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No. 13 (December 1955)
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TE AO HOU
The New World

the maori affairs department December 1, 1955

MORE SIZES AVAILABLE-

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NEW ZEALAND'S ONLY SELF-SEALING
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Made in New Zealand by Reidrubber.

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TE AO HOU
THE NEW WORLD

No. 1 (Vol. 4 No. 1)

At this time of year many young people and their parents face the choice between further education or an unskilled job. There is the child who has done reasonably well at school, but the family is large and money is limited; should this child be encouraged to pursue a skilled job or profession?

It is often a hard question to answer. There is a rapid increase from year to year in the number of Maoris taking up skilled trades and professions. High praise was given this year to the achievements of Maori apprentices. We see in this issue of Te Ao Hou that a vigorous Maori university student movement has grown up.

Among reasons why parents hesitate to encourage their children to take the hard road to the skilled trades or professions, is that the extra financial reward is said to be so little—sometimes only a few pence per hour. However, there is little doubt that a skill is as valuable now as ever to both Maori and pakeha. The wage awards do not tell the whole story: many skilled men. Maori and pakeha, work on their own account and earn far more than ordinary wages. In any case, how could we drive motor cars if there was nobody to design them? Is it satisfactory to leave pakehas to design bridges, repair aeroplanes, carry out building contracts? How can we have racial equality if Maoris are not educated to do some of the thinking, planning and inventing?

We also sometimes hear the complaint from Maori parents: Once they are educated we lose them, they forget their Maori background. To refute this suggestion, there are the Ngatas and Bucks who have obviously been benefactors to their people; there are also the many younger educated men who do such invaluable work in youth movements and in Maori organisations and buis everywhere; who are largely responsible for a Maori cultural resurgence over the last few years. There is no deep gulf at present between the educated and the uneducated Maori; it is important that such a gulf should never develop. Nor is it likely to, where parents show generosity, as they have so often done, in giving their children the opportunity to learn all they can absorb.

Many serious difficulties have to be solved if every Maori is to find the career suitable to his abilities. Accommodation has to be found for Maori students and apprentices in the cities. The hostels help to solve this problem, but we must increasingly look towards private accommodation, both in Maori and pakeha homes. They must be homes where someone is interested in helping the student or apprentice, for these people coming into a strange environment often need guidance and encouragement. Not only government officials, but anyone interested in Maori progress has a duty to help locate homes where Maori students and apprentices may be placed. The Department of Maori Affairs has a long list of young Maoris of the very best type waiting for the opportunity.

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From the Past comes your Future

The seed, the sapling, the tree,
The axe and the mill …
To plan, to plant, to grow,
To harvest green riches,

… This is part of your inheritance, this is part of New Zealand's prosperity, of her greatness. And just as trees, their seeds sown decades and even centuries ago, are part of New Zealand's future, so, too, can they be a major part of your personal future. Boys and girls, enquire now about a career in the Vacancies for junior Woodsmen, Clerical and Draughting Cadets are advertised in the newspapers every September. Meantime, have a talk with your Careers Master or Vocational Guidance Officer, or write direct to the Staff Training Officer, N.Z. Forest Service, P.O. Box 894, Wellington, for more information.

NEW ZEALAND FOREST SERVICE

FOR BOYS—there are fine, worthwhile, rewarding careers: In the field, as Woodsmen, Foresters and Forest Rangers: In the office, as Clerical Officers and Draughtsmen.

FOR GIRLS—here is the opportunity to combine indoor and outdoor interest by doing clerical or draughting work.

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HAERE KI O KOUTOU
TIPUNA

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HAERE KI O KOUTOU TIPUNA

WHARE MIKA

Mr Whare Mika has died at the age of 62. For the last 21 years he was chief guide at Wairakei.

There he guided thousands of people over Geyser Valley, including many noted overseas visitors.

Before going to Wairakei he was for 15 years with the Maori Land Board office in various parts of the North Island.

He was a prominent member of the Tuhourangi sub-tribe of Te Arawa. He served with the Maori Battalion during World War I.

HIRINI WHAANGA CHRISTY

A prominent member of the Ngati Kahungunu tribe, Mr Hirini Whaanga Christy, of Nuhaka, died recently, aged 73.

On the arrival of the Mormons at Nuhaka, Mr Christy accepted that faith, later going to Salt Lake City in the United States, where he studied. While there he married a member of the Nga Puhi tribe.

Mr Christy played a prominent part in the progress of his district.

He is survived by his wife and a large family.

MRS TE AKAU KIWHA

Mrs Te Akau Kiwha, of Puha, Gisborne, has died. During her life Mrs Kiwha devoted much time and effort to the encouragement of Maori culture.

Mrs Kiwha was the youngest daughter of Mrs and the late Mr Mahaki Brown, well-known residents of the district. She married Mr Kerepori Kiwha, better known as Kelly Kiwha, who was killed in action while serving with the Maori Battalion during the Second World War.

She is survived by three daughters and one son. Her mother also survives her.

REV HAPETA RENATA

The Rev Hapeta Renata died at his home at Kaeo, in his 90th year. Born at Waitetiki, Mangonui, Mr Renata received his education at Peria, and later at St Stephen's College. In 1888 he married Harata Riwhi, a descendant of Pahi, the Whangaroa chief. Mrs Renata died in 1937. Mr Renata was one of the original investigators of the “surplus lands,” mainly in the far north. He is survived by nine children, 44 grandchildren and 14 great-grandchildren.

THOMAS TAREAHI

Well known as a marae orator, Mr Thomas Tareahi, also known as Thomas Rawihiri, died at Port Ahuriri, aged 56. He had spent most of his life at Moteo.

THOMAS (TEKO) CHADWICK

Mr Thomas (Teko) Chadwick, a well-known sportsman in his youth, died in Wanganui.

Mr Chadwick was born at Putiki and spent his life there and on the Wanganui River. He played for the Pirates Football Club and took an interest in yachting, as well as taking part in competitive rowing.

He won many cycling trophies.

TE URUTI HIMI HARE

A respected elder and counsellor, 83-year-old Te Uruti Himi Hare, of Motukaraka, Hokianga, died at Rawene Hospital. He was a member of the Ngaitupoto, Te Rarawa and Nga Puhi tribes. He belonged to the Catholic church.

MURUA HORI

The sudden death occurred recently of Murua Hori, at Oparure. Aged about 80 years, he is survived by his sister, Makere Kuru Kuru, having had no children. Murua will be greatly missed, as he was an old identity. Noreira, haere ra e koro, kite moengaroa.

JAMES HALL

A popular figure in the Hokianga area, James Hall, died suddenly some months ago. Mr Hall, who was born in 1896 at Ohinemutu, was a member of Ngati Whakaue sub-tribe of Te Arawa. However, since 1920 he had lived in the Hokianga district.

Mr Hall served with the Maori Pioneer Battalion during World War I. enlisting at the age of 18. In 1920 he married Heeni Te Karauna, a grandchild of one of Nga Puhi's leading chiefs. His wife predeceased him in 1950. Shortly after his marriage he took up farming, breaking in virgin land.

During World War II he served in New Zealand with the rank of Regimental Sergeant Major.

Since 1944, Mr Hall had been field supervisor for the Maori Affairs Department in Southern Hokianga.

He is survived by a daughter, Mrs H. Gladding. Auckland, and two sons. James C. Hall and Rangi Hall, both of Pakanae, Hokianga.

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TE AO HOU

I TENEI WA O te tau kei te whakaangaanga te tokomaha o te tamariki me o ratou matua me whai ranei i te hohonutanga atu o te matauranga me huri ake ranei ki nga mahi moni. Tena ano etahi tamariki kamakama ki nga mahi o te kura engari no te whanau tokomaha a itiiti noa ake nei te oranga me pehea me tuku ki te ako i nga mahi a ringa, ki nga mahi ranei a te hinengaro?

He whakaaro uaua rawa atu enei ki te whakatau. Kei te piki te tokomaha ia tau ia tau o te iwi Maori kei te whai i te hohonutanga atu o te matauranga. Kei te puta nga mihi mo te pai o nga tamariki Maori kei te whakaakoako ki nga mahi a ringa. Kei tenei putanga o Te Ao Hou ka kite iho koutou ka nui te takatu o nga taitamariki kei nga Whare Wananga o Te Motu.

Ko te take nui e whakaangaanga nei nga matua ki te whakamomori kia tutuki a ratou tamariki ki te hohonutanga o te matauranga ko te iti rawa o te nekenga atu o nga utu mahi i nga mahi noa nei. Ma koutou tonu ra e titiro ko nga tangata i whiwhi ki te matauranga. Pakeha. Maori ranei ko ratou ano o ratou na rangatira, ara ke noa atu to ratou na whiwhi, otira chara i te mea ko te moni te mea nui. Ina nga motoka i whanau noa mai? Kaore na te matauranga o te tangata i ata waihanga. Waihoki me waiho ma te Pakeha anake e waihanga nga taonga nunui o te ao, nga piriti, nga manu rere rangi nga aha noa nga aha noa? Ma te aha e haeretahi ai te Pakeha raua ko te Maori ki te kore e eketia nga taumata o te matauranga e te Maori.

Tera ano etahi amuamu ka whiwhi te Maori i te matauranga ka takahia tana taha Maori. Ina a Ngata a Te Rangihiroa me etahi ake i whakamahia o ratou na matauranga hei awhina i te iwi. Ina nga hua o ratou na matauranga ko nga ture marae ko nga ahuwhenua me nga aha ake me nga aha ake ko te motu katoa i whiwhi.

Kei te whiwhi katoa te tangata i te matauranga engari ko etahi na to ratou na manawanui a na te whakamomori hoki o nga matua ka tutuki ki te hohonutanga atu o te matauranga.

He nui nga takaihatanga kei te aroaro o nga tamariki e whai ana ki te hohonutanga o te matauranga. He uaua te whiwhi kainga noho ki nga taone kei reira nga Whare Wananga me nga wahi hei whakaakoakotanga i nga mahi a ringa engari he tokoiti nei te hunga e uru ki aua whare na reira ko te tumanako me kore e watea he ruma o nga whare o te hunga kei nga taone e noho ana Pakeha Maori mo etahi o nga tamariki Maori e whai nei i te hohonutanga o te matauranga. Hei nga kainga tonu e manaaki paitia ai aua tamariki motemea he tauhou te nuinga o ratou ki nga taone nunui a e tika ana kia whai tangata hei tohutohu atu i a ratou. Ehara i te mea ma te hunga anake e mahi ana ma te Kawanatanga e manaaki aua tamariki engari ma te katoa noa iho. Kei te Tari Maori te rarangi ingoa o nga tamariki nei.

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Contents

Page
Progress in a Northland Community 6
Maori Students Organise 10
Te Korero Mo Potaka-Tawhiti 11
His Work Survived a Century. (Rev Richard Taylor) 15
Baroness von Trapp Speaks on Maori Art 18
Youth of Mangakino 20
Water Can Be Dangerous 21
For All the Saints, by J. C. Sturm (Short Story) 22
Making a Cloak is Not So Difficult 26
Love for the Afflicted 28
Our Record of Three Vanished Houses 30
The Film of Ruatoki 34
Proverbial and Popular Sayings of the Maori, by H. T. M. Wikiriwhi 41
Tawhaki Goes to Town, by Moko 44
The Home Garden, by R. Falconer 46
Children Write from Waiohau 46
Why the Snail Carries His Shell With Him 47
Sports, by Paul Potiki 48
Maori Trust Boards Act 49
Books 52
Seasonal Work on the Farm, by Dixon Wright 55
Crossword Puzzle No. 13 56
Women's World 57
Mothercraft, by Keritapu 60
The Magic Tree, Cartoon by Mark Tapsell 62

The Minister of Maori Affairs: The Hon. E. B. Corbett

The Secretary for Maori Affairs: T. T. Ropiha, I.S.O.

Management Committee: C. J. Stace, L.L.B. C. M. Bennett, D.S.O., B.A., DIP.ED., DIP.SOC.SC., W. T. Ngata, LIC.INT., E. G. Schwimmer, M.A., M. J. Taylor.

Editor: E. G. Schwimmer, M.A.

Sponsored by the Maori Purposes Fund Board.

Subscriptions to Te Ao Hou at 7/6 per annum (4 issues) or £1 for three years' subscriptions at all offices of the Maori Affairs Department and P.O. Box 2390, Wellington, New Zealand. Retail Price: 2/-

Registered at the G.P.O., Wellington, for transmission through the post as a magazine.

PUBLISHED BY THE MAORI AFFAIRS DEPARTMENT 1 DECEMBER 1955

Our Cover: Bathtime in one of New Zealand's six Health Camps. Children, both pakeha and Maori, are sent to these camps for six weeks when they are in poor health and most of them soon recover. Photo: Hill Thomas.

Stories Wanted: Te Ao Hou still requires more writers and artists. We want fact and fiction; we want Maori or English writing; we want drawings and photographs. Here is an opportunity for an absorbing pastime, and the chance to earn a little extra as well. Let us know what is happening where you live. News items on happenings throughout the country, sports news and obituary notices are always gratefully received.

Our Next Issue:

  • We are devoting a large part of the March issue to Tokerau (Northland), an area where we have previously not been able to get many stories. Together with a series of stories with a Tokerau background, written by Maori and pakeha authors, there will be a series of photographs specially made for Te Ao Hou as well as some very remarkable original drawings.

  • The late W. W. Bird's long article on ‘Songs of the Maori’ will be concluded in the March issue. This article, based on Sir Apirana Ngata's prefaces to Nga Moteatea I and II, represents the fullest treatment of Maori poetry ever published in English.

  • At last the results of our second Literary Competition will appear in March. They have been really encouraging and we are able to publish some worthwhile stories in Maori and English by hitherto unknown Maori authors.

  • The stories: The People Wanted Homes (Raetihi) and Life Story of Tuini Ngawai will also be in this issue, as well as a description of the building of the new meeting house in Bulls by artists specially trained for this work in their ancient crafts.

Renewal of Subscriptions: Almost daily Te Ao Hou meets innocent looking ex-subscribers who vaguely complain they have not seen Te Ao Hou for some time and why did we not tell them their subscription had expired. It is our practice to enclose a renewal form in the copy of every subscriber whose renewal is due. Please have a look whether your copy includes such a form. If it does fill it in and send us your renewal today.

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PANGURU
Progress in a Northland Community

A CAR GENTLY SLITHERS to a stop on a remote North Auckland dirt road. In gumboots and beret, a young man casually swings out, strides the fence, and walks across the paddock to yarn with a Maori farmer.

It may be a social chat or business. Probably it is both. For the young man is John Booth. Maori Affairs Department anthropologist and research officer.

For over a year now he has been working with the Maori people on the picturesque northern shores of the Hokianga harbour, on community development schemes. The project takes in four back-country Maori Catholic communities, spread around the base of Panguru mountain, thirty miles from the main road. Here, in Motuti, Panguru. Waihou and Mitimiti live 800 people of the Te Rarawa tribe.

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The Minister of Maori Affairs. Mr Corbett, chats to a local elder, Mr Matiu Witana. Mr Tame Anaru is on the left.

Community development is a new word for an extremely old activity. In pre-pakeha days, the more outstanding Maori chiefs practised it. In their wisdom, they saw solutions for the problems of their people, and their communities were the richer for their work, With the coming of the pakeha, many new problems grew up and again these were grappled with in the traditional way by the best of the Maori leaders who found techniques such as Maori land development to improve the lot of their people.

Yet the need to find new ways of meeting the challenge of modern life remained acute in many places. The more isolated Maori communities still do not find it easy to catch up with present-day economic and educational standards, not because they do not want to, but because they are far away from the more central parts of the country and because the techniques already worked out do not yet fully provide for their needs.

It is necessary to find further ways to improve their living conditions. It is necessary, in the economic sphere, to use the untapped resources—land not fully productive, additional occupations and industries, but it goes further than economics; it is also necessary to use fully the brains of the people, to make life in the community more interesting and stimulating.

Activities in the Panguru Project

At present, work undertaken in the Panguru project includes the setting up of investment societies; a small timber mill; a library; a monthly market-day; and a co-operative piggery. Vegetable growing is being encouraged; sporting activities are being supported and entertainments provided.

Said one of the Te Rarawa chiefs recently, “These schemes have brought us back to life.”

And no wonder, for the people have taken them to heart.

Mr Booth has provided the expert “know-how” on community development in the area but he is

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Inspecting plans of the new piggery. Left to right: Messrs Steve Ngaropo, John Samson, John Booth, Leon Ngaropo and Phillip Matthews.

there because the people asked to have him there. They wanted to have him work with them on their community development. Though he is the advisor, the community development schemes are truly the people's.

At present the major material difficulty facing these communities is the number of small uneconomic farms. Mr Booth sees this as a community development problem that the community—and this includes government representatives in the community—must tackle. This means government and people moving together as one community.

Part of the problem stems from the fact that family holdings do not provide economic farms. It has been found though that many of the farmers in the area would welcome an attempt at a wholesale readjustment of boundaries, aimed at providing economic farms rather than keeping family lands intact.

To provide sufficient economic farms, existing holdings would have to be amalgamated. Some of the older people have already made their holdings available to younger people and others would do the same, if alternative accommodation were provided.

Plans are already advanced for reducing the number of farms in the area. The consolidation and conversion officer. Mr N. P. K. Puriri, the field supervisor, Mr D. Wright, and Mr Booth have all been active in this work.

Long before community development was suggested in the area, the Maori Affairs Department had done much work on land development, consolidation of land titles, housing and welfare. Now the research officer is seeking ways of co-ordinating these activities, and always the central idea is that the activities become community ones, not departmental, the department's officers fitting into the scheme as advisors.

The theory of this is that improvements arbitrarily imposed on the people from outside will not have lasting value. The aim is to pin-point their needs, and show the people how they can meet them through their own efforts.

The government started land development in the Panguru area back in 1935. With Sir Apirana Ngata behind it, development went with a swing. It provided employment, housing and more economic security, and generally gave the community an uplift. It was partly because of the land development history of the area that Mr Booth was sent there in the first place to do research into the effect of the department's policy.

Another fact making the district a particularly good one for research was that the settlements were all-Maori, and had to face most of the problems common to North Auckland and many other rural Maori areas.

Warmly-Human Work

Though research work may sound cold and not very human it was in this case rather, ordinary, warmly-human work—time spent stumping over paddocks and beaches, living with the people, talking to them, getting to know them and their problems. Mr Booth stayed at the home of Mr and Mrs Aperahama Witana, well-known Panguru people, for nine months.

He found the local people extremely hospitable and helpful. Though his purpose, for a start, may not have been clearly understood he was accepted.

It had been known before he was sent to Panguru that the early enthusiasm for land development was lagging. He found there was, in fact, a lack of any long-range view behind community activities. Economically, the people were at subsistence level only. Plainly they needed more

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money if they were to be able to lead a fuller and more satisfying life.

Following his painstaking research, Mr Booth made recommendations designed to help the area.

The main recommendations were:—

  • An investment society, to provide additional credit source, locally controlled.

  • A co-operative piggery, to give additional economic help and to demonstrate modern methods of pig-rearing.

  • Vegetable growing.

  • The organisation of fishing, to provide a steady income.

  • A library.

  • Adult education classes.

  • Better facilities for recreation and entertainments.

Most of these recommendations and some others, have now been acted on. A year after completing the nine months research period Mr Booth went back to the area to see if the people wanted, with him, to put the recommendations into effect. A meeting was held, and the people said: “Yes, come back to us”. He has now been back there for over a year. In that time many new community schemes have been undertaken. The list is a wide one and the schemes may seem unrelated, but of course, anything going on in the community has an effect on its development. Though the activities start in different ways they are therefore all part of community development. All the activities are the people's though, where needed, they get guidance from outside.

Some of the community development activities which the people are operating at present are as follows:—

A library has been established. Books were provided by the Country Library Service. Mr William Noa gave the use of a room in his house as a library. His sister-in-law. Mrs Susan Noa, is librarian. The library is especially useful in furthering community development—providing books on farming, bookkeeping, dressmaking and other useful crafts, as well as providing light reading.

Probably the most important work undertaken in the community development project has been the successful establishment of investment societies in three of the settlements. The aim of these is to encourage saving, and to make loans available for productive purposes. Society members contribute regularly. Under the overall supervision of the organiser, each society is controlled by an elected committee which is responsible for granting loans and ensuring repayment. It is hoped to be able to make use of local financial resources for such purposes as helping people to improve their housing and their farms, to clear their title to their land, and to educate their children.

It is felt, too, that running investment societies will be an education experience that will give a better appreciation of the value of money and its uses.

