto atu hoki i nga iwi o Te Arawa a Te Rangi i haere ai ki nga Pakanga o te Ao, te tuatahi me te tuarua, a ko a ratou tamariki toa ona hoa i paoa ai e te wera raumati i werohia ai hoki e te anu hotoke i roto i nga pakanga uaua i nga marae o te riri.
I te hokinga mai o Te Rangi i te tuarua o nga Pakanga o te Ao, kua tu mai ia ko Meiha Rangi Roera, M.C. me te Tapiri, i taemai hoki ona rongo toa na roto i ana mahi i te Ope Maori i turia ai a Ihipa, a Ripia, a Kariki me Kariti. Na i te mea kaore ano nei i taia ki te pukapuka te hitoria o te Ope Maori, ka mea ake ahau, he mahi mo enei wa nei, me unga mai ki a Meiha Roera kia awhinatia tenei mahi nui.
I nga tau ki muri e uru tahi ana a Te Rangi ki nga take a-iwi katoa a Te Arawa. A, i a ia e tu apiha ana i te Tari Maori i Rotorua i mahi ia i nga mahi nunui i tona tuunga Karaka Kai-whakamaori hoki mo te Kooti Whenua Maori me te Poari, a, i a ia hoki i tu ai hei Apihi Whakatopu Paanga hei Kai-whakahaere hoki mo nga mahi ahu-whenua. Ko ia hoki tetehi o nga matamua ki te waere haere i te mahi ahu-whenua i timataria ai e Ta Apirana Ngata. Kei nga iwi o Mataatua ki Ruatoki nga whakahonore mo Te Rangi mo nga mahi papai i mahia ai e ia i tana tahuritanga ki te wetewete ki te whakatopu hoki i nga powhi-whitanga o nga taitarao o ratou whenua tuku iho i nga tupuna, a mo nga mahi ahu-whenua ki runga i aua whenua i oti pai nei mo te moni iti.
Ko Te Rangi i piri tahi ki a Ta Apirana Ngata me nga kai-arahi o era wa o te iwi Maori ki te whakariterite i nga ritenga mo nga hui nunui e tu ai ki Rotorua, ki te waahi huinga o tatou o nga iwi o te motu mo nga take nunui, mo nga whaka-manuhiritanga hoki i nga momo Kingi. Kaore e kore na nga pukapuka i tiakina paitia mai e Te Rangi i whiwhi ai ki nga maramatanga i te wa e whakahaerea ana nga tikanga mo te taenga mai nei o te Kuini me te Tiuka o Etinipara ki te Ra Whakanui a te Iwi Maori i Rotorua.
I runga i nga papa takaro i te wa o te tai-tamarikitanga i puea ki runga te ingoa o Te Rangi. He toa ia ki te purei hutupaoro i ona ra, a i uru ia ki nga ropu kowhiri o te takiwa o Maketu ki Rotorua i roto i nga tau maha. I ona tuunga hei apiha whakahaere, hei kai-tohutohu, hei mangai whakahaere hoki mo nga ropu hutu-paoro me te tenihi i tino kitea ai tona pai. I purei tenihi ano ia ki nga karapu o Rotorua. I te takaro korowha he tuku tai whakarere tonu tana nei tu, otira he ngahau noa nei tana purei i tenei ngaki.
from mountain peak to mountain peak, from east to west and from north to south.
His return to Rotorua will be in the nature of a reunion and a homecoming. A reunion it will be with his comrades of the fields of Tumatauenga, the God of War; and a happy homecoming among the people with whom he lived for the greater part of his years of service in the Maori Affairs Department. It was from among the Arawa tribes that Rangi left to serve in World War I and II, and it was with their gallant sons he endured the heat of summer and the cold of winter on many a hard fought field of battle.
From World War II Rangi returned as Major Rangi Royal, M.C. and Bar, and with a proud record of service with the Maori Battalion in Egypt, Libya, Greece and Crete.
Through the years Rangi has been associated with Te Arawa in all their tribal affairs. As a departmental officer in the Rotorua office of the then Native Department he gave outstanding service as clerk and interpreter of the Native Land Court and Maori Land Board, and also as Consolidation Officer and Farm Supervisor. He played a leading part in the pioneering work on Land Development, initiated by Sir Apirana Ngata. The Matatua people of Ruatoki will have special reason to honour Rangi for the excellent work he did in unravelling and consolidating the titles to their ancestral lands, and in the development work on these lands which were carried out with competence and at low cost.
Rangi was associated, too, with Sir Apirana Ngata and other contemporary leaders of the Maori people in arranging the details of the many gatherings held in Rotorua, the meeting-place of our people for many important tribal meetings and Royal occasions. Some of Rangi's well-kept records were no doubt consulted and used for guidance in making the arrangements for the visit of the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh to the Maori Reception at Rotorua.
On the field of sport Rangi has earned the distinction of being a sportsman of the first order. He was a fine Rugby footballer in his time, and he played as a Bay of Plenty representative for several years. As an executive officer, coach, and manager of football and tennis teams, Rangi was an outstanding success. He played some club tennis in Rotorua. Rangi's golf is of the exuberant order, and he plays for the fun of it.
Rangi's cultural interests take in Maori tribal history including the songs and the genealogies of the tribes throughout the land. As a haka man, Rangi often delights in shedding the trappings of the pakeha world to lead in the blood stirring chants and movements of the old time war exercises of the Maori. Some valuable material was contributed by Rangi in the compilation of Sir Apirana Ngata's ‘Nga Moteatea’ collection of Maori songs.
Among the many tasks Rangi has undertaken is that of helping revise Williams' Maori Dictionary, now out of print. The revision committee of which
Ko nga taonga mo te hinengaro ki a Te Rangi kei nga korero tawhito o te iwi Maori, kei nga waiata me nga tatai whakapapa o nga iwi puta noa te motu. Kei nga mahi haka nei, kua rukea reretia ake e Te Rangi nga kahu o te ao Pakeha, kua tu mai hei takitaki i nga kupu pepeha e puka nei te toto i te hamamatanga me te whiu o nga ringa i runga i nga mahi o te ao tawhito i hauora ai te tinana mo te pakanga. Na Te Rangi i whaka-whiwhi etehi korero whaitikanga mo ‘Nga Mote-atea’ a Ta Apirana Ngata i whakarapopototia nei ki reira nga waiata a taua a te Maori.
I roto i nga mahi huhua i mahia ai e Te Rangi ko te whakatikatika i te Pukapuka a nga Kupu Maori a te Wiremu, kua pau nei te hokohoko o nga mea i taia ai i mua. Ko te Komiti Whakati-katika i mahi tahi ai a Te Rangi i pau i a ratou etehi marama maha, a ko te hua o taua mahinga nui kua takoto inaianei kei nga ringa o te Kai-ta a te Kawanatanga. Kua urutomo inaianei a Te Rangi ki te tatai kaumatua, a i ona kawei tupuna rangatira kua uhia mai te ihi i a ia ka tu ki roto i nga runanga korero. Kaati ano kia pera kia meinga ai enei ahuatanga katoa hei tautoko i a ia ina tupono mai he wa e puaki ai tona reo karanga ki te iwi rangatahi kia tiakina paitia nga taonga o nehera me nga tikanga e matea nuitia nei e tatou, me to manaaki tika hoki i te reo a o tatou tupuna hei mea ohaki i ata whakatapuria.
Kua puta ake ano i ahau no Pare-Hauraki tetehi taha o Te Rangi. Na ko Hauraki te waahi rongonui mo ona nei kai moana. A i konei hei whakaari kau ake i te whanui o nga whawha a te tangata nei, me tuhi iho e au mo tenei mea mo te kai moana, otira mo te kai nei mo te kuku, mehemea na Te Rangi i ata mahi mai hei kai i te weheruatanga o te po, i muri o nga mahi ahua-reka a nga hoa noho tahi i runga i te whakaaro kotahi, e ki ana ahau koinei tetehi tino kai, ‘e taka te roro o te rangi’.
He tangata a Te Rangi kua manaakitia, na reira ia ka whakanuia, ka tu aronui, ka arohatia hoki. He tangata kore ngakau whakapeka, he tangata whakawhanaunga, he humarie, he hinengaro teitei, i na reira mai hoki i piri pono ai ona hoa maha, Pakeha, Maori.
I te whaiti o te waahi i homai hei tuhinga, kaore e mene atu nga korero i hiahia ahau ki te whakapuaki, no reira ra i konei me whakahua ake e au, ki te reo o tatou tupuna, ko enei korero:
“I tika tonu, e te hoa, to hoe i te Waka;
“Kaore i pariparia e te Tai
“Kihai hoki i monenehu te Kura.”
he was a member was engaged on this work for several months and the result of their valuable work is now in the hands of the Government Printer. Rangi will now join the ranks of the tribal elders, and his aristocratic ancestral background will impose on him a serious deportment in our assemblies. This will all be helpful should he have occasion to make a call upon the rising generation to preserve the ancient usages and customs we value, and to maintain the spoken language of our ancestors as a sacred trust.
I have already mentioned that Rangi is partly of the Hauraki district. Hauraki is famous for its fisheries. And to show the versatility of the man, I record the fact that a fish meal, especially of mussels, prepared by Rangi as a supper repast after a convivial evening of good fellowship is one to gladden the heart of an epicure.
Rangi is blessed with a fine personality; one that commands respect, confidence and affection. His honesty of purpose, genial friendship, engaging manner, and outstanding sportsmanship endears him to a wide circle of friends, both pakeha and Maori.
Space will not permit me to say all I should like to say and now, to Te Rangiatahua my Tainui kinsman, in the words of our ancestors, I say:
“With skill, O friend, you have steered the Canoe.
“And the spray of the Ocean
“Has not marred the sheen of the Plume.”
At the Rotorua High School prize-giving last year, the two prizes for general excellence in scholastic work and in sport, leadership and character, went to Maori pupils, Wiremu Kingi and Kiri Haira.
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About half the sum aimed at for the Sir Peter Buck Memorial Prize Fund has been raised, which leaves over £1,000 to be found. A film showing the Kapingamarangi expedition, the last Pacific expedition led by Sir Peter Buck, will be screened at various places this year as part of the fund-raising campaign.
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A start will be made soon with the erection of a new Maori school at Waihua, Hawkes Bay, planned to accommodate 80 pupils.
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At the opening of the first hotel in the King Country at Benneydale last December, at least one guest, Mrs Kino, made no secret of her feelings. The Otorohanga Times, reporting the opening, quoted her as saying that the Maori people will fight on for ever and ever against liquor in the King Country. The paper states: ‘In the main, both Maori and Pakeha seemed to take the official opening as a thoughtful affair and there was a noticeable trend towards seriousness particularly after Mrs Kino's speech … The tally of gallons of beer consumed was 392.’
Our Literary Competition
It is pleasant to announce that the second Te Ao Hou Literary Competition has been a good deal more successful than the first. Prizes were awarded for both the Maori and the English competition by the judges: Messrs W. Parker and E. Nepia and Miss M. Petricevich.
Although only one entry was in the Maori language, all judges agreed that this was the best story submitted. It was ‘He Korero Hararei,’ by Mr H. Te M. Wikiriwhi. It is published in this issue, with an English translation by the author.
The story selected by the judges as the best of the English entries is ‘I failed the test of life’ by Mason Durie. This story is published on page 22 of the present issue of Te Ao Hou.
‘Ka Pu te Ruha,’ an excellent story by Rora Paki, did not win a prize, but has been accepted by Te Ao Hou for publication in the next issue as part of the series ‘Short Stories by Maori Authors.’
Te Ao Hou has decided to sponsor a Third Literary Competition for which the closing date will be August 31. Manuscripts should be sent to ‘The Editor, Te Ao Hou, P.O. Box 2390, Wellington.
One prize of ten guineas is available for the best story in Maori and another similar prize for the best story in English. Prizes will be awarded by a panel of three judges whose names will be announced in our next issue. If no entries are received which in the opinion of the judges reach the standard required, no prizes will be awarded.
Stories must have a length of at least 1000 words. They may have any subject; persons and places may be either true or fictional. It is hoped that entries will reveal new Maori literary talent.
In addition to the two winning entries, the most suitable stories will be published in Te Ao Hou and paid for at normal rates.
HE KORERO HARAREI
“Poia atu taku poi,
Wania atu taku poi,
Nga pikitanga ki Otairi,
Papatairite atu ki … Poneke …”
Me tapahi i konei taku patere, ka waiho ai ma te rangi o aku korero e kukume haere atu ki ona pikinga, ki ona hekenga me ona tauranga.
Ko te take o tenei korero ko to tatou Kuini ko Erihapeti Te Tuarua, Kuini o Ingarangi. Kuini o te Komenawara, tae ana mai ki Aotearoa nei, me te Waipounamu, puta noa ki Wharekauri, me nga Moutere o te Moananui-a-Kiwa. He korero mo raua ko tona hoa tane ko Piripi Te Tiuka o Etinipara, me nga powhiri a nga iwi mo raua i Waitangi, i Turangawaewae, i Rotorua.
I mutu mai taku wai i Poneke, notemea kei konei ahau e noho ana inaianei, otira he take ano i whakahua ai ahau i tenei taone nui o te motu.
No te 23 o nga ra o Tihema, i te tau 1953, ka hoki atu ahau ki te wa-kainga, e ahu ana ki Waitangi ki te whai haere atu i te Kuini. Ka mohio mai ai koutou, he kotahi rangi noa-iho te hipanga atu i te 24 o nga ra o Tihema.
Ko te ra tera i torere atu ai ki tona parekura kino, parekura whakaaroha, tetahi tereina mautangata o Poneke ki Akarana, i te papahorotanga o te piriti mau i te reriwe i te awa i Tangiwai.
Kotahi rau e wha tekau ma iwa tangata, wahine, tamariki i taki matemate tonu atu i taua po, tekau ma whitu o ratou kihai ano kia kitea.
He mea manaki to matou tereina o te 23, note-mea i nuku atu i te rima tekau matou nga Maori i runga i tera. Engari no tenei po, tokowha tonu i riro i te ringa kaha o Aitua. Tokotoru o enei he taitama-wahine e taki hoki ana ki o ratou kainga mo te Kirihimete. Kotahi o ratou he tamaiti kura naku i ako i Huiarau ki Ruatahuna, ko tetahi he hoa karakia noku i Poneke.
I tangi katoa te motu i tenei Kirihimete mo to Koutou tira e hine ma Kaore i tika kia haere penei koutou, ara te korero, “Me ata maroke te hara-keke, katahi ano ka kitea te rito, aue, aku toto aku roimata, moumou koutou e.”
“Ko te heke ra o Maruiwi,
I toremi ai ki te Reinga.
Kihai i mau te hu o Ruapehu,
Kihai i hoki te waiora ki te Ao.”
“Let me twirl my poi ball,
Let my poi ball take flight,
Away above the hills of OTAIRI,
Then down to Poneke's vale …”
Allow me to arrest my patere at this point, and so let the theme of this story propel it forward, either up or down, as the fates may decree. This story is about Our Gracious Sovereign. Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Second, Queen of the Commonwealth, Queen of the North Island of New Zealand, and the Greenstone Island, extending to the Chathams, and beyond to the islands of the vast ocean of Kiwa. It is a story about Her Majesty and her Consort. Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh, and of the Maori welcomes extended to them by assembled tribes at Waitangi, Ngaruawahia, and Rotorua.
My patere was interrupted at Wellington, for that is where I live today, but there is also a special reason for the reference that I make to the capital city of our land. It was on the 23rd December, 1953, that I went home on my way to Waitangi, to follow the Queen. You will gather from this, that but one day separated it from the 24th day of December. That was the day when a Wellington-Auckland passenger express train plunged into the flooded Wangaehu, resulting in the tragic loss of many lives.
One hundred and forty-nine men, women and children perished that night, and the bodies of seventeen of them have never been recovered. The express train that took us home on the 23rd was fortunate, for there were some fifty of us, of Maori extraction upon it. Yet on the fatal night only five Maoris died at the cruel hand of Aitua. Three of these were teenage Maori girls going home for Christmas. One of them was a pupil of mine. Two years previously we were at the Huiarau Maori school in the forest village of Ruatahuna. One of the others was the Sunday school teacher of our small Church group in Featherston Street.
A whole nation was in mourning this Christmas-tide for you and your compatriots young maidens. You should never have been snatched away like this, and it recalls those words of old:
“The heart of the flax bush is not seen
A HOLIDAY STORY
Ehara tenei i te whaikorero ko o tatou mate, engari i runga i tau kawa i ta te Maori, te taea te whakatahi kau i te parekura ki Tangiwai. Kua ohakitia mai e nga koroua:
“Ki te wareware tatou ki te tangi i o tatou mate, na, ka poto atu to tatou Maoritanga ki te pouriuri, ki te potangotango.”
Haere te Wai. Kati kia koutou e hine ma.
