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No. 11 (July 1955)
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The New World

the maori affairs department 1 JULY, 1955


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NO. 11 (Vol. 3 No. 3)

The preparation of a new edition of the Maori dictionary-costing £6,000 on printing alone and a considerable sum on editorial work, is one sign of the continued life of the Maori language. The dictionary is being asked for urgently by many people. It will be used in homes, schools and universities; by children and adults; by Maori and pakeha.

Maori will for long be a second language in New Zealand, if not for ever. Many still use it regularly at home; if their number is falling, it is not falling as fast as some suppose. At Maori gatherings, it is almost invariably used and he who wishes to make his mark in the Maori world must speak it. In the songs and action songs performed by Maori youth clubs it is of course essential. Classical texts—legends, waiata, proverbs—are being keenly studied by many.

At the same time, a perfect command of English is even more essential now than in the days when Sir Apirana Ngata, in a famous statement, put it far and away above all other school subjects to be learned by Maori people. For cultural satisfaction Maori is desirable, but English essential.

Some have suggested we cannot have both; that for English to be perfect, Maori must be forgotten. The conclusions of modern research do not agree. When the standard of English among Welsh schoolchildren was studied recently, it was found that bilingual pupils—speaking both Welsh and English—were at least as good in English as those without Welsh.

A similar study in New Zealand, to see how the English of Maori children is affected by their speaking Maori, could be most interesting; until such a study is carried out we cannot be really sure whether the Welsh results apply here or not.

There is no doubt however that great harm is done by speaking bad Maori. If Maori is spoken badly, it is likely that no more pride is taken in the English and the result is a double cultural handicap. The dictionary to appear shortly should play an important part in helping to maintain and improve the standard of Maori speech. The government attitude has been one of very tangible support for the venture.

Improvement cannot come, of course, from a dictionary alone. It needs a definite effort to watch speech, avoid incorrect words, look for the most expressive idiom and, most important, listen carefully to the speech of the true masters of the language, still to be found in many places. Oratory contests among the young, now becoming more common, have a great contribution to make.

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Hori Tana Rewi Maniapoto, aged 83, died at Otorohanga last February. Known also as George Turner, he was the adopted son of the famous Rewi Maniapoto to whom he was related.

His talent was oratory and his mission in life the advancement of his race. Until recently, he would travel through the country alone to speak on Maori questions. He would appear suddenly in some isolated district, address the people, then disappear to turn up several days later in a place hundreds of miles away.

He was one of the leading figures in the establishment of the Tainui Trust Board. In his earlier days he fought for the continued prohibition of liquor from the King Country, but in recent years he came to believe that this state was retarding the country.


The death occurred at Otaki of Henare Kima Tahiwi, a leading Maori who contributed to many good causes. He was aged 69.

Mr Tahiwi was a veteran of World War I, and was a prominent sportsman and a talented singer and musician.

He was a son of Rota Rawiri Tahiwi, of Otaki, and was descended through his father from Ngati Raukawa, and through his mother from Te Arawa.

His family was known throughout the country as singers. Much of their repertoire, including items composed by the late Kingi Tahiwi, Henare Tahiwi's elder brother was recorded.


The death occurred at Te Puna of Hoki Te Kerekau Murray, a chieftainess of the Pirirakau tribe. She was aged 90.

The chieftainess retained all her faculties and enjoyed good health until her death. She retained vivid impressions of episodes of her childhood, and was highly regarded as an authority on Maori folklore and legend.


A chief of the Maniapoto tribe and one of the most noted authorities on Maori genealogy, Whare Mahiti Hotu, of Oparura, died recently, aged 89.

Born early in the Maori wars near Te Kuiti, Mr Hotu became a disciple of Te Whiti in the Parihaka episode in 1881, and later took part in a raid on Te Kuiti's first store.

Mr Hotu was a fine orator in Maori and was an authority on land titles. He was awarded the O.B.E. in 1952 for his work among the Maori people.


Tukiterangi Kio Rawiri, 90 years of age, died at Te Waharoa, Central Waikato, last March. He was a well-known elder and leader of Ngati Haua. In recent years he became deeply religious and a few days before his death he said at a gathering at Waharoa Pa: ‘The Gospel of Jesus Christ is still the only hope to uplift the Maori people.’


A Maori Justice of the Peace, Turu Hiroti, collapsed and died at a Woodville race meeting in January. He was aged 69.

Mr Hiroti, who lived at Whangaehu, was one of the few Maori J.P.s in New Zealand. He was also a member of the administrative body of the Ratana Pa.

He served in the army during World War I, rising to the rank of captain. He was awarded the Military Cross and was mentioned in dispatches.





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Tetahi o nga tohu whakaatu i te ora nui o te reo Maori, ko te whakatikatikatanga o te whakaputanga hou o te tikinare Maori. Ko te moni e pau ana mo te tatanga anake, e £6,000, haunga nga moni e pau ana mo nga mahi tirotiro i te tikinare Maori nei. He maha tonu nga tangata e kaika ana te hiahia ki tenei tikinare, mo roto i nga kainga, mo roto i nga whare kura, me nga whare wananga; ma nga tamariki, pakeke ranei; ma te Maori, a ma te pakeha hoki.

Kahore e tere te ngaro o te reo Maori hei reo tuarua i Niu Tireni nei, mehemea ra ka ngaro. Ko tenei te reo i te nuinga o nga kainga, a mehemea e heke ana te nama o nga tangata korero Maori, kahore e tere ana te heke pera me te whakaaro a etahi tangata. I nga hui Maori, ko tenei te reo, a ma te korero Maori ano a te tangata e tae ai a ia ki te taumata o nga mea Maori. I nga mahi waiata, a waiata ringaringa ranei a nga karapu tai-tamariki Maori, ko te reo Maori te mea nui. He maha tonu hoki nga tangata e ako ana i nga tikanga o a tatou pakiwaitara, waiata me nga whakatauki.

Ahakoa ano ra, e tika ana kia tika te korero i te reo Ingarihi. I mua, i ki a Ta Apirana Ngata, ko te mea nui hei mohio ma te iwi Maori i nga kura, ko te reo Ingarihi. Ko tenei te whakaaro i aua wa, engari, i tenei wa me nui ke ake te tika o te korero i tenei reo. Ahakoa ko te reo Maori ano te reo mo a tatou mahi Maori, i runga i nga ahuatanga o tenei wa ko te reo Ingarihi ano te mea nui.

E ki ana etahi kahore e tika ana kia korero Maori. Ingarihi hoki no te mea e tika ai te korero Ingarihi me whaka warewaretia te reo Maori. Kahore ra e whakaae ana nga tangata tirotiro i enei mea. I te titirotanga a etahi tangata i tenei ahuatanga i waenganui i nga tamariki kura o Weera, ara te korero Ingarihi te korero Weera i kite ratou he rite tonu te reo Ingarihi a nga tamariki korero i enei reo e rua, ki te reo Ingarihi a nga tamariki korero i te reo Ingarihi anake.

Tena pea te miharo mehemea ka taea tetahi ahuatanga penei mo Niu Tireni ara kia kitea te he te tika ranei o te korero Ingarihi, o nga tamariki Maori korero i te reo Maori, a, kia taea rawa ano tenei ahuatanga e kitea mehemea e rite ana Ki te ahuatanga i Weera.

Engari e kitea ana te kino o te korero he o te reo Maori, otira, mehemea e he ana te korero Maori kahore e tika te korero Ingarihi, a ka hoki whakamuri nga mahi Maori me nga mahi pakeha.

Ma te tikinare Maori nei pea e whakatika te reo a e whakapiki hoki. Kahore e tino roa ka puta mai te pukapuka nei, a ko te ahua hoki o te kawanatanga ki tenei taonga he ahua ngawari a he ahua awhina hoki.

Engari, kahore e tika te korero i te tikinare nei anake. Me ata titiro ano ki nga kupu korero, me whakahua i nga kupu tika, me korero i nga korero nunui, a, ko tenei te mea nui, me whakarongo ki nga korua, no ratou nei tenei reo, i nga marae o te motu nei.

I nga mahi whakataetae a nga tai-tamariki, ko te whai korero tetahi o nga mea e whakataetaetia ana, a ma konei hoki pea e taea ai te mau ki to tatou reo ki te reo Maori.

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Land under Maori Management 6
Hinepoupou and Te Oriparoa, by W. W. Bird 11
Songs of the Maori, by W. W. Bird 13
Three Generations of Hiras, by Melvin Taylor 17
Problems at Otiria 19
Proverbial and Popular Sayings of the Maori,
by H. T. M. Wikiriwhi
Pig Management, by Dixon Wright 24
League Women Meet 26
Places and Things 28
Traditional Poiballs 32
The Maori and The Mountains, by John Pascoe 36
The Lapps: The Last Nomads of Europe 39
Why The Kea Lives on Top of The Mountain,
by G. N. Lansdown
Care of Fruit Trees, by R. Falconer 45
Tribal Committees at Work 46
Dictionary in The Making 50
Books 53
Sports, by Paul Potiki 54
Crossword Puzzle 56
Women's World 57
The Leagues are Judged 57
Curtains, by Betty Johnston 58
Winter Vegetables 60
Mothercraft, by Keritapu 63

The Minister of Maori Affairs: The Hon. E. B. Corbett

The Secretary for Maori Affairs: T. T. Ropiha, I.S.O.

Management Committee: C. J. Stace, LL.B., C. M. Bennett, D.S.O., B.A., DIP.ED., DIP.SOC.SC., W. T. Ngata, LIC.INT., E. G. Schwimmer, M.A., M. J. Taylor.

Editor: E. G. Schwimmer, M.A.

Sponsored by the Maori Purposes Fund Board Subscriptions to Te Ao Hou at 7/6 per annum (4 issues) or £1 for three years' subscriptions at all offices of the Maori Affairs Department and P.O. Box 2390, Wellington, New Zealand.

Registered at the G.P.O., Wellington, for transmission through the post as a magazine.


1 JULY 1955

Our Cover: To illustrate our article on Maori in corporations, we visited Morikau Station, on the Wanganui River, which has returned to the owners' control just recently. When Te Ao Hou visited this station, everybody warned us not to forget the lake with the paradise ducks—it would make a grand picture. We have not forgotten it. (Charles Hale Photograph.)

Gone, No Address”: We receive many copies of Te Ao Hou with these words stamped on them. These copies belong to subscribers but they never reach their destination, because the subscribers have moved on without telling us their new address. Please remember, when you go to live elsewhere, to send a postcard to Te Ao Hou, P.O. Box 2390, Wellington.

Renewal of Subscriptions: Almost daily Te Ao Hou meets innocent looking ex-subscribers who vaguely complain they have not seen Te Ao Hou for some time and why did we not tell them their subscription had expired. It is our practice to enclose a renewal form in the copy of every subscriber whose renewal is due. Please have a look whether your copy includes such a form. If it does fill it in and send us your renewal today.

Stories Wanted: Te Ao Hou still requires more writers and artists. We want fact and fiction; we want Maori or English writing; we want drawings and photographs. Here is an opportunity for an absorbing pastime, and the chance to earn a little extra as well. Let us know what is happening where you live. Incidentally, we also welcome items of family news.

Our New Photographer: Since Mr Ashton's departure for America, Mr Charles Hale has taken over as Te Ao Hou's staff photographer. Mr Hale continues to work for the Dominion Museum and we are grateful to Dr Falla, the director of the museum, for permission to use his services. Mr Hale is also advising Te Ao Hou on layout and typography.

In Our Next Issue:


The Maori and Asia.


Child Art.


Progress in a Maori Village (Panguru, Northland).


Rotorua Hostel.


A Wellington Dancing Group: Ngati Poneke Club.


Gathering Greenstone in Ancient Times.


Songs of the Maori.