Preparing of a co-operative piggery at Waihou is another of the community development projects. Work done so far in the preparation of the site—draining and fencing—has been done by volunteer labour, but a tally has been kept of hours worked, and workers will be credited with that amount as their share in the enterprise on which they will get interest from profits. The piggery will be of the most modern type, and should serve to demonstrate the best pig-raising methods. Profits, after deduction of reserves and interest on shares, will be disbursed in proportion to the amount of pig food supplied.

Matiu Witana and Raphael Parker, with technical assistance from Alex Peri, are setting up a small sawmill that will be able to meet some of the local demand for timber.

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Father Wanders, local cutholic priest, greets the minister.

Vegetable growing is expanding. A few more people from Mitimiti coastal settlement, notably George Leef and Akata Tahana, put potatoes in early to catch the best of the early market. Given enough shelter, the coast provides good vegetable-growing conditions throughout the year.

Recreation, too, is a vital factor in community development. As part of the project, physical education experts from the Education Department attended a dance where they demonstrated new dances. Next day was given over to sports at Motuti.

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Regular picture shows are held, the profits going to benefit the community.

Market has been held every family benefit day and has been of special interest to the women folk who bring eggs, vegetables, cakes, fruits and nuts for sale to those who may have none of their own.

Women from the Lower Waihou and Panguru branches of the Maori Women's Welfare League during the winter provided mid-day soup for the children attending Panguru convent.

Many of these activities are important not only in the obvious aims but because of the fact that the people are interested and are responsible for such prograssive schemes.

But after all, community development came to these people because they asked for it, it continues with them because they continue to want it.

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Mr William Noa inspects a new batch of library books.

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Librarian Susan Noa at work.

During the recent visit to Panguru of the Minister of Maori Affairs, Mr Corbett, a local chief, Pakihi Peita, asked the Minister to ensure that Mr Booth was not shifted in undue haste, and the matter was referred to in a memorandum submitted to the Minister.

Progress in the project has come well up to the expectations. But the project is still an experiment—an experiment undertaken on the advice of a qualified social scientist, as a tryout of a new pattern of work for the department and to gain knowledge to help the department in its work. After allowing sufficient time it is intended to estimate its worth and success in helping a community provide its members with a full and satisfying life. On that basis, a decision will be made as to whether the department should encourage community development schemes in other areas.

EDUCATION POLICY DISCUSSIONS

A committee of eleven has been set up by the Minister of Education to discuss future policy in regard to Maori schools and special educational assistance to Maoris. The chairman and one of the members are from the education department; two members are from education boards while the rest of the committee is made up of five Maori representatives, elected in different parts of the country, a teacher from the Maori School service, a representative of the New Zealand Educational Institute, and two representatives of the Department of Maori Affairs. When Te Ao Hou inquired from the committee chairman, Mr. D. G. Ball, what the Education Department wished to put forward to the committee, the reply was that the time has come for a thorough examination of the facilities for educating Maori children. Of course, nobody can know what this examination will show, but great changes in Maori life have taken place since the present policy was thought out. It is essential to the examination which is now proceeding that the Maoris, through their five representatives, should take an active part in it. The first meting was on November 23 and 24.

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MAORI STUDENTS
ORGANISE

IN the second weekend in August, there was held in Ngati Poneke Hall a conference of Maori students from the Auckland University College and Victoria University College.

The Auckland students, about forty strong, arrived in Wellington by bus on the Friday evening and as soon as the meal was over the girls were taken off by their respective hosts while the boys prepared to doss down in the hall. That night they were welcomed at the dance and a very happy evening of dancing and items was spent.

The week-end was devoted entirely to the sort of activities the student committees of the two colleges wanted; it aimed at beginning a pattern of student visits. The chief enjoyment of the weekend was in the sense of fellowship attained; its main value in the long and detailed discussion of many of the practical difficulties students face; and its chief and permanent contribution was that each person realised that his efforts are part of a wider picture of Maori people earnestly preparing themselves for public life as good Maoris and good citizens.

In our programme we attempted to strike a balance between an organised programme and informal social activities. In the afternoons there were organised discussions under a student chairman. There was an organised tour of places of Maori interest around Wellington and a students' service conducted by the Rev. Bennett. While these activities had their value for many of us the personal friendships and mutual understanding was of greatest importance.

While many of the topies covered in discussions were of special student interest there are some I would like to mention which might be of wider interest. One of the more special aspects was covered when the Maori Trustee gave us a good deal of encouraging information on financial matters. The many items of expense students meet in their daily lives and in their studies are not always well covered by bursaries and it is good to see that since the week-end not only has there been an improvement in the provisions of bursaries but also many students have accepted Mr Ropiha's invitation to put their financial problems to him for special consideration. The activities of women's welfare leagues in this matter is another sign, for which we are grateful, that the needs of students are not only becoming more recognised, but are, in fact, being met by active programmes of assistance. No student need suffer hardship.

Facilities For Study

Another topic of some concern was the question of study facilities. This may at first sight not appear to be such a very important matter but when a student is studying over those last few weeks before he faces the test of final examinations, having a place set apart for study is very necessary indeed. There he can be assured of quietness and an atmosphere of work and help which may make all the difference between a satisfying success and an unnecessary failure. After discussion it was clear that the need was great and we hope that on the basis of opinion and suggestions which arose during the week-end it will not be long before students in both colleges will have a study of their own, a base for their academic activities.

Those who are thinking of a university career for their children can feel reassured that even though there have been difficulties in the past these difficulties are now being overcome. The direct efforts of the students themselves in making their needs known and in showing the way in which a better state of affairs can be reached, promise well for the future.

In a busy week-end the gathering found time to discuss courses and exchange ideas about them, and even to send a remit to the college authorities in Wellington expressing their ‘belief and desire, that in the interest of scholarship and good citizenship the teaching of anthropology and Maori Studies at Victoria University College be not long delayed’.

It was realised that such matters are not arranged casually or hurriedly, but here too, a matter which has rested on the minds of students was brought out and openly discussed and the results of that discussion directed into the hands of those upon whom responsibility for action rests.

Dances, items, and social chit-chat filled all our spare time and helped make the hui one to remember and if possible repeat. One highlight amongst the very full round of activities was the elegant and capable what korero of the Auckland students well worthy of any marae.

Thanks are due to those who organised the week-end—Peter Gordon, Pat Hohepa and Maurice Rikihana at the Auckland end and Toby Rikihana, Kem Tukukino, Horowai Ngarimu and Bill Taki in Wellington. And I must mention in particular the willing workers of Ngati Poneke whose tables were more than full and who, through their financial support made the hui possible.

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TE KORERO MO POTAKA-TAWHITI

Ko tenei Potaka-tawhiti, he Kuri-mokai, na Tamatekapua, raua ko tana teina, ko Whakaturia, he tamariki raua na Houmaitawhiti. Ko tenei korero no te wa ano, i te iwi e noho ana mai i Hawaiki ano no mua tata atu, i te hekenga mai ki tenei whenua, ki Aotearoa.

Ina te whakapapa mai i a Houmaitawhiti, ki tenei wa. Na Atuamatua ko

1.

Houmaitawhiti

2.

Tamatekapua

3.

Kahumatamomoe

4.

Tawakemoetahanga

5.

Uenukumairakotonga

6.

Rangitihi

7.

Tuhourangi

8.

Uenukukopako

9.

Whakaua

10.

Tutanekai

11.

Te Whatumairangi

12.

Taiwere

13.

Pukaki

14.

Te Rangitakuku

15.

Te Whanoa

16.

Te Koaitua

17.

Te Tupara

18.

Temueka

19.

Paora te Kaikorero o tenei pakiwaitara.

Kei te takatu te iwi mo te heke mai, kua kitea hoki, kua kore i kaha nga moutere e nohia nei e matou, ki te whangai i te iwi. Tuakau, kua noho ririri, i waenganui i nga hapu, e noho tahi ana i runga i nga moutere, mo nga wahi tupunga kai whenua, kai huarakau, a whanaunga tata tonu ki a Uenuku, me Toitehuatahi, engari he pa ke to Hou, wehe ke i to Uenuku, me Toi.

I tetahi wa, ka whakaaro a Uenuku ki te haere ki te toro atu i tana tuakana i a Hou, kua roa hoki te wa, i ngaro mai ai i a Hou. Ka rongo a Toi ka hiahia hoki te haere tahi me Uenuku. Ko tenei Uenuku, he tohunga, a he rakau-poroporo tana, kei te taha tonu o tana whare, e

 

THE LEGEND OF POTAKA-TAWHITI

Potaka-tawhiti was the name of a pet dog belonging to Tamatekapua and his younger sister, Whakaturia, who were the children of Houmaitawhiti. This legend belongs to olden times, to the time when our ancestors were still living in Hawaiki and to the period immediately preceding the great migration to Aotearoa.

This genealogy which follows, traces descent from Houmaitawhiti to the present time.

Atuamatua begot

1.

Houmaitawhiti

2.

Tamatekapua

3.

Kahumatamomoe

4.

Tawakemoetahanga

5.

Uenu Kumairakotonga

6.

Rangitihi

7.

Tuhourangi

8.

Uenukukopako

9.

Whakaua

10.

Tutanekai

11.

Te Whataumairangi

12.

Taiwere

13.

Pukaki

14.

Te Rangitakuku

15.

Te Whanoa

16.

Te Koaitua

17.

Te Tupara

18.

Temueka

At that time, the people were becoming anxious to leave their land for it was clear that the islands upon which they lived were unable to support them. Squables over food and fruit plantations were also growing and had come to assume the form of open warfare.

Now Houmaitawhiti was closely related to Uenuku and Toitehuatahi, though he lived separately from them. One day, Uenuku decided to visit his elder. Hou, whom he had not seen for some time. When Toi heard of this he was seized with a desire to journey with him.

The same Uenuku was a tohunga, and was the possessor of a Poroporo tree which grew by the side of his house. It was the only tree of its kind on the island and its fruit were coveted by all; but as these were the property of a tohunga, no one was prepared to pluck them without his permission.

In due course, the men reached the home of Hou and there they were welcomed in the traditional manner. With these formalities over,

 
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tupu ana; ka mutu ano te poroporo, i runga i taua moutere, ona hua he minaminatanga na te katoa, otira i te mea na te tohunga kore hanoa e taea te tiki atu te kato mai, ma tua rawa i te whakaea mai e te tohunga.

Ka tae nga tangata nei ki te pa o Hou, ka powhiritia mai e te tangata-whenua. Ka mutu nga mihi whakatau ka whina te kai, hua noa nga tangata nei tena noatu te kai ma raua, te homaitanga, ko taua taro nei ano, me etahi kumara torutoru nei. Ka mutu ano, kaore he kinaki.

Ka mutu te kai, ka poroaki iho ki a Hou ka hoki ki to raua nei pa me te pukuriri, hiakai hoki.

I a raua e haere ana, ka whai tahi te Kurimokai a Tamatekapua raua ko te teina i nga tokorua nei. Ka tawhiti atu i te pa o Hou, ka hopukia te kuri a Potakatawhiti e Uenuku raua ko Toi, ka patua, ka kainga. Ko te wahi i a Toi he wahi iti nei.

Te hokianga mai o Tamatekapua me te teina i te kau haere, karanga noa i ta raua mokai korekore ana. Ui atu ki to raua papa kaore hoki tera i mohio kei hea. Katahi ka ki atu ki a Tamatekapua kia haere ki te pa o Uenuku raua ko Toi tera pea i whai i a raua.

Ka tae ki te pa o Uenuku raua ko Toi ka timata te karanga haere i ta raua mokai. E po! E po! Ka tae ki waho o te whare o Toi ka rongo i te aue. Katahi ka tomo atu ki roto me te karanga haere atu, e po! Rokohanga atu e Tamatekapua me te teina, e ngana ana a Toi ki te kokopi i tana waha ki ona ringa, e rua, heoi kei te Aue! Aue! ake te kuri i roto i te puku o Toi.

Te kitanga mai o Toi i a Tamatekapua me Whakaturia ka whakatauki—“Peni au i huna ai i a koe ki roto i te puku-nui-o Toi, tena koe e ata noho, tenei i na ano koe e auau tonu nei.”

Te mohiotanga o Tametekapua kua kainga ta raua kuri e Toi ka noho te whakatakariri. Ko te kiinga atu “Mo tenei mahi kino, kohuru a korua ko Uenuku tera korua e rongo ki ta maua mahi ki a korua apopo!

Te hokianga o Tamatekapua me te teina ki te kainga ki to raua papa, ka korerotia atu te tukunga iho ki ta raua mokai. Ka pouri a Hou.

Katahi a Tama me Whakaturia ka hanga whakaaro hei takitaki i te korerotia atu te tukunga iho ki ta raua mokai. Kohuru, o ta raua kuri o Patakatauwhiti.

Ka oti ta raua whakaaro, ka hangaia he panote. Ko te whakaaro i oti nei i a raua—me haere raua ki te pa o Uenuku raua ko Toi ka muru mai i nga hua o te proporo a Uenuku, a me nga nuinga atu i nga poutoki.

Ka oti ta raua whakariterite i te po ka haere. Ka tae te wahi i tupu ai te poroporo a Uenuku ko te haerenga atu o Tamatekapua i runga i ana poutoti, ka timata te katokato i nga hua o te poroporo Kotahi ki roto i te waha, kotahi ki roto i te kete, me te tukutuku iho i etahi ki tona teina ki a Whakaturia. Ka kii o raua puku me a raua kete, ko te hokinga ki te kainga. I te po

 
 

food was then brought before the visitors; but instead of the rich variety which they expected, all they were offered were the common taro and a few kumara. There was not even anything to go with them. After they had eaten they bade Hou farewell, and returned to their own home incensed, and hungry.

On the way, they were followed by the pet dog of the children of Hou, Tamatekapua, and his sister, Whakaturia. After they had travelled some distance from the home of Hou, the dog, whose name was Potaka-tawhi [ unclear: ] i, was seized by Uenuku and Toi and was slain and eaten. Most of it was consumed by Toi, only a small portion being eaten by Uenuku.

When Tamatekapua and his sister returned from their wanderings, they called in vain for their dog. They enquired of their father, but even he could throw no light on the matter; but he suggested to Tamatekapua that he should go to the pa of Uenuku and Toi, in case the dog had followed them thither.

When they arrived at the home of Uenuku and Toi they began calling to their dog by name. “E Po! E Po!” they cried. Then, as they stood outside the home of Toi, they perceived a baying moan, and thereupon they entered the house calling to their dog as they entered.

When Tamatekapua and his sister came upon him, Toi was stirring with all his might to close his mouth with both his hands, but the dog kept on baying from within the confines of his stomach.

On seeing Tamatekapua and Whakaturia, Toi exclaimed: “I concealed you in the spacious stomach of Toi thinking you would be quiet. But here you are baying and moaning for all you are worth!”

Tamatekapua then realised that their dog had been eaten by Toi, and a great anger welled up within him. “For this foul deed and murderous act,” he said, “you and Uenuku will, with certitude, hear more anon.”

When Tamatekapua and his sister returned to their home and father, they, told of the fate of their dog, and Hou was greatly disturbed.

Tamatekapua and Whakaturia then applied themselves to the problem of avenging the killing of their dog Potaka-tawhiti. Having decided on their plan, they set to, to make a pair of stilts, for it was their intention to return to the home of Uenuku and Toi and, with the aid of stilts, to rob Uenuku's Poroporo of all its fruit.

 
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tuarua ka hoki ano nga tangata nei ki te muru mai i nga hua o te poroporo a Uenuku. Te aonga ake i te ra tuatoru ka haere atu a Uenuku ki tana poroporo, te tirohanga atu makua nga hua.

Katahi ka taria me kore e mau te tangata tahae.

I te po tuatoru ka haere ano a Tamatekapua me te teina ki te whakaemi mai i te toenga atu o nga hua o te poroporo a Uenuku. Tera a Uenuku me tona iwi e noho tauwhanga mai ra. Ka kitea mai ah! Ko Tamatekapua me te teina e haere atu ana. Kotahi kei runga i nga poutoti kotahi kei raro e haere ana. Ko te huakanga atu e nga kai tutai, ka mau ko Whakaturia, ka pahure a Tamatekapua. Ka whaia e nga kai whai a Tamatekapua, ko te rerenga i runga i ana poutoti ki te moana.

Katahi nga kaiwhai ka mea kia tuaina nga poutoti kia hinga atu ai ta ratou tangata ki te wai kia toremi atu. Ko te karangatanga a Tamatekapua kia tukua atu ia ki uta a ka tua ai i ana poutoti. Te taenga atu katahi ka tuaina, te hinganga iho o Tamatekapua; ko te whakatakanga ki runga ka oma ka kahaki i a ia whai rawa ake te hoariri kua pamamao ke ta ratau tangata e rere ana. Whai noa kore rawa i mau.

Katahi ka arahina a Whakaturia e te iwi o Uenuku ki te pa, ko etahi i mea, me patu kia mate, ko etahi i mea kaua. Engari me whakairi ki te tahu o te wharerunanga o Uenuke, ka tahu he ahi ki waenganui o te whare, a ma te auahi e patu. Ka rite te korero ka whakaoraia a Whakatureia, ka tahuna te ahi, a ka piki te auahi ka whaka-minamina auahi i ta ratou herehere.

Ka noho ki te haka, ki te whakatuwaewae, ka whakatumatuma ake ki ta ratou tangata.

Ka tae te kororo ki a Tamatekapua ko tana teina kei te peratia te tukino i a Whakaturia. I te po tuarua ko te haeranga o Tamatekapua ki te whakataki i te teina. Ka tae ki waho o te whare ka pikitia te taumaihi, ka eke ki runga katahi ka karohia iho i te wahi i mohio iho ai ia kei reira a Whakaturia e oi ana. Te hounga iho ana, koia ano tika tonu iho ki te teina.

Ko te pataitanga iho, “E tu. Kei te ora tonu koe, ka whakautua ake e tera. “Ae, ko koe tena e Rapu, ae.”

Katahi a Tamatekapua ka timata te akoako iho i te teina ki nga kaupapa e marere ai a Whakaturia i roto i nga ringa o te iwi, engari ake ra i raro. “E tu kei te whakaronga kau koe, ae. Tuatahi me karanga iho koe ki te hunga ra, kaore o ratou painga ki te haka, ki te whakatuwaewae, ki te waiata, mehemea ko koe ara ke atu te tikanga o te haka me te whakatuwaewae na ki te tukaa atu koe ki raro, ki atu, kia ata horoi koe i a koe, kia muhua te kiri ki te hinu, ka teti i te Kura ki te mahunga, ka toro atu i tetahi taiaha, katahi koe ka timata ki te tupeke me te pukana me wheterotero i to arero. Katahi koe ka rere haere i roto o te whare, Ka tae ki te tuarongo, ka hoki mai ki te papa o te whare. Ko te toru o hokinga mai i te tuarongo, kei waho ahau o te tatau, maku e whakatuwhera te kuaha

 
 

On the appointed night, they left on their mission. When they reached the tree, Tamatekapua mounted his stilts and began gathering the fruit. He himself would eat the first berry, the second he would put in the basket and the third he would hand down -to his sister, Whakaturia. In due course, with their basket full and themselves replete, they made their way back to their own home. On the second night, they returned once more to relieve the tree of Uenuku of more of its fruit.

On the morning of the next day, Uenuku himself visited the tree and was chagrined to find that much of the fruit was missing. He decided to lay in wait for the thieves.

On the third night Tamatekapua and his sister again returned to gather what fruit was left on Uenuku's poroporo. Uenuku and his people who lay watching saw Tamatekapua and his sister approaching, the former on stilts and the latter on foot. They rushed out upon them and caught hold of Whakaturia, but Tamatekapua managed to escape. Whereupon they gave chase, but Tamatekapua, still mounted on his stilts, made rapid flight towards the sea.

But he could only proceed so far, whereupon his pursuers conceived the plan of cutting the stilts down so as to cause their prey to fall into the sea and drown. On perceiving this strategy, Tamatekapua besought them to allow him to come ashore for the planned ordeal. When he reached the shore, they cut down the stilts and Tamatekapua fell to the ground; but forthwith he jumped to his feet and sped away in flight. And even though the enemy was quickly in pursuit, their quarry had gained a flying start. They gave chase, but in vain.

Whakaturia was taken by Uenuku's people to their pa where some advocated her being struck to death. While others opposed it, but proposed rather that she should be tied to the ridge pole of Uenuku's house, a fire lit under her and the smoke allowed to suffocate her to death. When this plan had been agreed to, Whakaturia was tied to the ridge pole and a fire lit under her, and the smoke as it rose to the ceiling began to affect the prisoner.