“Ka tirotiro i te Onetapu,
Ka raana tonu atu ki … Taitokerau,
Na ki Waitangi …”
Kua tae ra ahau ki Waitangi rongonui, ki te marae tapu o te motu, ki te wahi i kite ano ai ahau i te Kuini.
He kitenga tuarua tenei. I te wa o tona tuaititanga ka tae au ki Ingarangi. I taua wa kaore ano te wahine nei kia whakangaua ki te paepae korero ona tipuna, na, kaore ano hoki ia kia moe tane.
Engari i tenei ra, te 28 o Tihema, rima tekau ma toru te tau, na kua paheke, kua karaunatia ia e te Atua, kua whiwhi hoa mona, a, kua puta he uri.
Ko tenei ra te tino karauna kei runga i tona pane. Na tona aroha ki tona hoa, katahi ka paiherea to raua aroha ki a raua tamariki putiki pai ana ta raua here. Te taea te utu o tenei aroha ki nga koura me nga taimana, me etahi atu kohatuutu-nui o te karauna i hoatu mona i te ra o tona koroneihana.
I wahine to tatou Kuini. No tona tukunga ki raro i tona waka i Waitangi, i riro na nga kuia me nga whaea i powhiri te karanga tuatahi ki a ia. No tona haerenga mai i waenganui i te puni wahine e tangi atu ra ki a ia, nana, katahi ano ka tino kitea atu tona ahua, ano ra, he kotuku.
Tau ana ki nga korero mo Te Aohuruhuru o nehera,
“Ko tona kiri karengo kau ana,
Ko te kanohi ano he rangi raumati paruhi kau ana, Ko tona uma e ka whakaea, ano he hone moana aio i te waru e ukura ana hoki i te toanga o te ra, Ka rite ki te kiri o tua-wahine.”
Te wahine ataahua. Nuku atu tona rite i a Hine moa. Nuku atu hoki pea i a Mahinarangi, i a Whakaotirangi, i a Papawharanui. Engari pea a Rongomaipapa. Ko te tukemata tenei o Kahungunu, he tukemata e whakatauakitia nuitia ana mo te putiputi pai kanohi.
Until the outer leaves have died and withered.”
Alas, my blood, my tears, what a waste of precious lives.
“Like the fall of the Maruiwi,
As into Te Reinga they sank,
Ruapehu's outburst was unchained,
And life itself fled from this world.”
This is not an oration to our dead, but in accordance with Maori tradition it would be improper to by-pass without acknowledgement the Tangiwai tragedy. Our elders have already said:
Should we ever abandon the custom of weeping for our dead,
Then our Maoritanga would pass from this world of light,
Into darkness and oblivion.
Let my patere continue its rhythm. Farewell, e hine ma, haere ra!
“Looking about me at Onetapu,
I hasten to the northern seas,
Yes, to Waitangi ……”
I have now come to Waitangi of world renown to New Zealand's sacred marae, to the place where I again saw the Queen. This was a second meeting. In her early youth I went to England. At the time, this young lady of Royal birth was a Princess, and she had not received the traditional kingship training of her illustrious forebears, and indeed, she was yet unmarried. Now, on the 23rd December, 1953, she was sovereign of mature years, crowned by the gracious will of her people and her God, blessed with a husband-friend, and mother of a son and daughter. This is a greater chaplet than the golden one placed upon her head. Her love for her husband has been sealed by the gift of their two children, and a happy family circle has been completed. The crown of gold, studded with diamonds, and other rare stones of priceless value, that was given to her on the day of her Coronation, is not more precious than this bond of family love and kinship.
Our Queen is a woman. As she alighted from her car at Waitangi, it was a double-row of Maori women dressed in black, who danced the first powhiri of welcome to her. It was then, as she approached between the rows of women whose voices were raised in the Maori karanga, that we beheld her, fair and graceful, like the white heron of single flight. The pean for Te
I te ururua o te popo a te tangata-whenua o te Taitokerau, tutetute atu i a ratou, ka kimi huarahi ahau kia piri atu ai ki te taha o tuawahine. Me pewhea atu hoki, i te mea, i reira katoa nga rangatira o te Aupouri, o Te Rarawa, o Ngapuhi, o Ngati Whatua. I reira hoki taku tuakana, a Kingi Koroki Mahuta te Rata, te Upokoariki o Tainui.
Ko Waka Karaka, ko Henare Toka, ko te tamahine a Awhina Kupa, ko tetahi atu ko tetahi atu, nga kai-takitaki o nga waiata, o nga poi, me nga haka, i rangona ai e Te Kuini te reo o te iwi Maori i taua ra. Ko Kapa raua ko Tureia nga kaumatua.
Ma te aha tonu nga whakangahau a te ope rangatahi nei. Ko te haka taparahi ko te:
“Tau ka tau.”
Kei whati ai, na te kakama tonu o Te Hau o Akarana i tutuki ai ta ratou papaki ta ratou takahi.
Na Hone Heke te whaikorero, i whiua atu ai hoki e ia e Te Uira, te patu pounamu a Hongi Hika tupuna, hei takapou paihere i nga whakaaro ki te Kuini, hei tiaki i tona tinana i runga i nga marae o te motu.
Na Panapa, te Pihopa o Aotearoa, te karakia whakamoemiti ki a Ihowa i Runga-rawa, a, na te Hokowhitu-Heramana o te manuao “The Piriniha Pango” te maioha-roera ki te Kuini.
Mau ana te wehi o tenei wahanga o te powhiri i Waitangi.
Ko te Hokowhitu-Heramana i waenganui tonu o te marae, te rite he motu kauri, te nunui, te roroa, te torotika o te taki-tutu haere o te tangata, Maori me te Pakeha. Marumaru ana koutou, manahau ana e tama ma.
No te perenga mai o te kupu e te apiha Kaiwhakahaere i a ratou:
“Kokiritia … te maioha-roera!”
Rite tonu te paketanga o te ringaringa ki te pu, ueue ana te whenua i te taurite o te whana o te waewae ki a Papatuanuku e tiraha ra.
Anana, he iwi maia te Heramana.
He taiheke tonu atu ki te moana o te Taitokerau te marae i Waitangi, marama ana te tere mai o te manuao o te Kuini i rungaite kare o nga wai o Pewhairangi. Ohorere ana te pakutanga mai o te waiwaipu a nga purepo, e rua tekau ma tahi paku takitahi o tena waiwaipui i te wa tonu i pa ai nga waewae o te Kuini ki te oneone i tukua tuatahi ki raro i te mana o Kuini Wikitoria.
Haruru ana te whenua, tiorooro ana te rangi i
Aohuruhuru of olden times could well express our feelings:“Her skin was clear and lovely,
Her face as bright and calm as a summer day,
Her bosom like the face of the rolling tide
Aglow in the light of an ocean sunset;
Such was the complexion of our heroine.”
A beautiful woman. Exceeding Hinemoa's charms, and even Mahinarangi's, including Whakaotirangi and Papawharanui. But perhaps, not Rongomaipapa, for she was of the “broad handsome face of Kahungunu.” Maoriland's poverbial figure for beauty like that of a flower.
The gathered Northern tribesmen formed a formidable human barrier, crowds jostled and pushed, and I was called upon to exert the utmost ingenuity to get a closer view of our distinguished visitors. Nor could it be otherwise, because the whole of the aristocracy of Te Aupouri, Te Rarawa, Ngapuhi and Ngati Whatua were present. My elder statesman Koroki Mahuta Te Rata, paramount chieftain of the Tainui tribes was there too.
Waka Karaka, Henare Toka, the daughter of Awhina Kupa, and others, were the haka, poi, and action song leaders, through whom was heard by her Gracious Majesty, the voice of Maoridom that day. Among the elder leaders were Kapa and Tureia. This youthful band of performers gave a creditable performance. Their posture war dance was the ‘Tau ka tau,” of universal fame, and at one stage its rhythm faltered, and only the spirited call by Te Hau of Auckland saved the day, and the stamping and the clapping continued to the end.
The speech of welcome was delivered by Hone Heke Rankin, a Nga Puhi chieftain, and during his oration he presented, “Te Uira,” a greenstone jade battle club that originally belonged to Hongi Hika, as a symbol of Maori loyalty, and faith and service to her Majesty the Queen, and as a talisman of protection during their travels to the many courtyards of the land. The Bishop of Aotearoa, the Right Reverend Wiremu Panapa, conducted a service of praise and thanksgiving, and the officers and men of the frigate Black Prince, gave the Royal Salute.
This was the most inspiring part of the Waitangi ceremony.
The men of the Black Prince stood in the centre of the courtyard, like a forest of Kauri trees, nobly, erectly, both Maori and pakeha. What a fine body of men, strong and true! Then came the order from their commanding officer:
“Royal salute … Present … Arms!”
Then was heard the resounding smack, as their right hands smote the butt of their rifles, and the earth shook as their right feet hit mother earth beneath them. No doubt about the sailor!
The Waitangi marae slopes down to the waters of the Bay of Islands, and Her Majesty's Man-o-war, floated gracefully upon the waters of Pewhairangi. It was as Her Majesty set foot on Waitangi, the spot upon which the Maori first ceded
tena waiwaipu, ara ko te auahi e kake ana ki runga ano he ahi-taua.
Ko tenei te kororia o Waitangi.
Ko te nui o te tangata-whenua e whaka-ahuru ana i te marae o te Tiriti, ko te pohutukawa e pua mai ana i te whitu, ko nga tamariki a Tane ka koroki mai i te ata, ko te pokare o te wai o Pewhairangi, ka potaea katoa tenei Whakaahua ki te haki a te Kuini, ki te “Tanara Roera”, he mea huhuti kia tare ki runga i te paepae runga o te pou haki o Waitangi, i te meneti tonu i huri mai ai te manuhiri tuarangi ki mua o te whare i hairatia ai te Tiriti.
He haki wehi tenei. He koura, he whero, he puru, he ma ona kara, ko te kararehe i tanikotia ki runga i tona kanohi, ko te raiona o Ingarangi.
Hou ana ki te ngakau te mana me te ihi o te Atua Pakeha. Ina pu nunui, ona waka rino, tona tini o te tangata hei pa tuwatawata mo te iwi.
He aha koa, kaore tahi te mana o te Maori i heke iti iho. Ara te Tiriti o Waitangi e tu mai ra, me ona whakairo whakamataku, me ona ngarara, me ona taniwha, ara nga kanohi paua e pukana mai ra, e puha mai ana:
Ko au ra te Tiriti o Waitangi,
Te Matapuna o tatou mana, me o tatou take katoa,
I rite tonu ai to tatou tu tahi i te aroaro o te ture,
Me nga Pakeha, me nga iwi katoa o Niu Tireni”.
Kua mutu tonu nga korero mo tenei ra whakahirahira. Heoi ano te mea hei tuhonohono haere, ko nga mihi me nga poroporoaki ki a Rore Petirou me tona hoa, e nohho mai ra i to raua kainga i Ritini Paka i Ingarangi.
He Kawana Tianara ia no nga tau o mua atu o te pakanga whakamutunga nei. Na tona kite roa ka hokona e ia a Waitangi whenua, hei koha mana ki nga iwi e rua o te motu.
Na te tauheke nei i taea ai te ra ki Waitangi.
Ka taupatupatu i konei te rangi o taku patere:
“Nga ia tuku ki Waikato,
Ko Kingi … Koroki …”
Na, kua tae atu ahau ki Ngaruawahia. Whakarongo ki te tuki-waka a Teiki me ana tangata i runga i o ratou waka e rua:
“A Te Kuini
A Te Kuini,
Tena i hurihia,
Na, e pou ana i nga hoe ki te wai.
their mana to Queen Victoria, that a salvo from the decks of the Black Prince roared an ear splitting salute of twenty-one guns. The atmosphere quivered, the boom of guns reverberated to the skies, and heavy clouds of black smoke rose into the air, like the signals from the morning fires of a fighting party of old.
This was the glory of Waitangi.
The gaily dressed crowds that filled with laughter the marae precincts the stately pohutukawas afire with the red flame of the flush of their Christmas blooms, the trilling cadence of the dawn chorus from Tane's feathered hosts, and the blue sparkling waters of Pewhairangi—over all this, like a halo fluttered Her Majesty's personal flag—the Royal Standard, which had been hoisted to the very uppermost masthead of the Waitangi flagpole, at the precise moment that the Queen rounded the path to stand in front of the old Treaty House.
This is an historic flag. It is dressed with gold and blue, red and white tassels, and upon its face is the upright figure of the English lion. The impression is imbedded deep within the mind, how awesome is the might of the pakeha. Here were his big guns, his ironclad, and the vast reservoir of fighting men to act as a shield and buckler for the people. Yet the status of the Maori was in no way overshadowed, nor in any way subservient. There was the Waitangi Carved Runanga standing there, upon its face were the scroll work of the Maori artist, with its monsters and dragons, the figures with wide marinepearl eyes, and the protruding tongues defiant in their silent challenge:
“Tihee! all is well,
I am the Treaty of Waitangi,
The Great Charter,
The Fountain-head of our rights,
And the privileges of equality and citizenship,
With the pakeha and other races of New Zealand.”
My story about this great day is almost ended. One task remains before I close, let us thank Lord and the late Lady Bledisloe of Lydney Park, England. They were our Majesty's representatives here before the war. It was their personal foresight, and their generous nature, that led to the purchase of the Waitangi estate, and its subsequent presentation as a gift to the people of New Zealand, Maori and pakeha. It was this English gentleman who made possible the Waitangi ceremony.
My Patere now resumes its flight:
“Behold! the waters that flow in the Waikato,
And there Koroki stands!”
I am now at the courtyard in Ngaruawahia.
Listen to the canoe chant by Teiki and his men rising from their two war canoes:
Now with paddles dipping into the water,
“Tena i hikitia,
Tena i akina,
Ki te wai o Waikato,
Au, au, aue ha!”
Ha, ka umere te tangata.
“Enei waka … hei
Tere waka … hei,
Tai ki tai. hei
Hikihikitia … hei,
Takatakahia … hei!”
He powhiri parekareka tenei. Na te Maori katoa nga whakahaere atu i te waharoa o te pa, i iri ai ta Tainui mihi:
“Haere mai ki Turangawaewae”
tae noa ki te parakiri ki te turanga o Mahinarangi raua ko Turongo, heke atu ki te awa ki nga waka taua me ta ratou maioha whakamoemiti.
Tekau ma waru meneti te Kuini ki Turangawaewae. He toru noaiho te tikanga.
Na o mana Waikato-taniwha-rau i ngawari atu ai te Kawanatanga. Nou anake te marae i takahia e Te Kuini, ka whakapau na koe ki te whakanui i a ia. Ko te rite o tou marae i taua ra, he kaokao tamahine. Oho mai ana te kupu a Te Wera i ki ra ia, ki tetahi marae ano o te motu:
“Me he pai wahine koe Motutawa,
penei e whai ake koe i muri i au.”
Me pera te pepeha mou e Turangawaewae.
Horahia ana e koe ki te putiputi, ki te rau o te tapuae-kahu, ki te porera whakairo te ara ki a Mahinarangi hei takahanga mo nga tapuwae tapu o to manuhiri tuarangi.
Nau i huhuti toitu mai i te wao-nui-a-Tane te mahi na te nikau, hei whakamarumaru i te huanui mo Erihapeti.
Na enei mea whakapaipai katoa, ka auroa te mawehetanga atu o Te Kuini i tou taha. I konei hoki ka rikarika te Tiuka kia tomo ia ki roto o Mahinarangi. Kua eke ke te haora, ara, te meneti hei tahutitanga atu mo raua, kati, ka kite atu ahau i a ia e ruru ana i tona mahunga, ka tohu ki o whare-whakairo e tu atu ra.
Na tetahi o rangatira, na te Rotohiko i mea atu:
“Hoake tatou ki te whare.”
Maranga ana tou Maoritanga i tena tikanga, tae atu ana ki nga whetu o te rangi. Kua tomokia a Mahinarangi e Te Kuini.
Nau, i kona, raua i whangai ki a Ruatepupuke. I kite ai raua i
“te piko whakairo, i whakakokia iho,
i patupatua iho, ki te whao a Mataiti.”
He tangata matau te Tiuka, nana, i titiro, ae, ko enei nga taonga nunui a o tatou koroua.
Ka tomo atu raua ka tutataki a-wairua ki a Te Puea, ki nga Kingi o te iwi Maori, ki a Turongo, ki a Mahinarangi, ki nga tangata o nga waka e whitu.
Engari korua, i tutataki a-tinana, hariru ana o korua ringaringa, waiho ra kia tutataki tuarua korua, na ka hongi ai, kia tau ai ki te tino kotahitanga i ohakitia mai i te kupu ra:
“Ko te ihu to mai o te po.”
Kua nui te iwi Maori i a koe. Kua tutuki ki
Down and drag,
The waters of the Waikato,
Ha! ha! aue ha!