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Maori Incorporations have been with us for almost forty years, but just lately they have rapidly grown in importance to a strong force in the farming and forest industry of New Zealand. They have become an efficient instrument for using profitably much of the lands and the forest still held by Maori owners in common.

The success of Maori incorporations over the last generation has, just lately, enabled parliament to put the assets of the East Coast Trust, worth several million pounds, into the hands of 24 incorporations, which are being formed at the present moment.

This article describes the place these incorporations occupy in Maori life today and in the New Zealand economy. In order to give the reader a closer look at the workings of these incorporations, the tale of the establishment of Maori management over the East Coast Trust stations will be told in some detail.

This will provide an ending to the dramatic story of the East Coast Commission, of which the beginning was published in our issue of winter 1954. It is hoped this will satisfy readers who may have become a little impatient for the continuation of that story.

For the material about the early history of the incorporations, we have to thank Mr W. T. Ngata, who compiled a wealth of facts, until now inaccessible, for the use of Te Ao Hou.

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The sea beats on all sides against Onenui station, on the northern tip of Mahla peninsula. The station, now controlled by its incorporated owners, was used for the cattle-drafting scene in the film ‘Broken Barrier’, (Pacific Films Photograph.)

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The birthplace of the idea of Maori incorporations is on the East Coast. A group of people, anxious to initiate sheepfarming on Maori lands, formed a ‘Union of Ngati Porou Farmers’. It was chiefly this group which, in 1905, sponsored the election of Sir Apirana Ngata to Parliament; he was to be the man who would help formulate legislation to protect their land interests and incidentally the land interests of the Maori people generally.

Meetings of the younger section of the people and their kaumatua were held all along the East Coast to propagate the principles of the Union, which were set out at length in an article in the Pipiwharauroa of March 1906. Utilizing Maori land was the union's most important purpose, and to achieve it, the Pakeha had to be convinced that the Maori was not lazy, had proved himself a good farmer, and needed government help for the development of Maori land. Members of the union were to make themselves familiar with their land titles. More articles followed in Pipiwharauroa on the raising of sheep. Ngati Porou elders were persuaded to raise money to give their sons an agricultural education, either by studying Pakeha practice or by going to agricultural colleges in New Zealand and Australia.

The early years of the twentieth century saw wide tracts of land in the Walapu Valley and all along the Coast being cleared of bush, sown in grass and stocked. Much of this work (Ahikouka, Tikitiki, Marangairoa) was done by communal effort and such finance as was needed came from the meagre purses of the kaumatua and the philanthropy of such men as Samuel Williams, the founder of Te Aute College. The communal farms became financial and used their money and credit to develop further land. The need to have a financial organization behind the farms led to the establishment of the Waiapu Farmers' Cooperation.

With the development of the farms the need grew for some form of security that could be offered to banks and commercial houses. This opened up the question of the land titles. They had to be either individualized or reduced to such form as to enable the owners to offer their land as security for mortgages. It was in this way that the idea of incorporations was born.

As early as 1909, incorporations were made legal bodies by parliament (Maori Land Act. 1909). Some years ago, a count was made in the Gisborne office of the Department of Maori Affairs, and then there were 180 in the Tairawhiti district. Now this number would be somewhat higher. Other districts have adopted incorporations as a means of utilizing their land resources, one of the largest being the Puketapu Incorporation, a large timber concern of Ngati Tuwhareton.

In the beginning, incorporations were family affairs; the owners would meet, make all the necessary decisions and do the work themselves. Gradually, this co-operative spirit lessened, and incorporations now often resemble private companies far more than communal enterprises. This has three main causes. First, owners of a block nowadays are hardly ever living together as community; they are more likely to be scattered all over the country. Secondly, incorporations often are big business now. This is true of giants like the Puketapu or the Mangatu Incorporations and many others. Such businesses are complex and vast sums of money are involved. Work is so longer communal but done by paid labour. The difficult tasks of management and keeping of accounts have passed into the hands of paid servants. Thirdly, owners are becoming legal-minded. They want to be sure of having a proper say and insist on proper machinery. If they are dissatisfied they bring in lawyers.

The modern type of incorporation often achieves a high degree of business efficiency. Speaking of the representatives of the present Committees of Management of what were once the East Coast Trust lands, an insider like Mr R. F. Gambrill has stated: ‘I have been more than

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impressed with their business acumen and ability I doubt whether any group of Europeans similarly placed and selected could have shown a more intelligent grasp of the problems nor have afforded more constructive criticism and help’.

Some incorporations have failed, but it is open to question whether the percentage of failures is any greater than those of European companies over the same period, or whether irregularities under the one are any more prevalent than under the other. Trading banks have financed the Maori incorporations for many years.

Principal causes of failure have been poor accounting and secretarial administration, struggles for power among conflicting factions and assumption of power by dominant personalities. In European companies similar tendencies of course exist.


The most important of the Maori incorporations is undoubtedly the giant cluster established just recently on the East Coast, in the place of the East Coast Trust Lands. If the East Coast Commissioner was, for many years, the most powerful farming concern on the Coast, the new incorporations, provided they remain united, can retain a similar position.

The beginning of the story of the East Coast Commission was told in an earlier issue of Te Ao Hou; the Maori people tried to farm these lands towards the end of last century but failed; parliament saved the lands from being sold up and placed them under a commissioner who managed not only to salvage them, but to transform them into unecumbered assets worth several million pounds. Meanwhile, about the nineteen thirties, a new generation of Maoris had grown up with greater experience in managing land, greater selfconfidence and an understandable desire to run their own affairs.

To give these people some satisfaction, parliament, in 1935, set up ‘block committees’ to assist and advise the East Coast Commissioner. These committees met regularly and discussed the problems of their respective blocks, but they had no power of decision. Mr Jessop, the commissioner, considered that this should rest with him as long as the financial position necessitated the continuance of the trust.

This financial position, however, improved from year to year. In 1939 the principal security debt was paid off; in 1945 the lands were clear from all the mortagages. The wool boom of the late forties greatly improved the position of the weaker brothers among the blocks, the so-called debtor blocks which were still encumbered with debt to other blocks in the trust (the so-called creditor blocks). The great majority were now able to stand soundly on their own feet.

After several years of preliminaries, preparations for winding up were started in 1950. The first stage consisted of a huge court case, fought in the Supreme Court in Gisborne, with both sides representing thousands of Maori owners—on the one side were the beneficiaries of the East Coast Trust Lands; on the other side descendants of those whose land had been under the East Coast Settlement Company and had been sold at one time or another to pay debts. Most of this land had been sold before 1908, and its owners or their heirs obviously had a claim.

A very pleasant compromise was reached, and settlement was made out of the huge reserves accumulated by Mr Jessop. At the time of writing, the complex task of liquidation of the other blocks is nearly completed and many committees of management are completing their first independent farming year.


Te Ao Hou had an opportunity to study the ways of the new incorporations more closely during a trip to Onenui Station. This must be one of the most isolated places in New Zealand; it certainly is one of the most beautiful. Occupying the northern tip of Mahia peninsula the station can only be reached for short periods every twelve hours when the tide is down. We left our car behind on the beach and were conducted to the homestead over a mile or so of rocks covered with shallow water. The rocks were rough; only people who know the terrain intimately know which bumps to choose and which to avoid. We had arrived a day before the first meeting of the new incorporation (about a year ago)—a public meeting combined with an admirable habit still carried over from the block committee days: the annual picnic to which all owners in the block

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Photograph: John Pascoe

were invited. The idyllic scenery is not the only attraction of this place for casual visitors; it also has an inexhaustible supply of crayfish, paua and many other types of shellfish. Looking over the property we saw some spots that seemed very familiar. This was because some passages of the film ‘Broken Barrier’ were shot here: this is where the cattle stampeded on that film. Most of the 4,364 acre station is on a triangular plateau well

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above sea level. The sea is on two sides and on the south side is the inhabited world, cut off by a deep unroaded gully.

The traditional name of this land is Tawapata, or, to give the proper technicalities: Tawapata South No. 1 Block. It was on Tawapata that the famous marriage took place between Kahungunu and Rongomaiwahine. The very birthplace of the Kahungunu tribe, Pukekarere Pa, was just above the piece of beach we had passed, and only a few minutes from the homestead is the rock from which Kahungunu watched the shags diving into the sea. Of course, the whole story was told again that night at the homestead; Rongomaiwahine's very striking challenge to Kahungunu, his visit to the peninsula, his incredible cunning in first discrediting and then killing her husband Tamatakutai.

The East Coast Commissioner at first, leased Onenui along with many of the other stations. In 1930 when the lease expired, the place was neglected and covered with scrub. It was then that vigorous development started; the station's carrying capacity today is twice what it was in 1934.

A hundred people arrived for the picnic; several truck loads of them being hurried across at low tide, to stay until the next low tide. What new decisions would be made, now that the owners had assumed independent management? To judge from the conversations that went on before the meeting, one would imagine the body corporate was going to revolutionize the whole conduct of the station. A road was needed from the plateau through the gully to the rest of the world; 800 acres had to be bought to improve access; development had to be speeded up and, in the future, the land should be farmed intensively; being well-watered and fertile, it could be used for cropping; an entire village settlement could be established once again on Tawapata, as in Kahungunu's day. The proceeds of the station could finance a housing scheme. Always this dream of communal living on an idyllic spot. The Maori people still foster this vision everywhere, but at this remote corner it does not seem likely to materialize. Still, one can never tell.

Could the station stand these revolutionary changes? In casual conversation, some of the people told us there was no doubt of it. It was admitted that Tawapata South No. I was still a debtor block, but the debt was regarded as quite trivial against the great assets. The land carries 11,500 sheep, 1,000 cattle. When the management committee met, the story was different. The chairman, Mr Sid Christie, of Nuhaka, the biggest owner in the block, spoke cautiously and the others agreed. This was a big new responsibility so suddenly thrust upon them. It was not yet possible quite to see what it would involve. They had to find their feet, feel their way. Although all the plans for progress were good ones, it would be unwise to take risks; better go slow. The

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Hetekia Te Kani Te Ua, prominent owner and member of the committee of management of the Mangatu Incorporations. (John Ashton Photograph.)

meeting confined itself to arranging with a bank to take over the remaining indebtedness and carry on the old steady development programme of the commissioner's times.

This appeared to an outside observer a very sound approach to the difficulties of managing several hundred thousand pounds worth of assets. At the meeting there had been, at call, not only the liquidator and one-time deputy commissioner, Mr F. N. Bull, but also experts of the banking and stock world and an acknowledged Maori farming expert. Advice from all these people had been available to the body corporate; long-range plans had been formulated, and at the same time a conservative financial policy had been adopted.

One crucial problem for these incorporations is how to preserve all the advantages of unity while keeping their independence. Many support a plan to form a company in which all the ex-commission blocks would take shares. This company would be a service organization, owing the East Coast Commission buildings, doing accounting and secretarial work, taxation returns, distribution of profits and so forth. It could act as a co-operative buying and selling organization, with a bulk store, a farming adviser and other facilities which, although in no way limiting the powers of the incorporations, could help them considerably.

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This is only one instance of stations handed over to Maori management. Just now, bodies corporate are being set up everywhere to take over control from the Maori Trustee. Nor is this movement confined to the East Coast; in the Aotea District the 12,000 acre Morikau block has been released.

The more incorporations become a force in New Zealand business, the more they are likely to lose their early communal character and become, in effect, something like a private company. In the Maori Affairs Act 1953, many of the provisions were tightened to make them conform more closely to modern business principles. A body corporate now has to state the purposes for which it is formed; the Puketapu Incorporation which engages in large-scale timber-milling shows the extent to which incorporations can enter into propositions other than farming. The constitution also has to set out how revenue may be applied. Committee members are to hold office for three years, one-third being elected every year. Accounts have to be audited and lodged with the Maori Land Court for public inspection. Voting is to be by share interests, not heads. No committee member can be proxy for other owners, nor can a person holding proxies be elected. The Maori Land Court acts as registrar of the bodies corporate, holds lists of owners, assets and so forth and fixes the quorum for general meetings.