Below her, her tormentors danced and gesticulated and hurled defiance at her.

In due course word reached Tamatekapua of the violence with which his sister, Whakaturia, was being treated, and on the second night he set out to seek her. When he arrived at the house he climbed the outside wall until he reached that spot under which he considered Whakaturia would be hanging. There he began to bore a hole and when the roof had been penetrated, lo, there was his sister immediately below him. “Tu,” he called, “are you still alive?”. “Yes,” she replied. “Is that you Kapu? Yes, I am still alive.”

Then Tamatekapua began to prime her with advice for effecting her release through cajolery. “Tu,” he whispered, “you are listening? Yes? First, exclaim to your tormentors that they are but learners in the art of the haka, the dance and the chant. If you could but perform, what artistry and perfection there would be. If, on this challenge, you are lowered to the ground, say that you must first wash and smear you body with oil, and decorate your head with feathers. Then ask for a taiaha, and with this in your hand, commence the leap, gesticulation and dance of the haka round and round the room, from the rear to the doorway. As you approach from the rear for the third time, I shall be standing outside the

 
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ka rere tika mai koe ki waho, ka tutaki atu ai e taua te kuaha.”

Ka mutu nga tohutohu iho a Tamatekapua ki te teina, ko te hekenga atu ki raro ka haere ki te roro o te whare noho tatari mai ai ki te teina.

Te rongonga o Uenuku me Toi me to raua iwi i a Whakaturi ae korero iho ana, a whakahawea ana ki a ratou me a ratou haka, katahi ka mea—

“Tena koe tukua iho te tangata e kiki iho nei te waha he mohio ia ki te haka, he aha ranei?”

Katahi ka tukua iho. A na te mea ano ka ata rite katoa nga mea katoa i akoakongia atu ra e te tuakana e Tamatekapua ki a ia, ko te tarapeketanga, tau rawa atu i te tuarong o te whare, me te pukana me te whaterotero, me te haere te arero, me te whakatumatuma atu ki te aronga atu ki a Toitehuatahi. Katahi ka rua nga tarapeketanga, i te toru, tau rawa mai ki te ahi a nga motumotu o te ahi kei roto i te whare. Kapo tonu ki tetahi o nga motumotu o te ahi e ka ra i roto i te whare, kua tuhera te kuaha i a Tamatekapua, tau rawa atu a Whakaturia i waho, Tutakina mai te kuaha herehere rawa.

Katahi ka toua te motumotu e ka tonu ra, i kapohia iho ra e Whakaturia, ki nga tuparu rau rakau o te whare, ko te muranga i mura ai, pau atu a Toi me Uenuku me to raua iwi i te ahi.

Ki tetahi korero, ko Uenuku me Toitehuatahi me etahi o te iwi i puta ki waho ka ora. Ko etahi ano i pau atu i te ahi.

Ka mutu i konei.

He kupu Whakamarama:

Mehemea ki te tae ki Ohinemutu, Rotorua, ka tomo ki roto i a Tamatekapua whare runganga o Ngati Whakaue, kei runga o te pou tokomanwa o taua whare he upoko Kuri, koia tena, te whakamahara mo Potakatawhiti te Kuri mokai kua korerotia ake ra tona pakiwaitara.

 

door. I will then open the door and you are to dart quickly through it. Then we shall close it from the outside.”

When he had given these instructions, Tamatekapua came down from the roof and made his way to the front of the house, there to await his sister.

When Uenuku and Toi and their people heard the remarks of Whakaturia, condemning as she did their own accomplishments in the art of the haka, they called out: “Lower that person whose mouth is so vain and boastful, so that we may see for ourselves whether she is indeed a master of the art of the haka.”

And so she was lowered. So well had she memorised the instructions of her brother Tamatekapua, that on her first leap, she landed towards the rear of the house where she gesticulated in the frenzied ritual of the “pukana,” taunting and challenging in the direction of Taitehuatahi. Round she leapt a second time and on the third she found herself in position by the doorway. Snatching a glowing ember from the fire which was still burning within the room, she jumped through the door which had now been opened by Tamatekapua and landed on the outside. They quickly closed the door and secured it from the outside.

The ember which Whakaturia had snatched from the fire was kindled against the raupo thatchments of the house which quickly caught alight. Uenuku, Toi and their people, unable to escape, perished in the fire.

In this way did Tamatekapua and his sister, Whakaturia, avenge the killing and eating of their dog, Potaka-tawhiti.

It is said by some that although most of the people perished in the fire, both Uenuku and Toi escaped together with a few others.

This is the end.

A Note of Explanation

If one should visit the Tamatekapua meeting house of Ngati Whakaue at Ohinemutu, Rotorua, one will see the head of a dog carved on the central supporting pole of the meeting house. That is the image of Potaka-tawhiti, the dog whose story has just been told.

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HIS WORK SURVIVED A CENTURY

It is now exactly a century ago that Rev. Richard Taylor, Church of England missionary in Wanganui, published his scholarly book on the Maori people called Te Ika A Maui. This was the first book in which many of the best-known Maori traditions and myths were published. The most remarkable feature in the book, for modern readers, is the translation of some old Maori chants, particularly those describing the creation.

It is no exaggeration to say that very rarely if ever have the great difficulties of rendering ancient Maori chants in good English verse been so successfully handled. It is a great pity that the translations are so few in number, but it is not surprising, because the style of translation of Rev. Taylor, although very remarkable to an car attuned to modern English verse, was very different indeed from the style fashionable during the reign of Queen Victoria, Rev. Taylor's contemporaries probably found his versions too bare, not sufficiently poetic, and they probably missed the wonderful accuracy with which the translations bring out the world of feeling surrounding the Maori words.

The most important of the chants, has been reprinted in this issue of Te Ao Hou. An adequate study of Rev. Taylor's life and work has never been made and although this cannot be done in the space available in Te Ao Hou, a few facts have been brought together here to explain how this exceptional translation came to be written.

A little book The Impact of Christianity on the Maori People, by A. W. Reed, published earlier this year, described in an interesting way the attitudes of the missionaries to the traditional religion. The author quotes an instruction sent by Samuel Marsden to his laity: ‘Rather propose and enforce with meekness the glorious truths of the gospel than dispute with their superstitions and absurd opinions.’ To avoid dispute was wise counsel but many people now think that the rejection of the traditional Maori world of thought as ‘absurd opinions’ was perhaps regrettable. As Mr Reed points out, in Europe many early pagan beliefs were not so rejected and have become part of the Christian inheritance.

Rev. Taylor (1805–73) was a sensitive cultured man with an almost artistic temperament. Although his capacity for work was amazing, he was not robust. Minister at Wanganui from 1843, he spent the last thirteen years of his life largely in retirement, concentrating on his scientific studies.

Wide Interests

He was somewhat of an artist; many of his sketches have survived in Te Ika A Maui and in his journals. It was also he who engrossed the text of the original Treaty of Waitangi on parchment.

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The Rev Richard Taylor

Many were his contributions to geology and botany and he took an important part in bringing the first moa bones to the attention of scientists.

‘He was interested in everything he saw, animals, plants, earthquakes and especially people. He wrote many volumes of journals and even now they make most interesting reading. Writing in probably the most troubled time in Maori history he witnessed many dramatic, painful and also beautiful incidents. In describing these he is always brief, and yet says exactly what happened and what everybody felt; he is aware of what goes on inside people, and he can write it down.

A mark against him is his extreme hatred of a certain other denomination. In this he was a man of his times; in these otherwise delightful journals there is a passage where he and the rival man of God actually challenged each other to a test of fire. He whom the fire did not burn belonged to the true religion. With the utmost seriousness Rev. Taylor relates how the contest did not take place because neither contestant was prepared to submit himself to the test first. Equally seriously, he

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expresses the suspicion that his rival had smeared himself with heat-resisting cream.

The journals give a penetrating picture of Maori life in the middle of the nineteenth century. It is remarkable however, how little it includes of the very full researches Taylor made of Maori culture. One would expect a wealth of mythical and historical material, but Rev. Taylor seems to have been at pains to keep for his diary only a record of his life as a clergyman; the Maori chants belong to quite another world which is not allowed entry. In his diary, one sees him fighting a kindly but uncompromising struggle against idolatry, faith healing and superstition. He must have had another notebook, in which he made a careful study of the Maori religion to which his deepest beliefs were opposed, but which yet he could not help respecting and in some respects even admiring.

In this admiration lay, of course, a great danger for those missionaries who were sensitive to the greatness of other cultures. This was the cause of Kendall's troubles; as he wrote himself in a famous letter: “All their (the Maoris) notions are metaphysical and I have been so poisoned with the apparent sublimity of their ideas that I have been almost completely turned from a Christian to a heathen.” Rev. Taylor, of course, had no such experience, but in the end his admiration for the Maoris’ spiritual qualities led him to a theory that the Maoris are a lost tribe of Israel and in this way he could explain to his own satisfaction why he was so attracted to their ‘superstitious' religion. He did not work out this theory however until long after he had translated the chants.

A few isolated passages in his journals show that his understanding of Maori beliefs was profound and well ahead of his times. One passage summarises so well the essential problem in grafting nineteenth century Christianity to the Maori back-ground, that it is worth quoting here:—

“We called at Atene and at Koriniti, where food was cooked and I went with the carpenter to survey their beautiful church. We then left and reached Hikurangi to sleep in the evening. The natives made a fire in the middle of the marae around which they all sat with me. They had a long account to give of their back-slidings and of several who had carried their children to the Tohunga Maori when ill to be karakied over. It is grievous to see what childish ideas are still entertained by many. They have a too general fancy that our native hospital kills instead of cures and that the Lord also does the same; that their native incantations are more potent than our prayers, and, I fear, many do not feel sensible of the sin they are guilty of or the true nature of prayer which they do not view so much in the light of supplication to God as an incantation to constrain him to yield to their wishes. Thus one man tried to justify what he had done and said that the atua Maori came and whistled over the roof of his house and told him to be strong in prayer and his child would be healed and when the child did not recover, the atua came again and bid him be still stronger in prayer and then his prayers were like a line which drew up the life of his child out of Hades and he recovered. But, said he, I only used the prayers of our church. It appears as though the natives thought that the great test of the efficacy of religion is healing the sick. Did the Jews think so and was it on that account Christ went about curing men of their temporal ailments?” (October 25, 1853.)

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Rev Taylor's most outstanding pupil was Hoani Wiremu Hipango, the Whanganui chief, who accompanied Rev Taylor on his voyage to England in 1855 and met Queen Victoria. He studied for the ministry, but worked so hard by dim candlelight that his eyesight was affected and he had to give up. When Putiki was attacked in 1865 he took command of the defence. He was ambushed by four men, but they were captured in time. Hoani fed them, then sent them away unhurt, as his religion bade him forgive his enemies. The next night ten men lay in ambush for him; when they were also trapped he did the same as before, saying: “I will not be the first to shed blood.” In the hour of victory a ball struck Hoani in the chest and he was buried with military honours.

His journals do not show signs of any interest in poetry. He probably did not consider his translations of the chants poetry at all. It is perhaps as well, for if Rev. Taylor had consciously tried to write verse, he might have used all the poetic conventions of his time and the bare precision of his renderings might have been lost. The one quoted here could well be a model to modern translators who try their hand at the ancient songs of the Maori. For instance, Taylor is the only translator to my knowledge to render Kore by ‘The Nothing’. Yet this is far superior to the conventional ‘Void’ for it is closer to the Maori feeling of the word. To bring out the world of feeling in a Maori chant in English words is a very subtle task. It is an important task for it would bring Maori and pakeha together on a fundamental level.

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UNESCO has realised the value of translation in increasing understanding between different peoples and is publishing a series of masterpieces from various countries in translation. In New Zealand, accurate and imaginative translations could do much to acquaint the pakeha with the literary and spiritual heritage of the Maori which at present is quite inaccessible and therefore does not play the part it could beneficially play in the growth of New Zealand culture.

  • Na te kune te pupuke

  • Na te pupuke te hihiri

  • Na te hihiri te mahara

  • Na te mahara te hinengaro

  • Na te hinengaro te manako

  • Ka hua te wananga

  • Ka noho i a riko riko

  • Ka puta ki waho ko te po,

  • Ko te po nui, te po roa,

  • Te po i tuturi, te po i pepeke,

  • Te po uriuri, te po tangotango,

  • Te po wawa, te po te kitea,

  • Te po te waia,

  • Te po i oti atu ki te mate.

  • Na te kore i ai,

  • Te kore te wiwia

  • Te kore te rawea,

  • Ko hotupu, ko hauora,

  • Ka noho i te atea,

  • Ka puta ki waho, te rangi e tu nei,

  • Ko te rangi e tere tere ana

  • I runga o te whenua

  • Ka noho te rangi nui e tu nei

  • Ka noho i a ata tuhi, ka puta

  • Ki waho te marama, ka noho.

  • Te rangi i tu nei, ka noho i a

  • Te werowero, ka puta ki waho

  • Ko te ra, kokiritia ana

  • Ki runga, hei pukanohi

  • Mo te rangi, ka tau te

  • Rangi, Te ata tuhi, te

  • Ata rapa, te ata ka

  • Mahina, ka mahina

  • Te ata i hikurangi.

  • From the conception the increase,

  • From the increase the thought,

  • From the thought the remembrance,

  • From the remembrance the consciousness,

  • From the consciousness the desire,

  • The word became fruitful;

  • It dwelt with the feeble glimmering;

  • It brought forth night:

  • The great night, the long night,

  • The lowest night, the loftiest night,

  • The thick night, to be felt,

  • The night to be touched,

  • The night not to be seen,

  • The night of death.

  • From the nothing the begetting,

  • From the nothing the increase,

  • From the nothing the abundance,

  • The power of increasing,

  • The living breath;

  • It dwelt with the empty space, and produced the atmosphere which is above us,

  • The atmosphere which floats above the earth;

  • The great firmament above us, dwelt with the early dawn,

  • And the moon sprung forth;

  • The atmosphere above us, dwelt with the heat,

  • And thence proceeded the sun;

  • They were thrown up above, as the chief eyes of Heaven:

  • Then the Heavens became light,

  • The early dawn, the early day,

  • The mid-day. The blaze of day from the sky.

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Rangi and Papa

– 18 –

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Russell Orr

Baroness von TRAPP
tells
Te Ao Hou her ideas on
Maori Art in the Modern World

The visit of Baroness von Trapp to New Zealand has given some healthy encouragement to a number of Maori dance groups. It was most stimulating to see a world-famous musical group such as the Trapp Family Singers take a deep interest in Maori dance and song. For the Trapp singers were not after ordinary musical entertainment; it was something higher they were seeking, and found in Maori music. Their programme in New Zealand were partly folk music and dances from various countries and partly religious and classical music. They only used voices with recorders (a kind of flute) and virginals (an eighteenth century instrument now superseded by the piano). The result was a very pure sound which enhanced the effect of the highly cultured voices.

It seemed unusual that the family singers, who make such a solemn group on the stage, could be a great national success in the land of the Hollywood films. And according to Baroness Trapp's memoirs, published recently, it was not easy to get established. The agents were very impressed with the singing, but they doubted that the Trapp family could ever become very popular, but finally one agent told the Baroness what the trouble was: The group had no sex appeal, could the girls wear shorter frocks, more rouge?

“No, we cannot,” said the Baroness.

The Baroness who at that time knew little English could not explain herself further, could not explain why her singing had nothing to do with short dresses and sex appeal. All she could say was ‘I thought America was a free country’ and walked out.

But this had an electric effect on the agent. The story does not tell whether the Baroness disturbed his American patriotism or impressed him with the firm foundations of her musical and religious convictions, but before she could get into the lift he called her back into his office and so the Trapp Family Singers' success began.

A good deal of their time in New Zealand was spent with Maori dancers. Their interest went much deeper than the conventional tourists' entertainment. In Rotorua, Hastings, Wellington and elsewhere the family developed real friendship with members of Maori dance groups, and when these groups showed their traditional dances, the Trapp family responded by giving a performance of their own as they did in the Ngati Poneke Hall.

They came not only to be entertained but also to learn. Baroness von Trapp thinks that the poi dance is too beautiful to be confined to New Zealand; she intends to introduce it in her summer

– 19 –

music school in the United States. The Trapp family in a short time absorbed more of the essentials of Maori culture than most New Zealanders have managed in a lifetime. What did Maori culture have to offer people with a background like the Trapps?

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Charles Hale

The Modern World Needs Maori Culture

The Baroness explained in an interview to Te Ao Hou that she had been most impressed to see that every Maori she met was an artist. “Hardly any are tone deaf; almost all have a vivid and correct sense of colour,” she said.

The ancient Maori culture was unique not only in its dances but also because of the beauty of the cloaks, the greenstone axes, and the intricate patterns of Maori art. These things are valuable still for behind them is a harmony unknown to modern man. “Everyone participated in the singing and dancing and the making of beautiful objects; it was a part of everyday life; it helped to heal the pains of living and allowed harmony to exist in the soul troubled with chaos. The old Maori had time and could afford to make intricate patterns. The modern idea of time,” said the Baroness, “is a curse to many.”

Te Ao Hou asked whether she thought this spirit could survive in a modern civilisation. Her answer was that, on the contrary, civilisation could not survive without it. A truly civilised life had to return to the harmony of song, and the beauty of handmade objects. The modern world needed these values of Maori culture as much as the Maoris needed other European values. Right through her visit, therefore, the Baroness tried to learn from the Maoris and in her opinion pakeha New Zealanders should do the same. “Everyone in New Zealand should be persuaded to learn Maori and to be proud of knowing it; everyone should know how a korowai is woven and find enchantment in Maori music”.

However, the Baroness thought present-day Maori culture had been ‘defiled’ and should be cleansed from the wrong influences that had been working on it. American jazz was one of these. The piano kills Maori singing, particularly because the pianos used are so often out of tune. The Baroness was very impressed by a few pateres she heard and thought far more time should be given to the ancient songs rather than the modern action song. They were more suited to the Maori style of singing. She was not in favour of accompaniment with modern instruments, but if there had to be accompaniment, she thought the best and purest would be the recorder.

Conscious efforts should be made to improve quality in all the arts and crafts. The spirit could only be recaptured if the young people had more respect and regard for their elders; the old people were still there, but one had to be fast to absorb their knowledge before they were gone.

Records of high quality should always be at the disposal of musical groups and be played and played again.

The Baroness considered the singing at Hukarere and St. Joseph's College among the best she had heard here.

Among Maori art forms, the poi dance was one other countries should study and learn from. As a means to bringing poise and harmony to the personality, the poi was of unique value. Particularly for those who were nervous or depressed the poi would have a powerful healing effect and that alone would merit its introduction abroad. If you dance the poi, said the Baroness, ‘you have no time to think about yourselves.’

The family's visit undoubtedly benefited Maori music and dancing. There were even a few brave men who bought recorders but Te Ao Hou was saddened to see them revert to the trombone after a few attempts. The effect of the recorders was so good as to suggest that a serious attempt to learn to play them (Adult Education has special tutors for this job) might have wonderful results.

Hearing the Trapp family in some of the Maori halls was an unforgettable experience especially as they sang in all simplicity and created a sense of fellowship as both they and their hosts sang in their own way to make life, as the Baroness would put it, more ‘harmonious’.

E.S.

– 20 –

Youth of Mangakino

Most of Mangakino's Maori people are newcomers. But if they perhaps suffered in the first period from being cut off from their tribes and from a loss of communal life, they have certainly managed now to build up a healthy social life for themselves.

I was surprised to find, on my first visit, that they have no fewer than eleven youth clubs. Six of them are purely sports clubs, but in addition their are five which call themselves social and welfare clubs and provide for the deeper social needs of the new arrivals. They are the Taranaki Welfare, Tairawhiti, Tai Tokerau, Tauranga and Tuhoe clubs. Although as their names indicate they started on a strictly tribal basis, the tribal basis has not remained very strict and even pakehas and islanders have joined in.

I was very impressed by the spirit in the clubs I visited and I was also very interested in some ideas introduced into their clubs which as far as I know are fairly new in the Maori world. The Tuhoe club have worked out their own method of improving among other things communal drinking habits. Admittedly it is experimental, but I was impressed with what I saw and I think the club's ideas are worth watching carefully.