The flotilla shouts,
These are the canoes … Ha!
They float … they float … ha!
The tide, the tide, ha!
Lift, lift, lift … ha!
Higher, higher, higher … ha!
Then down, down, down … ha!”
This was a good welcome. It was planned and conducted entirely by the local Maoris, right from the marae entrance with its archway and Tainui's first greeting, “Welcome to the gathering place of Royalty,” and, right into the innermost court before the runanga meeting house Mahinarangi, and the palatial Turongo, the official residence of the Maori King, thence down to the river and the war canoes with their crews of painted warriors.
Her Majesty spent eighteen minutes at Turangawaewae. The planned itinerary had allowed her only three. It was the mana of the Waikatos with their hundred demons that had softened governmental inflexibility. Your marae Koroki was the only one that was trodden by Her Majesty, and you spared nothing to honour the occasion. Your courtyard that day possessed the warmth, vitality, and the charm of a young princess. It recalled to my mind Te Wera's farewell to another Marae of the land:
“If you were a lovely lady Motutawa,
Perchance you would follow me.”
That would be a fitting epigram for you Turangawaewae. You Koroki had garlanded the royal pathway into Mahinarangi with flowers, and the moss-like curls of the lycopodium, strewn upon mats of the rarest weave. You had transplanted whole nikau palms from the heart of Tane forest to shade the Royal road. It was because of these beautiful things that Her Majesty chose to linger with you a little while. It was here too, that the Duke of Edinburgh, impressed by you welcome, expressed the wish to enter Mahinarangi. Yet the hour for their departure had expired, indeed, the exact minute when they should be on their way to the next reception had fallen when behold! I saw him shake his head, and raised his hand, as if in salute to the maioha Potatau, the figure crowning Mahinarangi. One of your chieftain's Te Rotohiko rose to the occasion.
“Allow me to escort you to our runanga,” he invited. Koroki and his daughter walked with the royal party into Mahinarangi. Maoritanga received another lift by this incident, and its glory was shining like the stars in the heavens.
The Queen had entered Mahinarangi It was there Koroki, that you displayed for their benifit the handiwork of Ruatepupuke—the muse of art. They were enabled to see for themselves:
“The curving wizardry, brought from above And the hammered art of Mataiti's blade.” The Duke of Edinburgh has a discerning personality,
te korero a to koroua a Tawhiao, Kingi Tuarua o te iwi Maori, ki tana Rongo-Pai:
“Kua patua e koe te Ture-Marama,
Kua eke tonu tenei wakawaka.
Ra hoki, kua tangi te whawhapua,
Kua hora te marino,
Kua whakapapapounamu te moana.
Kua tere te karohirohi.”
Na o tamariki, ko Tuteao te tangata wero, ko Amohia he wahine pukana, ko Makereti puhi o Tuhoe, ko te kaumatua ra ko Teiki te kai-hautu a nga waka, ara, na koutou katoa e hine ma e tama ma, i tu na ki mua i te aroaro o te Kuini, i whakaoti te korero:
Ko te poroporoaki i Waitangi he waiwaipu no nga purepo o te manuao o Te Kuini, engari i konei ko te poroporoaki a Waikato he hautu whakarewa hoe waka, i wani ai i kake ai te pakotanga o te hoe ki te niao o nga waka taua o Te Puea.
Kua roa ra raua ki roto i o whare maire, na no te whakaputanga mai popo tonu te tangata i to raua tira, pipiri ana. Kua noho hipae nga kotiro poi, ka waiata noho me te poi hei arai i to raua huarahi. Na te maia tonu o Te Hurinui ma i watea ai te ara ki te raua motuka.
Tiaho manamanahau ana te kanohi o te Kuini, i te koa, i te hari mo te reka me te tau o nga waiata poi ki a ia. Ko te mahana o te ra, ko te pai tonu o nga whakahaere, tere ana ra i kona te karohirohi.
No konei ka kite atu ahau i tetahi Maori nui puhuruhuru, puhutihuti atu hoki nei te ahua, i tara eke tonu atu ki to raua waka, ka pukana ona kanohi ki te Tiuka, me te tohu o te ringa ki te awa o Waikato me te haparangi o te waha:
“Titiro, titiro he waka taua, ra,
he waka taua!”
Ka huri maui nga kanohi o te tokorua ra, a, ka kite atu i nga waka e utauta mai ra, ko te reo o Koroki, ko te mihi-a-wairua a Te Puea:
“Ka pai, ka pai,
Kapakapa to waka, Te Kuini!
Haere ra … haere ra!”
E poi taku poi, haere Erihapeti:
“I te nuku o te whenua,
Hei mana mo Niu Tireni,
(Ko te wahanga whaka mutuga kei muri)
and he soon discovered that these carved houses were the priceless heritage of our forefathers. As they entered your court, they mingled in spirit with that great lady Princess Te Puea, and with all the royalty of our Maori ancestry, and they were with Turongo, Mahinarangi, and indeed with all the chieftainesses and the captains of the seven canoes. But your portion was even more intimate, for you shook her hand, and who knows, but that when you meet again, you will fulfill the age old custom of receiving visitors contained in the proverb:—
“The nasal salutation of time immemorial.”
You have justly added lustre to the prestige of the Maori. Your tupuna's prophecy, Tawhiao, the Second Maori King, has been fulfilled:—
“You have risen above the law,
And your task is almost done,
Behold, the voice of acclaim rings clearly,
The land is in peace,
The seas are greenstone calm,
And the warm sunlight filters through.”
There were your children, Tuteao the warrior, Amohia the hostess, Makereti a Tuhoe maiden, Teiki the elder and canoe fugleman, and indeed, all of your poi dancers, and the fighting men who stood in the presence of their Queen, and who made possible,
“The clapping in dance and song,
The dancing with mirth and laughter.”
The salute at Waitangi was a salvo of twenty-one guns from the Queen's ironclad, but yours was the rhythmic beat of uplifted paddles which rose with a resounding echo, as they were dashed upon the gunwales of Princess Te Puea's graceful flotilla.
They had lingered at length in your carved houses, and on their emergende the waiting tribesmen surged around them closely. Your canoe poi team of maidens sat across the pathway to their vehicles completely blocking their way out. It was only Te Hurinui's quick appeal that cleared the route back to their waiting escort. The Queen's face was radiant with joy, thrilled no doubt by the natural charm of the poi dances in her honour. So with the hot sun, and the perfect conduct of the reception, the scene was indeed a memorable one, and the Waikatos were delirious with excitement.
It was at this stage that I saw a burly Maori with hair flying in the excitement of the crush, dash almost on to the royal car, and with eyes blazing looked directly at the Duke, and with hand pointing at the river below, shouted above the cheering crowds:—
“Look, look! War canoes, war canoes!
The Duke turned round and smiled, and looking over their left shoulders they saw two canoes fully manned with painted warriors racing at top speed down stream to keep abreast of the royal party; their chanting shanty swelled across the surface of the waters, their paddles gleamed in the bright sunshine, and crash they went as two hundred men
I FAILED THE TEST OF LIFE
I often wonder what I could be doing now. Often I imagine myself sitting at a desk, while outside, a number of people wait to be interviewed. Often I see myself walking down the long corridor of a hospital; walking into an operating theatre to save someone's life. How silly I am; a mere freezing worker imagining that he is a famous surgeon! Impossible are those scenes now; but once they were more than dreams; they were pictures that I was determined to paint.
I grew up on a small country farm on the East Coast. My parents were both half-caste Maoris, and they meant much to me as I, the youngest son, meant much to them. I remember once when we were milking our small herd of cows my father said to me: “If ever you go away from us son, you will not be able to stay away for long. The Maori belongs to his land—the pakeha can have the cities”. Later I was to realise that those words were not as sound as they seemed at the time.
When I was five, my folks rather reluctantly sent me to the local primary school—a small school but a school that gave me a good grounding in basic education. Here too. I first developed the view that I would be something in life—something more than a cowhand. Frequently my father kept me at home to milk the cows or dig potatoes but I soon realised that if I was to be anybody at all I would have to attend school regularly. In the sixth standard I never missed one day's schooling and at the end of the year I was granted a scholarship to attend a boarding school.
My parents were never completely in favour of my going away to school—they did not want to hinder me, but I think that they were a little afraid that I would forget them. Before I left I reassured them that this was a groundless fear but still my mother was upset and in Maori declared that the pakeha had robbed her of her youngest son. As the bus rolled through the hills I felt sick. It seemed as if I was leaving home forever.
Although I was happy at college, it was always difficult for me to return after the holidays. At home everything was so free and easy while at school the reverse predominated and my whole life was lived on a timetable. Neither did we get as many social outings at school—that is fewer dances and films—and although I may have thought differently, that disciplined way of life was what I needed. There were no attractions to draw me away from lessons, and consequently I did much extra study in my spare time—time that would have been wasted at home. In addition my masters spent much of their own time helping us individually. They were as keen to get us through our exams as we were to pass them.
I passed my School Certificate exam at the end of my third college year and the following year obtained by University Entrance. I had always wanted to be a medical practitioner and now I was determined that I would be. After my fifth year at college I left to study at Auckland University, full of determination and ideas for the future. My troubles started that year.
Our college headmaster often told the new boys that: “At this School, you build your canoe. When you leave here you launch it on the wild seas of life. If you have made your canoe strong it will float—if not then it will capsize and the timber and time spent in making it will be wasted.” Of course it was our characters that were the canoes and success in life depended on the way that the character had been moulded. But there is something else in that analogy that now rings in my conscience—“the wild seas of life”. Life is a wild sea; a wild sea of independence and self-discipline. I discovered that as I sailed over it.
At varsity, school was something different from what I had been accustomed to. I had expert teachers, first class equipment and much more time to consolidate my lessons—lessons that would decide my future. I knew that to be a successful doctor, I would have to work really hard—harder than ever before and I went to my new school with every intention of working in such a manner.
The first week passed; then the second and the third, and I had missed only one lecture. “Keep it up son”, read a letter from Dad. Keep it up! Could I? I thought I could. I even thought that I could keep it up if I spent half the night out Here was the Queen city of New Zealand waiting to be explored; and here was I, a young explorer fresh from the “backblocks”, waiting eagerly to discover new delights. Gradually the attractions of the city pulled me away from my study and soon I was an active member of the Maori Youth Club, the “Give” Club, the “Start Rugby Club and the Badminton Club. Every night was a night out; a new action song to be learned a new film to be seen; or a new girl friend to be taken out.
For the first time in my life I could do as
pleased. No one said, “Go to this lecture” or “Watch that demonstration”. No master stood over me and demanded last night's homework; nor did any master give up all his spare time to help me pass exams. The “ball was at my own feet” and I have never professed to be an expert soccer player. What a change from college!
I succeeded in telling myself that my main exam was not until the end of our year and that next term would not be leaving it too late to really work hard. Next term? … no; next term was not the answer to my problem. The city had an even stronger hold on me and I felt part of its social life. When I wrote home I no longer boasted about missing few lectures. Instead my letters were descriptions of the training for our next match in football or about the new type of screen in the cinema; seldom about the training for our next exam in chemistry or the new physics professor. Unchecked, I wasted my ability and the government's money; my canoe was rotting rapidly and I was doing nothing about restoring the timber.
Then came the gentle reminder from a fellow student, “Medical Intermediate exam next month,” he calmly told me one night. Examinations! Surely not! Why I had done no study at all. How could I possibly sit this exam? … the first major test of my chosen career. For a month I studied hard, I tried to force myself to think that I would be able to pass with a high enough average to be admitted to Otago, but it was no use. I knew in my own heart that I didn't have any show at all and this knowledge was confirmed when I saw the unfamiliar examination papers. The results? … I was last in a class of sixty.
I was too ashamed to go home for the whole summer vacation and I stayed at the freezing works for most of the holiday. I earned good money at the “works” but when I left all I had to show for it was a collection of gaudy clothes and a sound knowledge of the various prices for the different types of sherry, brandy and beer. I also “prided” myself on having a hand stained with nicotine and a wallet bulging with stale air.
At the commencement of the new varsity term, I returned to my old study with a new determination. The last week of my vacation had been spent at home and my father and uncle (who was a primary school headmaster) urged me to try harder this year, pointing out that if my marks were low again. I could not expect the government to continue my scholarship. It was with this request fresh in my mind that I faced the new year. For a month I was able to concentrate on my work, but the city had even more attractions for me now as, during my term at the freezing works, I had made many new friends in Auckland and they were constantly inviting me to parties, dances and other outings. I couldn't refuse my best friend … could I. Perhaps if I had lived in a city before, I may have been able to settle down more quickly; but I hadn't lived in a city before and I just couldn't settle down at all.
Football season came round and out went schoolwork. It had always been my ambition to play for the senior grade and when my opportunity came I took it and despite my late nights and irregular training I made the team. My parents seemed thrilled but a letter from my father made me reconsider my steps over the past 18 months.
“I knew you'd work hard at everything” he wrote when he heard of my Rugby position, “you are a credit to us both.”
Had I worked hard? At football yes; at everything— … I was afraid to ask myself that question—afraid because I knew that I hadn't tried to work hard at varsity. Was I a credit to my parents? … again I was afraid to face that question but in my own heart I knew that I was not. I was wasting everything I had: ability, opportunity and time.
The letter came two months before the Medical Intermediate exam and somehow it made me find sufficient will power to study seriously. My nights out were rapidly decreased and after a month or so I found that it was not very difficult to give them up after all. I attended the lectures in a better condition—not the old tired condition but a condition of enthusiasm and determination. I worked through a pile of notes furiously even though I couldn't study them all in the detail they deserved. Perhaps I should have realised, however, that it was impossible to do a whole year's work in two months; impossible for even the brightest scholars, let alone me. The exams arrived before I had a working knowledge on half the topics but I sat with hope, determination and sorrow. Sorrow for myself; sorrow for my parents; sorrow for my race.
By the time the exams were over I was tired; tired and sick of the life I had led for so long. I returned home immediately and waited until the results were published. I was very disappointed but not exceptionally surprised when I learnt that I was still in the bottom quarter of the class. My mark was still far too low to gain admittance to Otago and the government cancelled my scholarship on the grounds that I was not suited for the occupation that I had intended for myself.
I had been determined enough at first but I had been a coward when the real battle came. My canoe wasn't strong—it capsized on the Wild Seas of Life—the Seas of Self Control and Independence.
After I had told my father that I would not return to varsity for another year, a smile came over his face; a smile accompanied by tears that trickled down his wrinkled cheek.
“I told you once that you couldn't stay away from your old home for long. Now you see for yourself that the Maori does not belong to the towns; he belongs to his land,” he said.
Thus I began working back on the land—not farming on my own farm or my father's farm (which my elder brother already managed), but just doing odd jobs here and there for anyone. I was married about ten months after I left varsity
and with my wife lived at home; but I could see that it wouldn't last this way. Odd jobs couldn't go on for ever and there was no other employment in these backblocks. I realised that my father was wrong when he had said, “the Maori belongs on his land,” for there was not enough land for all Maoris. Some of them had to go and I knew that I must be one of them. Consequently I returned with my wife and young son to Auckland where I found employment in the freezing works once more.
Since then I have met a number of Maoris, who, like myself, have realised that the Maori lands cannot employ all of the Maoris. Some of them are tradesmen, some teachers, but too many are in “blind alley” occupations. Too many are attracted by unstable high wages and are not secure in the city. Too many are wasting their wages on beer and liquor and they are creating a problem for their race—an urgent problem.
I also see many young Maori lads about the Auckland streets. How many are varsity students? How many are wasting their chances and ability because of the attractions in the city? That too is a problem for our race. We must somehow or another keep our varsity students at their work. We must impress upon them that university means work—not fun; and that for the sake of their race they must work.
My dreams of becoming a doctor are now mere flights of fantasy— once they were a real prospect. I have thrown away my golden opportunity—I cannot regain it; but I can at least help other students to take their opportunities. Perhaps this article will help them. I hope it will.
THE SKY WEPT AT WAITANGI
The holding of the first women's league meeting in a carved Maori hall, the unveiling of an important monument closely linked with the treaty of Waitangi and the unveiling of a memorial tablet at Waitangi Hall, Te Tii, all added special interest to the celebration of the 116th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty at Waitangi last Feburary. The government was represented at the celebration by the Hon E. B. Corbett. Minister of Maori Affairs. It was the first important public function he attended after his fortunate recovery from a serious illness. Part of the Waitangi meeting was attended by Mr Stanhope Andrews of Whangarei who wrote and photographed this story for Te Ao Hou.
We arrived in the rain on Friday morning, on February 5, and the formal proceedings closed, still in the rain, at 6.45 on Saturday. No elders sat and reminisced on the marae; they huddled in gumboots and oilskins in the rather leaky shelter of the cookhouse and in the eating place. No hangi were prepared, but the food, in enormous quantities, was cooked in coppers under a tarpaulin. Even their main sleeping quarters in the hall were drenched. Of an expected 1000 to 1500 visitors only 200 arrived because of the weather and floods.