The trend in all these changes is obvious; it is towards modern business principles and there is no doubt owners as a whole are pleased at the changes. At the same time, the legislators have

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Typical view on Morikau Station, Wanganui River, now handed over to the incorporated owners. (Charles Hale Photograph.)

taken care not to make the demands too tough. Many of the incorporations are still small family arrangements and these should not be weighed down by an intolerable burden of office and secretarial work. Private company law would be too tough for them. It looks as if the 1953 legislation has enabled these smaller bodies to continue comfortably while the owners of bigger bodies have all the essential protection they need.

The Maori character of the incorporations, in the meantime, is being preserved. There is a world of difference between an ordinary company based on people who have bought shares and a family or tribe, farming or otherwise using land in common, their ‘shares’ being ancestral land they have inherited. The continued use of the Maori Land Court instead of the Registrar of Companies will tend to keep that difference alive.

Furthermore, by incorporating family land, one ensures that it will always remain in the family. Under the 1953 Act, the Maori Trustee may buy shares worth less than £25, but he is bound to offer these shares first to the body corporate as a whole. If the body corporate does not want to buy them, the Maori Trustee may sell to any owner in the incorporation but the law does not permit him to sell to outsiders.

Thousands of individual Maori farmers have been settled during the last generation and it is to be hoped that wherever possible, Maori land will be used to settle individuals who can make a living out of farming. There are, however, large areas of Maori land where this solution is not so easy and it is here that incorporations have an important part to play in the great struggle to make every acre of Maori land fully productive.

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Hinepoupou and Te Oriparoa

This story was written by the late W. W. Bird a few days before his death. It is based on the untranslated Maori version in Sir George Grey's ‘Nga Mahi a nga Tupuna’.

Hinepoupou and her husband, Te Oriparoa, were living for a time on Kapiti Island, their home being Rangitoto, Durville Is. When the time came to return home, Te Oriparoa prepared his canoes to carry his people across and Hinepoupou was set to get ready some food for their journey. So she got some birds (penguins) plucked them, made a fire and, placing them on it covered the oven in order that they might be cooked. When, however, the oven was opened up, it was seen that the birds were raw and not fit to eat. Thereupon the husband and the other men upbraided her and she was made ashamed in the sight of them all. She left them and, going to some distance away from them, remained apart from them.

Shortly afterwards, Te Oriparoa launched his canoes and with his brothers and his people together with his wife's father, got on board and sailed away, his wife being left behind, deserted. The canoes kept on their course until they reached Nga Rewai. Stopping there for a while, they continued their voyage and finally reached Rangitoto and their own village. When Hinepoupou returned to the spot where the canoes had been drawn up she found them gone.

In great distress, she went back to the fire and, being now very hungry, searched amongst the stones of the oven to pick up any scraps that might be left there. All she found were some bits of fernroot and these she ate first dipping them in water to soften them; there was no other food left for her.

Three days later after thinking over her position, she arose and walked over to a rocky point called Tarere-Mango. She clambered down to the shore and reached the water below. Then she took a dry stalk of toetoe such as is used for making kites and, having recited a prayer over it, launched it into the tide. It floated away eagerly watched by the woman but it had not gone far when it turned back to the shore. Hence Hinepoupou concluded that this particular spot was useless for her purpose at present and she returned to the camping place.

Three days later, she went back to Tarere-Mango, took another stalk of toetoe, repeated a prayer over it and launched it from her hand into

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the sea to find that this time it simply flew away, on the water like a bird. She watched it for some time and soon it was out of sight. And so she decided that this was the right place for her to make the attempt to escape.

She tucked her clothes right up to her kilts which were made of aute bark, a white one in front and a red one behind, and, entering the water soon reached Nga Kuri-a-Kupe. After reciting another prayer, she again lowered herself into the sea to rest awhile drifting like a calabash set afloat by children.

She swam Raukawa (Cook Strait) for two days but with the incoming tide she was carried back towards Kapiti only to be brought back to Omere when the tide turned. In two and a half days she reached Toka Kotuku, a rock beyond Waihi and Pirikawau, that is to say, the rock in the middle of the strait. She got on to the rock and sat there to rest awhile. When she had recovered her breath she swam on and in two and a half more days she reached Nga Tai-whakahokihoki-a-Pare, between Rangitoto and Toka-Pourewa (Stephen's Island). With the incoming tide she was borne towards the shore but with the ebbtide, she was carried away from Rangitoto. Finally she reached a rock called Pareraututu and she rested there. She took off her kilts and threw the white one into the mouth of a big hapuku and the red one into the jaws of a great taniwha (shark). Reaching the seaweed on the rock, she broke some off and made a new kilt for herself. As she sat there and watched she saw a hapuku rise to the surface when at once the taniwha swam up with its jaws open and killed it. Again the taniwha rose up and seized a hapuku taking its tail. This went on for some time before it ended.

Then Hinepoupou lowered herself into the water and again swam on reaching Whaka-te-Papa-nui.

She warmed herself in the sun, first turning on one side and then on the other and was soon warm again and felt revived.

She swam to the shore and landed at Papa-a-Nau outside of Otara-wao which was the pa of her husband and her father who had so cruelly deserted her. She kept straight on and, as she neared the village, she heard the voices of her father and mother bewailing her loss. Without stopping, she reached the window of their home, sat down and reaching upwards with her right hand, touched her father's face. He awoke and cried out, ‘Who is that?’ His wife said ‘I don't know’ and they went to sleep again. After awhile Hinepoupou's hand was again stretched out and this time her father saw her and brought her inside, looked at her closely and recognised his daughter. Then he began to weep over her but Hinepoupou said, ‘Don't tell anyone that I am here’.

When the first rays of dawn appeared she went up to the sacred places to recite the necessary prayers.

By this time it was quite light and, having ended her devotions she returned to her parents who came out continuing their wailing. Then the cry arose: ‘It is Hinepoupou, it is Hinepoupou’. The sound was carried from one end of the village to the other and soon came to her husband's dwelling. When Te Oriparoa heard he said, ‘Surely not Hinepoupou in person, it must be her spirit’. He was only pretending, being ashamed at his having deserted her as he had done. She remained among them for a month but she had not forgotten their cruel treatment. She said to her brother, ‘Get the canoes ready’. This was soon done—those of her brothers, her husband and all his people.

When the sea was calm enough, they were all launched with some hundreds of people. Hinepoupou rose up and boarded her canoe, her elder brother came joined her and they paddled out to sea. Presently the shore was left behind and only the tops of the hills could be seen. Her brothers asked, ‘Where is the anchorage of which you spoke’. She replied, ‘Paddle on’. They did so, and when they got nearer the top of the rock rose up before them. Hinepoupou's canoes came to a stop and awaited those of her husband. As they waited, up rose the hapuku to the surface to be caught by the taniwha. Again the hapuku appeared only to meet the same fate at the jaws of the taniwha.

Then Hinepoupou performed certain rites, immersing herself and sinking beneath the surface of the water and she called out to the crowd, ‘Keep quiet, I am the only one who knows the right thing to do here’. Going on further till they arrived at the place at which to anchor, she took their anchor, let it go and it reached the bottom. Then she cried aloud, ‘Throw your lines out’. Hardly had the lines run out when, behold, they were taken by the fish—two at a time. Very soon her own canoe was laden to the gunwale.

Then arrived the canoes of Te Oriparoa and his company. Hinepoupou called to them, ‘Keep your canoes behind at the place where the taniwha is.’ They dropped their anchors and the woman waited as they were yet gathered on only a small compass. Then she called to the elder brother, ‘Give me your line’. He did so and she struck her nose with it. She let it run out and the fish were caught two at a time as fast as she could pull them up; even when there were only scraps of bait on the hooks, they came up from the reef for the blood from her nose. She swung her line into the air and cast it into the sea. Immediately the anchors were raised and as they came up her husband's canoes were thrown into confusion as the wind rose.

Soon, one after another the canoes were upset and their crews were swallowed up in the sea, but Hinepoupou's canoes came safely through and reached the shore. And so Oriparoa met his end and his ill treatment of Hinepoupou was paid for.

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I hope my readers will not be disappointed when I tell you at the outset that, under this heading, it is not my intention to deal with the modern Maori songs which, though they have a somewhat wide appeal to the younger generation, cannot be regarded as coming within the category of true Maori poetry or literature. These modern tunes are, of course, derived from pakeha sources, and their music is therefore not really Maori. Thus I am told that, when Bernard Shaw on his visit to New Zealand was entertained with some Maori songs, he was disappointed to recognise the air of a well known German Volkslied. Nor can much be said in favour of the language of these modern Maori songs. Take for example the well known ‘Hoki hoki tonu mai’—sung sometimes to a tune which, though it has a Maori flavour, is not truly Maori, and sometimes, for the purpose of a poi dance, to the tune of ‘Little Brown Jug’. The first verse is passable:—

‘Again and again, the spirit of my loved one returns to me, clasping me once more in fond embrace’.

Hoki hoki tonu mai
Te wairua o te tau
Ki te awhi ringa
Ki tenei kiri, e te tau

But following this comes:

Ka pinea koe e au
Ki te pine o te aroha
Ki te pine o kore nei
E waikura, e te tau.
‘You are pinned by me
With the pin of love
With the pin which will never rust,
O my darling’.

This is poor Maori and maudlin sentiment.

These songs may, however, be regarded for what they are worth as the mode in which the modern Maori youth expresses himself with the aid of a ukelele or other kind of guitar, largely after the fashion of the young Hawaiians. But the Songs of the Maori which form my subject are those which have been current amongst the various tribes from time immemorial, and which constitute therefore the true poetry of the Maori and form a most interesting part of his unwritten literature.

To Sir George Grey, the most distinguished and ablest of our governors, we owe the first attempt to collect the traditions of the Maori and to establish a Maori literature. He set himself to learn the Maori language, not so much with a literary purpose, as from the conception that a knowledge of Maori was necessary to enable him to perform properly every duty to his country and to the people he was appointed to govern. Then, as Grey himself tells us in the preface to his book, he had formed a very high appreciation of the work of the missionaries amongst the Maori, and felt that something should be done to show the full extent of the work they had accomplished and what they had overthrown. Hence it seemed to him desirable that in New Zealand a monument should be raised to show, in some measure, what the country was before the Maoris were converted to the Christian faith; and no more fitting means of accomplishing such an object appeared attainable than that of letting the people themselves testify of their former state, by collecting their traditional poetry and their heathen prayers and incantations, composed and sung centuries before the light of Christianity had broken upon their country. It was also clear, to those persons who study the history of the human race as developed in the history, customs and language of different nations, that such a work would possess a high degree of interest, and it seemed probable that there would be many persons who would study with pleasure the poetry of a savage race, whose songs and chants, while they contain so much that is wild and terrible, yet, at the same time, present many passages of the most singularly original poetic beauty.

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Grey further states that the most favourable times for collecting these poems, and those at which most of them were in the first instance obtained, were at the great meetings of the people or public affairs, when their chiefs and most eloquent orators addressed them. On these occasions, the most effective speeches were invariably those principally made up from recitations of portions of ancient poems. In this case, the art of the orator was shown by his selecting a quotation from an ancient poem which, figuratively but dimly shadowed forth his intentions and opinions. As he spoke, the people were pleased at the beauty of the poetry and at his knowledge of their ancient poets, whilst their ingenuity was excited to detect from his figurative language what were his intentions and designs. Quotation after quotation, as they were rapidly and forcibly chanted forth, made his meaning clearer and clearer; curiosity and attention were by degrees riveted upon the speaker, and if his sentiments were in unison with those of the great mass of the assembly, and he was a man of influence, as each succeeding quotation gradually removed the doubts which hung upon the minds of the attentive group who were seated on the ground around him, murmur of applause rose after murmur of applause, until at last at some closing quotation which left no doubt as to his real meaning, the whole assembly gave way to tumults of delight and applauded equally the determination with which he had formed his poetic knowledge, and his oratorical art, by which, under images beautiful to them, he had for so long a time veiled, and at last so perfectly manifested his intentions.