The first Social and Welfare Club formed in Mangakino was the Tairawhiti Club. It was formed because a member of a Tairawhiti tribe had a death in his family which meant that this member had to take this deceased person back to his own marae on the east coast. This meant a rather large undertaking as regards the finance, because it meant that he had to obtain a hearse from Putaruru to carry the body back to Wairoa in the Hawkes Bay district. The club was formed with the idea of helping any member who had the same experience while working in Mangakino. So a meeting was called of those members of the Tairawhiti tribes that were living in Mangakino and the outcome of it was that a committee was formed with the idea of controlling all the activities in this respect. They raised funds by asking each member to subscribe 5/- every week or as it was more convenient, 10/- every pay day. As soon as the other tribes saw this going on in Mangakino they immediately formed their own little welfare clubs and out of that were borne the Tai Tokerau, Tauranga and Taranaki clubs.

‘As time went on the clubs found themselves with a lot of spare cash on their hands, so then, in order to get rid of this spare cash, they widened their activities and started a loan scheme by which members belonging to each individual club could, if they applied, get loans of up to £15. The only thing that mattered when it came to applying for loans was the fact that you were a financial member of any one club.

After a while they found that after certain members of their clubs were given these loans these members immediately resigned from the club which meant then that the club could have no records to prosecute these members and obtain moneys that had been loaned to them, so that in effect they found that their membership was falling and that they had a lot of bad debts on their books.

In forming the Tuhoe Social and Welfare Club, the people responsible for the idea tried to benefit from the mistakes made by previous clubs. First of all, where as previous clubs had had a closed membership for the members of their own particular clans or tribes, the Tuhoe Club decided to broaden their membership and include anybody, whether pakeha or Maori, who were willing to abide by the rules of the club.

At this time also, more responsible members of the Tuhoe people that were living there, noticed that some of the members were taking to drink or to liquor excessively, so that it was no exception to find homes buying up to 15 dozen bottles of beer a week. They emphasised that they mooted the idea of a small club house where their members could get together and partake of liquor in moderation, rigorously controlled by the committee.

They started then, some months ago and to date their membership runs as follows:

Adult Maoris 75
Children 12 Maoris
Children 8 Pakehas
Immigrants 8
Pakehas 4
Islanders 4

Briefly their weekly programme runs as follows:

On Monday night the Club opens at 7 o'clock and from 7 to 9 they work under the able leadership of Mr W. Ward. From 9 to 10 they practice action songs and hakas.

Tuesday nights from 7 to 8 they are taught the art of making piu pius. From 8 to 9, carving. From 9 to 10, taniko.

Wednesday night from 7 to 8, taniko. From 8 to 9, action songs and hakas; 9 to 10, community singing.

Thursday night, free.

Friday night is what they term their Club Night. The activities on that night are mainly community singing, action songs and a general get-together.

– 21 –

On Saturday afternoons the club is open to women members from 4 to 4.30 and in that time they can do whatever they like, from having a general gossip feast to drinking liquor. From 5 to 5.15 the men, who return from work, have 15 minutes for drinking before tea. From 7 to 10 they usually have community singing, action songs, and at the same time drink liquor in moderation.

The Tuhoe Social and Welfare Club's aims and objects, as stated in their constitution, are: To provide a centre for the Tuhoe people of Mangakino, recreational, social and educational facilities (they hope to form a tennis club and to arrange courses with the Maori adult education tutor); to combat excessive drinking and to help needy families.

To become a member one must pay £3 per family and £3 per single man and single woman. In case of a death in the family of any member, the club pays £30 towards death expenses. In case of serious sickness £5 a week is paid until social security money starts coming in. The club provides a Christmas party for children of members. £100 is always kept aside as an emergency fund.

The rules for controlling alcoholic drinking are:

No alcohol shall be taken away from or brought to the headquarters of the club.

No member shall have the right to introduce liquor into the club house.

There shall be no brawling, swearing, thieving or damaging of club property while the members are in the club house.

No member shall be served liquor who is already under the influence.

Should anyone break these rules he shall be suspended from the club for a period of from 1 to 6 months. (Since the formation of the club no one has been suspended).

Anyone being found guilty of thieving shall be dismissed immediately.

Before the formation of the club it was no exaggeration to say that of the 75 members that make up the club, an average of 200 dozen bottles of beer were drunk weekly by these people. At the moment they are drinking 30 dozen bottles of beer per week and this is being cut up roughly into 12 dozen being drunk from Saturday, 4 o'clock, to Saturday, midnight. Six dozen on Friday night and the other 12 dozen spread over the week nights, the club being open to men members from 5 to 5.30 every week-night.

The club is working under great difficulties at the moment because their facilities are totally inadequate and because of this they have found it necessary to limit their membership.

One member of the Tribal Committee, Mr Ward, told me: “I feel that this club has found the answer to our liquor problem.”

Mr McDonald, Secretary of the Tribal Committee, said: “It is a real fine club and it is doing a great job.”

Mr C. Clayworth and Mr E. Clark, immigrants living in Mangakino, stated to me: “We already belonged to a lodge, but since we have been allowed to join this club we have forgotten about the lodge altogether. It is a really fine club and it is doing a really good job and it goes to prove that the Maori can really hold his own in any community.”

WATER
can be
DANGEROUS

Last Summer, nineteen Maoris lost their lives through drowning. Six were children of under five years, a further six were between five and ten and three between ten and fifteen years of age. Statistics tell us that most Maori drownings occur in rivers, lakes and lagoons (13 out of 19) and that there were three drownings in the open seas.

Rivers where Maoris were drowned last year were the Whanganui, Arahura, Waikato, Kaupakonui, Hikurangi, Whangachu and Awatiri.

We are told that a Maori is over three times as likely to meet death through drowning as a pakeha. One boy, aged nine, went swimming with six other children; they were away an hour and he was not with the party when it returned. He was unable to swim and was discovered in about ten feet of water that same afternoon. A girl of nineteen months lived about a chain from the sea. One afternoon the child was brought unconscious from the beach by her mother. Artificial respiration was applied without success. Another case was that of four boys who all drowned after stumbling into a deep hole while bathing in shallow water in Lake Rotorua.

How can these very sad happenings be avoided? The National Prevent Drowning Committee suggests as the most important remedy, learning to swim. None of the children in the examples mentioned were able to swim. The next important thing is to be water wise. Parents should warn children of the dangers in the water. They should have someone, even if only an older child, charged with responsibility to watch the children in the water and see that they only do what is safe. Waterholes should be covered if children are likely to play near them.

– 22 –

FOR ALL THE SAINTS

I Hadn't been working long at the hospital before I noticed Alice. She was the kind of person who stands out right away in any crowd, even in an institution where everyone has to wear a non-descript uniform. At first I thought it was her Maori blood—she was at least halfcaste—but there were several other Maoris on the staff and a few Raratongan girls too, so that colour didn't really make much difference unless someone started a fight, and even then the important thing was not the kind of person you were but what side you belonged to. I never could make up my mind until it was too late. But to get back to Alice. If it wasn't colour, I decided, it certainly wasn't glamour either that made her so notable, far from it, though some might have thought her handsome in a dignified statuesque kind of way. She was a tall heavily-built woman, round about the thirty mark, though it was hard to guess her age, with smooth black hair drawn tightly back into a bun, and a smooth pale olive skin that never showed the slightest trace of make-up. Over the usual blue smock we all had to wear, she wore a long shapeless gown, always spotlessly white, and just showing her lisle stockings and black button-up shoes. From what I could make out, her work was like her uniform, scrupulously clean and neat, and done quietly and methodically without any fuss or bother, in spite of the first cook who would have hustled an elephant. She was the kind of woman boss who is happiest cracking a stock-whip. But even after I had noted these details about Alice, and the deliberate way she moved about the kitchen, seldom smiling and never joining in the back-chat with the porters, I still wasn't satisfied. I felt there was something else I couldn't recognise or understand because I had never met it before, some indefinable quality that made her quite different from the rest of us.

I was a servery-maid in the nurses' dining-room, and my chores often took me across the corridor to the main kitchen where Alice worked. I made overtures whenever I got the chance, offering to help lift things I knew she could manage quite easily by herself, smiling and nodding, and generally getting in her way. Nice day, I'd say, or going to be hot again, but never a word back did I get. Sometimes she'd respond with a grunt or a smile or a scowl, but most times she would just walk away, or worse still, wait silently for me to move on. This went on for several days, but Alice wouldn't be hurried; she had her own way of making introductions.

First of a Series of Short Stories by Maori Authors

One morning I went as usual to collect several big enamel milk jugs from the freezer outside the kitchen door—this was my first job every day—and I was just reaching for a jug when clump, the heavy door slammed shut behind me. I put the jug down very carefully. Keep still, someone shouted inside me, as every muscle in my body threatened to batter me against the four inches of thickness, don't move, keep still! I waited till the shouting had stopped, and then I very gingerly approached the barrier and tapped on it timidly like a guilty child outside the headmaster's office. Are you there? squeaked a voice I didn't recognise, as though it were using a telephone for the first time. It's me here, can you hear me? I waited several lifetimes for the answer that didn't come, then turned away slowly like the lion on the films. Jugs, I thought dully, looking at a wall of them, nice useful harmless things jugs. But at that the whole shelf began to slant and away drunkenly. I'm at a party, dozens of people around me, talking and laughing and singing and shouting and dancing and stomping to hot boogie woogie. I strained my ears to catch the sound. Drip went a drop of icy water on the concrete in front of me. Now we're all sitting on the floor round a blazing orange fire, eating steaming savs and drinking hot hot coffee and playing a quiet sort of guessing game. I concentrated on a large wooden box against the far wall. How many pounds of boxes to a butter, no no, how many pounds of—the door swung open slowly behind me, and I crawled back to life and warmth and sanity.

– 23 –

Alice was propped up against the kitchen door, tears rolling down her face, and shaking so much with laugher I thought her head would fall off.

“Good joke, eh?” she gasped, while I tried to force my knees to keep me upright, ‘funny, eh?” And she gave my shoulder a thump that sent me sprawling into the kitchen like a new-born lamb. From now on, I told myself afterwards, rubbing salt into my wounds, you're going to mind your own darn business. But the next morning when I came on duty, the milk jugs were waiting in the servery. Alice had been to the freezer before me.

After this Alice and I got on like a house on fire, and it wasn't long before the rest of the staff saw what was happening and started giving me advice. It might have been because they didn't like Alice, or because I was a new chum and as green as they come and they thought I needed protecting, but whatever the reason, several of them took me aside and told me Alice was a woman with bad blood, a treacherous character with the worst temper on God's earth, and the kind of friend who would turn nasty over nothing at all. Soon after, I found out what they really meant and why Alice was the terror of the kitchen.

It had been a particularly trying day, with the thermometer climbing to ninety degrees by mid-morning and staying there, and everybody got so irritable they didn't dare look each other in the eye. I was the last to finish in the servery, and thought I'd pop into the kitchen and say goodbye to Alice before I went home. The huge cavern of a place was nearly empty and uncannily quiet. The cooking coppers round the walls had boiled all their strength away, the big steamers that stood higher than a man had hissed their life into the air around them, and the last tide of heat was ebbing slowly from the islands of ovens in the middle of the floor. Alice was alone with her back towards me, mopping the red tiles with long swinging movements, never going over the same place twice, and never missing an inch. As I watched her from the doorway, the little man who worked in the pot-room slipped through a side door and cat-stepped it daintily with exaggeration over the part Alice had just washed. She leaned on the mop and looked at his dirty footmarks with an expressionless face. A minute later he was back again, singing in a weak nasal voice through the top of his head.

“Ah'm a leedool on the lornlee, a leedl on the lornlee sahd.” He brushed against Alice, and blundered into her bucket so that the soapy water slopped over the sides. “So sorree,” he backed away, but he was too late. Alice had him firmly by the coat-collar, lifted him off his clever feet, and shook him up and down as I would shake a duster. As she threw him half the length of the kitchen through the door into the yard, I crept down the corridor, remembering the freezer and feeling that thump on the shoulder again.

But the next day I found out something much more important about Alice than the quality of her temper. She came and asked me if I would write a letter for her. I was a bit surprised and wanted to know why she didn't do it herself. She couldn't. She had never learned to read or write. At first I was incredulous, then as the full significance of the fact sank in, I was horrified. Words like progress, civilisation, higher standards, and free, secular, compulsory, sprang to their feet in protest.

“Why, Alice, why?”

“My mother was not well when I was a little baby so she gave me to my Auntie who took me way way out in the country and the two of us lived there on Auntie's farm. My Auntie was a very good woman, very kind to me but she could not read or write and school was too far away so I never learned. I just stayed at home with Auntie and fixed the farm. But one day when I grew big Auntie said to me we've got no more money Alice, you must go away and work and get some money and bring it back to fix the farm. So I did. And now I am writing to Auntie to say I am getting the money fast and will come back very soon.”

I tried to guess Alice's age once more, decided on thirty again, and reckoned that “Auntie” would be twenty when Alice was “given” to her. That made her at least fifty now—getting a bit old for fixing farms.

“You read and write, Jacko?” That was the name she liked to call me.

“Oh yes, I read and write.”

“You pretty clever, ch Jacko?” she asked wistfully. “You better show me how.”

And so, every afternoon for the next two or three weeks, I tried. The two of us were working the same broken shift from 6.30 a.m. to 6.30 p.m. with an hour for lunch and three hours off in the afternoon. We started with writing, but I had to give it up, I just couldn't take it. It was far worse than working in the pot-room. Alice would grip the pencil as though it were a prison bar and strain and sweat and grunt and poke out her tongue, and I'd sit beside Alice and strain and sweat and grunt and poke out my tongue. I rummaged around the bookshops down town, and eventually found an easy learn-to-read little book, strictly unorthodox, and not crammed with highly coloured pictures of English villages and stiles and shepherds in smocks and meadows with ponds and oak trees and sheep with the wrong kinds of faces and bluebells at the edge of the wood. Our book was illustrated in red, white and black, and the few words on each page were put in little boxes, and you jiggled them round so that each box had a slightly different meaning though the words were the same. I would say—

First box: look! here is a dog; second box: the dog's name is Rover. And Alice would repeat it after me slowly, pointing at the right box and looking intently at the words and the picture, and then she would roar with laughter and slap the book and very often me too. It was fun for both of us at the beginning, and Alice went ahead like nobody's business, but towards the middle of the

– 24 –

book the boxes got bigger and the pictures fewer, and the game became hard work. One morning I noticed Alice was looking pale and very glum. Her work in the kitchen was as good as usual but she dragged her feet listlessly and kept her eyes down even when I spoke to her. In the end I asked her what was the matter. At first I thought she wasn't going to answer, and then she burst out—

“That damn dog, Rover! All night I tried to remember what he did when he jumped over the gate, but it was no good, I couldn't think. All night I tried to remember and I got no sleep and now I'm tired Jacko, tired tired.” And to my dismay the immobility of her face broke for the first time, wrinkled up like a child's, and a tear slipped down her cheek.

“Oh Alice”, I said, feeling smaller and meaner and more helpless than I'd ever felt before, “you don't want to worry about a silly old dog or a book or reading or anything”, and I steered her into the corridor where the sharp kitchen clowns couldn't see her crying. “Look.” It's a lovely day, let's have a holiday this afternoon, let's have a good time. Let's pretend it's someone's birthday, it must be somewhere. Oh bother, we can't, its Sunday. What can we do, Alice? I waited while she struggled with her voice.

“You do something for me, Jacko? You take me to church tonight, eh?”

She was waiting for me after work. I took one look at her, closed my eyes, and opened them again carefully. She was looking happier and more excited than I had ever seen her, the trouble and tiredness of the morning had quite gone, but so had the neat uniform. She was wearing a long pale pink garment that looked suspiciously like a nightgown, and round her neck she had tied a skinny mangy length of fur that even a manx cat wouldn't have looked at twice. But it was the hat that took my breath away. I had only seen such a hat in old photos or magazines about Edwardian England. It was a cream leghorn, with a wide flopping brim, dark red roses round the crown, and a huge swaying moulting plume that almost hid her face. I didn't have a hat with me, but I reckoned Alice's would do for the two of us.

“I think I'll go home and see Auntie for a little while. I've got some money for her and when I've fixed the farm I'll come back again.” She showed me her suitcase. “I'll catch the 10.30 rail-car tonight.”

We were a little late for church, and as we crept in, all eyes swung in our direction, and stopped. That's right. I thought, take a good look, you'll never see another like it again. The summer evening sun streamed through the clear glass window, and showed up mercilessly, like strong electric light on an ageing face, all the drabness of the grey unadorned walls, the scratches on the varnished pews, the worn patches in the faded red carpets, the dust on the pulpit hangings, and the greenness of the minister's old black suit. “Remembered streams I could not keep”, I thought, seeing it all for the first time without a child's glasses.

“For all the saints, who from their labours rest,” squeaked the small huddle of people like someone locked up in a freezer. I shifted my weight from one foot to the other and leaned against the pew in front of me. Ahmmmah, droned Alice happily above everyone else, except the big-bosomed, purple-gowned, over-pearled organist who pulled all her stops out and clung to the top notes like a determined lover. Alice was holding her hymn book upside down.

After the service I took Alice home for supper. She seemed a little lost and rather subdued in our sitting-room, and sat stiffly on the edge of a chair with her knees together and her hands gripping each other in her lap. I made several unsuccessful attempts to put her at ease, and then I noticed she kept glancing sideways at the piano that stood in the corner.

“Would you like to play the piano. Alice?” I asked, remembering the natural musical ability Maoris usually have. She jumped up immediately with a delightful grin and walked over to the music stool.

“Dadadaeedeeda,” she sang on one note, and thumped up and down the keyboard. Fifteen minutes later, she turned to me.

“Pretty good. eh? I know plenty more. You like some more?” And she settled herself down for the rest of the evening before I could reply. My mother got up hastily and went out to the kitchen to make the supper. When the time came to go, Alice looked very solemn, and I feared a repetition of the morning crisis. But I was wrong.

“I got something I want to show you, Jacko,” she said. “I've never shown anyone before.” And she handed me a folded piece of old newspaper.

“That's a picture of my uncle He went away before my Auntie got me. My Auntie says he's the best man she ever knew and one day he'll come back and look after me and Auntie and get money to pay for the house and fix the farm. He's got a good, kind face, eh Jacko?”

I peered at the blurred photo. A group of men were standing behind a central figure sitting in the foreground, and underneath, the caption read—

This is the last photo to be taken of the late Lord Tweedsmuir, Governor-General of Canada, well-known throughout the English-reading world as the novelist, John Buchan.

My mother looked over my shoulder.

“But surely you've made—”

I stopped her with a sharp dig in the ribs. “Yes, Alice,” I stammered, “I'm sure he'll come back, he's got such a nice face.” And immediately I was ashamed of the weak lies. If only one could sometimes find the courage to tell

(Continued on Page 43)

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Nga Kura Paua, Rarawa chief, from a photograph in the Dominion Museum, Wellington.

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MAKING A CLOAK
IS NOT SO DIFFICULT

The making of Maori cloaks is almost a lost art. This is particularly unfortunate as these cloaks were the most beautiful and impressive garment of the ancient Maori. Very few people are still making them today, but among them is Mrs Jean Rerekura of Raetihi who not only makes a special type of Maori cloak, but also from time to time, acts as a teacher in arts and crafts in the local school.

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Mrs Rerekura

In her drawing room, together with her aunt, Mrs Amiria Kerei, she showed Te Ao Hou the making of a ‘ngore’ a ceremonial type of cloak without taniko but finely woven and decorated with pompoms. Ngore nowadays may have several types of decoration, dyed flax is traditional but for those who like the modern style there is red worsted, etc. Mrs Rerekura used tufts of red cockerels' feathers which look very effective.

The cloak made when Te Ao Hou visited Raetihi was to be used for a ceremonial purpose, the presentation of a cup to the best Maori student in the new Ruapehu College at Ohakune.

The method of making these cloaks is very simple. It is a technique described by Te Rangihiroa as downward weaving. For warps (the threads hanging down in the picture; whenu) the ancient Maori used thick soft flax fibre threads which were very laborious to make, but as soon as the first traders reached New Zealand the Maori women began to substitute candlewick. Mrs Rerekura used wool for these warps and muka (flax) for the wefts (the threads woven into the warps).

First step: The first weft is suspended between sticks after the warps have been attached as follows—A strip of plaited flax is twisted round a strand of wool (warp) one inch from the end of the strand. A second strand of wool is laid next to the first strand of wool. The top of the first is bent over on to the second and the left end of the muka (plaited flax weft) is then brought to the right and the right end to the left. In this way all the strands of wool (warps) are gradually attached to the first weft.

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Mrs Rerekura states that the stand she uses is a traditional type and that she followed tradition by having a stand on which two ngore can be woven at the same time.