However, as was shown at the roll call at the big meeting, every single one of the nominated delegates was present, and it would have taken more than a mere storm to shift them from their purpose. Sam Maioha, with Tamatera Rameka, was in charge of a team of men and women (and boys and girls) who laboured through several days for incredibly long hours to make everybody comfortable and at home. It was a performance under sodden and miserable conditions which could only have been brought off by volunteers with a sense of mission.
Between times, informal meetings in the proper Maori style went on continuously in the dining hall and in the Waitangi hall.
There were problems of the local marae to be thrashed out, and some of the speaking was old fashioned Maori oratory of a high order. Most interesting item of these informal meetings was the discussion of the propriety of shifting the Conference from the Waitangi Maori Hall to the great carved meeting house. The decision was by no means unanimous, quite a number claiming that it was not proper to hold a women's conference there. But the attitudes of Te Ao Hou prevailed, and the meeting opened in the historic house.
ABOUT 400 yards from the Waitangi Maori Hall, towards Paihia there are two mounds, the larger one, nearer the hall, about four feet above the level of the surrounding paddock, and the smaller not quite so high. The larger, now capped by a stone seat, is called Tou Rangatira, and the smaller, now topped by a cairn is called Pou Kupu. In olden times, when chiefs spoke in public on this marae, they conferred together—discussed the agenda, so to speak—on te Pou Kupu, and then advanced in turn to te Tou Rangatira to address the assembled people. It was here and in this way that the pros and cons of signing the Treaty of Waitangi were debated; and from here that the chiefs left to cross the river to sign. In modern times the site has fallen into disuse.
Te Kiri Mihaka, who was secretary to the marae committee at the age of 18, fifty-six years ago, states that the last occasion on which the site was used in the traditional manner was during the Kotahitanga movement, fully seventy years ago. Hone Heke, M.P., was asked by the northern tribes to secure the unification of all the Maori tribes by appealing to the British Government. Subsequently he visited the Maori King, in the Waikato, and Tawhiao in turn spoke from the Tou Rangatira at Waitangi, and according to Mr Mihaka, he made an unsuccessful attempt to persuade the northerners to unite under the Waikato King.
On Sunday, 5th February, 1956 the ceremony of dedication and unveiling was conducted by the Rev Mr K. Porter, the Rey Mr Brown, the Rev Mr Waha Tauhara and the Rev Mr Rakena. The actual unveiling of the site was done by the elderly Mrs Mereana Hauraki, chairman of the marae committee. As the ceremony concluded all present filed past te Pou Kupu, each to place a hand on the dedicated cairn.
Immediately after this ceremony the tablet on the front of the hall was also dedicated, and an open air service was held conducted by the Rev Mr Brown.
Te Ao Hou's photograph is the only one taken at this unique and historic ceremony at te Tou Rangatira.
LEAGUE WAS FIRST TO USE
CARVED HOUSE AT WAITANGI
The Maori Women's Welfare League broke with tradition and wrote a new page in Waitangi's history on Saturday, February 4, when their conference opened in Kupe, the great carved meeting house. Seen by thousands of visitors including the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh in 1953, since its opening in 1940. Kupe has never before been used as a conference hall. Flooded out of their meeting place in the Waitangi Maori hall on the south bank of the river, the Tai Tokerau Maori Women's Welfare League conference moved through the torrential rain to the carved house and settled down to business uplifted by the sense of a great occasion.
At every delegate's shoulder stood the carved representation of a Maori ancestor. Every speech during the morning paid tribute to the past and then turned to current affairs.
The change of venue was made only after lengthy discussion. Breaking with the tradition that women should not stand and speak in a carved house, caused a shaking of heads amongst a number of elders, with frequent reference to the already weeping sky and the possibility of worse to come.
The day was won by the spirit which initiated
and sustains the league, the desire and necessity to cope with present day problems of the Maori people.
Mrs Sue Te Tai (Waitemata) chaired the meeting. She was supported at the executive table by the Dominion President Mrs Whina Cooper, and by Miss Mira Petricevich, secretary to the Dominion Council. Miss Miriama Henare was secretary to the conference.
Delegates and observers were present from Waitemata, Whangarei, Aupouri, Rarawa, Rarawa ki Hokianga, Northern Hokianga, Whangaroa, Moerewa, and Kaikohe. Utakura was represented by Kaikohe. At roll call every nominated delegate was present.
The opening address was made by Mr B Souter, District Officer of the Maori Affairs Department, who outlined the activities of his department in housing, land development, education and welfare in the Tai Tokerau area. Most of the morning's work was devoted to speeches of welcome and discussion of routine domestic business in the course of which the Dominion President, Mrs Whina Cooper, and the Secretary to the Dominion Council. Miss Mira Petricevich, reviewed the activities of the league.
Remits were discussed in the afternoon session, which closed in the rain at 6.45 p.m.
Hampered by the continuous rain and sodden conditions underfoot, the commissariat department performed minor miracles in providing hot meals, innumerable cups of tea and bedding for upwards of 200 delegates and visitors.
During the evening a brief service was conducted in the hall which was used for sleeping quarters, by the Rev Mr Rakena, and matters of general concern were talked over until the early hours of the morning.
IN THE SHADOW OF RUAPEHU
In the remote parts of New Zealand there are many Maori organisations nobody ever hears very much about. The work they do is not spectacular. There may only be two or three hundred Maoris in the area, money may be short and the land they own may not yet be all developed. Life is uneventful and all that can be achieved by an organisation or a committee is to make living just a little more interesting and worthwhile, to give the community something to aim at. To the outsider it may not look impressive, but in terms of human happiness it may mean a good deal.
Such is the achievement of the tribal committees in the Raetihi Ohakune area visited by Te Ao Hou some months ago. Photographs of our visit appear on these pages.
Thirty to forty years ago the whole of this area was in bush. A few Europeans started sheep farming. In the twenties, the Chinese market gardeners who had exhausted all the virgin land around Wanganui, discovered the rich flats of volcanic loam and began to grow vegetables on a big scale. Taking land on three year leases they stumped the soil after burning, grew their crops and put down grass without charge to the owners. In this way Maori farming in the area began. Maoris from all over the North Island found jobs on the market gardens of Raetihi and Ohakune. For those local people who did not have farms, such jobs became the main livelihood.
After the Maori Housing Act was passed in 1935, government officials began to visit the place to talk about the housing conditions. For many families these had remained primitive. However, nothing substantially changed until after the war.
When Raetihi formed its tribal committee—this was very shortly after the war—housing was its first worry. Mr Sam Arahanga who is now the warden at Raetihi told Te Ao Hou how he, with some others, put to the government a proposal to build a group of fifty houses in Raetihi. But before the scheme could get properly started the personnel of the committee changed. The new committee, although also very interested in housing, developed the idea of building a proper hall for the marae. Tonihi Te Iwimate started a youth club and the usual money raising functions began.
At Karioi, a committee under the chairmanship of Mr Rangi Wilson planned a complete marae. dining hall, meeting house and all other modern facilities, an ambitious project costing £6700.
Both these community centres are in full use now. That means a great deal. It is good to be able to go to an attractive hall on a Sunday and play indoor bowls and to gather there in the evening to listen to a guest speaker or have a meeting or dance. It is good for the youth club to have a centre for its activities.
The Raetihi committee's interests were very wide. In order to carry out all the functions for which they were set up by statute, they parcelled out the functions between the different committee members. In this the welfare officers—Messrs Awatere and Puohotaua—gave a helping hand as they thought that by this system of ‘portfolios’ committees could widen their activities considerably. These included fund-raising, entertainment, sports and social work.
Housing, of course, remained a key portfolio. In 1952. Mrs Jean Rerekura, then a member of the tribal committee specialising in housing, made a survey of housing conditions and reported to the Department of Maori Affairs in Wanganui, twenty-four cases of families badly housed and desiring better conditions. At the end of 1955, nine of these families were in better accommodation or waiting for houses to be built for them through the department. Of the other fifteen families, six have left the district. There is no doubt that great improvement has occurred and although this is not solely due to the committee's work, there
The Karioi Community Centre (£6,700) was the biggest comm venture in the Whanganui North Tribal Executive district. Mr Wilson, the Executive chai (above), believes the modern sty the buildings is most suitabl Maori life today.
Dining hall, meeting house, water supply, outhouses, storage room and other modern amenities were all built at the same time. (Below) The huge meat safe is in a ventilated space below the rain tank, which acts as a cooler. The butchers' shop has flyproof double doors. Cooking is with a diesel engine. Excess water when the rain tank is full is run through the sewerage system. The skylights at the back of the meeting house (above) ensure good through ventilation and clean air.
The tribal executive naturally regrets greatly that there has been so much complaint about the housing conditions in part of Ohakune, which is within its area. In any market gardening area, there are a lot of people from other districts and other tribes. It takes much time and effort for a tribal committee to weld the community really together, and it also takes time for people from other districts to really feel that the place where they settle is their new home, and not just temporary. The first house for these new settlers in Ohakune is being built at present and this again will develop the social outlook. People in Ohakune who need houses can help themselves by starting to save towards sections and cost of building.
Quite a number of homes were built apart from those listed in the committee's survey. Each of the occupants was faced with the need to remodel his life in some way to cope with the new conditions. For instance, the men needed permanent jobs. This meant giving up the more or less casual work at the market gardens and finding regular employment with the railways or works departments. This demanded much more regularity and in many cases unfortunately long absences from home, for regular jobs right in Raetihi or Ohakune are not so easy to get. Here the committee's help must have been valuable, in helping the people to change their old outlook.
Mrs Edna Chadwick. Mrs Harriet Blackburn and Mrs Jean Rerekura did the actual welfare work of the committee. They helped in some child welfare and truancy cases. The two former of these women are on the parent teachers' association committee. They organise some of the meetings and are always looking for guest speakers who can bring something of Maori interest. They also organise a Maori entertainment evening once a year. In this way they encourage Maori interest in this worthwhile movement. Mr and Mrs Arahanga give much practical help to the child welfare officers by looking after boys or girls until a permanent home is found for them. Mrs Chadwick has represented her people on the local Crippled Children's Society. What kind of work does that involve? To give an instance she encouraged the parents of a 5-year-old boy to send their child to hospital to have his leg attended to; the boy was crippled. Mrs Chadwick is also secretary of the M.W.W.L. branch.
What does it all add up to? That is what the journalists ask and the politicians and all the outsiders. It means a great deal in human warmth and human dignity. These social workers set up ideals in the community, ideals that are not always achieved, but against which behaviour is measured. Undoubtedly the nation wide committees and organisations of the last few years have been an encouragement to these people. So have the housing loans and the marae subsidies, but they were never more than part of the story.
The KAITAIA CARVING — is it Maori?
This unusual carving was discovered in 1921 deep in a swamp between Kaitaia and Ahipara. It appeared at first sight so different from Maori work that ethnologists began to search far and wide over the Pacific and beyond to discover where the idea of it might have come from.
I say the idea, not the carving itself, because we know it is made of New Zealand tetara; never-theless even in its idea, or at least in its main outline if not in its unusual details, it is essentially Maori.
For example its main features are a central figure, from which the upper margin curves on either side to end in a manaia at either end, and this is the standard arrangement in many pare. But between these figures are long slender chevrons. Are such chevrons found elsewhere in Maori art? And can we call the figures at either end manaia?
As for the manaia, we need only look at a number of Maori carvings such as lintels and canoe-carvings to discover how many varieties of curious figures the Maori carver made of it. As you see some are tall, others short, stout or thin, standing upright or lying sideways; so we should have no difficulty in recognizing these Kaitaia end-figures as just further examples of the curious creatures the tohunga created to fit into his patterns. The different shapes of these
figures are not different kinds of creatures; they are just art forms of the figure altered or modified to help to make the design the artist had in his mind.
So we do not need to look to distant lands abroad or to times long past to discover where these strange creatures came from; instead we can see them for what they are, design forms created by the Maori artist here in New Zealand out of a natural form, in the same way that mediaeval artists made curious heraldic beasts to adora their armour.
Similarly with the chevrons; they also are a natural form made into a decorative design. The Kaitaia carving is not the only carving with chevrons; they were used in pendants of ivory and bone. When one of these was discovered twenty-five years ago showing them unmistakably as limbs, the limb-nature of the other pendant-chevrons and of the Kaitaia carving was revealed.
So the Kaitaia carving can be looked on as a kind of heraldic shield with a central figure and two manaia supporters, and in between them the finely drawn-out chevron design. This is how we can understand the pattern or composition; what we do not yet know is who the man and the manaia were intended to be; or who the chevrons stand for. There is a story here, as on a shield or banner; some day we may discover what it is.
Watch for No. 57.
Miss Rangi Lewis of Godfrey Phillips, Feilding, is regarded by experts as the fastest tobacco packer in any part of the world. The management and the fourteen Maori girls of the factory together prepared a story for us about Miss Lewis and her achievement.
The Feilding factory was opened six years ago and many of the original Maori staff are still there. One of them is Mrs J. Cowan, the secretary of the Raukawa district council of the MWWL; the youngest, Miss Ruth Hetaraka, has already been at the factory for two and a half years. This is an example of a country industry which not only brings prosperity to the manufacturer, but also helps the Maori people by providing work near their ancestral homes.
Packing tobacco is a job that requires quick and accurate finger work. Each packet of Greys or Black and White has to be carefully lined; two ounces of tobacco have to be weighed out with a balance and then neatly placed in the packet.
Miss Rangi Lewis has on occasions managed to pack over 300 pounds of tobacco in an eight hour day by this method. To do this, she had to make at least 28,000 to 30,000 movements each day.
Many people must at one time or another have seen her handiwork. Her packets have the number 57 on the flap.
Miss Lewis works in a rhythmic and co-ordinated manner reducing unnecessary movements to a minimum. Each day she sets herself a target quantity and she always exceeds her target. She conditions her mind so that her only interest is in accomplishing her task. She never allows herself to be distracted in any way.
More than two thousand were at the annual gathering of the Ratana Church at Ratana Pa last January. During the great service in the temple, hundreds had to stand outside as the temple could not contain them. Competitions were held in action song, band music and sports and the marae committee did a splendid job in organizing and controlling the large gathering and feeding the visitors. Our photographs show the procession held after the church service.
These photographs were taken at a refresher course for teachers in Maori schools held at Ardmore College, Papakura, last January. Here ninety teachers, Maori and pakeha, discussed the education of the Maori child.
Mr J. Binsley, travelling arts and crafts teacher talks about teaching pottery to Ted Waaka (Waipiro Bay), Whare Isaacs (Kennedy's Bay, Coromandel), Graham Gardiner (Pipiriki), and R. Rata (Te Kaha), all teachers in the Maori schools service.
ACHIEVEMENT OF A CONFERENCE
We are all becoming a little tired of conferences. There are always the few enthusiasts who say we do not have enough of them, but there are many more wise people who see how much life usually remains the same between the Conferences, and they say ‘we confer too much and work too little’. We must apologise to these people for giving so much space of Te Ao Hou to the story of another conference. But this one was extraordinarily important: we are referring to the discussions on the education of the Maori child held in Wellington last November 23 and 24. For two days twelve men, Maori and European, discussed the future basis of Maori education
Many of the teachers at the Ardmore refresher course brought their wives, infant mistresses at the schools where their husbands teach. They were shown how to make dolls, paperbag puppets, concertino men, masks and other objects little children like to make because the making of these things is an ideal beginning to their education.
Kua pa mai te hoha i te huhua o a tatau huihuinga nunui. E ki ana tetehi wahanga hihiko tonu o ngai-taua, he tawhitiwhiti rawa enei huihuinga, a, ko te wahanga nui tonu ano, te wahanga e titiro marika ana, e kite iho ana kaore i rereke ake ta taua noho, mai i tetehi hui ki tetehi hui. e ki ana, he maha rawa a tatau pahupahunga, he iti rawa e pahure ana. Na reira kia manawanui mai koutou, ina rere au, a Te Ao Hou, ki nga korero mo tetehi Hui Tino Nui ke noa ake, otira, ki ana whiriwhiringa i Poneke, i te rua tekau ma toru, ma wha hoki, o Noema ka taha ake nei, mo te ahuatanga o te matauranga totika mo te tamaiti Maori. E rua nga ra i runanga ai nga tangata nei, tekau ma rua ratau, etehi he Maori etehi he Pakeha, ki te whakakaupapa i te ahua o te matauranga hei whakaakoranga ki te reanga e tupu ake nei; ka whakatauria, kia kokiria a ratau whakaputatanga ke tanga hou, ki te Minita mo nga Kura. Ka mutu te hui, ka whakaaturia e te Minita tana tautoko i te putake o o ratau whakaaro.
and decided to ask the Minister of Education to make some very fundamental changes. After the conference, the Minister made it known that in principle he agreed with the committee's resolutions and recommendations.