For more than seven years, Grey tells us, he devoted a great part of his available time to collecting these poems and in arranging them in their proper metre. The information was generally furnished by the former priests, and probably to no other person than Grey would many of them have been imparted while, even during his own time, most of the old chiefs who had aided him in his researches had already passed away. The volume, Ko Nga Moteatea Me Nga Hakirara o Nga Maori—The Laments and Songs of the Maori—published in 1853, contained five hundred and thirty three numbers. It has never been republished and is now comparatively rare. I may add that it has never been completely translated.

After the war in Waikato, when Rangiriri fell to the British, and Rewi Maniapoto was defeated at Orakau, a number of Maori prisoners of war were confined in H.M.S. ‘Curacao’ in Auckland Harbour. One of the guards in charge of the prisoners was a Sergeant McGregor. He suggested that these unfortunates might occupy their time in writing such Maori songs as they knew, and the result was a collection of over four hundred songs published by McGregor in 1893. In White's Ancient History of the Maori are 110 songs, while Davis published 54 in Maori Mementoes. Others are to be found in various publication: Taylor's Te Ika A Maui, Dr. Shortland's Traditions and Superstitions, Te Waka Maori, the Journal of the Polynesian Society, The Transactions of the N.Z. Institute, the Dominion Museum Bulletins, and in the writings of the late Percy Smith and Elsdon Best. In the earlier publications, the writers have not taken the trouble or have been unable to obtain and to offer any information in regard to obscure words and phrases, or to give any explanation of the frequent allusions, and many of these are now entirely lost. In this connection, Grey quotes from some unpublished remarks by the Rev. Dr. Maunsell, one of the most learned Maori scholars of the time:—

‘In observing the construction of Maori poetry, we shall see that it was not only abrupt and elliptical to an excess not allowed in English poetry, but that it also carries its license so far as to disregard rules of grammar that are strictly observed in prose, alters words so as to make them sound more poetically, deals most arbitrarily with the length of syllables, and sometimes even inverts their order or adds other syllables. But it must be remembered that by far the largest measure of the difficulty arises from the peculiar local circumstances, and from the remote and vague allusions so wrought into the piece that even one tribe will often be unable to understand the song of another, especially if it be one of antiquity.

‘Thus it happens that the same song is to be found in each of the different books, though the different versions show a great deal of variation. The bulk of the songs have passed over the lips of men right through both islands, and thus confusion has arisen in certain words or names; words have been dropped while others have crept in. In the writing down of the songs by the pakeha or the ignorant Maori, the same thing has happened, so that it is now very difficult to get the correct version’.

This, then, was the task Sir Apirana Ngata set himself—to seek out the tribes with whom the song originated, to ascertain the words as sung by them so that they might supply any necessary correction, and to provide explanatory notes. The results of his labours have been published in two volumes by the Board of Maori Ethnological Research, while a further 250 songs are contained in the MSS of the third volume now in progress. I know of no research into the language of the Maori equal to this. Sir Apirana took every opportunity to secure as many as possible of the obscure words, phrases and allusions, while those Maoris who do

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know some of them are yet living. Amongst the younger Maoris of the present time, there is a renewal of interest in the traditions of their forefathers, while some of the Maoris have had their spirit awakened at seeing their songs published in Maori magazines, and Sir Apirana was thus assisted by them. On the other hand, some have felt annoyed at seeing their own songs made available to other Maori folk, while others again have been reluctant to part with the information, suspecting that it might be commercialized. Nevertheless, Sir Apirana has secured in these first two volumes, two hundred songs of various types, and has supplied in each case the name of the composer and the circumstances under which the song was composed, with appropriate explanatory notes. In the preface to the second volume, he has included an analysis of the art of Maori poetry. Both volumes are entirely in Maori, and it is with his kind permission and his valued assistance in more difficult passages that I am enabled to place these remarks embodying a translation of this preface before my readers.

In the songs contained in each volume, certain essential characteristics may be noted. These are as follows:—


The majority of the composers are women. Whether from Tainui, Te Arawa, Mataatua, Horouta, Takitumu or Aotea, there is to be found a woman who has composed the laments, the love songs, the patere or songs of derision, the kaioraora or curses, the oriori or lullabies. Thus from the Ngati Porou tribe we have Hinekitawhiti, Hinewahirangi and others; from the Ngati Tuwharetoa tribe Te Rohu, Rerehau; or from Waikato, Ngati Maniapoto, and Ngati Raukawa we have Te Kahukore, Te Manawa, Topeora and others; and so on in the case of each tribe. But when all the circumstances are taken into account, it will be seen that it is only natural that women should constitute the greater number of the composers. The songs of love have their origin in the death of the loved one, in his deserting his love, in his transplanting his affections to another, or in the taunts of other women. In the case of the laments for the warriors fallen in battle, it will be found that a woman is the author of the song, giving vent to her grief by lacerating herself, weeping for her fallen man, and so when her child has been burnt in the fire or her kinsman drowned in the sea.

The patere or songs of derision, and the kaioraora or those invoking curses on her enemies, spring from the feelings aroused in the woman by the insults of the company of other women, while, in her intense grief at the loss in battle, she lacerates herself, and under the deepest emotion invokes curses upon the heads of her foes. Then, while her husband has taken the war path to avenge the death of his friends, the woman has to await his return to the village. Her thoughts follow him on his way and she pours out her feelings in song. Those who are inclined to search the depths of the Maori tongue should delve into these waiatas, finding therein the nature of the heart of the Maori woman.


Next, the composers of the ceremonial songs of the tohungas are usually men. Amongst the Ngati Tuwharetoa, the songs of the Heuheus are striking examples; with Ngati Porou we have those of Rangiuia, with Te Aitanga a Mahaki, those of Te Pakaru; with Nga Puhi, those of Taoho and Papahia; and with Taranaki those of Turaukawa and Makere. And so with other tribes who compsed songs of this character. Therein will be found the teachings of the Wharewanaga, the genealogical tables of the tribe and the ancient and obscure words of the Maori tongue. These compositions are terrible in character, exalted in style, reaching right up to the deities, the high priests speaking in their priestly language to their gods. Most of these songs have not yet been printed on account of the difficulty in supplying satisfactory explanatory notes. Thus the lament of Turaukawa for his son, and that of Rangiuia for Tuterangiwhaitiri, the many lullabies of Ngati Kahungunu, and many patere or songs of derision, are not included in the two volumes to which I now refer.


Though each kind of song originates in a different source and has a different basis, there is a similitude of pattern in the construction of each class. Take for example, the kind known as the popo or oriori, that is, the lullaby:—

In these two volumes are given twenty-three lullabies. They all begin in the same way—an affectionate salutation to the child in whose honour the song is composed, to his distinguished ancestors, to his cry of yearning for his dead mother, to his lost people, to the want of food, to the cold and other similar causes. Then the child is exhorted to wake up, and go in search of his ancestors in the places where they dwell, if living, or where they are buried, if dead, or where they fell in battle. Following this, the tohunga composer proclaims the high-born descent of the child, and so in the song we come to the part where the question is asked, “‘Whose child is this’? You will tell them ‘I am the child of Te Au o Mawake’, so that your elder female relatives will salute you. If you are asked ‘Whose child are you?’, tell them ‘We are the children of Mahaki-a-Iranui, of Kahupakari, of Te Aomatangi, of Hinerupe, my child.”’. The tohunga thus seeks a wav

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in which he may proclaim the high descent of the child, and the proud mother carrying her baby amongst the various kaingas on the coast will afterwards sing this song to establish her child in her rightful place amongst the people. This accomplished, the tohunga recites the famous stories of old, the battles won, the famous warrior leaders, the spots made famous in the history of the tribe.

The lullaby composed by Te Pakaru begins by referring to the child's cry for food. Thus “Hush!! hush! my son crying for food”. Having struck this note, the composer uses it as the motive for introducing the story of how the kumara was brought from Parinui-te-ra in Hawaiki. This is one of the tohunga lullabies of the race, which cannot be properly understood unless one is familiar with the traditions and customs of the ancestors of the Maori. The lullaby composed by Te Rangitakoru of Ngati Apa for his daughter, Wharaurangi, should be of special interest to readers in the Wellington province:—

Oh, my daughter, when you came from afar,
And your hands were formed and your feet and your face
Oh! then was launched Kurahaupo, the canoe of Ruatea.
You and I embarked in the Aotea, the canoe of Turi,
We forded the Whenuakura at its mouth
Then was founded the house of Rangitahi.
Planted was the kumara, and the karaka was sown
In the lands bordering the sea.
Hau took up some sand, in his hand he held the staff of Turoa
When he crossed the river, he found it wide and called it Whanganui
Where he splashed the water, that was Whangaehu
Then a tree was felled—that was Turakina
He lifted his feet many times and so; Rangitikei
When his heart sank within him, that was Manawatu
When the wind whistled past his ears, he called the place Hokio
The small river he called after himself—Ohau
Where he carried his staff levelled out was Otaki
Where he prayed, O daughter, it was Waimea
When he looked out of the corner of his eye—Waikanae
When he became weary, there, my daughter, you will see Wairaka
He cast a spell over her and she was fixed above and below as a rock in the sea
When his eyes glistened with delight,
He called the place Wairarapa
This was the rejoicing of your ancestor, o daughter.

This oriori, then, gives the origin of the names of every settlement from Wanganui to Wairarapa, and is a striking example of the manner in which some of our Maori place names originated.

The lullably composed by Hautu in honour of Te Parekanga is another tohunga song. It deals with the skill of the woman in handicraft in plaiting and weaving garments. Still, it is in the same class. Some of the orioris addressed to sons deal with the activities of men, with the art of war and skill in the handling of warlike weapons. Those addressed to daughters, however, speak of the activities of women.

Through all the songs, including the oriori, occur words which refer to the personal adornment of the Maori:—

Nau te mau mai i nga taonga o Wharawhara
Ko te Paekura ki to taringa, ko Waikanae ki to ringa
Hei taputapu mohou, e hine.
“Bring with you the treasures of Wharawhara, the graceful feathers of the albatross,
The famous greenstone Paekura in your ear and the axe Waikanae in your hand
As your rightful adornment, o daughter.”
Tenei, e tama, te whare i tohia te kaka o te waero
Kai o tuakana; e mau ana mai Tamore i te kaki
Hei ata mohou, tu ake ki runga ra.
“This, o son, is the house in which was dedicated the famous dogskin cloak with your elder brothers
Wearing the heitiki, Tamore, on your neck to enhance your beauty,
Stand up before them all.”

It will be noted that all the tohungas do not belong to one tribe. But whether from Ngati Tuwharetoa, Ngati Apa, Te Tai Rawhiti or Ngapuhi, they all appear to follow the one pattern, turning aside only in minor matters to make their compositions vary. The reader who is interested in Maori, upon searching carefully through these songs, will be amazed at the abundant evidence of the art with which each tohunga has contrived devices to dress fittingly the words which clothe his thoughts.

(To be continued)

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Tiaki Hira at Turangawaewae Pa, Ngaruawahia, 1952. This photograph was taken at the opening of the Pare Hauraki sleeping house, a few days before Princess Te Puea's death.

The three generations of the well-known Hira family of Tuakau, grandfather, son and grand-daughter, show just how well Maori people can adapt themselves to changing times and circumstances.

The grandfather, Hone Hira—eminent Maori orator and authority on Maori lore; the son, Johnny Hira—successful farmer,—and the grand-daughter, Sophie—prominent sportswoman, outstanding in competition with both Maoris and pakehas.