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Like other fine dress cloaks, the ngore is made with a weft (AHO) containing four strands which are worked in two pairs. Mrs Rerekura knots these four strands together on the left or commencing side border.

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Now the other wefts: Four strands of muka are tied together with an ordinary knot. This knot is laid against the first warp. Two strands of muka are placed on top and two underneath this warp. (This second weft is about ¼ of an inch from top of ngore.) The two top strands are then inserted between the two bottom strands and laid underneath the second warp. The two bottom strands are brought over the second warp so the two that were on top before are at the bottom.

In this way the weft is placed around all the warps.

The feathers are added in this way: First, the way they are added on the body of the ngore (as opposed to the top). Neck feathers of a cockerel are used, two feathers being stuck together with soap rolled by hand. The shaft should be clearly exposed. It is held against (say) warp three. The muka when tied around the wool as described previously will also encircle the top of the shaft. Then the bottom of the shaft is bent up and laid against warp No. 4. The muka is then laid around this warp (No. 4) and at the same time it holds in the top of the shaft. Warps 5 and 6 are passed over; process repeated for seven and eight.

On the top of the ngore neck feathers are not used; breast feathers are used instead. They are attached to every warp.

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Mrs Rerekura decorates this cloak with red cockerel feathers which are stuck together with soap.

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Top Right: Attaching feathers to border.

*

*

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Right: Maori lady wearing a ngore type of cloak. (After Angas. The New Zealanders, 1847.)

*

*

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LOVE
for the
AFFLICTED

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Nurse trainee Tima Watene from Hastings works in the Waikato Hospital in the ward where children with infectious diseases are treated.

Some people feel at home in hospitals and some do not. Some like one young crippled girl who has been in the Waikato Hospital from birth, have to feel at home in their ward; they have no other home. For the nurses, hospital life is quite unlike any other job outside; to begin with, the tempo is different: without interruption things have to be done and done quickly according to a very strict timetable; then, it has its own peculiar excitement. The work is done deftly and rhythmically and nurses derive a definite pleasure out of being master of their apparently so harrowing situation; and then the people you make so comfortable usually feel good about you so you can feel good about things in general.

Te Ao Hou found very quickly there was no opportunity for interviewing the nurses in the

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Waikato Hospital; everybody had just five minutes in which something or other had to be done and of this space of time we were given about thirty seconds. But this seemed as it ought to be; we came away feeling rather guilty that we were not patients.

* * *

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Maori nurses, competent and cheerful, fit easily into the environment of a big, city hospital.

* * *

We saw enough to realise how easily the Maori nurses fit into what would seem such an alien environment. People talk about the ‘Maori idea of time’ (which is supposedly very slow) but in the hospital the Maori nurses seem to have the same breathtaking idea of time as every one else and without any particular strain. Away from hospital, some of the girls manage to keep their contact with Maori life going; quite a few are members of the Maori Youth Club in Frankton.

It is of course long ago since Maoris began to enter the nursing profession and some such as Miss Paora and Mrs Babbington have already given a full lifetime of service and are retired, while others too many to mention have made successful careers in nursing. Throughout the country, 85 Maori nurses are in training at present.

Miss Cameron, Director of Nursing, in the Health Department told Te Ao Hou that she would like as many Maori girls as possible succeed as nurses and she thinks that any Maori girl with three or four years' good secondary education can qualify if she tries. But secondary school training is all-important, says Miss Cameron, because it develops habits of concentration and study necessary for success in nursing.

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McDonald

OUR RECORD
OF THREE
VANISHED HOUSES

Carvings from a tomb. “A small school of carving, possibly the art of a single man, appears to have been established at Tokaanu before the middle of last century. This school carved their figures with heads at right angles to the body. Of this school the tomb of Te Heuheu II said to be erected in the years 1850–51 may be taken as typical. Tukino Te Heuheu II, also known as Mananui, died in the large landslide at Waihi in 1846.

Taylor, in Te Ika a Maui, 1870, p. 174. supplies a small figure of the tomb as originally erected at Pukawa. Only three carvings of the tomb, unique in their style and presentation, are extant and in the Dominion Museum. These are the frontal supports for the roof and the facing board above. The vertical poles appear to have been adapted from ridge-pole supports for the roof of a superior house and may even be from a large house such as the one described in Hochstetter (New Zealand: Its Physical Geography, Geology and Natural History, 1867, p. 369). The horizontal facing board above appears once to have been used as the paepae of a superior house.

Two figures on the facing board are reproduced on this and the succeding page. In one the head is somewhat conventional; in the other it is realistic. The construction of hip and shoulder spirals is of much interest. Flattened pakati ridges partially interlock, and plain ridges do not always form a satisfactory ‘S’ curve. We note the use of relatively large fingers and thumb.” (Phillipps).

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McDonald

Many forgotten and half-forgotten facts about 132 carved houses in the south, west and north of the North Island of New Zealand have been gathered by Mr W. J. Phillipps. His record of three of these houses, from which photographs appear here, has been offered to Te Ao Hou. Earlier this year, the Government Printer published the entire collection

Woodcarving is one of the highest expressions of the Maori spirit. Maori woodcarvings at their best show remarkable versatility, sureness and mastery in the handling of form and symbolism. If art critics had studied them as they have Negro sculpture in Africa, or Aztec and Inca sculpture in America or Norse and Goth carving in Europe, no doubt Maori influence on modern art throughout the world would have been similar to these other ancient traditions.

We are still awaiting a creative critic to put the Maori art of carving in its right world perspective. In the meantime, we must be grateful for such patient research workers as Mr W. J. Phillipps, for his careful collections of facts about our carved houses. Mr Phillipps has previously published an inventory of carved houses in the Rotorua and East Coast districts (Records of the Dominion Museum Vol. 1, No. 2, 1944, and Dominion Museum Records in Ethnology Nos. 1 and 2) and a new book, to appear later this year, describes the “Carved Maori Houses of Western and Northern Areas of New Zealand.”

Whoever did not believe it in the past will agree, after reading this new book, that the tribal traditions in the woodcarving of the west and north of the North Island were distinctive and remarkable and their best production was by no means inferior to the best work of Arawa or Ngati Porou. Nor was carving much less prevalent in these areas. The number of houses listed in this book (132) is exactly equal to the number listed for the Rotorua and East Coast. The unfortunate fact is that, in the

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MASTERPIECE FROM OLD TARANAKI
Charles Hale

west and north, a far larger proportion of the masterpieces has been lost, leaving only a few magnificent “pare” fragments, sketches and photographs to testify to wonderful carving traditions.

A few paintings by d'Urville, Earle and J. T. Stewart are the only records of the powerful Tokerau houses, while in Taranaki we would be little better off but for some very fortunate finds in swamps mainly near Waitara. Waikato fared almost as badly, for apart from Angas drawings little had remained; and yet among the few extant museum pieces from ancient Waikato there is one—now in the Wanganui museum and called the Newman pare, origin unknown—which without doubt is among the greatest woodcarving ever done in New Zealand.

These remains of remarkable beauty testify to the extent of our loss. For it is quite clear that in Taranaki. Waikato, Tokerau and elsewhere, there existed in great plenty only a few generations ago, an art that would have been admitted anywhere in the world where it was known, but now this art has joined forever the spirit world it celebrated.

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Carved House of Takerau, “Whare Runanga at Waikare, Bay of Islands. Through the courtesy of Mr J. G. Wilson, Netherby, Waipukurau. I have been enabled to have a photograph taken of a painting by J. T. Stewart, based on an original sketch dating from 1857. A number of f [ unclear: ] tures of interest are worthy of comment. We notice the low sliding door with the relatively large well carved pare above and the inward slanting door posts or whakawal. Similar posts on the window also slope inwards above. There are indications of carving on the tahu end (pane) above the porch; also on the carved slabs (poupou) on the porch walls. The threshold board is absent. Stout wooden pegs fasten the amo to the maihi behind, a feature not hitherto noted, but probably once common. Evidently all rafters were well covered with design, and some ornamentation has been worked into the construction of back wall of the porch. The old custom of Maoris, particularly women, covering the mouth when sitting is well illustrated by the central figure in the group portrayed in front of the building.”
(Phillipps)

“This pare is undoubtedly old, and is one of eight that have been recovered from a swamp in the Bell Block, near Waitara. It is almost certainly a fragment of a carved house of which all other traces have disappeared. Now in the Dominion Museum, it was first figured by Hamilton in ‘Maori Art’. All figures are ridged longitudinally, the main central figure being very wide across the eyes, the head coming to a peak above. A remarkable variety of detail design exists on this pare, as I have already pointed out in ‘Maori Art’ 1946, pp. 3 and 4. This is one of the finest of all known Taranaki pare.”(Phillipps).

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The film of
RUATOKI

At the verandah corner, quite alone, was the infant mistress. She was not looking at us, she was waiting for her children who were running towards her from the school garden, twigs with green leaves waving above their heads. They ran up the steps, a little out of breath, and crowded round to be the first to hand the mistress their own twig. Soon she had them all, a big bundle, held against her with both arms. And the children were happy.

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The camerman's equipment caused a good deal of curiosity at Tauarau Pa, Ruatoki.

This is what they call ‘activity training’ and as part of the ‘modern education’, all infant mistresses do it, or something like it, even in the distant backblocks of Ruatoki (the Ruatoki Maori District High School) where we were. First it is leaves the children are taught to gather together; later it will be knowledge.

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Principal actor was Rev. Wharetini Rangi, the Anglican Pastor at Ruatoki. After only one afternoon's practice, he very convincingly played the part of a chief telling his people the importance of education in a modern age. The film men thought he had a great screen personality. He gained a pretty good idea of film acting and was sorry his cinema career had not started a little earlier in life.

In their concern with the leaves the children hardly noticed the unusual and very prominent invasion the school was suffering. There was not only Te Ao Hou visiting the school but also the Pacific Film Company, to make a film about Maori education; that meant that Wellington characters were strolling all over the lawns, a camera man shooting one of the Maori mistresses and her class on one end of the school grounds while a photographer was at work in the third form mathematics class. Another strange identity was

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The film shows a crowd gathered on the marae at Tauarau and the camera, after moving through the people, finally comes to rest on these three prominent Ruatoki women.

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In one passage, shot at Rewarewa Pa, Ruatoki, the film shows a tribal gathering discussing education inside the meeting house at night.

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looking at the little children on the playground who were organized around some skipping ropes.

The lovely lawns and the rose garden, the mountain ranges in the background, the friendly look of the school were just what the film men were looking for. So they shot quite a number of scenes there; such as the pretty Maori school mistress talking to one of the parents, telling her that her daughter had made no progress at school because she had been kept home too often. After they finished talking the mother walked back to her car; the school mistress back to the school with always that lovely background of hills, lawn, roses. And they repeated it, and repeated it again, to get it just right, and for almost an hour you saw the mother walking in one, and the mistress in another direction on the school grounds.

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LEFT TOP: Most of Ruatoki's new homes are built by Mr Jack Hayes. As a building contractor, he also takes on jobs in the Whakatane Borough, but finds building faster under the labour contracts of the Department of Maori Affairs which is responsible for most of the building in Ruatoki. Under the department, he says, there is no danger of houses not being completed through lack of materials. In his experience, delay in Maori house construction is due to lack of labour. Unskilled men are available, but the standard of their work is not high enough. Mr Hayes began his building career as a working foreman of a departmental building gang.

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LEFT: Mr Waaka Rahi, the secretary of the Mahurehure tribal committee, is keenly interested in the beautiful new dining hall now being built at Rewarewa Pa (shown BELOW). This hall, on the only Ruatoki marae connected to electric power, will be an important social centre in the future. Even at its present cost of £6,000 it could not have been built but for the voluntary work by the farmers of the community. The little platform in front represents the remains of the little hall that was there before. It dated from 1929 and was in memory of the soldiers of the first world war; the new hall, with the Anzac emblem on the roof, commemorates both wars.

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Ruatoki farmers have always believed in pig breeding and pig clubs and one elder, Mr Hohapata Heremia, has been particularly active in encouraging younger farmers to breed pigs. Frederic Iopata (BELOW) has shown his Birkdale boars, sows and offspring at Galatea. Rotorua, Tauranga. Te Puke and Whakatane in 1953 and again at Whakatane in 1954, when he entered one champion, one reserve champion, four firsts and two seconds. RIGHT: Mr Iopata's champion Birkdale boar.

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Leading Piggery. Mr Frederic (Miki) Iopata has in two years won thirty trophies with his Birkdale pedigree pigs. One of his boars was judged Champion in Whakatane in 1954.

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It is only four years ago since Mr Iopata, a returned serviceman, took over his father's 87 acre farm. He at once began to develop his piggery as a sideline without any outside help.

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His well-kept farm maintains 50 cows, innumerable ducks and fowls, grew enough maize last year to fill 300 bags valued at £2 each, and as a survival of ancient days, Mr Iopata has a genuine traditional Maori kumera pit (PHOTOS ON RIGHT). The top is narrow but the floor is far larger and the kumaras stored at the bottom of the pit, the last remains of the previous harvest were still excellent after a year. Mr Iopata saw similar pits in Italy to store wine. A new home is being built for him by the government at the present time.

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Apart from looking after her five children all of school age, Mrs Iopata is a very important person to all the farm animals.

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One of the great chiefs of the early years of the century was Renata te Ua Numea Kereru, one of the paramount chiefs of Tuhoe and the paramount chief of Ngati Rongo. It was in his day and to a great extent due to his influence that farming started in Ruatoki, that the people took an interest in the cheese factory and in the school all established after 1900.

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Science is taught in the secondary department of the Ruatoki Maori District High School to fit students for the School Certificate examination.

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Tom Te Whetu has lost interest in many of his former worldly activities. We came to ask him about the new hall at Ngahina Pa. Tongaokioki which had been opened recently. He had been one of the principal helpers and told us the amusing story of many years of building effort and trouble with the building controller. But soon he asked us what we thought of the drink problem; he told us that to him nothing was of real importance now except religion and that no solution of human problems was possible except by submission to the divine.

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For the younger ones the play activities that are part of the school curriculum are particularly important as they learn to work together in an organized way.

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Kakatarahae, the flat hill in the background, was once occupied by Ueimua, Tuhoe's elder brother, but after the famous battle in which Ueimua was killed and Tuhoe ate his heart, Kakatarahae became Tuhoe's pa and the birthplace of the Tuhoe tribe.

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K. Tumoana, settler on the new development scheme, who is also an authority on the history of the area and pointed out to us, with reference to Elsdon Best's map, where Kakatarahae is and where Te Putiki, Tuhoe's previous pa was.

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Owhakatoro, the settlement at the foot of Kakatarahae, is part of a Maori development scheme. Four dairy farmers have recently been settled on it and the photo below shows the milking shed of one of them, Mr K. Tumoana.

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People wondered what this invasion was aiming at; what kind of film was this? Did we come to make money? We tried to explain: it is a film to show the Maoris' search for knowledge in the modern world; the people and the leaders realise the need for education, but it is not easy for the children to learn the knowledge of what is still partly a strange culture, and it is not easy for the parents to give their children all the support they need; and the Maori people are very conscious of this and very keen that their children should learn, but not always quite sure how it should be done. But many have succeeded in becoming educated and they now take part in all the complicated activities that make up a modern world. We wanted to tell that whole story in a film, to show it to people in a clear visual form. The Maori Purposes Fund is paying for it, we said and no one will make money.

We tried to explain that to the people of Ruatoki while we were making the film and Miss Ann Delamere came with us and explained it to the old people in the Maori language, and I think that many understood what we were trying to do.

Why did we choose Ruatoki, it was asked? There was no very special reason; both the school and the valley were suitable for a film. We knew that there were people at Ruatoki who would make good actors; and Ruatoki with over 1000 Maoris in a compact area has retained a particularly strong Maori character. There were other places that would have done as well, but in Ruatoki you could see the old way of life and you could see the middle aged and the young men who are gradually giving Ruatoki a more modern outlook but still essentiall a Maori outlook. We met the men who run the only Maori-managed and completely Maori-staffed cheese factory; we met the man who started pigfarming four years ago when his father died and who has now won more prizes and trophies with his pigs than he or we could count; we met the Maori contractor who is building new homes in Ruatoki, and we met the various chiefs and saw how one acts as champion for his people among the pakehas, while another, working hard on his farm is organizing the building of a large dining hall; another again, although he has helped with the newly opened hall on his marae, has lately become very religious and has partly withdrawn from the activities of worldly leadership.

Te Ao Hou met these men and is presenting their pictures on these pages. They were all very willing to do their part in telling the story of the Maori search for knowledge, act in the film and make the facilities of their maraes available. When it came to the actual shooting, many were critical. A whole evening was spent with sound apparatus taking a few unconnected sentences spoken inside a meeting house while the camera moved backwards and forwards and the sound mechanic took and retook his sound sequences. A local chief commented (in Maori) that never had so much nonsense been spoken on his marae. True, it sounded like that; for in a film you may have three passages playing in exactly the same meeting house, but one occurs in the beginning, one in the middle and one at the end of a film. It is convenient to take the three passages at the same time and to the actors there seems little sense in it, but when the whole film is put together it looks very reasonable.

Let us hope that it will be so with the film on Maori education—THE WILL TO LEARN—for it is intended to send this film everywhere in the Maori world so that it can be seen and discussed and so that as a result of the film's message and the discussions it may become easier for the children of this generation to learn and to understand the world of today. So it comes back again to the first thing we saw when we entered the school grounds at Ruatoki, the children innocently running about and gathering leaves, while their elders are preparing them to learn, later, all the difficult skills and reasonings of modern man.

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Much of the film was shot at the Ruatoki District High School.

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PROVERBIAL AND POPULAR SAYINGS OF THE MAORI

NGA WHAKATAUKI ME NGA PEPEHA MAORI

Kua tae mai te tono mai a “Te Ao Hou” ki ahau, kia tukuna atu ki a ia etahi o nga whakatauki i korerotia e ahau ki te reo irirangi i nga ra ki muri. Na reira, he ruarua nei nga whakatauki mo naianei. I whakaae ai ahau ki tana tono, he mohio noku ki te kore e whakarapopototia enei korero, ka ngaro me he Moa. He kupu whakamarama i te tuatahi. E ngawari ke ki ahau te whakahua “Whakatauki” i te “Whakatauaki” na reira ka whakahuangia e ahau te kupu tuatahi. Tuarua, ko nga whakatauki ka uru ki roto i ta tatou pukapuka, no nga iwi katoa, na reira, he tono atu tenei ki a koutou, mehemea kei te he nga whakamarama, nga korero ranei, koia nei te wa mo te whakatikatika, na, me tuku mai a koutou korero ki ahau ki Putiki. Wanganui, ki te Etita ranei o “Te Ao Hou.” Ko nga whakatauki nei ma a tatou tamariki, me kore ratou e kite i te pai o ta te Maori whakahua i te kupu, a, me kore ratou e ngakaunui ki te hopu, ki te manaaki, ki te atawhai, i nga maramara whakatauki a o tatou tupuna, kua waiho ake nei ki te whaiao, ki te ao marama.

1.

“E kore ahau e ngaro, he kakano i ruia mai i Rangiatea.”

Ko tenei whakatauki no tenei waka no Aotea. Ko te iwi kei te pupuri tonu i tenei whakatauki mai i mua, tac noa mai ki tenei ra, ko Ngati Ruanui, a ko etahi hoki o nga karangaranga hapu o Ngarauru i roto o Taranaki. I mua i taku whakamaoritanga i tenei whakatauki ki te reo Maori o te ao hou, me whakamarama e ahau te tikanga o etahi o nga kupu o te whakatauki nei. Ko Rangiatea te ingoa toopu o nga moutcre c karangatia ana ki te reo pakeha ko te Society Group. Otira, ki te tirohia e te tangata ki nga mapi pakeha o nga moutere o te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa, ka kitea iho te ingoa ehara i Rangiatea, engari Raiatea. Na te whakahua ki te reo o nga Maori o aua moutere i pera ai te takoto o te kupu, engari ia, kotahi tonu enei kupu e rua. Mehemea ki te hoki whakamuri rawa nga korero, ka kitea te timatanga mai o tenei ingoa. Rangiatea. Ki nga

 

MAORI

The Proverbs presented here are among those discussed in my radio talks some time ago. I have agreed to publish them in Te Ao Hou knowing that if these sayings are not printed, they will disappear like the Moa. There are one or two explanations which I wish to make. I prefer the Maori word “Whakatauki” to “Whakatauaki” for the English word “Proverb,” hence I have used the former. Secondly, the proverbs which I have quoted, are taken from the sayings of the various tribes throughout New Zealand, and I make a special request to all readers to forward any explanations, comments or corrections either to me at Putiki, Wanganui, or to the Editor of Te Ao Hou. These proverbs are mainly for our young people in order that they may appreciate the methods by which our elders used these sayings, and in order that they may endeavour to preserve, hold and use the few remaining proverbs which our ancestors have bequeathed to this world of progress and light.