To the Maori people the most important resolution to come from the conference, was the Committee's view that ‘the time is not yet opportune for any full-scale abolition of Maori schools’. Scarcely less important was the recommendation to make school committees responsible for the management of all Maori schools, in the same way as the committees acting under the Education Boards. The recommended appointment of an Officer for Maori Education was another great forward step as the same special attention given to the Maori background in Maori schools will now also be available to Maoris in Board schools.
The committee's chairman was Mr D. G. Ball, whom many remember as the energetic senior inspector who did so much to modernize the Maori schools service in the 1930's. The conference was his last big achievement as Assistant Director of Education before he retired last Christmas: it gave him an opportunity, by way of a farewell, to realise many dreams he had had
Ki a tatau ki te Maori, ko te tino whakataunga nui i puta mai i te hui, ko te whakaaro o te komiti, ara, “Kaore ano i rite te wa mo te whakakorenga atu i nga kura Maori.” Ko tetehi whakatau ano i rite ki tera te nui, ko tenei, Kia tukuna te mana whakahaere i nga kura Maori ki o ratau komiti, kia pera me era kei raro i nga Poari mo nga Kura. Tetehi whakahau totika hoki, Ko te whakatu i tetehi Opiha mo nga Kura Maori, hei whakatere kia u, ki nga tamariki Maori kei nga kura Pakeha, te kaupapa whakaakoranga i te Maoritanga, e akonatia nei, i roto i o tatau kura Maori.
Te heamana o taua komiti, ko te teputi tumuaki o te Tari o nga Kura, ko D. G. Ball, i tuku nei i tana kaha ki te hiki i nga Kura Maori, kia pera te rite ki o te Ao Pakeha. Koi nei te taumata whakamutunga i nohoia e ia, i mua o tana hekenga iho i te Kirihimete nei, i te turanga, Kaiwhakahaere Awhina mo nga kura, ki te whakata. Na taua hui, puta poroporoaki ana i a ia, te whakatutukinga o ana moemoea o nga tau ka maha, ara rawa ia, tana tauira, hei whaka-manamananga ma taua, notemea, i pupu ke i te whatu manawa, i hohonu rawa ki te matauranga, ki te hinengaro hoki o te Maori.
for years. His contribution to this new blueprint for Maori education is not to be under-estimated. It was the contribution of a man who had come to understand both education and the Maori people better than almost anyone else in the country.
Seven of the committee members were Maoris. They were: Messrs. J. Henare, R. Vercoe, Dr. M. Winiata, Messrs. A. T. Carroll, E. Edwards, T. T. Ropiha, C. M. Bennett. The remaining five were Mr K. I. Robertson, senior inspector of Maori schools, Col. T. Durrant, Chairman, South Auckland Education Board, Mr T. B. McDonald, Chairman, Hawkes Bay Education Board, Mr F. M. Pinfold, Papamoa Maori School, representing the Maori teaching service and Mr W. L. S. Britten, Miramar Central School, representing the N.Z. Educational Institute.
When the Minister of Education, the Hon. R. M. Algie, approved the committee's ideas about the future education of the Maori child he requested that the resolutions and recommendations should be published in full in a magazine circulating among the Maori people. Because of the unsual importance of these new ideas, Te Ao
Mr N. Stainton wants to introduce Maori carving classes in his own school. He is copying the patterns of carvings made by Mr Mead's pupils at Minginui Forest.
MAKING A PIUPIU
Unexpected enthusiasm was shown at the Ardmore refresher course for a demonstration of making a piupiu, given by Mrs Mary Pinfold (Te Whaiti, right top) and Mrs Maud Isaacs (Kennedy's Bay, left top). Instead of the twelve pupils they expected, the demonstrators found they had nearly forty teachers in their class.
The simplest form of piupiu was shown. Raupo leaves are cut into two strips which are then slit at regular intervals with a sharp knife.
The fleshy part is lifted from each alternate section of the raupo, so that at those patches only the fibres remain. The raupo strips are then tied to a three ply flax cord, as is shown by Mrs Evelyn Waaka (Waipiro Bay).
Toko whitu nga Maori o taua komiti, ara, ko J. Henare, R. Vercoe, Dr M. Winiata, A. T. Carroll, E. Edwards, T. T. Ropiha, me C. M. Bennett, a, ko nga Pakeha toko rima, ko K. I. Robertson, te Kai-Tirotiro o nga Kura Maori; Col. T. Durrant, te Heamana o te Poari mo nga Kura o Akarana Whaka-te-Tonga; T. B. McDonald, te Heamana o te Poari mo nga Kura o Haki Pei; F. M. Pinfold, o te Kura o Papamoa, te kanohi mo te taha ki nga kai-Ako o nga kura Maori, me W. L. S. Britten, o te kura o Miramar, te kanohi mo te taha ki te Ropu Kotahitanga o nga Kai-Ako o Niu Tireni.
Ka tautokona e Honore R. M. Algie, te Minita mo nga Kura, nga whakaaro o te komiti i kokiria ki a ia, ka inoi ia kia tuhia katoatia a ratau whakaurunga ahuatanga hou, ki tetehi pukapuka e korero nuitia ana e te Iwi Maori. Na te hohonu o aua whakauruurunga hou, ka whakawatea ake e au, e Te Ao Hou tenei wahi, hei taanga i enei korero, i roto i o taua reo e rua. He aha nga hiahiatanga matauranga o te Maori?
Me timata atu tatau i tetehi o nga whakatau i tautokona e te komiti, ara, “Ko te putake o te matauranga e aro nuitia e te Maori raua ko te Pakeha, me rite tahi “Ko te korero nui i mua, kaore i tika te Maori, mo nga mahi e pa ana ki nga whika, mo te ako ranei i nga reo ke o tauiwi, engari anake ano, mo nga mahi paamu, keri awaawa, arahi mihini neke oneone, me era atu tu mahi. I roto i te kaupapa e tumanakoria nei, kaore rawa he whai wahitanga mo enei tu momo whakaaro, e mau ake nei. Ko te whawhai kia whakapakaritia ia, i roto i te matauranga e riro mai i a ia, nga turanga o te Ao Pakeha, kia tu tahi ai me te tamaiti Pakeha.
Ehara i te mea kei te warewaretia ake, nga rereketanga mai o te Maoritanga ki o te Pakehatanga, kao, engari kei te mau mahara tonu te komiti, he ahuatanga ano to te Maori hei rauhi mo te taha whakamatauranga, koi nei ra, a ratau whakataunga e whai ake nei:
— Me ata morimori te tamaiti Maori kia matau ai he tangata ano ia, kei te u tona oranga, he toto rangatira ona, ina hanumi ia ki te tokomaha o te pakeha.
— Ma te ako i tona Maoritanga, ana hitoria, ana korero, ana waiata, ana mahi-a-ringa, ka tutuki te tino tu a te Maori. Waihoki ma te ako a te Pakeha i aua taonga ano a te Maori, ka rongo hoki ia i te
Hou is very pleased indeed to make its space available for a presentation, both in English and Maori.
What Education do Maoris Need?
Let us start, then, with the most fundamental resolution passed by the committee: ‘that the basic educational needs of Maori and Pakeha are identical’. In the past there has been a good deal of talk about the Maori being particularly suited to farming, or to digging drains or to driving bulldozers: or again, less suited to accountancy or to studying foreign languages. None of these ideas find a place in the future education of the Maori child. He is to be educated to fulfil the same roles in society as the pakeha child.
This does not mean of course that no notice will be taken of the cultural differences between Maori and pakeha. On the contrary the committee recognized that the Maoris have some special educational needs and passed the following resolutions on the subject:
= There is a special need, more critical where Maori children are associated as a minority group with pakeha children, that the Maori child should feel personal worth, security and a sense of identity.
= The teaching of Maori culture, including Maori history, legends, songs and arts and crafts is necessary for the full personal development of the Maori. In addition, knowledge of Maori culture is also necessary for the pakeha child in order that he may more fully appreciate the history, achievements and instrinsic worth of the Maori.
= Association of Maori and pakeha should be encouraged to the utmost.
= The Maori child is in need of special assistance in learning the English language, particularly its written form. It is of the greatest importance for success in adult life that every Maori child should be confident and competent in the use of English.
= The Maori child, wherever he is, requires special guidance both as to vocation and to the type of education that leads to that vocation.
= In all cases where there are under-privileged children, either pakeha or Maori, whose home environments are unsatisfactory, special assistance should be given to compensate for those deficiencies through measures to improve health
tino rekanga o nga mahi a nga tupuna, ka matau ki te tino mauri o te Maori.
— Me ata whakahau ki tona tutukitanga, te puripuringa ringaringa o te Pakeha me te Maori.
— Me ata ako marika te tamaiti Maori ki te reo Pakeha, ara, ki tona tuhituhinga tika, he mea tino nui hoki tenei, e taea ai nga taumata o te Ao Pakeha, ina koeke ia, e pakari ai, e u ai ki te reo.
— Ahakoa kei hea ia, me ata arahi te tamaiti Maori ki te mahi e tika ana mana, me ata tohutohu hoki ki te matauranga tika e riro mai ai taua mahi.
— Ahakoa ko wai tamaiti i hapa, Maori, Pakeha ranei, i te he o te kainga, me ona nohonohoanga, me ata apuru aua tapepatanga ki aua mea totika hei tokonga i tona ora, ki etehi atu ahua ranei e rite ana.
— He tino tautoko ta te komiti i te whakahau kia whaia ki tona mutunga mai, te ako i te reo Maori.
He whakataunga nunui enei hei aratakinga i era whakaputaputanga e hiahiatia ana mo nga kura Maori. Engari he ata hanga ano te whakatau hiahia, a, he hanga ke te whakamananga. Ko te hikoinga tuatahi he hikoi nui, ara, ko ta te Minita i amine mai ra, ko te whakatu i tetehi Apiha mo nga Kura Maori, hei whakatutuki i nga hiahia ki nga ahuatanga e pa ana ki te matauranga o te Maori, i ro kura Maori, kura Pakeha hoki. Te Apiha mo tenei turanga, ko te Kai-Tirotiro Matamua Hou o nga Kura Maori, mana nei e tohutohu, e arahi, te Kai-whakahaere mo nga Kura, i nga take katoa, kia tika ai te whakatere i te matauranga ki a tatau tamariki Maori i nga kura e rua nei.
Kaore he manukanukatanga mo te matau o nga kura Maori, ki te titiro i te hinengaro o te tamaiti Maori, e u ai te tamaiti hai painga mo te iwi, kotahi pea e rua ranei o nga kura e hapa ana, engari no mua mai ra ano tenei ahua. He ahakoa ra, tekau-ma-rua mano anake nga tamariki Maori kei o tatau kura, e rua tekau mano rawa kei o te Pakeha, engari kaore i tau riterite ta ratau whakatutuki i nga hiahia o enei tamariki. Tera pea tetehi kura Pakeha, e rua ranei, i rite mai ki a te kura Maori whakaako, heoi, kaore i nui rawa, i te kuare o nga Kai-whakaako, o nga Kura matuta ki nga ahuatanga e pa ana ki te nohonoho a te Maori. Kei te koingo te ngakau, hei aha, koira anake ano, i te ata kuare tetehi, i te toko maha tonu o nga tamariki Pakeha hei akoranga tetehi.
Koi nei tetehi mahi ma te Apiha mo nga Kura Maori, he whata i te tawha, kei te aroaro o nga kura Pakeha, kia ata tirohia e ratau, nga hiahia maha o te tamaiti Maori, e taea ai e ia, te tutuktanga o tona matauraga. Ko tetehi komuhumuhu he a etehi pakeha, ara, ko te Maori anake e whakawhiwhia ana ki etehi atu ahuatanga. Ko te mahi ma nga tohunga waihanga i te matauranga mo te tamaiti Maori, ara, he ata whakapakari ki te matauranga e tika ana mo tona ahua katoa. Kei nga tamariki ano i tawhitiwhiti nga rereketanga mai o muri, me rereke ano hoki te whakamatau.
and hygiene, or in any other way deemed necessary.
= The committee supports the teaching of the Maori language and recommends that everything possible be done to implement it.
These resolutions are very valuable as a guide to some changes that are needed in Maori Education. But it is one thing to pass resolutions as to what is desirable and quite another to find practical ways of introducing fairly fundamental changes. The first practical step, and a very important one, approved by the Minister, is the appointment of an ‘Officer for Maori Education’. The duty of the officer will be to see that the special educational needs of the Maori people are met, not only when children go to Maori schools but also if they go to Board schools. This officer will be the present Senior Inspector of Maori Schools and his new duties will be to ‘advise the Director of Education on all matters relating to the content and effectiveness of Maori education in both Maori and public schools’.
There is no doubt of the ability of Maori schools to understand the Maori child and be a vital force in a Maori community. There may be one or two Maori schools which fail to maintain this close contact with Maori life, but it is part of the long tradition of the Maori service and is evident in the great majority of schools. However only some 12,000 Maori children go to these Maori schools, with 20,000 attending schools run by Education Boards. At these Board schools Maori needs are met in varying degrees. In some cases, the same understanding exists between school and Maori people as is typical of the Maori service. However, these cases are necessarily a minority. Many teachers and head teachers have no particular knowledge and experience of Maori conditions. Mostly they feel keen sympathy, but also a need of some guidance about the specially Maori problems and besides, they have many Europeans also needing to be taught and requiring much of their energy.
The ‘Officer for Maori Education’ will have the task to help these Board schools teachers to come to grips with the specifically Maori needs in education.
Some Europeans have been heard complaining that the Maoris are given an unfair advantage; we do not think this is a just suggestion. The problem for educationalists is the development of the personality and latent ability of every child and where there are children of a widely different cultural background one may expect that the approach has to be different in a few details.
One recommendation asks that the Officer for Maori Education make every effort using such means as school publications, in-service training, etc., to strengthen the teaching of Maori history, legends, songs, and art and crafts in all schools. Again, the Committee favoured appointments of Maoris to lecturing staffs of the Teachers' Training Colleges, when suitable qualified applicants are available. In addition to their normal duties
I tono tetehi o nga whakahau, kia kaha te tohe a te Apiha mo nga Kura Maori, kia tuhia ki roto ki nga pukapuka kura, me era atu huarahi a ratau, nga mahi, me nga korero a nga tupuna hei whakaakoranga ma ratau. I tautokona ano e te komiti te whakaturanga o etehi Maori, ina, tika te tono, hei Kai-Tatai korero i nga kareti mo nga Akonga whakaakoako. Apiti atu ki a ratau mahi, kia tautokona e ratau nga ahuatanga o to ratau kareti, e hangai mai ana ki te taha Maori.
Ko tetehi tono ano, kia whakaaetia mai etehi awhina a moni ki nga Poari mo nga Kura, mo nga hiahiatanga whakaako i te tokonga o te ora, me era atu ahuatanga.
Mana whakahaere I nga kura.
Ki a taua ki te Maori, ko te take nui i whiriwhiria, ko te noho tonu mai o o tatau kuru Maori, i haere hoki te korero, ara, he mea powhiri tenei hui ki te “turaki atu i nga kura Maori.” I te puaki tonutanga mai o te mangai o D. G. Ball, te heamana, natia tonutia iho e ia taua korero, ki ana ia, “Kei te wa tena whakakahore i enei kura, kaua e akina kia hohoro, engari tukua ma te tutuki rano o te wa.” Te whakatau a te komiti mo taua take, i mea, me whai te kaupapa a te Kawanatanga o Niu Tireni, mo nga tau e tu mai nei, kia riterite te kaupapa whakahaere i nga kura timatanga, puta noa. He ahakoa ra, he tautoko ta te komiti i te whakaaro whanui o te Iwi Maori, kaore ano te wa i rite mo te horoi atu i nga kura Maori.
Ki te titiro a te komiti, kua tae etehi o nga kura Maori nei ki te wa, hei kuhunga atu ki raro i nga Poari o nga Kura, ara rawa ia, nga kura kua tokomaha ke ake te Pakeha. Kei etehi takiwa, tetehi tu ahua kaore i tino pai, ara, ko te tu tatata o nga kura e rua, to te Maori to te Pakeha. Ko te whakataunga ano a te komiti:
Ki te whakaaro te Kai-whakahaere o nga Kura me riro tetehi kura ki raro i tetehi poari, me matua whiriwhiria e nga Maori o taua takiwa i te tuatahi.
Mo te kaupapa whanui, kaore i pai te tu tahi o nga kura Maori, me nga kura Poari, i te takiwa e noho tokoiti ana te tangata.
Nga kura mo te katoa, nga kura Maori ranei, o ia takiwa o ia takiwa e tika ana kia watea mo nga tamariki katoa o taua takiwa ahakoa Maori ahakoa Pakeha.