Hone Hira is a rangatira of the old school. Born at Te Kohanga, near the Waikato river on September 26, 1877, he is a chief of Ngati Tipaa and is related to the Waikato Maori royal family. Though he went to St. Stephen's College he did not pursue his pakeha education to any length. Leaving St. Stephen's he went back to Te Kohanga and took up bushwhacking.

But it is for his association with the Maori king movement that Hone Hira is best known.

When Mahuta was king, Hone Hira was captain of one of the king's bands, Te Tautoka. He was also solo cornetist. For a period he carried on in these posts under King Te Rata but it was during Te Rata's reign that he changed his role. He gave up the band commissions and became the official orator at king movement functions. In this capacity he carried on for King Koroki and Princess Te Puea.

Hone Hira became very interested in the lore and customs of his people as a youth. He wanted to learn the Maori ways. He went to the old people and imbibed their knowledge—the knowledge that has stood him in good stead on maraes all over the country.

In particular he has specialised in and mastered the intricate whai korero forms for the opening of new buildings.

‘Wherever Koroki opens a meeting house I do the speaking,’ says the old man. ‘Because I know the right way.’

When the writer of this article once asked, at the opening of a new meeting house in the Waikato, who would perform the ancient speech-making rites demanded by custom the answer was unanimous. ‘There is only one amongst us who can do it,’ they said. ‘Hira.’

The old man has taken part in the openings of meeting houses in the East Coast, Rotorua, Taranaki and North Auckland areas as well as in his own beloved Waikato. He was the orator at the opening of both Mahinarangi and Turongo, at Ngaruawahia.

Also he was the speaker at the opening of Ngati Raukawa at Otaki. He took a stand there in advising King Koroki of the correct thing to do when a dispute—which became famous throughout Maoridom—arose as to whether part of the planned ceremony was in accord with Waikato custom.

Just a few days before Princess Te Puea's death last year Hone Hira spoke at the opening of Pare Hauraki meeting house at Ngaruawahia. King Koroki opened the house. The erection of this house was one of Te Puea's last works.

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Mrs Heather, portrayed on Te Ao Hou cover of Spring 1953, is a granddaughter of Tiaki Hira.

Mrs Hira also comes from a high-ranking Waikato family. Her maiden name was Pane Kuhukuhu Rangiamohia. She is a granddaughter of Hori Kukutai, chief of Ngati Tipaa.

These two old people now live at a dairy farm belonging to the family but they often go in to Tuakau and stay either with their son or at the pa.

Their son, Potaua Hone Hira, known as Johnny Hira, has had quite different aspirations to those of his father. With him the accent has been not on Maoritanga but on farming. And with his wife, who has combined and worked with him constantly, he has ‘made a go of it.’

They worked their way up, step by step, and now are farming in a substantial way. ‘We never stayed for long spells at tangis or huis,’ says Johnny Hira. ‘We never wasted money. We knew that we had to work, persevere and stay at home.’

Johnny Hira was born at Onewhero, Waikato, on November 30, 1899. After schooling and doing some labouring he went milking for his uncle and decided he would like to milk for himself.

Eventually he was able to do this by going to his mother's 108 acre property in the Onewhero district. This place was only three miles from the one he had been working on for his uncle. It was pretty rough and had not been regularly farmed.

He worked on it and put money that he had saved while shearing into it. With both he and his wife working very hard they got established. Adequate housing and farm buildings were added in time. With the addition of a benzine milking machine they were able to step the herd up from the 27, which had been hand milked, to 37. The herd now stands at 42.

The next big step in advancing their farming interests came when they decided to clear a 116 acre property which Mr Hira sen, owned in the district. It was all in bush. This they put in grass and built it up to carry 300 ewes, its present carrying capacity. When the second farm came into operation it meant that the Hiras were kept busy working them both.

The dairy farm is now completely modernised and all electric. There is even a tennis court. The Hiras left their farms in 1946 and went in to Tuakau to live. They had already bought and cropped land there. They built a modern three-bedroomed home in Tuakau but still worked both farms. Though now there is a relative on the dairy farm, Mr Hira is still a hard working farmer.

Life however has not been all work and no play for him. In his younger days he was an enthusiastic Rugby footballer. From 1922 to 1934 he was a Franklin representative and from 1923 to 1932 a South Auckland representative.

Mrs Hira jun, who has been a constant helpmate to her husband was a Miss Rewha. Her mother was closely related to the Maori royal family and to Princess Te Puea. Mrs Hira worked diligently for the latter. She has the rare distinction for a Maori woman of being a J.P. Both Mr and Mrs Hira are on the Tuakau Tribal Committee, Mr Hira being chairman. Mrs Hira is also chairwoman of the local Maori Women's Welfare League Branch. The Hiras have only the one daughter, Sophie, but they have brought up several other children.

It was for Sophie that the Hiras built an elaborate, ultra-modern home at Tuakau, of which some details have been reproduced in our last issue (pp.26–7).

Sophie Hira, as a girl, has had an outstanding career in basketball, tennis and pony riding events.

She developed a love of horses when she used to ride to Onewhero school. When she was at Pukekohe High School she went all round the South Auckland District competing in riding events. She won many first and other prizes. In 1947 she won the amateur over hurdles class at the Auckland Show and also the professional over hurdles. At the same show she won the Dominion Pony Hunter, the main hunt event for ponies. Altogether she got five firsts at the 1947 Auckland show.

In her first year at Pukekohe High School, Sophie was runner-up in the open tennis championship. The next year she won it.

In 1951 she won the Franklin junior tennis championship, and in the same year the singles title at the country tourney in Auckland. Meanwhile basketball was not forgotten and in 1949 and 1950 she repped for South Auckland.

In 1951 she married George Muru from Ngaruawahia, forging another link with the royal family, her husband being a close relative of that family.

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Fresh from the seminars of Edinburgh University, Dr. Maharaia Winiata, speaking to Maori churchmen at Otiria, made the pronouncement that the two most important recent developments in Maori leadership were the Maori Women's Welfare League and the Maori Section of the New Zealand National Council of Churches.

It was quite an important remark to make, and of course Dr Winiata meant all he said, even though he was speaking to the Maori Section using for a platform the imposing Otiria Pa dining hall where the seventh and latest annual conference of the Maori Section was held last February.

In many ways it was the Maori Section's most crucial conference so far. To a certain extent, the opening by the Hon. E. B. Corbett was indication that the organization has gone a long way to becoming firmly established. Equally significant was that Otiria provided firm policies on many matters that had been discussed by the Maori churchmen for years. Among these, the temperance and race relations questions were perhaps of the greatest public interest, while the announcement that the Maori Section's Rotorua Hostel (Whanaungatanga Hostel) would be opened on April 1, was also a sign of progress. This hostel, built by the government, and the first in the country to be managed by three church denominations in common, will hold thirty apprentices and public service cadets.

Mr Corbett said, in opening the conference on the night of February 15th:

“Some people think that New Zealand can advance as two separate entities—Maori and pakeha. There are some who believe that the destiny of the Maori is back in the customs and traditions of a hundred years ago.”

In the Minister's view, unity between Maori and pakeha could be achieved just by both races getting together, in the same way, as various denominations got together in the National Council of Churches. The younger Maori farmers wanted tractors to cultivate their land—not horses like their fathers or wooden hoes like their ancestors. Similarly they wanted a Maori policy that was up to date.

Mr Corbett emphasised that in saying these things he was speaking as a practical administrator working in the material world. For instance, he had the task of ensuring the rights of Maoris to retain ownership of their land. With the rapid increase of population in New Zealand, and the ever-increasing land-hunger, there was the danger that the last heritage of the Maori people would be gradually usurped. The only way of safeguarding the land was to ensure that the Maori people use it productively. With that in mind, said Mr Corbett, the land legislation of 1953 had been introduced.

– 20 –

He hoped it would keep the Maori people in proud possession of their land.

Listening to the Minister were near to a hundred Maori clergy and an equal number of laymen from all parts of New Zealand.

This was the first Maori Section conference to be held in Tokerau and it attracted a record audience; people from all parts of the North, previously prevented by the long distances from attending the conferences, showed great interest and edification.

Among those attending the conference were the Rt. Rev. J. T. Holland, Bishop of Waikato; the Rt. Rev. W. J. Simkin, Bishop of Auckland and the Rt. Rev. W. N. Panapa, Bishop of Aotearoa; the Very Rev. J. G. Laughton, Superintendent of the Presbyterian Maori Mission; the Very Rev. G. I. Laurenson, Superintendent of the Methodist Maori Mission; the Secretary of Maori Affairs, Mr T. T. Ropiha, I.S.O.; and Mr J. te Herekiekie Grace, Secretary to the Minister of Maori Affairs.

The first full day of Conference (Wednesday, February 16) was devoted to reports and to general addresses by Bishop Holland and Dr Winiata; the day ended in a film lecture on the Evanston meeting of the World Council of Churches.

An instructive talk was also given by Rev. Eru Te Tuhi who had visited the Maori boys at Invercargill Borstal on behalf of the Maori Section. On that visit, lasting a week, he had interviewed some sixty youths and had been much impressed with the excellence of occupational training at the borstal and the sympathetic attitude of the staff. He had talked to the boys about their home and family and asked them what they intended to do when they came out. Many were too ashamed to want to go home, and Rev. Te Tuhi thought this most regrettable. He thought the boys needed more visitation. The Maori Section had asked the government to transfer the boys to an institution in the North Island where visits from relations were easier to arrange. The Justice Department was unable to do this, but offered to pay the expenses of Maori clergymen to visit Invercargill.

The Maori Section resolved to organize four such visits each year, two from the Anglican Church and one each from the Presbyterian and Methodist Churches.

Dr. Winiata's address dwelt largely on the benefit of overseas study for Maoris. As a result, a motion was passed recommending that some Maori clergy should be temporarily released from parish duties for study overseas.

Thursday started with plenty of excitement. An address by Miss Joan Metge, lecturer in Geography at Auckland University College, on Maori life in Auckland started off a fierce debate mainly about the influence enjoyed by the Auckland tribal committees and Community Centre, and about the rather vague question whether any Maoris are “negative”. There was general agreement that Miss Metge had provided a most penetrating and illuminating survey of a crucial subject.

After a discussion on evangelism, the meeting settled down to the two subjects on which it was to make firm policy statements; race relations and temperance. It is especially here that, as Dr. Winiata said, the Maori Section is seeking to give the Maori people a new type of leadership. We think that the discussion on both race relations and temperance have produced some valuable ideas and that these ideas, reached by a representative group of Maori people all over the country, ought to carry weight. It is too early to say just how successful the Maori Section's lead will be,

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The Bishop of Aotearoa, the Rt Rev W. N. Panapa, chaired the meeting at Otiria. (Northern Advocate Photograph.)

as it was only at Otiria that policies on race relations and temperance were laid down—and they were the first subjects to be fundamentally discussed—nor did they get much publicity.

Regarding the drink question, Maori clergy have two proposals. They are to send deputations to tribal committees to ask them to help in fighting intemperance. They have, furthermore, formed a temperance society whose members “for the welfare of the Maori race take a pledge of total abstinence from the beverage use of intoxicating liquors.”

The society will also aim at building up public conviction against the evils of intemperance. As the pledge does not apply to sacramental wine, people from every denomination are free to join it.

We can see that the society can attract two

– 21 –

kinds of members: first, clergy, social workers and others keen to bring temperance education to the people. They can do very important work. The existence of the society will give them added strength, and greater effectiveness. The other kind of people who may take the pledge are possibly those for whom drink is a personal problem. In the past, many such people took up voluntary prohibition orders with a magistrate. The pledge may sometimes be better than a legal document.

The Maori Section also resolved to ask the Government to make illegal the taking of liquor in the vicinity of a marae, in the same way as with dance halls.