1.

“I will not disappear, the seed broadcast from Rangiatea.”

This proverb originates from the Aotea canoe. The tribes which have used this proverb from its very beginning till now are the Ngati Ruanui, and some of the sub-tribes within the Ngarauru Tribe of Taranaki. Before I proceed to explain the modern meaning of this proverb, a few comments regarding some of the words used are necessary. Rangiatea is the name given to a group of islands known in the English as the Society Group. However, a search of a map of the islands in the Pacific Ocean reveals that the name Rangiatea does not appear, but that Raiatea is the name given. It is due to the pronunciation of the natives of those islands that the word appears as Raiatea, but Rangiatea and Raiatea are one and the same place. Should we refer to earlier history, the origin of the name Rangiatea can be easily traced. According to the ancient legends of our ancestors, Rangi married Papatuanuku with the result that they had several children. (Should

 
– 42 –
 

korero tawhito a o tatou tupuna, i moe a Rangi i a Papatuanuku. Ka puta he tinitini a raua uri. (Mehemea etahi o koutou e hiahia ana kia mohio ki te roanga atu o enei korero mo Rangi raua ko Papa, tirohia enei pukapuka: “Tuhoe” Nama rua, me “Te Maori” Nama tahi, nama rua. Ko enei pukapuka na te Peehi i tuhi). I taua wa i whanau ai a raua tamariki, e awhi a kiri tonu ana a Rangi raua ko Papa. No te wa i whakaae ai a raua tamariki me wehe raua, ka whakaaetia ma Tane-Mahuta raua e wehe. Na wehea ana raua e Tane-Mahuta. Koia tena ko Papatuanuku e takoto nei, ko Rangi e tu iho nei i te ao atea, watea, akea ranei ki tetahi whakahua o te kupu. Koia tena i karangatia ai ko Rangiatea. Na, mehemea e hoki mai ana nga korero ki te ao marama nei, he wahi tapu kei te moutere o Rangiatea ara Raiatea, koia hoki tenei ko te moutere i haerc mai ai a Turi me tona waka me Aotea i te Hekenga mai. I te mea kua whakamaramatia te ingoa nei a Rangiatea, me hoki aku whakamarama ki te tikanga o te whakatauki nei. Ko te tikanga o tenei whakatauki, ko te kaha, ko te pakari, ko te u o te kawai tangata, o te kauhau tupuna o tenei waka o Aotea. Otira, ki te whakahuatia ki te reo Maori o te ao hou, e penei ana: E kore toku mana, toku wehi e ngaro e pehia ranei e etahi atu mana, no te mea, ko toku mana, me toku wehi i mauria mai e oku tupuna i Hawaiki ra ano.

2.

“Ta te tamariki, tana mahi he wawahi taha.”

I nga wa o mua, he taonga tino nui te taha, he taonga hei harihari wai. Na reira, ka ata tiakina nga taha o mua kei pakaru ka kore he taonga hei hari wai. Na, ko tenei whakatauki he kupu whakarite ki nga tamariki o tenei whakatupuranga. Kua takoto ke mai nga korero a o tatou matua me penei, me pera a tatou tamariki; tahuri ake nga tamariki o naianei, waiho ana nga korero a o tatou matua kia takoto, mahi ke ana i etahi atu mahi. Otira, kei te whakahe ahau, i te mea kei te taitamariki tonu ahau, ki nga kupu o te whakatauki nei. Ki toku nei whakaaro, na ke nga kupu mo te whakatauki nei: “Ta te tangata tana mahi, he wawahi taha,” i te mea, ehara i a tatou tamariki te he i kore ai ratou c whai i nga tikanga, i nga tohutohu, me nga korero a o tatou matua, cangri kei nga matua ano o nga tamariki te he. Kei te ngaro haere te reo Maori i roto i te rangatahi he kore e kaha no nga matua ki te ako i a ratou tamariki. Kei te ngaro nga tikanga Maori i te ngoikore o nga matua ki te ako i a ratou tamariki. Na reira i whakahe ai ahau ki tenei whakatauki. Kei te whakapaengia kei a taou tamariki te he; ko ahau e mea ana, kahore: kei nga matua ke te he!

3.

“He tangata takahi manuhiri, he marae puehu.”

Ki te reo Maori o naianei, e penei ana te takoto o te whakatauki nei: Ki tekore te manuhiri e manaakitia, ka kino te marae. He ture tuturu tenei no te iwi Maori mai ra ano i nga wa o nehera, ara, kia mutu ra ano te manaaki i te manuhiri, katahi ano ka tahuri ki nga tangata o te

 
 

any reader wish to delve further into this history regarding Rangi and Papa, he is referred to these books: “Tuhoe,” Vol. 2, and “The Maori,” Vols. 1 and 2, by Best). At the time they begat children, Rangi and Papa were still united, and when their children agreed that they should be separated, Tane-Mahuta was the one appointed to do this, and so Tane separated his parents. Hence we have Papa-tuanuku (the earth) and Rangi above (the sky) and thus the name Rangiatea originated. Rangiatea is also a sacred spot and the place from which Turi, the captain of the Aotea canoe, came during the great migration. The modern meaning of this proverb is the strength, the power and the ability of the descendants of the ancestors from the Aotea canoe, and a free interpretation runs something like this: My prestige and my strength shall not fade nor be replaced, for such prestige and strength has been derived from my ancestors even from Hawaiki.

2.

“All that the young people do, is to break the calabashes.”

During ancient days, calabashes were treasured articles, they being the only vessels available for carting water. Great care was taken lest damage be done to them. This proverb is meant as a charge against the youth of to-day. Our ancestors and elders in their day, left for the use of the generations of to-day, certain sayings and customs which the youth of the present have ignored. However, I do not personally agree with the sentiments expressed by this proverb. It would have been more correct had the proverb read: “All that man does is to break calabashes,” for I hold the view that the youth cannot entirely be blamed for the lack of showing interest in Maori customs and the like, but parents are equally at fault. The Maori language is fast disappearing amongst the youth of to-day, simply because parents fail to teach them. Our youth are blamed for this indifference, but the parents are more at fault.

3.

A person who shows disrespect (literally “trample”) to a guest, causes dust within the courtyard.”

This proverb is rarely used, but is meant to prove Maori hospitality. It has always been a Maori custom for guests to be entertained and fed before the hosts. For instance, it is not Maori etiquette for a host to sit down for a meal with his guest. The normal procedure is for the guest first to have his meal and then the host. It is immaterial whether the guest is a pauper or one of noble blood: and a host who ignores this custom disregards ancient Maori lore.

4.

“Above is near, but below is far.”

Taharakau, a high-ranking chief of Gisborne, was responsible for uttering these famous words. Taharakau and a companion. Te Angiangi, left Gisborne on their way to Te Reinga, near Wairoa. Te Angiangi, before their departure, clothed himself with all his beautiful garments, whilst Taharakau busied himself wrapping up his garments. The morning they left Gisborne (walked),

 
– 43 –
 

kainga; ara, me penei—ko nga manuhiri ki mua i te tangata whenua. He ture pai tenei i tukuna mai ki a tatou e o tatou tupuna, engari inaianei, kei te ahua rereke nga whakahaere ki etahi o o tatou marae. Kua rite noa iho inaianei te manuhiri ki nga tangata whenua o etahi o o tatou marae, kua ngaro te ngakau whakanui i te manuhiri. Kia matua manaakitia te manuhiri, ahakoa he manuhiri iti, rahi ranei, katahi ano nga tangata o te marae ka ahei kia manaakitia.

4.

“He tata a runga, he roa a raro.”

Ko tenei korero, na Taharakau, he rangatira no Turanga. I haere atu a Taharakau raua ko Te Angiangi i Turanga ki Te Reinga, wahi o Te Wairoa, Ka kakahu a Te Angiangi i ana kakahu papai katoa, a, taimaha ake ia i ana kakahu. Ko Taharakau, kei te aro ke a ia ki te pokai i etahi kakahu mona. Ko te ra e haere nei nga tokorua nei, he ra ataahua rawa atu. Katahi a Te Angiangi ka karanga atu ki tana hoa: “E Taha, hei aha ena ka mauria na e koe i te rangi ataahua, a, e whiti ana te ra?” Ka whakahokia e Taharakau: “He tata a runga, he roa a raro.” Heoi ano, ka haere nga tokorua nei, engari me te titiro whakahawea ano o Te Angiangi ki tana hoa, no te mea he rangatira hoki a Taharakau a kahore e tika ana kia pera te ahua o te haere a te rangatira. Ka tata haere atu raua ki te kainga e haeretia nei e raua, ara, ki Te Reinga, ka timata te karakia haere a Taharakau ki te wewete i nga kakahu i pokaingia ra c ia, ka uhingia e ia tetahi ki runga i a ia, ka herengia e ia tetahi pito ki tetahi pokohiwi, ko tetahi ki tetahi. Na wai ra, ka whakaheke te ua. Kihai i roa, ka maku katoa a Te Angiangi, ka timata te heke haere o te wai ki roto i a ia. Katahi a ia ka karanga atu ki a Taharakau: “E Taha e, homai ra etahi o kakahu ki ahau; kua maku katoa ahau, a kei te makariri ahau.” Ka whakahokia e Taharakau: “E! he! he! i ki atu ra hoki ahau ki a koe, he tata a runga he roa a raro.” Kahore i roa i muri mai, ka mutu te ua, ka whiti ano te ra.

 

was a beautiful one, with no signs of rain. Te Angiangi called out to his friend: “Taha! Why are you taking so much clothes on such a fine day as this?” To this, Taharakau replied: “Above is near, but below is far.” Eventually the two set off on their journey, but Te Angiangi could not understand why his friend had travelled thus without the proper robes of a chief. As they were approaching their destination, Taharakau began to chant an incantation, and before long, thunder was heard. Taharakau then began to unwrap his garments and clothed himself so thoroughly that there was no chance of his becoming wet. Presently heavy rain fell and before long, Te Angiangi was thoroughly wet, whereupon he called out to Taharakau: “Taha, give me some of your garments; I am thoroughly wet and am very cold.” In reply, Taharakau said: “Did not I tell you that ‘above is near, and below far away’?” Immediately after this, rain ceased and the weather continued to be fine. The moral of this proverb is that one should be fully prepared at all times for eventualities.

 

FOR ALL THE SAINTS

Continued from page 24

people things they don't want to know.

It was bright moonlight at the station. Small groups of people stood around waiting to see others off in a rail-car that looked much to small and toy-like for the long journey round the foot of the hills that lay to the north-west of the town. Alice gripped my arm till my eyes watered, and then she mistook that for something else, and gripped harder still.

“Goodbye, goodbye.” she waved out of the window, the plume shedding feathers over everything near her, “see you soon, Jacko, goodbye.”

But I never saw Alice again. I stayed on at the hospital for the rest of the summer, and then went south to another job, and Alice hadn't returned before I left. Auntie must be sick, I thought, or maybe it's taking her longer to fix the farm than she expected. Several months later I received a letter from my mother. “I've got some news for you,” she wrote. “Alice came back not long ago, but her place in the kitchen was taken, so they found her a job in the laundry. She got on all right at first, but soon there was more of the old trouble, and when she nearly strangled one of the other women, things came to a head, and they had her put away quietly. There was quite a bit about it in the paper, but of course she wouldn't know that. Poor Alice. Do you remember how she played the piano that night and showed us a photo of John Buchan? And oh, my dear, till your dying days, will you ever forget that hat?”

– 44 –

A TAWHAKI
KA HAERE KI TE TAONE na Moko

Ko te ra wha o te wiki he Wenerei. Koianei te ra i hokona mai e Te Whetu tetahi motoka hei mau haere i tana hunuku. Kaore rawa e warewaretia tenei Wenerei. Ka maumahara tonu nga tamariki ki te taenga mai o te taputapu miharo a to ratou matua, ara to ratou motoka. Ka miharo ratou ki te haruru a taua motoka. He waiata tino reka tenei ki a ratou. Ko tana aue he penei i te tangi a te hipi nei, engari ki a Tawhaki ma he tangitangi tino reka ke. Ki reira ratou whakatangitangi ai i to ratou motoka. Mutu kau ana te whakatangi a tetahi ka rere atu ano tetahi. Puta mai ana nga iwi katoa o Parahaki ki te whakaronga, ki te miharo, ki te matakitaki hoki i te waka o Te Whetu.

I te ata po tonu o te ra wha ka maranga te hunuku a Te Whetu ki te whakatikatika i a ratou mo te haere ki te taone.

Ka mea atu a Te Whetu ki tona hoa wahine, “E, me tahitahi ano pea koe i nga puehu o to taua waka; he paruparu rawa mo te taone.”

Ka whakahoki te hoa, “Me pehea hoki e taea ai te tahitahi inaianei? Kei te pouri tonu a waho ana kaore e kore kua maku katoa.”

Ka mea ano a Te Whetu, “Kua tika hoki tau. A kati hai aha! Taihoa pea kia tata atu tatou ki te taone, ki reira tahitahi ai.” Ka huri ia ki a Tawhaki ka mea atu. “Tikina he wai mo te motoka.”

Ka patai a Tawhaki. “Mo hea hoki tena wai?”

Ka ki atu tana matua, “Mo te tikera, te mea i mua tonu i te waka. He potae tona penei ano i te tikera. He reitieta te ingoa o taua mea ki nga pakeha. Me tango e koe te potae ka whakaki ai ki te wai.” Ka haere a Tawhaki ki tana mahi. Ka mea atu a Te Whetu ki tana tamahine ki a Haumapuhia kia whakatikahia te hate o Heke. Ka ki ia, “Tino kino ke te panekaka o tena tamaiti. Akuanei ka whakama tatou i a ia i te taone.”

Ko nga taina o Tawhaki ko Haumapuhia, ko Mihi, ko Tane, ko Heke. Tekau ma rua nga tau o Haumapuhia, tekau o Mihi, e waru o Tane, e rima hoki o Heke. Ka noho te hunuku ki te kai.

Ka mutu ta ratou kai. Kua marama a waho. Ka puta ake a Te Whetu raua ko tona hoa wahine; e haere atu ana ki te motoka. I muri i a raua ka whai mai a Tawhaki, a Haumapuhia, a Mihi, a Tane, a Heke hoki. Ka piki ratou ki runga i to ratou waka. Ko Heke, te mokai, ka noho ia ki mua, ki waenganui i ona matua, ko Tawhaki ma, ki muri. Ka haruru mai te motoka, katahi ka haere. Ka koa katoa nga tamariki, me nga matua hoki mo tenei haere parekareka.

Tae atu ana ratou ki te toa i Parahaki ka peka ratou ki te hoko penehini mo te motoka, ki te hoko pai hoki hei ngaungau haere ma ratou. Ka kite mai a Ngaheu i tona hoa i a Tawhaki ka tiwaha mai, “E hoa Tawhaki, e haere ana koutou ki hea?”

Ka whakahoki a Tawhaki ka mea, “E haere ana matou ki te taone ki Rotorua. Kei te pirangi koe ki te haere?”

Ka whakaae atu a Ngaheu. Kei te tino pirangi ia. Ka patai atu a Tawhaki ki tona matua mehemea e whakaae ana ia kia haere tona hoa a Ngaheu i to ratou taha.

Ka korero atu te matua, “Pai noa iho. Engari me noho ia i runga i a koe, Kei te ki hoki to tatou waka.”

Pau katoa te rere a Ngaheu ki tona kainga. He waimaria kaore i tino tawhiti i te toa. Kaore i roa ka puta ake a Ngaheu e mau haere ana i etahi o ona kakahu taone. Ko te tarau anake te kakahu kua uru ia ki roto. Piki atu ana a Ngaheu haere ana te motoka. Ka timata a Ngaheu ki te whakamau i ona kakahu. He mahi uaua tonu, e tokorima hoki ratou kei muri e noho ana. Ka mau ia i tona hate, i tona poraka, i tona koti hoki. Mau ana enei ka tahuri ia ki te whakamau i ona hu. Ka ki atu a Tawhaki, “E hoa, no nahea o waewae i horoia ai, te haunga hoki!”

Ka whakahoki atu a Ngaheu, “Ei, kia tika ra, he ma ake pea aku waewae i to kanohi!”

Ka ki atu a Tawhaki. “E hoa, he kino o hu porowhiua atu ai ki waho!”

Ka mea ano a Ngahou, “Kaua hoki e pena ki to hoa. He heru ano tou?”

Ka ki atu a Tawhaki kaore ona heru, engari i a Haumapuhia tetahi.

Ka ki atu a Ngaheu ki a Haumapuhia, “E kare, homai to heru ki au hei heru i aku makawe kia pai tonu kia pirangi mai ai nga kotiro o Rotorua ki au. Anei taku pounamu hinu whakapiata i aku makawe.” Ka kumea ake e ia tana

– 45 –

pounamu hinu, ka ringihia tetahi wahi ki roto i tona ringa, katahi ka pania ki ona makawe. Na te reka o te kakara o te hinu, ka rere atu hoki a Tawhaki ki te pani i ona makawe. Mutu ana tana, ka rere atu ko Tane. Ka whakaaro nga kotiro he pai tonu pea me pani hoki o raua makawe. Pau katoa te hinu! Kakara ana te motoka!

Ka mea atu a Tawhaki ki a Tane, “E hoa, kati noa te heru i to waero hoiho! Hoatu te heru ki a Mihi.”

Ka ki atu a Tane, “E, ko tou ano te waero hoiho!”

Ko to ratou motoka kei te pai rawa atu te haere. Piki atu, heke atu i nga puke, pai noa iho. He maha tonu nga moturore kua whakarerea ki muri.

Ka korero a Te Whetu, “He tangata miharo te tangata nei a Henare Whooto, nana hoki i hanga te taputapu nei. E, he tino tohunga ke! Titiro ki te mahi a ona ringaringa, te motoka nei; e, ka mau te wehi!” Ka patai atu a Tawhaki tena na Henare tonu i hanga to ratou waka. Ka whakahoki tona matua, “Nana tonu, na te tohunga nei na Henare. He tangata tino marama. Whakarongo ki te haruru a te tauptapu nei. Pai noa iho.” He whakarongo ratou katoa, ka whakapai i te ingoa o Henare Whooto.

Ka mea ake a Ngaheu, “He aha te ingoa o te motoka nei?”

Ka ki atu a Tawhaki, “He ‘Model A’ ki te pakeha. Kaore au e mohio ana, he aha ki a tatou.”

Ka ki ake te whaea o Tawhaki, “He motoka, koi na te mea nui ki a tatou. Hei aha te ‘Model’ aha ake ra!”

I tenei wa, kei te waiata a Haumapuhia. Kare i roa ka waiata ratou katoa me te haruru mai ano o te motoka. Mutu ana te waiata i tetahi waiata, ka whakatangihia e Te Whatu te mea whakatangitangi o te waka. Ka kata te iwi nei, ka pakipkai i o ratou ringaringa. Ka puta ake tenei waiata i te whaea o Tawhaki.

“Kore au e pai, ki te piki wakena engari motoka ka piki atu au e!”

Ka waiatatia taua rarangi, ka hakatia. Pukana ana nga karu o Te Whetu, ka whtero te rero! Ka wareware ia ki te mau ki te wira o te waka. Katahi ka haere te motoka i tona haere. Tata tonu ka tahuri!

Ka mea atu tona hoa wahine, “Ei, ki a koe hoki, kia tupato, kei mate tatou i a koe.”

Ka ki atu a Te Whetu, “Kja tika hoki. Koina te he o te haka me te taraiwa hoki. A, kati, ma koutou e haka a tatou waiata!”

Ka ki ake a Tawhaki, “Pehea te tawhiti ki te taone inaianei?”

“Tawhiti noa atu. Kare ano tatou kia tae noa ki Waiotapu.”

Mutu ana tana korero, katahi ano ka rongo ratou e paku ana tetahi wahi o te motoka, ka kotiti haere.

Ka mea te whaea o Tawhaki, “He aha hoki tenei raruraru kua tae mai ki a tatou?”

Ka whakaturia te motoka e Te Whetu, ka puta ratou katoa ki te titiro i te raruraru. Ka kitea e Tawhaki.