He aha te wa tika mo te whakawhitiwhiti kura? E rua nga whakamatau i whakaaria; ina kore e tu wehe ke te takiwa; ina kitea te ahua o te noho o nga Maori o taua takiwa kua kore e meinga kia tino awhinatra.
I roto i nga korerorero, ka patai a Col. T. Durrant kia whakatikaia etehi panui he i puta i nga Nu Pepa, ara, e tatari kau ana nga poari ki te whakatoro whanui i o ratau mana, ko nga kura Maori te papa. Ka whakatahi ake i a ratau te Kotahitanga o nga Poari mo nga Kura, i era mema, no ratau era whakaaro, mo te ahua whakawhitiwhiti mana whakahaere i nga kura Maori.
Ka mea a D. G. Ball tenei whakawhitiwhiti e pa ana ki te mana whakahaere anake, atu i te
these teachers could give further emphasis to those aspects of the College courses concerned with Maori education and Maori culture.
Another recommendation asks for special grants to be made to Education Boards to provide additional facilities for the practical teaching of health and hygiene.
Control of Schools:
To the Maori people, the most crucial question of all was the survival of the Maori schools. There had been many rumours that the conference had been called ‘to abolish the Maori schools.’ These were dispelled at once in Mr Ball's introductory address. He expressed the opinion that the time would come when there would be no Maori schools ‘but’ he added, ‘that there was no need to hurry this change, the process in fact must be a gradual one.’ The committee's resolution on the subject was “that the long-term policy of the Government of New Zealand should be the development of a uniform system of administration control of primary schools. The committee (however) agrees with the general feeling of the Maori people that the time is not yet opportune for any full-scale abolition of Maori schools.”
There are, in the Committee's view, a few schools which are now ready for transfer to the Boards. For instance, those with a majority of European pupils. In other places Board schools and Maori schools exist side by side and this is often not a good feature. Resolved the committee:
When the Director of Education decides that a school is ready for transfer to an Education Board, full consultation must first be held with the local Maori people.
As a matter of general policy, it is not beneficial to have both a Board and a Maori school in a small community.
Every public or Maori school should cater for all the pupils of its community.
When is a school ready to be transferred? Two tests were recommended: The district should no longer be isolated and living conditions of the people whose children attend the Maori school must be such that no further special assistance is necessary.
During the discussions, Col. Durrant, of the South Auckland Education Board, asked to be allowed to correct a mistaken public impression created by the Press that the Boards were awaiting the chance to do some empire building at the expense of the Maori schools. The Education Boards' Association dissociated itself from the remarks of certain individual Board members in regard to the transfer of control of the Maori schools.
Tari mo nga Kura ki nga Poari, a, ka noho tonu te kura ki te iwi, ahakoa Maori, Pakeha ranei. Te taha whakaakoranga me ona ahua katoa tau tuturu tera ki nga tohunga o te Tari o nga Kura. Nga mana hou mo nga komiti o nga kura Maori.
Mai rano he nui te wahi a nga komiti o nga kura Maori, i u pu ai ki te kimi moni mo nga hiahia o o ratau kura—hei whakapainga i te kura me ona tahataha, hei hoko mihini pikitia, hei hanga wahi kaukau me etehi atu whakaaro Tapiria mai hoki e te Kawanatanga tana moni, pera me nga moni a nga kura kei raro i nga poari.
Ko te rereketanga nui o nga kura Maori ki o nga kura a nga Poari, ara, kaore he mana tuturu o nga komiti Maori, i te aroaro o te ture, ko te mana motuhake ko to te Mahita Tumuaki o te Kura. Kaore rawa he whai mananga o te komiti.
He mea whakatau e te komiti o Noema i mahue ake nei, ki Poneke; “Me tu riterite nga kura Maori me nga kura Pakeha i nga mea katoa, tae atu ki te utunga o nga moni awhina mo ia tamaiti.” Kei te whiriwhiria tonutia tenei take, engari na te Minita i tautoko te putake. He mahi nui ina whakawhitiwhiti ki tera whakahaere. I raro i te whakaritenga hou, ka utua ki nga Kura Komiti Maori tekau hereni mo ia tamaiti kei te kura timatanga, i ia tau; e rua tekau ma rima hereni mo ia tamaiti kei te kura o runga ake.
Ma nga tangata anake e noho ana i te takiwa o taua kura, e pooti puku i ia tau tuarua, te komiti mo te kura. Ko ratau tonu ano, nga komiti Maori tuatahi, e pooti pukutia i raro i te ture, a, i nga whakapaunga moni katoa, e utua atu ana ki a ratau, kei a ratau, te mana tuturu, i waho atu o nga whakaritenga a te ture. He wero pu tenei whakarite ritenga ki nga komiti, a, kei a ratau whakahaere pai i enei mana hou, te apiti nui ki pakaritanga o aua nohonohonga Maori.
Nui atu te tumanako o te hui i Poneke, kia whiua e nga matua to ratau kaha katoa, ki te whakatupu i te matauranga. Hangai atu hoki tenei ki nga matua o a tatau tamariki Maori kei nga kura a nga poari, Katahi ka whakatau ano te komiti: “Kia kaha te whakahau i nga matua o a tatau tamariki Maori, kia hihiko ki te whakatere, i nga whakahaere mo te matauranga, kia tu hei mema mo nga komiti, o o ratau kura a-iwi, hei mema hoki i runga i nga poari.”
Ahakoa me mama noa iho ki te Maori, tetehi wahanga nui tonu o nga whawha ki te toko i te matauranga, ina noa pea te wa, e kitea nuitia aite tu a te Maori, i runga i nga Poari nei. Na reira i whakatau ai te komiti i Poneke: “Kia ata whakaaroarotia e nga poari mo nga kura, te whakatu komiti whaiti mo ratau, kia ahei ai te whakatu atu i tetehi, i etehi mema Maori ranei. Ma enei komiti whaiti e arahi nga poari, i nga take katoa e pa ana ki te matauranga o nga tamariki o aua takiwa.”
(Ko te mutunga kei tera putanga o Te Ao Hou)
Mr Ball said it must be borne in mind that the change from Department to Board control was only an administrative change. The school, whether Board or Maori, still belonged to the people. What was taught in the school still came from the professional officers of the department.
New Powers for Maori School Committees:
School committees have played an important part in the Maori schools. They have faithfully raised money for countless school purposes—beautifying the school, buying projectors, building swimming baths and so forth. The money they raised has been subsidized by the government as is done for the European school committees.
The great difference between the Maori school committees and those set up under the Education Boards has been that the Maori committees were never given statutory powers. By law, the headmaster of a Maori school is responsible to his department alone for the general management of the school. The school committee has no official standing.
The committee that met in Wellington last November recommended ‘that school committees of Maori schools be placed on the same basis as school committees of Board schools in all respects, including the payments of capitation grants.’ This proposal is still under consideration, but it was accepted in principle by the Minister of Education.
Committees will be elected every two years by a secret ballot of householders in the school committee district. They will, incidentally, be the first Maori statutory committees chosen by secret ballot and in the expenditure of moneys paid over to them they will have full authority, restricted only by the provisions of the law. The arrangement is a real challenge to the committees and good administration of these new powers would greatly add to the stature of the Maori communities concerned.
The Wellington conference was very anxious to encourage Maori parents to take an active interest in education. This applies equally to those whose children go to Board schools. The committee recommended: ‘That every endeavour be made to ensure that more Maori parents take an interest in educational administration as members of school committees of public schools and as members of education boards.’
Although it should be easy for the Maori people to take a greater part in school committee work, it may take some time before full direct representation on Boards can come about. For that reason the Wellington committee also recommended ‘that education boards consider favourably the setting up of sub-committees of the boards to which one or more Maoris can be co-opted. These sub-committees would advise the boards on matters connected with the education of Maori children in their districts.’
(To be concluded in next issue)
Te Pua a Hinemahanga
Na, ko Hine-Mahanga ko te wahine tenei nana i taki te manu, e karangatia ana tona whakatauki: “Ko te pua a Hine-mahanga.” Ko te take i takina ai e ia te manu he tangihanga no tana mokopuna ki te manu a tetahi tamaiti, katahi ka takina e ia te manu. Ko te manu tuatahi nana i noho tuatahi te whare o Hine-mahanga he kopara, no muri manu katoa. Nui atu te manu e haere ana ki tenei pua taki, kaore nga manu katoa e wareware ki te pukepuke i tu ai te whare o Hine-mahanga tae noa mai ki tenei whakatupurange. Kaore hoki nga manu e wareware ki te wai i tukua ai nga kaha a Hine-mahanga; kaore hoki nga manu e wareware ki nga rakau i whakaritea e Hine-mahanga hei nohoanga mo nga manu. He pono enei korero, i kite ano matou, a i matakitaki ano ki te mahi, ki te mana o Hine-mahanga i te takiwa i takina ai e ia te manu. Tahuri tonu ki te tohu, hoki rawa mai tana tane, a Patea, kua tu te whare hinu a tana wahine; ka mate tana tane i te whakama, kaore hoki ana hinu; patua iho tana i wahine, a Hine-mahanga, ka mate. Me he mea kaore a Hine-mahanga i patua e tana tane penei kua takina ano te pakake ki Manawarakau; ka oti nga pou mo tona kupenga, ka patua nei e tana tane, kore tonu atu e oti te mahi mo te pakake e u ai ki uta.
Na Hori Ropiha o Waipawa i korero tenei korero ki a Te Peehi a i tuhia ki tana pukapuka ki “Forest Lore of the Maori”. Tera tetahi whakatauaki o mua e ki penei ana “Ko te pua a Hinemahanga” engari he aha ra tona tikanga kaore te tangata o tenei ra e mohio.
The first person I met on Makomako station was the manager. He seemed rather surprised to hear that to-day's leading Maori song-writer was at that moment working in his shearing shed, but at the name Tuini Ngawai he showed recognition. Yes, she was there. But, he added, to see her in the shed, you wouldn't believe she had composed any songs.
Miss Ngawai was just finishing her midday nap on top of one of the wool bales. She looked up when I came in and fixed her very penetrating eyes upon me.
The station manager had been only partly right. The black and blue shearing gang uniform evidently was not his idea of the apparel of a literary lady, but the face looking at me was at once very amused, very serious and remarkably shrewd; it betrayed a consciousness of the hidden depths of the mind that is in general more typical of writers than shearers.
With unusual intensity she set about discovering who this pakeha was who wanted to translate her songs.
We had a long talk about songs and about the way the Maoris to-day are singing them. Like many poets, Miss Ngawai has had words dictated to her by something outside her consciousness, ‘in a dream,’ she says. Arohaina Mai which she regards as her best song, took only a few minutes to compose. She never writes but always dictates the words to a helper.
The Maori people are still wonderful singers, they sing as an entertainment; but actions to-day are often poor due to the words not being understood fully or even at all. Miss Ngawai thinks that teaching action songs in schools will be unrewarding unless the language is also taught.
Miss Ngawai likes the shearing routine; she likes to live for a while with the young people and keep touch with the way they feel.
She had an offer last year to train a party for a film on Maori dancing, but the producer wanted the party to consist of glamorous people. Tuini Ngawai turned it down. She doubted whether these glamorous people could do her action songs properly. Would they lift their eyebrows right up in certain passages?
Composed and Taught
Miss Ngawai belongs to Te Whanauarua Tauperi, a sub-tribe of Ngati Porou.
She wrote her first song—He Nawe Kei Roto—in 1933. It was a conversation piece between two lovers. It was performed informally as an entertainment action song at the opening of To o te Tonga meeting house at Tokomaru Bay. It was for this occasion that she organised one of her earliest haka parties.
Her well-known Hokowhitu-a-Tu party was organised in 1939 to give a final leave farewell to C (Ngati Porou) Co boys at Tokomaru Bay. Her song for that occasion was Arohaina Mai, a melodious composition in which despair is calmed by the peace of God.
Her song, ‘E te Hokowhitu a Tu kia kaha ra’ was written over a two year period. She started it, ran out of inspiration, shelved it and finally completed it in a 3-minute burst. This number was first performed at the hui to honour 2nd Lieut Ngarimu, V.C.
Miss Ngawai was closely associated with Sir Apirana who used her party a great deal for fund raising. But one of the greatest tributes he paid her was when he arranged for her to teach Maori action songs in the East Coast schools. That was soon after the war. He told her that he was getting old and was in a hurry to get the job done. He wanted to stimulate the school children's interest in action songs and therefore the Maori language. For two and a half years Tuini taught action songs, songs and hakas in schools from Hick's Bay to Gisborne. This has left its imprint in the fact that the young adults of to-day throughout that area have almost a uniform style.
Not being able to read music embarrassed Miss Ngawai on one occasion in Auckland just before the war when she was in Walter Smith's Maori choir which used to broadcast over IZB. When she first joined the choir she was given a big music book. Miss Ngawai sat firmly behind
After that she learned by listening.
Miss Ngawai is often asked by other tribes to teach them action songs. She will teach them her songs that are appropriate, but she will not teach them their own songs concerning their histories as she feels this would be quite wrong. She notices though that these groups usually revert to their own styles after her teaching has finished and this disappoints her.
Although Miss Ngawai has a knowledge of paos and pateres she does not teach them. She believes that because of their tapu nature they cannot be taught along with action songs, but need to be taught in specially consecrated practices.
Her musical gifts are extensive and varied. She has a dance band and has taught herself a band-load of instruments; starting off on the mouth organ and ukulele and following these up with jews harp, koauau, saxophone, piano, drums, violin and others.
Words, Music and Action
Tuini Ngawai's complete works comprise over two hundred songs. Many have a subject matter that occurs in most poetry—love, death, war, the peace of God. Others are songs of everyday life. Particularly in her shearing songs Miss Ngawai has given lively and accomplished pictures of New Zealand. Many songs again are on subjects peculiarly Maori such as the numerous welcome songs.
In the main, she bases her style of action songs on the tradition made by Sir Apirana Ngata, Paraire Tomoana and others who developed the
modern action song in the beginning of this century. With so few of these songs published it is hard to study just what Tuini Ngawai's own contribution was.
Sir Apirana greatly admired her work. Her language is always pure, economical, forceful and precise. The haunting reminiscences of ancient words and ideas often provide a peculiar depth. They are, in Tuini Ngawai's work, never mere repetitions of older chants, but are given a new life in her muscular modern language.
She also excells in the blending of words, music and action. As she composes she has all the three elements in mind. Miss Ngawai sometimes composes her own music (as in Karangatia Ra and E Nga Rangatahi, printed in this issue) but more often uses existing melodies. She rarely changes these melodies and ingeniously fits her words to the existing music. Very often the words are incomplete without the actions. This is not because the poet could not find more expressive words, but because the actions adequately convey the feeling.
A strong individual character runs through all the songs and it is no accident that her party was called ‘Te Hokowhitu-a-Tu’. A war-like strength is evident everywhere; the attitude to pain and misfortune is perhaps peculiarly Maori, certainly different from most European poetry—pain is not described, analysed or escaped from but fought like an enemy.
Does the use of popular hits show lack of originality? If one compares the original song ‘Love Walked In’ with ‘Arohaina Mai,’ the spirit is entirely changed although the tune is still about the same. Obviously, Tuini Ngawai only uses the popular hit because it suits her purpose, not because she is forced to lean on it.
The people love musical hits and what the people already love is made the basis for an artistic production. Miss Ngawai does not compose for the chosen few but for her own people in Tokomaru Bay, as she finds them.
After my visit to Makomako we travelled back together on the shearer's truck. In the middle sat Tuini singing. Twenty voices joined in with gusto. Someone offered her a guitar but she turned it down. She just continued singing. With the next song she had changed her mind, she now wanted the guitar and took it. Strumming this guitar, she was completely part of her people; as they were singing her songs she could see how they experienced them, what feelings were stirred.
After thousands of years of civilisation European poets are still dreaming of rediscovering this lost unity with the people.
Five Songs by Tuini Ngawai
E TE HOKOWHITU A TU
E te hokowhitu a Tu kia kaha ra!
Kati ra te hinga hinga ki raro ra
Ma nga whakaaro kei runga rawa
Hei arahi ki te ara e tika a
Whirinaki, whirinaki tatou katoa
Kia kotahi ra.
Nga marae e tu noa nei,
Nga maunga e tu noa nei.
Aue ra, e tama ma,
Te mamae te pouri nui
E patu nei i ahau i na
Anei to iwi e.
E tangi nei e.
Hundred and forty companions of Tu, be strong
do not continue falling, falling down
for your spirits are high, so high—
they can guide your path and make it straight,
be a buttress, a buttress all to each other
Here the meeting grounds lie empty,
the mountains lie empty,
ah, sons of man,
keening, great sorrow,
is now knocking in my heart for
here are your people
this is your wake
Arohaina mai e te kingi nui,
Manakitia ra o tamariki e,
Horahia mai ra te marie nui
Ki te hokowhitu a Tu toa.