The paper on “Race Relations in New Zealand” reached several conclusions about how relations can be perfected. Three main developments were said to be needed:


Raising standards of education among the Maori;


bringing about increased mutual tolerance and understanding by a religiously inspired goodwill;


“candidly” recognizing inherent racial and cultural differences which prevent a Maori from ever being finally satisfied with the things that are pakeha only.

The first two ideas will be generally applauded while the third is a little vague.

Under the heading “Recommendations” the Maori Section asks for action by parents, church-workers and teachers to see that Maori children make the fullest use of their opportunities at school; also suggests to develop closer Maori-Pakeha relations through fellowship-groups and educational broadcasts. None of the practical recommendations show any tendency to accentuate race or culture differences.

Four out of seven recommendations are concerned with the need to induce more Maori school children to finish at least secondary schooling. One asks for “an appeal to Maori parents” to keep their children at school as long as possible, another for action by “ministers and workers in all parishes” to address school children and impress them with the importance of carrying on with their education. The Maori Section also resolved to thank the government for its measures “to encourage the adequate secondary education of Maori youth” and for its help to Maori apprentices, particularly with hostels. Only on one matter did the conference decide to ask the government's help; it was thought secondary school teachers should know more and do more about the special difficulties faced by Maori youth in choosing courses of study and later jobs.

It is very interesting that the Maori Section should have laid so much stress on the raising of the Maori standard of education when discussing the race relations problem. It seemed to indicate that the Maori clergy is worried not so much about “racial” differences in this country as about the remaining educational differences. If that is so, what is often called the racial problem could be largely overcome by removing social and educational differences.

Needless to say, this is only one of many reasons why it is important for us all to be educated. At the same time, through the devious paths of a race relations discussion, the Maori churchmen started a very valuable idea when they asked for a concerted drive to improve the next generation's share of education—and of the labour market. If they manage to get their campaign among church workers, parents and teachers going, they will have given as good leadership as one could wish for today.


A unique ceremony was enacted at Whakarewarewa when the soil taken from the grave of a Maori airman shot down over Italy during World War II, was returned to his home last March. The young airman was Flight Sergeant Tionga Waaka, R.N.Z.A.F., a wireless operator.

The soil was brought back to New Zealand by Mrs Rora Fernandos (nee Iwikau), who travelled to Rome as one of the New Zealand representatives to the Roman Catholic Eucharistic Conference of 1950 (Holy Year). After she had been presented to His Holiness Pope Pius XII she was conducted to the Anzio Beach-head Cemetery where she had been advised lay the grave of the only Maori amongst the graves of other Allied forces who had fallen in this area.

It was there, in the company of a number of priests, after a short prayer, that she took soil from off the grave with the intention of returning it to the young man's family. For three years she searched in vain for the relatives until she ultimately located them in Rotorua. The soil, contained in an elaborate urn of engraved porcelain and placed in a raised velvet lined cabinet of dark mahogany was conveyed to Rotorua in full ceremony by a large party from the Ngati Raukawa and Ngati Tuwharetoa tribes.

On the Sunday morning, March 13, religious rites were performed over the cabinet containing the urn by the Rev. K. Paenga, of the Church of England and in the evening by Rev. Father McKenna of the Roman Catholic Church, in Wahiao. After the latter service, the cabinet was conveyed again by the visiting tribes to Tionga Waaka's birth place, the residence of the late Rev. W. A. Te Waaka the late airman's grandfather.

Mrs Fernandos is a Maori Welfare Officer in Auckland.

* * *

Building has started on a fully carved meeting house at Bulls. The Parewahawaha tribe (which belongs to Ngati Raukawa) has had two acres set aside for a marae and under the general leadership of the elder Kereama Tenako, a willing staff of voluntary workers, supervised by Mr Taylor Brown, are on the construction work.

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E tukua atu ana enei korero a nga tipuna ki te ropu rangatahi e kokuhu nei tena tena i te ururuatanga o te Ao Pakeha.

Na Kawana Hori Kerei i kohikohi haere enei pitopito korero i runga i tona manawapa kei ngaro te reo Maori, na mei kore hoki e whakakoa i te ngakau o nga whakatipuranga o muri nei.

Ko te tohungatanga tenei o te reo o nga tipuna, haere tahi ai te korero me te whakamarama, ara, ka pepeha te tangata e tika ana ra me hoatu ano te pane me te hiku o te korero.

E penei ana te hoatu i nga mea nei, engari ko etahi o nga whakamarama kua ngaro, no reira ka inoi atu ki nga iwi ina ka mohio mai koutou ki te tikanga o te pepeha o te whakatauaki ranei, kia tukuna mai nga whakamarama ki te Etita o Te Ao Hou. Tena koutou, ina ra te wahanga tuatahi o nga taonga nei:—


Engari tena, te tutanga te unuhia.

Tera tetahi kaumatua me tana tamahine, he wahine puhi, he ataahua hoki, he kotiro ngahau. Ka mea atu te matua ki a ia, “E hine to tane ko mea, kia kai ai taua i te kumara.”

Ka rongo atu te kotiro ra i te matua e penei ana, ka kata ti hoihoi ka mea atu ia, “E koro, ki tau whenua rangatira ra pea.”

Ka mea atu ano te matua ki a ia. “Na, to tane ko mea, kia kai ai taua i te tuna.”

Heoi ano, kati rawa atu te kotiro ra ki te kata, ka mea atu ki te matua, “E koro, ki tau waipuke ra pea ia.”

Ka mea atu ano te matua, “Na to tane ko mea, kia kai ai taua i te ika.”

No konei ka takoto rawa te kotiro ki raro, kata ai, ki nga kupu atu a te matua ki a ia, ka mea, “E koro, ki tau marino.”

Ka mea atu ano te matua ki a ia, “Na, to tane ko mea, kia kai ai taua i te roi.”

Heoi ano, katahi ka maranga mai ki runga, ka mea atu te kotiro ki te matua, “Ae, engari tena, te tutanga, te unuhia.”


These sayings of our ancestors are written here for Maori youth that is attuning itself to the pakeha way of life.

It was Governor Sir George Grey who collected these fragments in his zeal to preserve the language, with the hope that later generations might find pleasure in turning to them.

They constitute the gems of our literature, and should be rewritten with all explanations, remembering it was customary to give a statement with its body, head and tail complete.

This is how these are presented, although, inevitably some explanations are lost, and should some of you who read these notes know something about these sayings, please write to the Editor, Te Ao Hou.

Greetings. Here then is the first instalment of these treasures.


Ah, that's better for there will be no intervals between our supplies of food, during which we should have nothing to eat.

There once lived a man and his daughter, who was a puhi, very beautiful and fond of fun. The father one day said to her, “My dear, let me suggest so and so as your husband, we'll then get plenty kumara.” When the maiden heard this, she laughed gaily and said, “Oh, dad, when the land is at peace.”

The father then suggested another: “Then we shall have plenty of eels.” But the girl laughed even more, and said, “Dad, will the floods be always with us?”

The father then said, “Let so and so be your husband, then we shall have fish in plenty.” On hearing this his daughter rolled on the ground chuckling with delight, and said to her father, “When the seas are calm, daddy.”

So finally the father said, “Let so and so be your husband, and then we shall have plenty of fern-root.”

On hearing this she stood up and said to her father, “Yes, indeed, that's better, for then there will be no intervals between our supplies of food, during which we shall have nothing to eat.”

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He toa paheke, ko te rourou iti a Haere, ko te toa mahi kai, ko te tokanga nui a noho.

Mo te toa taua tenei pepeha:


He paraki waha. He hawatewate. He titotito.

Mo te tangata horihori tenei.


E rua tau ruru, E rua tau wehe, E rua tau mutu, E rua tau kai.


Etae koutou ki uta, kei mau ki Tu, puhia he angina, e mau ki tai ki Noho, ma te huhu, e pepe hanehane.

Na Houmaitawhiti tenei korero ki ana tamariki kia Tamatekapua ma i te hekenga mai i Hawaiki i te tau toru rau rima tekau pea.


E waru pu hoki, E waru pu tautahi.

Mo te kaute tenei, ara atu ano tona korero. “He pono he kuare ahau, engari koe he tino tangata, tonu ra pea, engari e matau ana ahau, te waru pu he tekau ma ono, pena me koe na; na ko te tekau ma ono me te kotahi he tekau ma whitu.”


He koanga, tangata tahi, He ngahuru, puta noa.


Kakariki tunua, Kakariki otaina.

Kei te mahara tonu au ki te korero a Te Taite Te Tomo. Tera tetahi ope no Tuhourangi, i patua kohurutia i te huarahi, katahi ka ngakia te mate nei ka ea. Ka patua te iwi kohuru ra, ka kainga etahi, ka mauherehere etahi. Ka ea te mate o Tuhourangi ka whakatauaki tona rangatira, “Kakariki tunua, Kakariki otaina.”


The warrior often gets but the wanderer's scanty pittance, but the husbandman eats the industrious man's full and hearty meal.

This proverb is for a fighting party.


He who talks till he splutters, is sure to tell some lies.

This is for the person known to tell many falsehoods.


Two years of crops parched by heat, Two seasons when produce is scarce, Two seasons in which crops fail, Two seasons of abundance—prosperity comes at last.


Go my children and when you reach land, do not take up the tikanga of Tu or War, but rather that of Noho, or dwelling in peace, and then the huhu shall undergo his change to the moth or pepe in your bones,—you will die a natural death.

This was Hou's advice to his sons, Tama and others when they left their island home about 1350 A.D.


Twice eight are sixteen. Sixteen and one are seventeen.

This is for number, and a further application. “Oh, yes, I'm a fool, and you're a fine fellow, I dare say, but I know that twice eight are sixteen, as well as you do; or that sixteen and one are seventeen.”


In planting (digging) time, friends to help you are scarce, when the crops are gathered, they come in shoals. Eat the little green parrots at once whether they are well done, or under-done.

Meaning, warriors on the warpath, have no time for dainty cooking.

Some city restaurants should read this. They're always at war.

I can still recall a story told to me by the late Taite Te Tomo. A Tuhourangi party was ambushed and murdered, and later this deed was squared off. The treacherous tribe was attacked and killed, some were eaten, others taken prisoner. The victorious Tuhourangi chieftain was known to have exclaimed: “Kakariki tunua Kakariki otaina.”


The Board of Maori Affairs lends money to Maoris who wish to use the government's group building scheme or the certified house scheme.

The former of these schemes is operating in many towns at present. The principle is that a builder cuts costs by building a group of houses in the same area. The government supports him by undertaking to take over any houses he cannot sell and also supervises design and construction.

The low cost of homes built under this scheme is sometimes remarkable. In one Rotorua case, an 870 sq. ft. home for a family with three children, together with the site and a £120 washing machine, cost £2376. Suspensory loans are offered on these homes.

Although the government only lends up to £2,000, private lending agencies working under the government guarantee scheme will lend up to 90% of valuation up to £2,200 plus suspensory loan. In the Rotorua case, valuation was higher than actual price.

Maoris who have sections near group projects may also benefit from this scheme.

Under the certified house scheme, a builder, without having a purchaser in view, may submit plans and specifications of a proposed dwelling to the State Advances Corporation and get an undertaking that it will lend money to a suitable purchaser. The Department of Maori Affairs would advance money on any house built under this scheme.

Advantages of these schemes are that the buyer gets a government checked and supervised house. He is also saved the trouble of arranging the building contract and finding a section if he has none. The Department of Maori Affairs will give guidance to anyone who is interested in the schemes.

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The subject of pig farming is a wide one but it is hoped that the following will give some small guide to Maori farmers.

Before the farmer goes to the expense of buying good pigs for breeding he should see that the conditions under which he intends to keep them are such that they will have every chance of repaying him adequately for his time and efforts. A good sized pig layout, at least 3 chain from the cowshed, should be erected and the following points kept in mind.