“Anei te raruraru! Kua pakaru te taea!” Ka ki ake a Te Whetu, “Ka raru hoki tatou i te taea na. Ana, e hoa ma, tangohio, ka whakamau ai i tena i muri na. Tino waimaria he hou tena.”

Tahuri ana a Tawhaki raua ko Ngaheu ki te whakamau i te taca hou, a, ka mutu, ka haere ano te iwi nei.

Ka patai a Tawhaki ki tona matua, “Na Henare ano i hanga te taea i pakaru ra?” Ka whakahoki a Tawhaki, “E hara nana! Na tetahi tangata noa atu i hanga tena. Mehemea na Henare i mahi, koare e pakaru!” Na tenei korero ka noho puku a Tawhaki. Ka haere pai ano te motoka, ka maero, a, kua tata ki te taone.

Ka ki ake a Te Whetu, “A, me tu tatou inaianei ki te tahitahi i to tatou waka, ki te whakatikatika hoki i a tatou.”

Ka tu, ka whakatika ratou ki te tahitahi, ki te whakapai hoki i te motoka. Ana! piata mai ana! He tau tonu! Piki atu ana ratou, ka haere ano. Ka nui hoki te koa o nga ngakau, kua tata te tae. Kei te wawata nga tamariki, kei te whakaaro mo nga ahikirimi hei mitimiti ma ratou, mo nga rare hei ngaungau, mo nga toa hei hokohoko taonga papai, mo tetahi pikitia hoki hei matakitaki ma ratou. He ra tino koa tenei.

Engari he aha hoki tenei? Kua tu te motoka. Kei waho te hunuku e tirotiro haere ana. Kei te korero a Te Whetu.

“E hoa, Tawhaki; tikina atu te taputapu a Henare e takoto mai ra!” Kua makere tetahi o nga wira. Kua hipa kei mua noa atu e takoto ana. No Ngaheu ma kei te kimi haere i nga mea pupuri i te wira ki te motoka. Kua penei etahi i te kararehe nei. Kei runga i te oneone e tiro haere ana.

Ko Te Whetu kei te taha o tana motoka e tu ana. Kua tupou te mahunga. Ka tangi ia ka mea, “E hoa Henare, he tino kino koe ki to hoa ki a Te Whetu. He aha koe i penei ai ki ahau? Tino raru au i akoe i tenei ra!”

Ka kitea nga mea nei, ka mauria mai ki te motoka. Ka tahuri a Tawhaki raua ko Ngaheu ki te whakamaumau. Ahakoa to raua kuare, ka whakamomori tonu raua. Ka titiro nga tamariki ki to ratou matua, ka aroha, kua kite hoki ratou i te pouri i runga i a ia. Heoi, ka mutu te whakamau ka ki atu te hoa wahine o Te Whetu ki a ia. “Haramai ra, ka haere tatou.”

Haere ana, kore rawa tetahi i korero. A, ka tae ki te taone. Kua koa ano nga ngakau. Kua ahua katakata ano a Te Whetu.

Katahi ka mea atu a Tawhaki ki tona matua me te kata ano, “Na wai ano i hanga te wira i makere mai ra?”

Ka mea atu a Te Whetu, “Na te taewara nei na Henare Whooto! Kia tere to haere atu, kei kikia atu koe!”

Ka mutu.

– 46 –

THE HOME GARDEN

DUST MULCH CONSERVES MOISTURE

Vegetable Garden

This is an important time of the year in providing for the autumn and winter supply of vegetables, especially cabbage, cauliflower, and lettuce. Sowings of beans can also be made. Keep spraying tomatoes and late potatoes for blight, and also attend to the tying up and pinching of laterals from staked tomatoes. Continue sowings of raddish, carrots, etc.

Collect all refuse, decayed leaves, lawn clippings and dump in a suitable place to rot for use at a later date.

When onions are matured they should be carefully lifted, laid out to dry and then stored for winter use. During March, onion seed may be sown for transplanting during the spring; always sow in drills as they are then much easier to keep clean.

All vacant areas should now be sown in a cover crop such as blue lupins for digging under during the winter or early spring months.

When mature, early pumpkins may be lifted and stored in a dry cool place. Many pumpkins and marrows are destroyed by insects and disease, if left out in the garden for unduly long periods after the vines have died down and the crop is thoroughly ripe.

Always keep the soil well stirred between growing crops that have not been otherwise mulched, as a good dust mulch conserves moisture which will carry the crop through a long period of hot dry weather conditions.

Flower Garden

Now is the time to complete layering carnations. This should be done as early as possible.

Keep the soil loose about Gladioli, and tie them to stakes.

Roses are often attacked by mildew at this time of the year and should be sprayed for control of this disease which is often prevalent.

Continue to supply dahlias and chrysanthemums with liquid manure, and stake and tie them to prevent wind damage.

Prepare land and plant daffodil and jonquil bulbs after applying a liberal dressing of bonedust or superphosphate. Stocks and Iceland poppies can now be set out, especially in the Auckland District, and if well established they will flower during the winter months.

Cineraria seed can be sown for planting out during the spring.

During dry spells, water should be used copiously and advantage should always be taken of rainfall. Always cultivate after rain, in an effort to conserve moisture.

Continue to spray apple trees with arsenate of lead or D.D.T. for the control of codlin moth. This spray should be applied every 14 days.

Continue spraying peach and plum trees to control brown rot, and gooseberry bushes with bordeaux for leaf spot which is most troublesome at this time of the year.

Summer pruning can now be carried out, especially with trees that have made a lot of soft and straggly growth which may not ripen properly. This is best done by cutting out surplus shoots rather than by cutting back leaders. Additional light and air will greatly benefit the trees and help the formation of fruit spurs.

Where strawberry planting is intended, the ground should be prepared in good time to receive the plants. Manure should be applied early and worked thoroughly into the soil.

Loganberries: As soon as fruiting is over, the rods that bore the fruit should be cut out. It is far better to remove them now than to wait for winter as it leaves more room for the young rods, leading to better development of buds and more complete ripening of the wood, due to the extra air and sunlight available. Harvest and store all fruit as it becomes ripe, keeping some for winter use.

CHILDREN

Ki a Te Etita,

Tena koe. E tono atu ana ahau i taku reta ki a koe. I te Rahoroi ra ka mea mai taku Papa ko wai e haere ki te toa ki te tiki pihuka mo a matau raina. Ka mea atu ahau ki taku Papa, ko 'hau. Ka haere ahau ma runga i te pahi. Ka tae atu ahau ki te toa mea mai te Mangumangu, he aha taku pirangi. Ka mea atu ahau, he pihuka mo a matau raina. I taku taemaitanga ki te kainga ka haere matau ki runga o Waikokopu ki te hi tuna mo te tekau-ma-rua a te Hahi Ringatu. Ka uru atu matau ki roto o Waikokopu ka pahi matau i te awa tuatahi me te awa tuarua me to awa tuatoru. I to matau taetanga atu ki te waiariki ka mea mai taku Papa me noho mai ahau ki reira. Ka haere taku Papa raua ko Rihari ki te hi tuna. Ka noho mai ahau ki te waiariki ki te kaukau. Kotahi haora pea ahau i reira ka hoki mai taku Papa raua ko Rihari i te hi tuna. Ka mea atu ahau, “E hia a korua tuna me nga taraute?” Ka mea mai a Rihari, “Hai aha mau?” Ka mea atu ahau ki a Rihari, “Hai kai maku.” I to matau putanga mai i roto o Waikokopu ka kautehia e

– 47 –

'hau e hia nga tuna. I mea atu ahau ki taku Papa, “E rua tekau ma rima a korua tuna.” I to matau taetanga mai ki te kainga, ka whakairiirihia e taku Mama nga tuna kia marokeroke ai i te ra. I te marokeroketanga o nga tuna ka tipokapokahia e taku Mama nga piropiro. Koianei te mututanga o taku korero,

Na to hoa,
Na Repora Maki,
Ko te Kura Maori o Waiohau.

Ki a te Etita,

Tena koe. I te Hatarei ra i haere maua ko Rihari me Hare ki te puihi ki te kato pikopiko me etahi puha. I mua i to matau haerehanga ka haere matau ki te tiki i nga kuri a Hieke raua ko Kiwi. Ko te puihi i haere nei matau ko Kopuriki. Ka hoki matau ki te kainga, ka kai matau. Ka mutu to matau kai ka haere ano matau ki te puihi. Ka tae atu matau ki reira ka kite matau i a Keni raua ko Temo me Rauhuia. Ka haere tahi matau ki te wahi e haere ana matau. Ka tae matau ki Kopuriki ka haere matau ko Rauhuia ki te Paraki ki te patai atu pena ka whakaae ia kia noho matau ki reira. Ka whakaae mai te wahine a Paraki kia noho matau i reira. I te ahiahi i tunua e Keni he kai ma matau. He hawhe haora a Keni e whakareri ana i wa matau kai. Ka tae mai a Meihi raua ko Mahanga. Ka maoa a matau kai ka kai matau katoa. Ka mutu ka hoki maua ko Temo ki te moe.

Na to hoa,
Na Taima Ranui,
Ko te Kura Maori o Waiohau.

Sir,

I live in Waiohau and go to the Waiohau Maori School where there are seventy Maori children and twenty pakehas. Next to the school there is a pa. I am eleven years old and in standard five. Sometimes I play with Maoris, at other times I like to play with my pakeha friends. My father has a farm down the road. There is a timber mill at the Bluffs. Behind the school there is a bush and a hot waterfall where the school goes for picnics, but for big picnics we go to Lake Rotoma. There we have ice-cream, lollies, watermelons, games, and a swim. My friend Godfrey will add some more about Waiohau to this letter.

My name is Godfrey Budd and I am twelve years old. My father is a bushman. He is a crosscutter which means that he fells the trees. He goes up into the bush with a gang. There are two crawlers to take the logs to the skids, where there is a winch to pull the logs onto the trucks. There are eight men in the gang and they all take something to eat during the day. The logs are taken to the mill and sawn up for timber.

Your friends,

Noeleen Orr and Godfrey Budd,

Waiohau Maori School

Why the snail carries his shell with him

KO TE TAKE I MAU HAERE AI TE NGATA I TONA WHARE

Inamata kihai te ngata i mau haere i tona whare ma tona makariri anake. I tetahi ra ka rongo te ngata kei te karangatia he hui ki tetahi wahi tawhiti, ka whakaaro ia ki te haere engari mahue ana tona whare ki te kainga. Ka tae ia ki te wahi o te hui ka rapa he kainga noho mona. Ka patai atu ia ki te titi raua ko te tuatara me kore he wahi watea o to raua whare mona kaore taua tokorua i pai mai ki a ia. Ka patai atu ia ki nga manu me kore noa ia e uru atu ki roto i a ratou kohanga. Ka whakawetiweti mai te katoa o nga manu ki tona tapiapia ka mea mai “Kaore he wahi watea mou” Rapa noa taua ngata he wahi hei moenga mona kihai i kitea ko tona hokinga tena ki te kainga. I a ia e hoki ana ka nguha haere ia “Kore kore rawa atu e noho ka whakarere i toku whare”.

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SPORTS

BY PAUL POTIKI

Janie Maxwell, of Auckland, has become a double All Black in two highly competitive major sports.

Miss Maxwell figured in these columns last year when she won a place in the New Zealand Women's Indoor Basketball team. She was again selected for the New Zealand side this year and at the same time has been chosen for the New Zealand Women's Hockey team which will tour Australia.

May Smith, of Auckland, has once again won a place in the New Zealand Women's Indoor Basketball team.

May Smith is an outstanding basketballer and although it is not done to mention women's ages, one must make the point that Mrs Smith has daughters playing in the Akarana team with her.

She provides a fine example of the fitness which one needs to succeed in this fast game and as I have said in another article, she has a technique superior to anyone else in New Zealand.

Miss T. Evans, of Auckland, was champion in two age grades at the New Zealand Table Tennis championships.

Bill Gray, Pat Walsh, Keith Davis, Tony Katene, Tiny Hill and Doug Hemi have all won places in the 1955 All Blacks.

L. Raureti proved to be the “find” of the New Zealand Colts Rugby side which toured Ceylon with such conspicuous success.

Rangi Wallace, of Wellington, was chosen for the New Zealand Indoor Basketball Reps.

South Island Basketball:

The South Island Maori Basketball Tournament was held this year at Temuka where the Arowhenua people played host to some 400 guests from Marlborough to the Bluff.

The occasion was a big one for Temuka who turned on a Mayoral reception in the Citizens' Hall which was preceded by a parade of teams lead by the Temuka Pipe Band.

Main honours went to the Christchurch teams, Otautahi and Christchurch Community Centre. Otautahi won the Pitama Cup and the Senior section and the Community Centre won the Junior section and took the Croft Rose Bowl.

The following were selected as the South Island team, following the tournament: Forwards, S. Vincent (Otautahi), M. Mako (Community Centre), A. Stevens (Huirapa), J. Hutana (Rapaki); Centres, S. Heath (Community Centre), P. Kamo (Youth Club), N. Edwards (Otakou), M. Anglem (Huirapa); Defence, M. Henry (Huirapa), G. McColgan (Huirapa), S. Hunt (Rata), C. Hammitt (Otautahi).

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BOOKS BOOKS BOOKS BOOKS BOOKS for children

some people read books and some people don't. That is a fact the world over, and it makes no difference what country, nation, or “racial group” you think of, providing, of course that written material is available to them. Those who read can hardly imagine life without books, and those who don't read find it difficult to understand the person who can put his nose in a book and keep it there for two or three hours without dying of sheer boredom. But this doesn't mean that some people are born to be readers and some are not. Reading books is rather like eating oysters—it's an acquired taste, and you can't really say that you don't like oysters until you've tried them once or twice and given your palate a chance to make up its mind. Most of us can't afford to develop a passion for oysters in our children, but giving them the opportunity to form the reading habit is a different matter.

You might counter this by saying that school gives the child a chance to become fond of books. Not always. Reading in schools is usually reading for a purpose: it is something the child is expected to learn, but not necessarily to enjoy. A friend of mine once told me about a little boy (he went to school and had learnt to read) who used to come and play with her children. Often she would find him sitting beside the bookcase looking with a kind of suspicious awe at the books, but he never made any attempt to take one off the shelf, and when asked if he would like to take one home he said that his mother wouldn't let him because it might get torn or dirty.

A pretty feeble reason for denying her child a harmless pastime that would cost her less than sending him to the pictures every wet Saturday afternoon, creates less “mess” than most other things a normal child wants to do, and would help him indirectly with almost every branch of his school-work.

Most teachers would agree that a child who does some reading in his spare time can cope with his schoolwork more easily than a child who does not. But I think, for the primary school child anyway, that the pleasure of reading, rather than its educational value, should be stressed. If the book is enjoyed, any information it contains will be absorbed effortlessly.

For those of you who allow your children to have books, if and when they want them, either their own or library copies, all this will seem so elementary as to be a waste of printers' ink, but the following list of titles and authors may be of some help in choosing Christmas presents or when looking for something in the junior library. All the books mentioned should be available in libraries and on sale in good book-shops. For the sake of my own convenience I have divided the books roughly into four age-groups but it must be understood at the outset that this division is purely arbitrary and that children differ greatly in their reading ability. For instance, some of the books listed for the oldest group might in fact be too difficult for some children in standards five and six and on the other hand might be appreciated immediately by some children in the younger groups. Another point worth mentioning is that most children can understand and enjoy books which they couldn't possibly cope with by themselves if an older person will read them aloud.

Picture Books

I've yet to meet a young child who doesn't like looking at pictures. This is one of the main reasons for the popularity of comics. (Incidentally, a child who enjoys a good comic, that is, one with some body to it, will usually enjoy a well-illustrated book with a fast moving story.) I must admit that of all the books I read when preparing this page I enjoyed the pre-school and primers group the most. The best of these have gay cover designs (the cover is most important to the young child who cannot read, because it takes the place of the title), are delightfully illustrated, and the language is clear, straight-forward and forceful. Some of the stories are little more than explanations of the illustrations. Good examples of the picture book are The Sleepy Little Lion by Margaret Wise Brown, which is illustrated with large close-up photographs of a baby lion, and Watch the Pony Grow by William Hall, where each paged illustration is just a little larger than the previous one, till on the last page the pony is found fully grown. Children love this kind of device, also pop-up pictures, and if I were trying to interest a young non-reader in books I think I would start off with this one. Moving on to picture-books with longer stories there is a range of subjects to suit

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all tastes. For children interested in animals there are the Angus books by Marjorie Flack, the well-known little Beatrix Potter books, and the more sophisticated Winnie the Pooh stories by A. A. Milne. For children who have a passion for engines and steam-shovels and such things, there is an excellent series about The Little Red Engine by Diana Ross, beautifully illustrated, and the great favourite Mike Mulligan and His Steam Shovel by Virginia Lee Burton. Some children prefer stories about other children like themselves and there is a recently published Little Golden Book Madeline by Ludwig Bemelmans, that has become immensely popular. Tastes may differ, but stories where something or somebody gets into trouble and gets out of it again are always enjoyed, most of all Little Black Sambo by Helen Bannerman, stands out on its own as an example of this kind of story. It is an old-timer, first published in 1899, but it has everything that will always appeal to the very young, striking illustrations, clear simple English, lots of trouble and excitement (tigers) and a safe happy ending (dinner).

It is not so easy to reel off titles for the standards one and two child. As far as reading ability goes he is not much more advanced than the picture-book plus story stage, and the illustrations are still as important as the script, but his comprehension and grasp of detail in stories which are read to him is sometimes surprising. The Barbar series by Jean de Brunhoff, and the Orlando series by Kathleen Hale are both very popular, and far from being confused or bored by the number of minor characters and their many activities, children seem to delight in remembering the outlandish names and who did what, and love to identify them in the heavily detailed illustrations. It is also surprising how much they can appreciate a sophisticated and subtly humorous story like The Story of Ferdinand by Munro Leaf (Ferdinand is a fine bull who preferred flowers to bull-fights) so long as the vocabulary is not beyond them. But I think the most popular books are still those like Little Black Sambo with a central figure with whom the child immediately identifies himself, and who wins through at last against overwhelming odds. Tim to the Rescue by Edward Ardizonne is such a book, and The Little Steamroller by Graham Greene, with its brilliantly coloured illustrations is another. Small boys seem to have no difficulty in imagining themselves as steamrollers who chase smugglers.

In the early standards, children become more interested in people of other lands, and will enjoy books like The Chinese Children Next Door by Pearl Buck, Riki the Eskimo by Penelope Gibson, Mitla and Lupe by Jose Sancha, and Living in a Maori Village by A. W. Reed, illustrated by Russell Clark. This is not to imply that Maoris fall into the category of “people of other lands”! But the Maori as he was is so different, culturally and socially, from the Maori as he is, that reading about the former is very much like reading about a stranger who has oddly familiar characteristics. Young children live in the present—today is more important than yesterday and tomorrow can hardly be imagined—and unless they are actually told about it or read about it, they can never lay claim to their historical past. I would hate to think that there are any Maori children, no matter how greatly they benefit from a European way of life, who are not aware that New Zealand history contains a pre-European era. In those days, historical knowledge was preserved and passed on to each succeeding generation by word of mouth, but the old schools have long since disappeared and with them most of the old teachers, and the Maori of today who wants to know how his ancestors lived, what they did and what they believed, must turn to books—ironically a product of the civilisation that has made him so different from the Maoris he will read about. Now all this points to one thing—children's books about Maoris must be good. Only the best will do. Some of the ones I have read, and I was disappointed to find so few, are good, but others could be better. I don't know why, but all of them with one exception are about early or pre-European Maoris. Besides Living in a Maori Village,” there is Pitama by John L. Ewing, and How the Maori Lived, Wonder Tales of Maoriland, The Coming of the Maoris to Aotearoa, Myths and Legends of Maoriland, all by A. W. Reed. Of these, Pitama, the story of the storming of Kaiapoi pa, comes nearest to the usual adventure story, but I have been told that the Wonder Tales are very much liked too. In my opinion the best of all is The Book of Wiremu by Stella Morice, a book that is well on the way to joining the small group of New Zealand classics. It is a beautifully written story in clear simple English with a faint Maori idiom, about a little Maori boy (of the present day) who lives in the country with his uncle that's all, no battles, no fireworks, no mystery. The author breaks all the rules but still succeeds, that's how good it is.