Nga mamaetanga me nga pouri nui
Pehia rawatia ki raro ra e
Me anga atu ka karanga
Ki te Matua ‘Aue! aroha mai.’
Nga hapu katoa o Aotearoa e,
Tau awhitia ra ko toku rongo
Kia mau te “Tihe i Mauri Ora”
A nga tupuna hei tohu wehi e.
Give us your love, great King,
Grant a blessing to your children,
let your great peace be spread
over the seven-score braves of Tu.
May the pain feelings and darkest grief
be trodden down deep down
and then turn your face away and call
to the Father ‘Ah Give us your love.
All families of Aotearoa,
lock in your arms the message I heard
so you will have ‘the sneeze of the spirit’;
may you hold your ancestors in awe for it.
E TE OPE TUATAHI
E te ope tuatahi
O te ropu Maori e,
Haere mai ki te hui
o Ngarimu e.
I te wa o te oranga
Kei te piri tahi e,
No te matenga ka mokemoke e.
Company number one
of the Maori battalion,
to Ngarimu's meeting.
In times of wellbeing
there's clinging together,
at the hour of death the loneliness oh.
I hinga mai i Tunihia,
Ka ara mai i Tunihia,
Ko te tohu nui,
Ko te wikitoria!
He fell in Tunisia,
when he rose in Tunisia
it made a great mark
it was a victory.
TE HOKOWHITU TOA
Te hokowhitu toa
Mauria atu ra
Te pueru o koutou tipuna e
Te mana me te wehi e
Te mana me te wehi e
Hei hoa ki tawhiti nui
Ki tawhiti pamamao,
Aue! Aue! te aroha
E ngau kino nei,
Otira i tenei wa
Ma te kingi o nga kingi!
Koutou e manaki e
Ko te tangi tenei a te ngakau e.
Twenty times seven braves
take away hence
the capes of your ancestors
the awe and the power
the awe and the power
to go as your protectors, to the great far-away
to the far-away infinite.
oh oh the love pain
bites deeper inside me,
To the King of Kings
this is your homage-rendering,
this is the heart keening.
E NGA RANGATAHI
E nga rangatahi
I mahue ake
I nga tupuna,
He karauna Maoritanga
Ki te ao
Puritia e nga iwi
Ma te maia ma te kaha,
Ka tutuki nga wawata e.
He aha te painga
Ki nga matua,
Ki te kore rawa
Ki te reo Maori?
E ara taki
Te karauna Maoritanga
Ki te ao.
may the seeds
left behind them
be gathered in—
a crown of Maoritanga
for the world.
May the people persevere
in spite of Tangaroa,
fulfilled are men's desires.
would the old people have
in the Maori tongue?
Make a path
for the crown of Maoritanga
in the world!
THE HOME GARDEN
At this time of the year the soil temperature is still fairly high. This permits seed sowing to continue, but if the soil is inclined to be wet in the winter, sowings or plantings are best made on ridges or mixed beds, as this allows for better drainage and consequently a higher soil temperature which will mature the crops. Cabbage, broccoli, cauliflowers, etc., which have been planted, should have the soil drawn up to the bascial leaves when weather and soil conditions permit. This will help to support the plants and prevent the rooting system from being disturbed by strong winds.
In districts which experience early and severe frosts, harvesting of crops such as pumpkins, kumaras and marrows, should be attended to when mature. When harvesting for storage, utmost care should be taken during transporation as rough handling means early breakdown and eventual decay. Now is the time to sow down all vacant plots in mustard or blue lupins.
Asparagus beds should be attended to and the seasons growth should be cut about 2” above the ground and burnt. A light dressing of animal manure or good compost should now be applied. Black Rot.
Approximately ten years ago, black rot—a disease affecting the kumara plant—was first noted in the North Auckland district. Since that time it has gradually spread firstly to Motiti Island then to the main land around Tauranga and at the present time plants affected by the disease have been found on the coastal strip as far south as Te Kaha. As this disease will undoubtedly affect the economical welfare of the Maori people, every effort should be given to prevent the continual spread of this fungus disease.
First indication of the disease is black areas on the underground portions of the shoots. When they are being pulled on the nursery beds, these black areas extend until the whole of the root portion is involved and the shoot dies shortly after planting. On the tuber the rot develops as a circular black, slightly sunken, area of variable size. These areas extend in storage until the greater portion of the tuber may be rotted. Under the skin covering the spots on the flesh turn a greenish colour so that when cooked, it has a very disagreeable flavour. Black rot is a fungus disease which persists in the soil from year to year, living on decayed kumara growth and other vegetable matter. Control of black rot is entirely a matter of strict garden and storehouse hygiene. Any shoots showing the typical, blackened areas, should be burnt immediately and after harvesting all plant remains should be burnt. At planting time, all shoots should be dipped in a bordeaux mixture 3–4–50 (3 Ibs blue stone, 4 Ibs hydrated lime and 50 gallons water), before setting out in the field. Areas used for seed beds should be changed every year.
Now is the time to lift carnation runners and plant in nursery beds or preferably in a permanent bed where they can remain until in flower. As far as possible the planting of spring bulbs should have been completed after having given the land a good dressing of bone dust at about 1 oz. to the square yard. At this time of the year rose cuttings strike fairly well and this work should be attended to now. Stocks and poppies should by now be well established. Light hoeing to eradicate weeds should continue when soil conditions and weather permit. This is a good time of the year to give a general tidy up of the home surrounds. Hedges should be trimmed now and in most cases they will appear neat and tidy for several months until the Spring growth is apparent.
When the leaves from fruit trees fall they tend to make the area untidy. These leaves can be raked into small piles and then transferred to the compost heap. Leaves and decaying vegetation make excellent compost and can be used to advantage later.
The month of May is the time when Citrus trees must be sprayed with bordeaux for the control of withertip and citrus blast. Also the trees should be given an application of citrus white oil at the rate of 1 pint in 30 pints of water. This spray can be used as a combination spray, that is the oil and the bordeaux mixed together and applied in one operation. Over the past few years, citrus trees in home gardens have been infected most severely with scale and the only method of control is the above spray programme.
The strawberry patch should be prepared and given a good dressing of bone dust as a base fertilizer. Plants should be set out 27 ins. between the rows and about 10ins apart in the rows. Always endeavour to buy a good strain from a reliable nursery man. Up to the present time the Captain Cook variety is still the most popular. Especially in the northern parts of New Zealand. Plants should be lifted now from a non-fruited plant which has been rested in a nursery bed for several years. If one keeps taking runners from a fruiting bed then the strain deteriorates, the fruit becomes small and the plant tends to make runners instead of fruiting to advantage.
I shall play Tennis all my life
When 19-year-old Ruia Morrison won the Auckland Women's lawn tennis title on January 30, she richly deserved the acclaim that was hers as the first Maori to take the crown. But the volume of applause may have been unwisely expended. Something should have been reserved for the great day when she becomes national champion. For this seems inevitable.
Ruia is a “natural” in every sense of the word. Virtually untutored, she unquestionably possesses some of the finest strokes ever displayed by a New Zealand woman. This natural gift of technique is backed by an unaffected manner, a placid temperament, and a great love of the game—this last being perhaps one of the premier requirements for success in every sport.
Now a student at the Auckland Teachers' Training College, Ruia lives in Maketu, Bay of Plenty, and is a member of the Arawa tribe. Her graceful, effective style can be traced directly to her Maori lineage. She has an inborn sense of rhythm and a fluid swing controlled by the supple muscles so typical of the Maori.
In many ways, Ruia demonstrates on a tennis court the same case and relaxation that were characteristic of another great Maori sports star, Mrs Moana Pomare (nee Manley), the former national junior backstroke swimming champion and record-holder.
Ruia is only young, but she has at least 11 years of tennis behind her. She first became intrigued with the game when she was eight and played in her first national junior championship when she was 13. This was at Auckland in 1950 and she reappeared each year in the junior division until she became a senior (19 and over) this season.
Two years ago, Ruia was eligible for the newly-created under 17 class but turned down certain title prospects to play in the under 19 grade and thus gained more experience. Last year, she won the national under 19 title, beating Miss Sonia Cox, of Otago, in the final. The previous year, in 1954, she was a semi-finalist in the national senior championships—having beaten Miss Cox in an earlier round. In the national tournament, she was eliminated by the eventual champion, Miss Judy Burke (now Mrs Tinnock).
At the national championships in Christchurch this season she waded through a tough field to make the final. She appeared certain to make history and become the first Maori New Zealand champion as her opponent was her oft-defeated rival. Miss Cox. But Miss Cox played her finest tennis and won a thrilling match, 6–3, 3–6, 7–5.
Two weeks later, Ruia became Auckland champion after some notable matches. The nervousness she showed in the national final was submerged under a real tide of confidence and this was demonstrated most forcefully when she met the New Zealand representative, Miss Elaine
Becroft, in the semi-finals. She won 6–4, 1–6, 6–4, but was down 1–4 in the last set. It was a remarkable recovery under such tense circumstances.
In the final, Ruia met the English international, Miss Rosemary Bulleid, who had conquered Miss Cox in the other semi-final. The English girl was constantly troubled by Ruia's pace and outed dozens of her opponent's shots which zipped off the court like bullets. The score was 6–4, 6–3.
This winter, Ruia will be playing basketball—she was an Auckland senior representative last year while still at Queen Victoria College—but she really can't wait for next tennis season. She is not entirely devoted to sport and is extremely fond of music, particularly operatic pieces. She also likes modern music and can play a ukelele, “but I'm not very flash at it!”
And how long will Ruia keep playing tennis? “All my life,” she says quickly. “All my life!”
Three Maori people received New Year honours from the Queen. They are Mr Pateriki Hura, a chief of Ngati Tuwharetoa, who was awarded the O.B.E.; Mrs Lucy Atareti Jacob, of Levin; and Flight-Lieutenant Albert L. Tauwhare, formerly of Masterton, both of whom have been awarded the M.B.E. (Member of the British Empire). Flight-Lieutenant Tauwhare received his award in Britain where he is now a member of the Royal Air Force.
A HOLIDAY STORY
(Continued from page 21)
struck the gunwales of their craft … this was Koroki's Royal salute, Te Puea's farewell from the spirit world:—
“All's well, all's well!
Speed on Oh Gracious Queen,
Your stalwart canoes,
Farewell, farewell . . haere ra.”
My poi twirls, Farewell Elizabeth,
Depart to a faraway land
To be New Zealand's Monarch crowned one. .
P. T. Walsh, South Auckland, was awarded the Tom French Cup for the best Maori Rugby player of the year.
* * *
Four Maori University Scholarships have been awarded for 1956. They go to Peter John Gordon, Richard Taylor Pomana, Pehi Wanoa Stainton and Vance Lloyd Whiley.
Peter Gordon is from Gisborne. Formerly a pupil of Gisborne High School, he has since been training for the Presbyterian ministry. Richard Pomana, Wairoa, was formerly a pupil of Te Aute College. Pehi Stainton, Hicks Bay, attended Te Araroa District High School and Te Aute College. Vance Whiley, of Ohau, Horo-whenua, attended Horowhenua College.
BOOKS for Older Children
FICTION FOR THE ADOLESCENT
Following my article in the last issue, dealing with children's books. I shall now write about some books that will interest boys and girls who have reached Form I at primary school or who are going to high school.
The adolescent will devour anything he can lay his hands on, and often reads more widely during this period than in later years when a particular kind of book—detective novels, war stories, travelogues—may exclude all others. But in spite of his rather indiscriminate taste, an ability to distinguish between good, bad, and mediocre writing is developing, and I think it is this that we should keep in mind when suggesting titles to him, rather than one's own selection of ‘harmless’ subject matter. The young adolescent can tolerate more protein in his literary diet than some people suppose. He still likes the straight out adventure tale, fast-moving and exciting, but can absorb more factual material with it than the younger child. On the other hand, he is less bothered by improbabilities than an adult. Cocos Gold by Ralph Hammond, a direct descendant of R. L. Stevenson's Treasure Island and Kidnapped, should be enjoyed. Phyllis R. Fenner has produced four books on different popular subjects, Indians, horses, cowboys, and pirates, that are just as much fun and much better written than the comicstrip stuff. The younger child who likes reading about other children's adventures will enjoy the well-known excellently written Arthur Ransome books, especially Missee Lee. Following these, there are books about children in other countries, such as Ho-Ming, Girl of New China, by Elizabeth Foreman Lewis, Sie and Silver, by Joan Phipson, with an Australian setting, and of course, the Billabong books, by Mary Grant Bruce, also Australian. Except for The Boy who was Afraid, by Armstrong Sperry, mentioned in the previous issue, there appear to be very few, if any, books about peoples of the South Pacific region suitable for younger readers, but there are several very good recent publications for adults which I hope to deal with in a later issue. He Went with Captain Cook, by Josephine Kamm, is the next best thing, and a book certainly worth mentioning. The plot is slight and conventional, but the authentic story of dangerous and exciting exploration with the intrepid Captain Cook as the main character, really needs no further embellishment. For the senior pupil, Flamingo Feather, by Laurens van der Post, is another good example of the travel-plus-adventure kind of book, though this one is entirely fictitious. In his free-flowing, highly-coloured prose, Mr van der Post describes the hunter's South Africa—vast landscapes, a bewildering array of plant and animal life, the uneasy combination of intelligent natives and complacent administrators—a country whose great potentialities could be realised to the advantage of unscrupulous schemers. This is a book I feel I should have enjoyed more than I did, in spite of its blatant and stereotyped anti-Russian propaganda which jarred horribly.
The imagination of the young adolescent is very often freer, more vivid and more intense than that of an adult, and children with such an imagination delight in pure fantasy. You know the kind of thing—beat an African drum and you find yourself in the heart of Africa, or put on an old glove and you are transported to 14th century England. Drumbeas, by David Severn, and particularly The Gauntlet, by Ronald Welch, are two good recent books of this kind. Then there is Alison Uttley's A Traveller in Time, Kipling's well-known Puck of Pook's Hill, and one or two by John Buchan and Rider Haggard. These last two authors, incidentally, although old-timers now, prove ever-popular with teen-agers, and their works are always well-written. I recommend especially Greenmantle, by Buchan, and Alan Quatermain, by Haggard. For those adolescents who like to read books in which the central character is an animal, another old-timer, Jack London, produced two of the best dog stories ever written—White Fang and Michael, Brother of Jerry.
Another type of fantasy, science fiction has become so popular with the younger readers that in some places fans have organised themselves into clubs However, in the opinion of other readers, science fiction does not deserve the cheap paper and gaudy covers it often appears in. In some cases I agree heartily with these critics. The worst examples are stiff with jargonese and pseudotechnicalities, or dull with conventional hero versus villain plots. But in the best, the craftsmanship is good, the writing fresh, and the imagination lively and sometimes amazingly detailed. All these
qualities recommend them to the young reader, but there is often a more subtle element which appeals to the developing idealism of the adolescent eager to reform the world, that is the hope, even the prophecy, that if man cannot learn to live happily with man on earth he may discover how in the rarified air of another planet. Utopia was crowded out of the South Seas about the end of last century, but thanks to Science fiction, appears to have set up house in outer space. Among recent publications there is The Star Raiders, by Donald Suddaby, suitable for junior forms, and for the seniors, Islands in the Sky, by Arthur C. Clarke, The Kraken Wakes, by John Wyndham, and Out of the Silent Planet, by C. S. Lewis. But only the best contemporary authors come anywhere near Forty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, by Jules Verne, or The Time Machine, by H. G. Wells and his grim little drama The Invisible Man.
The next two books I recommend with reservations. They are among the best examples of another kind of book which has gained great popularity but little distinction in recent years—career books. On is Sue Barton—Student Nurse, by Helen Dore Boylston, and the other is The Two Cadets, by Ian Scott. These will undoubtedly appeal to the girl who has ideas about nursing and the boy who can't wait to join the navy, but I'm not sure that an enthusiastic teenager, about to choose a career, will be able to discount the elements of glamour and romance which both these books possess. Seventeenth Summer, by Maureen Daly, can hardly be called a career book, but like them, it is a book written for adolescents about adolescents. It is the story of a seventeen year old girl (American) ‘going steady’ with a boy for a summer. It is skilfully written with great sensitivity and acute insight into the thoughts and feelings of some, but only some, adolescent girls. When it first appeared it caused quite a controversy. It certainly is an unusual book but I feel it has somehow missed its mark. It may have been intended for seventeen year old daughters but it seems more suitable for their mothers instead.
There are very few New Zealand books written for intermediate readers. Between The Book of Wiremu and the adult books the field is wide open to any would-be New Zealand authors. But there is one novel. Drovers Road, by Joyce West, a New Zealander, which I recommend heartily for both seniors and juniors. Published in London in 1953 and reprinted in 1954, it is as the dust-jacket says, ‘a tale of family life on a New Zealand sheep station’, well written in a fresh and natural style. It has all the qualities that make Charlotte's Web so attractive—plenty of humour, a little tragedy, excitement, but above all, very human and convincing characters and an adult treatment of human relationships. It will be immediately appreciated by the young New Zealander who has developed any feelings at all for his own country, and for those who have not, it should be a set book.