The feeding yard should be built at the most convenient point for feeding.


Paddocks made sufficiently large to allow pigs to obtain good grazing on good pasture.


Satisfactory housing must be provided by way of either a main piggery building or by movable houses in the different paddocks. The latter are cheaply constructed, can be moved frequently and would be suitable for the average farmer.

It is most necessary to work to a plan if good returns are to be obtained. A ratio of 1 sow to 10 cows could be taken to commence and possibly increased as efficiency is gained. Buy good purebred maiden sows and a young boar. Select a good cross, for example:—Berkshire sow—Tamworth or large white boar.

A balance production should be the aim. According to when milk becomes available sows should be mated so that they are farrowing approximately 2 months before the bulk of herd comes into production. Farrowings should be staggered so that there are sufficient pigs to cope with milk supply at the various stages of the season. The aim should be at 2 litters per sow per year. The first litters can generally be taken to baconer weights and as milk production falls pigs sent away at porker weights. A minimum of pigs should be kept over the winter unless there is an adequate supply of roots and supplementary feed. The best weights to aim at will be:—

Baconers 140–150 lbs.

Porkers 80–90 lbs. (These are the most profitable pigs.)

Heavy Porkers 91–120 lbs.

Management of Boar.

Boars should be fed so as to keep them in good healthy condition without allowing them to put on too much weight. Young boars that are still growing should be fed well to enable them to mature and they should be used sparingly and with care.

The act of mating extends over about 10 minutes and no disturbance should be permitted during mating. The sow should be mated to the boar after she has been showing signs of heat for 24 hours approximately. She is left until a satisfactory service has taken place. After a further 24 hours a second service should be given.

Management of in-pig sow.

Proper management of the sow from the time of mating will produce more pigs per litter. Nearly all sows have lost a good deal of weight by the time their litters are weaned and that weight must be put back. A mature sow should gain from 75–100 Ibs. weight during the time she is carrying a litter. An in-pig sow should get from 6–8 gallons of skimmed milk or its equivalent per day together with 1 lb. of meatmeal and access to good pasture at all times. The latter is most important. In addition warm dry sleeping quarters must be provided.

Sows must be put into their farrowing quarters at least 2 weeks before they are due to farrow. Clean drinking water should be provided at all times.

For 24 hours before farrowing they must be lightly fed and for 24 hours after farrowing only drinking water should be given.

If possible the farmer should attend a sow at farrowing, this will no doubt save pigs.

Feeding of sows while they are suckling an average litter of say eight piglets would be approximately 8–9 gallons skim-milk or the equivalent per day.

Castration of pigs should be carried out at about 4 weeks. If left longer it is harder on the piglets and on the man.

Weaning. When the litter is 2 months old the sow should be taken away from the piglets and placed in a pen by herself. She will come onto heat 4–6 days after weaning. Piglets suckling the sow should, after 4 weeks, receive a supply of meal in a separate creep or place where the sow cannot gain access. A small quantity of skim-milk should also be fed. This will make a great difference to the weights at weaning.

Feeding. Newly weaned litters should be fed more than twice per day for the first 2–3 weeks to avoid gorging. However, evidence now shows that after this period 2 feeds per day are sufficient and following is a guide to the quantity of skim-milk that should be fed:—

36–40 lbs. liveweight, 1 ½ gallons per day.

40–65 lbs. liveweight, gradual increase to 2 ½ gallons per day.

(Continued on Page 62)

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Right: Ache Hetet, Ngahape, King Country, gives a good deal of attention to his pigs—and the pigs look as if they like it. (John Ashton Photograph.)

– 26 –


Without opening up many important new issues, the 1955 conference of the Maori Women's Welfare League at Auckland left delegates well satisfied with the discussions. Organization of the conference was much the best so far and was highly praised. Opinions on many Maori questions were expressed; problems were brought to the notice of public and government; ideas about running leagues and stimulating progress in communities were exchanged.

An important decision of delegates was to have future national conferences two-yearly, as annual conferences proved too much of a drain on the league resources, slowing down other work. Most observers were agreed that the general policy of the league could still be handled efficiently through two-yearly dominion conferences.

The South Island leagues asked to have the next (1957) conference in Christchurch. It will be a long way for most delegates to travel, but the enthusiasm and ability of the South Island leagues made a fine impression on the other delegates who were delighted to accept the invitation.

Three presidential candidates offered themselves for election: Mrs Whina Cooper (Dom. Pres.), Mrs Miria Logan (Heretaunga), Mrs Adelaide Poananga Moore (Raukawa). Mrs Cooper was re-elected dominion president and Mrs Logan vice-president. Other officers on the executive are:

Mrs Puhi Royal (vice-president and Waiariki representative).

Miss Mira Petricevich (Secretary, treasurer and Tokerau representative).

Mrs Naki Swainson (Waikato-Maniapoto representative).

Mrs Maud Tamihana (Tairawhiti representative).

Mrs Wikitoria Bennett (Ikaroa representative).

Mrs Takiri Love (Aotea representative).

Mrs Taka Moss (Wai Pounamu representative).

In our next issue, we shall give a fuller review of some of the memorable speeches given at the conference. One of these speeches—Miss Petricevich's report on her visit to Manilla—made some history by drawing closer the bonds between the people of Asia and Polynesia.

More photographs of the Auckland conference are also being prepared for out next issue.

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Conference in session in the Auckland Maori Community Centre. (Hill-Thomas Photograph.)

– 27 –

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Women welcome the Minister of Maori Affairs as he enters the Auckland Maori Community Centre for the opening of the conference. (Hill-Thomas Photograph.)

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Mrs Whina Cooper, Dominion President of M.W.W.L., pins flower on costume of the Hon. Hilda Ross, Minister for the Welfare of Women and Children (right), who was present during the opening session. In the background: the Hon E. B. Corbett and Mrs I. Ratana, M.P. (Hill-Thomas Photograph.)

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Conference is just the thing for him. His mother is busy watching the agenda paper as remits are being discussed, but he has time to watch the photographer. (Hill-Thomas Photograph.)

– 28 –


The Heretaunga District Council of the Maori Women's Welfare League has sent Te Ao Hou some interesting photographs of its activities. Above are some of the dolls displayed at the League progress day and below the home of the winner of the Silver Challenge Cup for the best kept Maori home and garden (flowers and vegetables) in the Hastings area, Mrs John Ormsby of Kohupatiki. The cup was presented by a European woman interested in Maori welfare.

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Photographs Russell Orr

– 29 –


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Music on the front steps of the Auckland Museum. (Hill-Thomas Photograph.)

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Looking at the famous whare whakaaro at the Auckland Museum, while Mr Gaitely, the Te Hapua school teacher, gives some explanations. (Hill-Thomas Photograph.)

Twenty-eight children of New Zealand's northernmost school, Te Hapua, had their first look at the wonders of the city when they visited Auckland at the end of last year. Many of them had never seen electricity before, or heard the roar of city traffic. Trams, lifts or escalators were entirely new to most of the children who were from standard two upward to form one.

Our photographer met them as they were visiting the Auckland Museum. The variety and beauty of Maori art naturally attracted them greatly. On the front steps of the museum, Te Hapua was able to bring to Auckland some of its own life and spirit.

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Action song.

For some time, the children had been exchanging art work with pupils of the Grey Lynn school. The visit gave them an opportunity to meet these Auckland children personally, give a concert for them, and to invite them to make a return visit to Te Hapua in the near future. The party spent a full week seeing Auckland. The Maori Community Centre provided meals and the Parnell Maori Hostel, accommodation.

– 30 –


Viscount Bledisloe who presented the original Ahuwhenua trophy for the best Maori farmer when governor-general in 1932, receives the judges' reports each year and reads them with interest. When he donated the original trophy, there were no sheepfarmers among the Maori settlers under the department's control. Over the last ten years especially, many Maori farmers have, however, been established on sheep farms and some of these have entered and even won the competition.

Viscount Bledisloe noticed that the two entirely different types of farming, dairying and sheep, made it difficult to draw comparisons in adjudging the winner. In 1954 therefore he made a further donation for another identical trophy for competition amongst Maori sheep farmers, leaving the original one for competition amongst dairy farmers.

The 1954 competition for sheepfarming, the first to be held, was won by Mr Patu Raharuhi, of Horohoro, with a property of 118 acres carrying 600 ewes and some 50 run cattle. He is an original settler from 1930, who developed his property from the undeveloped state of fern and titree, built his house, woolshed and yards and, in the judge's words ‘revealed a good appreciation of pasture management and livestock husbandry’. He has always been prominent and active in work for the local Maori community. The trophy was presented to him by the Minister of Maori Affairs, the Hon, E. B. Corbett, during the Horohoro jubilee celebrations last February.

Runners-up for the sheep farms competition were Mr Joe Thompson of Opuatia (between Glen Murray and Tuakau) and Mr Mapu Morehu of Otaramarae (near Rotorua).

Dairy winner for the year was Mrs Mihi Stevens, of Okaihau (North Auckland). She is the third woman to win the award and incidentally also the third Nga Puhi. Over seven years she improved her butterfat production from 11,622 lbs, to 18,916 lbs. The presentation was made by the Governor-General, Sir Willoughby Norrie, during the anniversary celebrations at Waitangi last February. Runners-up were Mr Tapuae Rogers of Torere and Mrs Aumihi Davis of Okoroire.

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Raharuhi Pururu, Horohoro elder, welcomes the Minister of Maori Affairs at the jubilee. The Rt. Rev. W. N. Panapa translates. (N.P.S. Photograph.)

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The Hon. E. B. Corbett in conversation with chiefs Hepi Te Heuheu (left) and Keepa Ehau (right). (N.P.S. Photograph.)

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Patu Raharuhi, winner of Ahuwhenua trophy for sheep farming, with his father Raharuhi, his wife, and his trophy. (N.P.S. Photograph.)

– 31 –


First Maori opera produced by St Peter's Maori College, Auckland, was Ka Toa Tatou (We Shall Conquer), which was performed at the college last November. Not only the cast, but also the make-up, scenery, wardrobe and lighting experts were all students at the college. The whole opera was presented in the Maori language. Ka Toa Tatou is an allegory, a story told in symbols, describing how the christian faith came to New Zealand.

A new play is planned for the present year, to be called Tumaungatoa (I stand alone), and per-

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Scene from Ka Toa Tatou: the four front figures, from left to right, are: Whakaponokore (Donald Solomon), the girl who loves Niu Tireni but whose ambitions for him are coarse and worldly; Niu Tireni (Mitai Rolleston), chief character who wishes to conquer the world and live for ever. He finally does so through the Christian faith. Hawaiki (Wiremu Brown), Niu Tireni's father, in the picture reproduced above, seen conferring chiefly status on Niu Tireni who has come of age. Ngakaukino (Benjamin Leef), old tohunga-makutu, greatly feared by the people, finally banished by Niu Tireni who by then has embraced Christianity. (Amalgamated Studios Photograph.)

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Warriors in Ka Toa Tatou perform well-timed haka. (Amalgamated Studios Photograph.)

formed next October in English as well as Maori. The main plot this time appears to be a romance of olden time, without obvious allegory. Operas like those performed by St Peter's need about seventy people on the stage. The enormous amount of work done by pupils and by the teacher, Br. Reginald, ought to help in stimulating a wider interest in drama among the Maori people. There is plenty of talent, but it needs to be developed.

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Niu Tireni, yearning for the secret of immortal life, tries to wrest it by force from the missionary Pirihi (Langley Davis). (Amalgamated Studios Photograph.)

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are being made to-day

Mrs Rangimahora Reihana, president of the Rakau-Turanga Branch of M.W.W.L., Foxton, has given Te Ao Hou a demonstration of a real traditional way of making poi-balls. Nowadays these are often made of cellophane and tissue-paper, which of course is easier, but the traditional way need not be very difficult and time-consuming and we hope that some groups will try out the method Mrs Reihana has shown us. Incidentally, we are told that this traditional way of making poi has not been recorded fully in any of the textbooks, so that we are able to offer here some quite new facts about Maori material culture.