Returning to the standards three and four group, we find that illustrations are becoming fewer and less important but animals that behave like humans are still very popular. A reliable librarian informed me that this age-group just love reading about pigs! Why, I can't imagine, but if you have a child like this, The Four Pigs by Alison Uttley, and Freddy's First Adventure by Walter R. Brooks are sure to please. There is one book I would specially recommend, Charlotte's Web by E. B. White. It is about a small girl who makes friends with a group of farmyard animals, especially the pig and a large grey spider Charlotte. The characterisation, the development of the fast moving plot, the humour and pathos, and the easy style are as good as those found in a first-class adult novel. Like all good children's books the adult who undertakes to read it aloud will enjoy it almost as much as the child listening. Compared with this, Rabbit Hill by Robert Lawson is only a second-best, but still worth mentioning. Then of course, there are the famous Doctor

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Dolittle books by Hugh Lofting, about a group of animals who enjoy the most fantastic adventures, like going to the moon. And the ever-popular Wind in the Willows by Kenneth Grahame. But when it comes to stories about wild animals in their natural habitat I think Rudyard Kipling's Jungle Books remain unsurpassed. Once a child has read himself into the world of Mowgli, the little Indian who was brought up by the wolf pack, he will never forget it—it becomes part of his imagination. These books are worth buying as the child will return to them again and again. The last book I want to mention for this group is also outstandingly good. The Boy who was Afraid by Armstrong Sperry is the story of a Polynesian boy who lived on a South Sea island in pre-European days. Strongly recommended for children who have a fear of the sea.

There are many more books worth considering but both my space and ideas have run out. If the few I have dealt with are not enough, I am sure that any librarian or good bookseller will be only too pleased to suggest some others.

* * *

The Maori race is represented on the National Historic Places Trust by Canon Paora Temuera, of Otaki. The purpose of the trust is to preserve and record sites and buildings, and objects of local or national importance.

AMAZING ECONOMY

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Books for the Children of Maoriland

Wherever you live you can obtain the finest books available in New Zealand from Whitcombe & Tombs Ltd. All the books mentioned in J. C. Sturm's article on Children's Books are obtainable from Whitcombes. If you cannot call at one of our stores, write today. Our Mail Order Department is at your service.

Let us help you choose a book for your child. Our Children's Book Department Staff can choose books to suit a child of any age and stage of development.

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SEASONAL WORK ON THE FARM

DECEMBER TO MARCH

As an introduction to the farming notes for this particular period it would be well to mention that our butter market is likely to slip to some extent, resulting in a lower price per lb. of butterfat to the farmer. It should be appreciated that farmers whose gradings are not of the highest, or super fine, will find their incomes considerably reduced through the new penalty rates for the lower grades of cream. With a drop in butterfat prices it is most important that the best available payout be obtained. If second grade milk or cream is being continually sent to the factory try to find the reason—it will not be hard.

Production

The herd will be past the flush and with the drier weather and poorer feed, production will start to fall. Careful attention to the milking of the herd is essential. Cows tend to be slower and will not let milk down so readily. If the cow is not milked out properly she will start to fatten and dry off rapidly. Care should be taken to stimulate the udder by washing and massaging both udder and teats, to ensure a rapid let down. Do not delay too long before applying the cups. Inflations should be checked frequently. Make sure each quarter is properly milked out.

Calves

Rotational grazing of calves should be in full swing. Drenching may be necessary if calves are not thriving, and symptoms such as coughing, general unthriftiness, and harsh coats indicate worms. Phenothiagene drench is most commonly used.

Supplementary Feeding

In areas where dry autumns are experienced, with rapid falling off of milk production, feeding of chou moellier or a similar crop is of considerable assistance. This can be worked in conjunction with pasture renewal, the paddock being ploughed in September the crop sown, fed in January and February, and then sown down. Crops should be fed in daily breaks by using electric fence.

Preparation of Grass Seed

New grass is usually sown in the autumn or spring after supplementary feed crops of chou moellier or swedes or turnips. The ground is easily worked and can be disced or ploughed, both methods being satisfactory. A firm, fine, well-worked seed bed should be the aim, and a roller is necessary for consolidation. The seed can be broadcast or drilled, the mixture depending on personal preference. Use certified seed. Care should be taken to use only reverted superphosphate with seed.

Oversowing Poor Pastures

Oversowing has given good results in paddocks where the pastures have been cut up by winter feeding and are opening up. Experience has proved that unless the seed preparation, the weather conditions, and subsequent grazing management are favourable, little improvement can be expected.

When surface sowing is carried out in the autumn, the pasture should be as bare as possible and tine harrowed or given a light discing to make a seed bed. The paddock should be top-dressed, and closed till the young plants are properly established. 10 lb. H.1., 10 lb. Per Rye, 2 lb. White Clover and 2 lb. Mont. Red Clover is a suggested mixture.

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CROSSWORD PUZZLE

No. 13

Twelve solutions were received to puzzle number 12, but unfortunately only three of these entirely agreed with the key solution. The prize goes again to a member of the younger generation, namely Master Perenu Callaghan, St Stephens School, Auckland, chosen by lot out of the three correct solutions. A guinea prize is again offered for one correct solution to puzzle number 13. If more than one correct solution is received the winner will be determined by lot. Send to Te Ao Hou by February 15, P.O. Box 2390, Wellington.

CLUES ACROSS

1. whitebait
2. broad daylight
10. fire
11. long wooden trumpet
12. current
13. to drag or haul
15. groan or cry
16. to cut or lacerate
18. south-east sea breeze
20. hostile expedition
21. large town in King Country
24. louse
25. to obtain by coaxing
28. preparation of kumara
30. tattoo
31. third and last vowels in alphabet
32. current
33. to glow, show red
37. time or season
39. suburb of Auckland
40. to lift
42. to glow
43. to come out on the other side
45. to open cockles or mussels
47. to seek

CLUES DOWN

1. Maori curse word
2. to utter incantations over
3. interjection used in poetry and sometimes in prose
4. daytime
5. presently, to-day
6. leg, foot
7. yes
8. side or edge
9. distant, out of reach
13. to ebb
14. raw
15. adverb, away from speaker
17. smoke
18. originate
19. be understood
20. abundance, plenty
22. day following
23. to drink
26. as for 3 down
27. distant
29. oven
30. be effected or accomplished
34. to be tossed about
35. a personal pronoun

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WOMEN'S WORLD
APPLES

Soon the apple crop will be ready for harvesting and in many homes the later varieties will be stored away for winter eating. A good way to store apples is to pack them in a wooden fruit case lined with clean brown paper (newspaper should not be used) and to cover them with another layer of brown paper. The box is then put away in a cool, dry shed or in a cave made in the earth in the side of a hill. A sack can be fastened over the entrance of the storage cave.

Apples can be bottled in the same way as peaches or pears.

1.

First, choose sound, well-matured fruit without any cracks or spots of rot or blight.

2.

Wash the fruit, peel and core it and cut into slices. To stop the apple slices from discolouring, allow them to drop into a large bowl of cold water which has had 2 teaspoons of salt dissolved in it.

3.

Wash the jars and lids thoroughly, rinsing them with clean water. Stand them in hot water or on a warm rack until they are needed. Boil the inner seals gently in water for. 3 minutes.

4.

Make a syrup of 1 cup of sugar to 1 cup of water. Partly cook the sliced apples in some of this syrup.

5.

Pack the partly cooked apples to a halfinch from the top of the hot jars. Wipe the rims with a clean, newly boiled cloth and carefully place the inner seals in position. Screw on the outer caps. The lids should be tightly screwed

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on and then turned back half a turn.

6.

Place the bottles on a rack in the copper or in a water bath (a kerosene tin cut in half lengthwise, with the sharp edges turned down, and a good strong handle attached makes a satisfactory water bath). The water should cover the jars, and it should be hot when they are put in. Bring the water up to boiling point as quickly as possible, and then keep it just bubbling for fifteen minutes.

Lift the jars carefully out of the water bath after some of the water has been ladled out. Stand them on a table or bench away from cool draughts, which might make the bottles break. The next day remove the outer lids and very gently test the seals. Any jars that have not sealed should be reboiled with new inner seals.

The water bath method can be used for all fruit, although cooking times will vary.

The preserved apple can be used either hot or cold, without any further cooking.

Apple Betty—

6 medium-sized cooking apples; 1 ½ cups moist breadcrumbs; ¼ cup sugar; 1 ½ teaspoons ground cinnamon; 1 ½ tablespoons butter; 2 tablespoons grated lemon rind; 1/3 cup water (2 ½ fluid oz.).

Peel and slice the apples, place half in a baking dish. Mix the breadcrumbs, sugar and cinnamon and sprinkle half of this mixture over the apples. Put small dots of butter (about the size of a threepenny bit) over the top and then put the remaining apple slices in the dish. Cover these with the rest of the breadcrumbs, sugar and cinnamon mixture, and dot on the rest of the butter. Sprinkle the water on top of the pudding and bake it in a moderately hot oven (375 deg. F) for three quarters of an hour.

A Quiet Week-end

In March of this year, the Women's Christian Temperance Union held its 68th Annual Convention. Delegates from Whangarei, in the north, to the Bluff in the south, were gathered together in the lovely city of Invercargill, where the convention was held.

To ensure that proceedings were kept on a high spiritual tone, morning and afternoon sessions were begun with devotional services, the first morning being taken by the Dominion President. Mrs. C. Toomer, of Nelson, who read the story of the Good Samaritan.

A very interesting talk, by Rev. L. Clements, Chaplain of the Boys' Borstal at Invercargill, gave us new insight into some of the causes of juvenile delinquency and pointed out that though so many err they are still God's children, made in His image. The Maori Union delegates had visited and interviewed the Maori boys at Borstal and were struck by the youth of some.

On the social side, we had a civic reception and social evening and an afternoon bus drive round the Riverton district. The convention received a great deal of publicity in local papers, some writers going into verse. Quoting one writer: “Invercargill had its quietest week-end in a long time, due mainly. I think, to two circumstances—the tremendous exodus to the cricket match in Dunedin, and to the presence in the city of the W.C.T.U. Convention. For who could be rowdy when there was such a powerful concentration of temperance or total abstinence in the city? Perhaps it is as well that the holding of the Convention in this city has never coincided with a Rugby invasion for the Ranfurly Shield. Present indications are that such a combination of circumstances is not likely to occur within the predictable future.”

Convention next year will be held at Tauranga, and so the work is onward for “God, for Home and Humanity,” as the motto says.

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LETTER TO THE EDITOR
MOTHERCRAFT

Sir,

When I found myself in charge of a small boy who seemed to be a confirmed bed-wetter, I was rather at a loss as to the best thing to do to effect a cure. He was not quite six years old, and I felt sorry for him. He would crawl so slowly and dismally out of his wet bed in the mornings—in direct contrast to my own youngster's lively awakening. Determining to show no annoyance at the extra work caused by this unfortunate habit. I made it clear to him that he would not be punished for wet beds but rewarded for dry beds. I stopped putting linen sheets on his bed, using pieces of old blankets and cotton blankets, with a large piece of cheap plastic over the mattress. Placing a money-box on a table beside his bed. I told him I would give him a penny each morning I found his bed dry.

I bought a little chamber pot and put it handy for his use. So now, in a warm bed, with the prospect of reward to come and no fear of unkindness in the morning the stage was set for improvement. (His evening meal was always fairly dry, meat, vegetables, and a sweet without too much gravy or juices and no drinks after 4 p.m.)

I am gratified to say that after only three months with me this little boy has now gone sixteen nights in a row without wetting his bed. He is much happier and I do not think he will have a relapse.

—Mrs J. TE RITO.

* * *

A dressmaking factory has been erected at Kawhia and has been in operation now for about a month. There are five Maori women, four of them girls under 21 years of age, working as seamstresses. Working conditions are really good.

Plans for additional buildings to be erected are being draughted and the proprietress is envisaging a scheme of forming a company, giving her workers an opportunity of taking shares in the concern.

This project will certainly help solve the problems of employment for girls in the Kawhia area.

* * *

A 25-year-old Maori baritone singer won nine prizes at the recent Wellington competitions. He is Mr Sydney Tawera, of Wellington.

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MOTHERCRAFT

If properly cared for as set out in our previous articles, a baby grows and develops very quickly, particularly in the first year of life.

The average baby weighs 7 ½ lbs at birth and as a rough guide for parents, he doubles his birth weight, shall we say, when he is five months old and trebles it at one year.

No two babies are exactly alike, though they follow a definite pattern in the order in which they learn to do things. There is no hard and fast rule for babies, and there should be no cause for worry if the baby in your home is a little slower in doing things than the one next door.

The early training of a child, even from a month old, depends entirely on the mother. If she is keen and interested in her child, she will seek every advice and also make her home and surroundings as attractive as she is able to, to give her growing child every opportunity to grow up in a pleasant atmosphere.

Picture icon

The Waikato North District Council provided the winning stall (above) in the Waikato Winter Show this year. The meeting house was the work of Mrs Frances Paki.

A growing child needs the constant care and attention of a good mother and will develop into a beautiful example of a mother's work. Babies are like flowers, they grow with tender care and develop into beautiful beings, just as flowers do which give endless pleasure in colour and scent round a home. A neglected child, home and garden give very unpleasant and drastic results, leading to bitter disapopintment.

The best way to train baby in good habits is to draw up a plan so that a regular time will be set aside for the main events in the day, such as feeding, sleeping, bathing, exercise, bowel action and so on.

The first thing to do is to see that baby is being fed at the same time each day, and other important things can be fitted in to suit these hours.

Toilet training may be begun when baby is about a month old. If he is held out for a few minutes only, every morning, say after the ten o'clock feeding, he soon knows what is expected of him and a regular bowel action becomes a habit.

Regular exercise also helps to promote a regular bowel action and a good time for this is just after a feed, say at 10 a.m.

If baby is put to bed regularly at the same hour, a rhythm of sleeping and waking is soon established. He should be awakened for his feed at the right time if necessary.

As baby grows he learns all sorts of interesting things. He will greet his mother with a smile, play with his toes and even put them in his mouth by the time he is four months old. At six months he can grasp dangling objects. At seven months to eight months he will relish chewing at a peg or a bone. At eight to nine months he should sit up alone. At about ten months he should crawl. At twelve months, stand with support of a chair. At fifteen months, walk alone. At eighteen months he should be able to feed himself if encouraged.

Some babies, and particularly those who are large and fat and placid, are slow at standing and walking alone, while the thin and excitable type of child may be running everywhere before he is one year old.

Immunization Against Diphtheria. Whooping Cough. Tetanus:

By the time baby is 9 months old he should have been immunized. A course of 3 monthly injections should be undertaken, commencing at six months and completed by the time he is nine months.

Consult your own family doctor. Public Health Nurse, or Department of Health District Office (if living in town). If you prefer you can arrange for a combined injection against diphtheria and

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whooping cough, or a triple injection against diphtheria, whooping cough and tetanus.

Vaccination Against Tuberculosis:

If your family is in contact with an active tuberculosis case, it will be wise to have your child tuberculin tested first. If the test is negative, then a B.C.G. vaccination will be done and will give protection to your child against contracting “T.B.” Contact your Public Health Nurse who will make arrangements for you to take your child to the nearest B.C.G. Vaccination Centre.

Deformities:

“Club feet” in early infancy when discovered early can be very successfully treated. Consult your family doctor.

Teething:

Teething usually begins when the baby is about six months old. In the mapority of cases it is quite a simple and natural process.

It is best to let the baby have something hard to chew on, a bone ring or a large greenstone Tiki. Any hard article given to the baby to chew on must be clean and large enough to prevent the baby from swallowing it.

In some cases the cutting of the teeth is a very hard and painful matter and causes baby a great amount of discomfort. If this happens to your baby get advice from the Public Health Nurse or your family doctor, or there may be little or no trouble at all.

Although baby's teeth are formed in his jaws long before he is born, they do not begin to appear before he is six months old, though it is known in some cases for babies to begin teething process at four months.

At his first birthday he will probably have six teeth and others will appear gradually until the first set of twenty teeth will be complete at about two and a half years of age.

Care Of Teeth:

Avoid giving small children biscuits, sweets, and sugar and tinned foods. Give plenty of green vegetables and raw fruit.

Feeding From One Year On:

1.

Keep to regular meal times.

2.

Do not give sweets and pieces between meals.

3.

Teach to chew. Soft pappy foods are bad for the teeth. Give at each meal some food requiring chewing.

4.

Milk should be brought to the boil, cooled quickly, and kept cool.

5.

Give dinner in middle of the day, a big heavy meal at night is indigestible.

6.

Do not force a child to eat if it is not hungry.

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THE MAGIC TREE

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BRIEFS

The owners of the timber on Hautu block, near Turangi, have now received in exchange for this timber an equivalent amount of timber from nearby state forest and crown lands. The cutting of the timber on Hautu was not allowed because of its value in water and soil conservation.

* * *

A new recreation hall was opened at St Peter's College, Northcote, last October. The carvings in the hall are from the old Tapeka meeting house at Waihi and the presentation was made by the paramount chief of Ngati Tuwharetoa, Mr. Hepi Hoani te Heuheu.

* * *

The Maori Adult Education tutor for Tokerau, Mr. Matiu Te Hau, B.A., has organised a series of lectures in Whangerei on current Maori questions. Population trends, education, religion, welfare and race relations are among subjects treated.

* * *

Eye specialists gathering at Hanmer Springs recently, agreed that Maoris are far less liable to “colour blindness than Europeans. The normal rate for European males is eight percent, but cases of colour blindness in Maoris, specialists consider, are extremely rare.

The Minister of Maori Affairs, Mr. E. B. Corbett, accompanied by the secretary for Maori Affairs, Mr T. T. Ropiha, recently paid a visit to the newly-established clothing factory at Tokaanu. The factory which is operated by Mr. D. Von Sturmer, Wellington, was brought into being with the assistance of the Tuwharetoa Trust Board and was aimed at benefiting Maori women and girls of the district by providing suitable work for them.

At present there are twelve workers employed and the number is to be increased as there is sufficient room in the building for about thirty employees. Electric light and power for the necessary machines are provided.

* * *

B. Whiti Whiti, of Waiohiki, again won the title of champion Maori golfer for 1955. The women's title was won by Mrs. P. August, of Waimarama. Entries for the tournament were a record at 170.

* * *

During the year the Maori Trustee made about 150 loans, to a value of £220,000. The greater number were for amounts of £1000 or less.

* * *

Three new display cases have been added to the Maori Court at the Dominion Museum. Wellington. They feature carvings from Taranaki, Maori weapons, and heads in Maori wood-carving.

PRINTED BY THE PEGASUS PRESS, 14 OXFORD TERRACE, CHRISTCHURCH, NEW ZEALDN

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KO NGA AITUA MOTORORE KI NGA TAMARIKI

He mea minamina na te tamariki te motorore e akoina ki nga tamariki nohinohi rawa, he wa ano ka kitea e noho ana i raro motorore i te wa e tu noa ana, a i te huarahi ranei. Ko etahi o aua tamariki e kitea e nga kaiarahi, o ko etahi ano kaore e kitea ka tamia mate rawa. Me tupato nga matua nga tuakana me te katoa noaiho i nga tamariki.

He mea ano ka aitua nga tamariki ki runga motorore na te he o nga whakamaunga o nga tatau, ka puare ka taka aua tamariki ki waho. Ko nga tamariki e noho ana i muri o nga motorore etahi hei te hurihanga i nga koki ka piua aua tamariki ka takataka.

I etahi wa ka oma haere nga tamariki i te taha o te motorore i te wa e haere ana, he aha ranei ka hinga ka tamia e nga wiira mate tonu atu.

Kauaka nga matua e tu i nga taha o nga huarahi korero noa ai, ka kite mai nga tamariki ka konohi mai ki reira hianga ai. He tokomaha nga tamariki nohinohi i aitua i te omanga mai i te whare ki tawahi o te haurahi, he konohi ki nga matua ka tamia e te motowaka.

Kaore he take i tangi ai i te wa kua aitua nga tamariki. He mea kino rawa te aitua o te tamaiti i runga i te wairangi i te whakaaro kore ranei. Kaore he karo. Tiakina a koutou tamariki hei tangata mo apopo.

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(Inserted by the Transport Department)

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E TE IWI MAORI,

KIA TUPATO I TE WAI!

KATIA TE TOROMI A TE TANGATA

KIA TUPATO I

TE MOANA

I NGA ROTO

I NGA AWA

I RUNGA POTI

AKONA A KOUTOU TAMARIKI KI TE KAU

AKONA RATOU KIA TINO MOHIO KI TE KAU

AKONA RATOU KIA TUPATO I TE WETIWETI O TE WAI

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RURU THE OWL SAYS BE WATER WISE

Issued by the National Prevent Drowning Committee on behalf of the Internal Affairs Department.