When you think of ‘BOOKS’ Think of ‘WHITCOMBES’
‘Whitcombes’ is the greatest name in ‘Books’ in New Zealand.
Our Shops are situated throughout the country.
Our Stocks of books total hundreds of thousands.
We can obtain any book or any magazine from overseas.
We will despatch any book on your behalf.
We operate a GIFT TOKEN and an EXCHANGE CARD service.
Our EXPERT Staff will assist your choice in every field of reading.
Whitcombe & Tomlbs Ltd.,
Chrtstchurch · Auckland · Hamilton · Wellington · Lower Hutt · Timaru · Dunedin · Invercargill
SEASONAL WORK ON THE FARM
Depending on seasonal growth which varies in different areas, attention should be paid to the closing of paddocks during these months with a view to having available saved pasture in the early spring, July, August and September, Care should be taken not to close too late and miss the autumn growth which carries on well into May in most districts. Harrowing and topping of paddocks is generally accepted as a forerunner to closing of paddocks.
The area that can be closed will vary with the nature of the farm. The amount of hay or silage available also affects the length of time paddocks can stay closed. It is desirable to be able to feed hay or silage so as to conserve autumn pasture until the herd begins to come in. Depending on the locality and nature of the farm some definite farming and feeding programme should be kept in mind. There are a large number of small Maori farms which in all cases require above average management to maintain and improve production and to make them a payable proposition.
If oversowing of pastures is intended this should be done not later than March-April, to give young seedlings a chance to establish before winter frosts. Autumn oversowings on the average are much more successful than in the spring and can be carried out to advantage on open pastures or where winter tramping has caused a patchy sward. Heavy harrowing to make some kind of seed bed is necessary. 6–8 lbs of certified seed is the recognised seed, e.g. 1 ½ white clover, 6–7 lbs ryegrass. This is also the opportune time to apply topdressing using whatever manure is most suited to the land. Where possible autumn and spring topdressing is desirable.
Sowing Grass Seed:
A firm fine weed-free seedbed should be prepared. Advice on the best mixture to sow should be sought from the local Department of Agriculture. Certified seed should always be purchased and either drilled or broadcast on a firm surface followed by light brush harrowing and a final rolling.
Care of Livestock:
Calves should be in first class condition to go into the winter. At this time worms may be the cause of any unthriftiness and phenothiazene should be given immediately any signs occur. Calves should be going gradually onto a mixed hay and pasture diet.
Do not carry passengers over the winter. Cull empty cows and poor producers. Too many farms carry useless stock that are the cause of low production. They eat grass and produce nothing. Feeding of the herd is the most important factor in good production and it is a pity to see good cows suffer because farms are feeding a various assortment of non-productive stock.
Drying Off Dairy Cows:
A dairy cow requires a reasonable spell between lactations and should be dried off at least 6 weeks before she is due to calve. Once a day milking usually commences during May.
Litters farrowed in December-January period should be sold as pork and a minimum of young store pigs carried over the winter. As much milk as possible will be required for later litters which should start 6 weeks before the bulk of the herd begins to calve.
ECONOMY & POWER for profitable farming
Safety, rugged construction and outstanding economy are features of David Brown tractors. See your dealer for full details.
DAVID BROWN TRACTORS
Wheel & Crawler Models
Petrol & Diesel Engines
WORLD'S FINEST TRACTORS
N.Z. Distributors: TODD BROS. LTD. — Wellington
Some clues were unfortunately omitted from our last crossword puzzle (no. 13). One reader suggested that one hundred guineas would not be an excessive prize for anyone able to solve it with the clues missing. The clues were:
Across: 50: an adverb meaning ‘cautiously’; 51: an interjection expressing admiration: 52: now, presently; 53: by way of.
Down: 36: the young of the ‘tamure’; 38: to beget; 40: the Maori name for the Jewish race; 41: to sing or chant; 43: night; 44: blossom; 45: good; 46: a stream or river; 47: to crack, or emit a sharp explosive sound; 48: to fish; 49: the breath.
Solutions to Puzzle no. 13 will still be accepted until May 14 and a guinea prize will be available for a correct solution. A similar prize is available for a correct solution to Puzzle no. 14, published on this page. Solutions to this puzzle must also reach this office by May 14. If more than one correct solution is received to any one puzzle, the winner is determined by lot.
|1.||a bird whose song in spring heralded planting time|
|15.||nickname for a well-known East Coast tribe|
|16.||a girl's name|
|18.||him (E.C. dialect)|
|19.||go on ahead|
|20.||spade (modern usage)|
|21.||to sow seeds|
|24.||like that; in that way|
|26.||the Queen's son|
|33.||a line or cord|
|35.||remaining (as food after a meal)|
|37.||on the other side|
|39.||to anoint with red ochre and oil|
|48.||a knife or dagger|
|1.||a spring or well|
|28.||bow of canoe|
|31.||to earth up (as potatoes)|
|36.||avenged; paid for|
|38.||I don't know|
|39.||a native tree|
>The Hand that Rocks
Traditional ideas die hard. Eight men out of ten, if asked the not-so-simple question “Does your wife work?” rarely hesitate to reply: “My wife? She doesn't do anything … She stays at home.”
Most men take it pretty much for granted that the ordinary housewife has the luck to lead a privileged life of ease, with plenty of free time on her hands during the day. He is blissfully unaware of how much really goes into the care of the home, cooking meals and looking after children.
Just recently social research experts in the U.S.A., the United Kingdom, Belgium and France added up what they thought was the real value of work done by housewives. First of all they found that the wife who “doesn't do anything” provides the country with more than a bit of all its money. The experts use the term “quite a considerable part of its national income”.
They also found out that the figures for the four countries were all much about the same, and if the four sets of figures were put together the stay-at-home wives were handling and administering some 60% of the national income in each country. So it looks after all as if the mother in the home is, perhaps, just as much a financial wizard as any Wall Street tycoon.
The French survey, carried out by the National Institute of Demographic Studies, produced some interesting facts to show that a woman's work is never done. They found that the average French housewife in the large towns, such as Paris, Lyons, Marseilles, works a 70-hour week. They took this figure and put it against the total number of households in France (13 million). The surprising result was that housewives were found to work some 4 thousand million hours more than all the other kinds of workers in the country, both men and women. This means that looking after French homes and children takes quite a bit more time than the whole of French business, industry, agriculture and administration. Here once again the figures for the U.S.A., the United Kingdom and Belgium were much the same.
These facts and figures are not, perhaps, so surprising if we take a look at some of the replies given by French housewives in another survey carried out by the International Association of Women Doctors, aimed at determining the extent to which housewives overwork. Most wives with children to look after put in between 10 and 14 hours work a day, and only those with grown-up families said that they did less than 8 hours a day.
Asked whether they had a complete day's break in their working week, most replied “No” or “Rarely”, while some admitted to a half-day on
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Sunday. As for holidays the majority said that they never had any real holidays as more often than not they had to carry on with their normal household chores in conditions which were sometimes worse than in their own homes. One mother with six children gave the shocking reply that her only holidays consisted of the eleven-day periods when she was bearing her children.
No Five-day Weeks or Paid Holidays
All-in-all the surveys revealed that about 75% of housewives do not have a proper holiday, and among them were many who suffered from fatigue and nervous troubles. Some of the reasons given by French housewives for the causes of fatigue and illness are; looking after children; noise; lack of time for rest and sleep; monotony of work; solitude. Going with these is a sense of inferiority with regard to their work which is not appreciated in the way it should be.
But this sense of inferiority is now on the way to being overcome, and governments in the United Kingdom, Ireland and Western Germany, to take only three examples, have now recognized that women's work in the home is just as important as any other kind of “professional” work, and “without it, the nation could not survive”. Particularly important is the mother's role in the training and education of her children. Here, her guidance and help are practically irreplaceable. To take the words of the French enquiry: “Every child needs the warm affection of its mother, or of someone capable of replacing her permanently. If that need is not met, the psychological injury inflicted will have deep repercussions in later life”.
But, if the real worth of woman's work in the home is now being appreciated, little attention has been given to her status as a housewife. She has been called “irreplaceable”, but up to now she has not had a chance to benefit from the tremendous improvement in labour conditions. Not for her the five-day-week, holidays with pay and retirement on pension. In official eyes she still counts for little.
Can anything be done about this? Certainly the first thing which comes to mind is the need for more domestic help. Although it is true that this is fast disappearing in most countries of the world, nevertheless some positive steps could be taken along similar lines. For example, the French Association of Women Doctors has suggested that laundry services could be improved, the number of mothers-aid workers increased, family holiday centres established and domestic science courses made more easily available. Here are some concrete proposals which could help in giving the housewife greater liberty, and more time to devote herself to outside interests, and to the training and education of her children.
* * *
Mrs J. Ormsby, Kohupatiki Pa, won first prize and the Whyte Cup at a Maori gardens competition in Hastings last October.
Here's a delicious sponge!
MOCK CREAM FILLING
1 ½ teaspoons Edmonds Cornflour, ½ cup Milk, 2 tablespoons Icing Sugar, 2 tablespoons Butter.
Mix cornflour and milk together into a smooth paste, then boil 3 or 4 minutes. Cream butter and sugar, and add cornflour gradually when cold. Beat well. Flavouring may be added.
3 Eggs, 4-ozs. Sugar, 2-ozs. Flour, 1-oz. (2 level tablespoons) Edmonds Cornflour, 1 teaspoon Edmonds Baking Powder, 1-oz. Melted Butter.
Beat eggs and sugar until thick and fold in sifted dry ingredients, then add melted butter. Put into two sandwich tins (8 inches) which have been greased and floured. Bake 20 minutes at 375°F.
This recipe calls for the use of Edmonds quality products. You cannot be sure of perfect results unless Edmonds products are used.
T. J. EDMONDS LTD.,
Cushions can do much to brighten dull rooms and making them is a very simple matter. Just decide whether the cushions are to be round, square or oblong. Unbleached calico is used to hold the stuffing which is usually kapok, although feathers and wool are used occasionally. Cut out two pieces of calico in the required shape, allowing an extra ½in. all round for seams. Stitch them together firmly round three of the sides leaving one side open. Turn the bag inside out and fill it with kapok. Hand sew or machine the opening; enclosing the kapok firmly. Make the outer cushion cover the same size and shape as the cushion case. If the cushion is likely to have hard wear close the opening with a slide fastener or with hooks and eyes, so that it can be easily removed for washing or dry cleaning. The materials used for cushion covers should be strong and easily cleaned, especially if they are to be used in a household which has young children. Silk and taffeta and pale, delicate colours are not suitable for a family living room. Strong cottons in a heavy weave look attractive and are serviceable. Velvet is a hard wearing fabric too, but it gathers dust and has to be dry cleaned, not washed. Cushions with a side panel are deeper and should be fairly small, measuring less than 20in. across. The side panel is a straight piece of material usually about 4in. wide, which is inserted in both the inner case and the outer cover.
AN ANNOUNCEMENT FROM THE N.Z. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH
Many of our locally
grown fruits are
remarkably rich in
For good value in every way use these fruits often
1 ½ medium sized CHINESE GOOSEBERRIES or 2 average sized TREE TOMATOES or 1 large New Zealand GRAPEFRUIT will give you as much Vitamin C as 1 medium sized sweet orange … and that's as much VITAMIN C as you need in a day!
MOTHER CRAFT By KERITAPU
THE PRE-SCHOOL CHILD
The first 5 years of a child's life are very important. He learns to do everything within that 5 years to fit himself for the community life at school. When he is 18 months old he begins to leave his baby ways behind and from then on until he is 5 years old we refer to him as the pre-school child. During this period he learns to walk well, to run, to skip, to jump, to climb and to explore. He learns to talk well, to dress and undress himself, to play games with other children and to imitate the things he sees other people doing.
It is very important at this stage of a child's life that he has a good home environment. The mother's attitude to the child is of prime importance. There is a psychological link between mother and child from the very moment of birth—a link that can be substantially strengthened by breast feeding as far as it is practicable.
The attitude of the mother to the child, even before birth, may well have a marked effect upon the child's sense of security. If pregnancy was not welcome by the mother, her child may come into the world under a distinct handicap, that of being an unwanted child. Subsequent adjustment may not be as satisfactory as she imagines it to be.
The love that every child needs is affection combined with wisdom—a wisdom that will show itself in a watchful concern for the child's well being throughout childhood to late adolescence. It can be summed up as the kind of love found in a warm family life where all members—father, mother and children—are in a proper relationship the one to the other. This relationship is more difficult to obtain where the child is unwanted or where one parent becomes unwilling to share with the child the love which he or she formerly alone received from the other parent.
Love and Wise Management:
The little children of today are to be the grown people of a few years hence. In their hands lies the destiny of their people, country and of the whole world and its future.
If that destiny is to be a high one they must go out from their homes with a healthy mind and a healthy body. They must be given their good start, that gift precious beyond all price.
Nowhere, can that start be given better than in
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Ko ‘Te Toru Putiputi’ Te Paura kanohi tino kopungapunga—he tino ngohengohe he tino maheni—ka pania atu ki tou kiri maheni ana korata ana—ma Wai ra koe—ko te utu ina noa ake!
KO TE TINO PAURA TENEI:
Prepared in N.Z. for Richard Hudnut Ltd., 21 Federal Street, Auckland
I mahia ki Nui Tireni ma Richard Hudnut Ltd., 21 Federal Street, Auckland
Recommended for cases of GOITRE and Rheumatism
GLACIA IODISED SALT is a highly refined salt of outstanding quality, containing a medically approved proportion of IODINE
It is particularly recommended for cases of GOITRE and Rheumatism, and is beneficial in replenishing deficiencies in the ordinary diet.
Always ask your grocer for GLACIA IODISED SALT.
a happy home. Schools and playing grounds provide excellent after training, but only those children who are accustomed to control are ready to take that training, only those whose good habits and good manners have been started, are prepared for the community life of schools.
The home is the starting place—character, like health, must be first established there. Both are essential parts of child care.
When an infant is not quite a month old he should be held over a chamber on mother's knee for 5–10 minutes after feeding time until the habit is established. It requires time and patience. The results will be that it will save you hours over the wash tub, with dirty napkins, wet sheets and blankets. You will be rid of that nasty smell of urine in the children's bedroom, pram and cot. Some mothers have washhouses and proper facilities to cope with the children's washing, there are others who wash outside with no facilities at all. Training children in good toilet habits requires only time and patience, following the doctors' and nurses' instructions and lastly using your own common sense as a mother. Never hurry a child but do not leave him on a chamber any longer than 15 minutes.
As the child grows he will know what is expected and by the time he is 2 years old he will run to his mother or to anyone to help him to the toilet. He will realise it is a filthy habit not to reach the proper toilet. If the child is taken to the toilet regularly after meals he will not meet with frequent accidents about the house or during this play-time outside.
Durign the night he will call to his “mummy” or “daddy” to be lifted out of his cot and be taken to the toilet. If no toilet room is inside, a chamber in the bathroom or bedroom will do, but be sure the child is fully awake and knows what he is doing. This plan will save you wet sheets, mattress and night attire, also offensive urine odour in the room.
If the child does not wake or call, you could establish a routine yourself to pot the children during the night.
At 10–11 p.m. wake the child up and place him on his feet, walk him to the toilet or chamber if the toilet is outside. This method has been proved quite successful. It requires patience. A child when awakened will cry. Do not be harsh or smack him, your method of training will be useless. When a child has repeatedly wet his bed just be patient with him, and try to realize how ashamed he must be, after all he is your child, and he must not be spoken to harshly or smacked. With patience and loving care he will overcome bed wetting. Drinks at tea time need not be restricted.
Toilet training is still very poor in a good many Maori homes, please try this method, you will save yourself hours over your wash tub.
HE TINO WHAKAMARAMA TENEI KI
TE IWI MAORI
13 NGA MAORI I TOROMI KI TE WAI I NGA MARAMA O TIHEMA ME HANUERE
E 8 he tomariki iti rawa
E 3 he tamariki taane, wahine kua kaumatua ake
E 2 nga tangata kua kaumatua
Akona a koutou tamariki ki te kauhoe
Akona ratou kia tupato i roto i te wai
Akona ratou ki te whakaora tangata
toromi ki te wai a mohiotia nei ko te
Whaia tenei huarahi whakaora i te Iwi
He mea tuku mai kia perehitia na te
Komiti whakatupato kei mate ki te wai
mo te taha ki te Tari whakahaere i nga
take ake o Niu Tireni.
issued by the national prevent drowning committee on behalf of the department of internal affairs