The demonstration was made with the help of the Otaki League Branch, of the same district (Raukawa). This branch made helpers available, girls to demonstrate the poi dance, and, perhaps, most important allowed the use of the beautiful Raukawa meeting house as a background for our photographs. We are therefore indebted for this story to the Raukawa tribe as a whole.

What is the poi dance? It is, by common consent, the most graceful of dances. There is evidence that in the old days it was sometimes performed by boys and men, but it was always

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Photography by
Charles Hale

mainly a woman's dance performed to delight an audience by its grace, rhythm, gesture and dexterity.

It is not unnatural that many people have thought the poi dance is derived from a ceremonial love dance. Eisdon Best has denied it, saying there is no proof for it. Sir Apirana Ngata has said that the ostensible object of the poi from the first was to give graceful welcome to strangers, but that gradually another object grew up, namely to attract the fighting men from other tribes and so keep the ranks of the ‘taua’ up to their full strength (see Te Ao Hou, Royal Tour Number).

Today, ‘poi’ is again mainly looked upon as part of the ceremonial welcome, but in popular tradition naturally the idea persists that so beautiful a dance must express love.

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Mrs Teihana (right) and Mrs Reihana (next to her) teaching young Otaki women.

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1. Rolling fibre (muka) over the thigh to make twine is called ‘miro’.

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2. When the string is made with the help of the toes, the process is known as whiri or korito. A knot behind the big toe holds the twine in position.

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3. Splitting the blade: butt end of the raupo is in Mrs Reihana's left hand.

Into this category falls the story told to Te Ao Hou by Mrs Teihana, crafts expert of the Otaki League. She was told by her father that the poi was originally a moonlight dance, performed by the side of a river or stream on a moonlight night. The spot selected was usually one where steeplejack grew overshadowing the water. On such a night the young men would first arrive and sit down. Then the maidens came and did a poi dance, using the long poi. The young men would look on and see whom among them they fancied. At the end of the dance the maidens swung into the water from the steeplejacks and the young men pursued the maidens of their choice.

The poi performed by three young women at Te Ao Hou's visit to Otaki is sometimes known as the Shanghai, but is also known as the Raukawa poi. It consists of nine distinct movements: puritai, pakihiwi, keiteringa, pakihiwi, keiwaho, hipeka, keitetaha, kiarua and whakamutunga. Photographically, these movements are almost impossible to record; film is the only useable medium. The Raukawa poi is a military one, dating from the first world war. It ends with a movement representing a military salute. Graceful and

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4. Scraping the pith from the raupo fibre. Scraped leaf is called pakawha.

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5. Loose pith (kahukahu, korino or tahuna) is worked into a ball to form the centre of the poi. Sometimes the ball is shaped round (purutaka) and sometimes oval (koroaroa).

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Cross section of a simple raupo poi ball. Notice the position of the knot anchoring the cord by which the poi is swung. (Drawing by Miss N. Fitchett).

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6. The ball of pith is enclosed in at least six raupo strips and tied above.

rhythmical, this dance has no words to be sung by the leader who only calls out the movements.

Any occasion can produce a poi dance, and the Otaki people know one they call the Station Poi. We were told it was prompted by the train journey from Palmerston North; there is a movement for every station.

This poi is essentially different from that still practiced in the Whanganui and Taranaki districts, where poi accompanies and expresses the secret history of the tribe, sung by all the women. Here profound knowledge is revealed with the help of the poi which heightens the emotion as well as aiding the memory by providing a perfect rhythm. A study of this type of poi, made at Hiruharama, on the Whanganui River, is being prepared.

Our photographs show how a simple traditional poi is made. Valuable guidance in writing the captions was given to us by Mr W. J. Phillipps, of the Dominion Museum.

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7. The cord which swings the poi is anchored inside the pith by means of a knot.

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Two ties are made to hold the poi together, after which the raupo strands at the top are trimmed.

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To make one modern type of decorative poi, four added dyed strips of raupo are tied at the top in the usual way.

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Finishing off a decorative poi.

Decorative Poi

Mrs Reihana showed two other types of poi (see this page). The first was one made of Indian corn leaves instead of flax. The other is a decorated type of poi often seen in modern concert parties. Coloured bands are put round the ball, giving it a brighter effect.

Of course, in olden times the best poi balls were also not the plain but the decorated ones.

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Making poi from outer leaves of Indian corn cobs. A ball of torn-up corncob leaves is prepared and enclosed in strips of more leaves which are knotted at their base.

In museums two main types of decorated poi are found: the taniko ones, and the type made of fine flax netting (ta). They were ornamented with six diamond shaped figures made of narrow red and black strips. Dogs hair tufts were attached to them, and they were called poi awe.

A simpler ornamentation like that shown by Mrs Reihana is, however, also attractive, and probably to be preferred to the cellophane type.

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The poi is held upside down with the knot above and the last strips being pulled into place. The knot will be pressed and hidden inside the future poi ball.

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Floating down the river Teramakau. (Engraving in London Illustrated News.)


The first part of this feature gives the background of Maori journeys across the Southern Alps and other mountains of the South Island. The second will detail the routes and the passes that are said to have been used. The author is a mountaineer who has himself travelled over and photographed many of the places described, and who has specialised in historical research about the Southern Alps.

South is South and North is North, and the differences that divide them are sometimes as deep as Cook Strait. Mountain travel in the North Island was eased with a network of trails well-known to the different tribes, whose guides led the pakeha on many journeys claimed as pakeha exploration. In the South it was higher and more rugged, peaks soared to the sky and glaciers on their flanks twisted and tumbled till they fed swift and dangerous rivers. Here in this mountain region of the Southern Alps, adventurous pakehas could indeed explore the lands they wished to graze, where they sought gold, or merely new horizons. But before the pakeha and even in the mountainous South, there were some routes where Maori enterprise and Maori courage had been the first to conquer the distances and the solitude.

The mountains were not empty of bird life. Above the snow, the skirts of the kea raised echoes. In the bush the choruses of the bellbird and tui, the whirr of the berry-bellied pigeon, and the night cries of the kiwis and wekas were but routine. The skylines were stark in their grandeur. Snow ebbed and flowed according to season, but over the higher ranges there was perpetual ice. Many of the rock ridges were broken, as though they were designed for teeth in a saw. Some precipices were several thousands of feet high, made, as it were, to terrify any intruders. The breaks in these ranges, formed natural saddles or passes, where strong and resolute men could cross from one valley to another valley. Do not talk of provinces, for the times that you must now contemplate are before the pakeha, when a riverbed was the road

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and a flax sandal made the imprint in the sand on river beaches. Rock-bound gorges, snow-bound gorges, deep crevasses, splintered peaks: these were sights that met the first explorers. And consider the Maori explorers.

One stimulus to the first crossing of the Southern Alps was the discovery of a pass now mapped as Bownings Pass. Draw a line on a South Island map between Ashburton and Hokitika and it crosses the Main Divide at Brownings. Raureka was the first to find and to use this pass. She was held to be mad by the Ngati Wairangi of the West Coast and escaped up the Arahura river, home of greenstone, the valued pounamu. At the head of the river she found the pass, crossed it, and descended the mountain valleys. Near the place we now know as Geraldine she fell in with a group of Ngai Tahu. When they saw her greenstone and she admitted there was plenty more across the ranges, a war party gathered. The Ngai Tahu crossed the pass to Westland, fought with ngati Wairangi, and returned laden with the stone.

The significance was not so much the discovery of greenstone, for its presence in Westland must have been known long before that. The significance was the perfecting of a short route across the mountains. The alternatives to the mountain pass were long coastal journeys on foot or dangerous canoe voyages along a storm-beaten land till Arahura was reached. Raureka made her crossing about the year 1700, and if the legend of her

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Rough country above a tributary of the Buller Gorge. (John Pascoe Photograph.)

exploit is true, all other mountain passes known to the Maori must have been found since her journey.

Perhaps a greater stimulus to bush and mountain travel was war. The old-time Maori warrior needed speed on foot and knowledge of country that enabled him to outflank or surprise his enemies. He had to know all the arts of living off the land. In other words his natural training as guerilla leader or commando officer excelled anything that he would now learn in an army school of bush and mountain warfare. The stories of some of the crossings of the passes, as told in the next article will underline this fact.

Living off the land was indeed a technical skill. For a party to prepare for a transalpine trail meant the gathering of wekas packed in kelp bags. Dried eels and whitebait would be useful to add to eels caught on the journey. Berries of totara and kahikitea would give variety to roots of the fern katoke. Dried mamaku (black-ribbed punga) was another staple diet. These dried foods would be soaked overnight and then roasted and pounded between stones. Six men would start their trip with a hundredweight of food. If the party was large, the chief would carry only weapons, and slaves would take the mats and the food. Women would take heavy loads. The pakeha mountaineer of today would be no better served by his modern dehyrdated foods or his unreliable air-drops of supplies.

The rough trails were hard on footwear. The Maori parties wore sandals that had to be replenished from flax or mountain grass as they wore out. In his book ‘Memories of Mountains and Men’ (1946) Arthur P. Harper recalls that his father Leonard told him that in 1857 flax sandals were much better than boots for travelling along the rugged coastline, and were used by him and Tarapuhi. In the South Island Maori Women's Welfare Leagues these sandals are still being made today.

Friction from dry sticks gave fire for cooking. Live birds such as pigeons and tuis could be captured by traditional means. At Karangarua in South Westland there were gulls' eggs for delicacies to be added to shellfish from the sea.

Flax ropes were used for tricky cliffs or river bluffs. They were mostly made on the spot from flax or snowgrass, whichever material was handy. The Nelson Examiner of 12th September, 1846, has an account of the Brunner-Heaphy expedition down the West Coast from below Cape Farewell. Referring to the Tauparikaka cliff. Rocky Point, the author said: ‘We certainly deemed the descent impracticable, without a ladder. The sight of a rotten native made rope which dangled over the precipice made us perhaps to imagine the descent to be more critical than it in reality was’.

The rivers themselves were crossed on rafts of wood or raupo—moki—and weather forecasting was made possible by a study of clouds and twinkling stars. The trade, between east and west coasts was taramea scent—gum from the spear plant—and greenstone.

These and related facts are given by H. D. Skinner in the Journal of the Polynesian Society of 1912 based on notes made in 1897 by G. J. Roberts, Commissioner of Crown Lands for Westland, who gleaned them from Maoris living at the mouth of the Jacobs River in South Westland. The article is called ‘Maori Life on the Poutini Coast’.

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It is likely that the Maori parties avoided snow. But when caught in a blizzard they knew enough to dig a hole, get down and breathe in it, and thus avoid suffocation. This foreshadows the present day mountaineer's technique of digging a snow cave for survival in an emergency caused by a sudden snow storm. Glaciers and crevasses would have been avoided, as there are many passes free from these obstacles.

In The Coming of the Maori’ Te Rangi Hiroa (Sir Peter Buck) confirms some of the foregoing. He noted that ‘greenstone was procured by expeditions to the Poutini coast, by barter, and through war. From its rarity and beauty, it was made into valued ornaments, and from its taking a keen edge, it was worked into adzes, chisels and short clubs’. But he was primarily concerned with migration and with life in the North Island and unfortunately he has not recorded what he knew about legends of his kinsmen in the mountains of the South.

The most graphic description of the knowledge and endurance of stalwart Maoris in mountain travel was given by the explorer Thomas Brunner, whose journal of 1846–48 was published in 1952 under the title The Great Journey. His trip of 550 days was made with the guides Ekehu and Epikiwati and their wives. They went from Nelson to Lakes Roto-iti and Rotoroa—not to be confused with similar names of the North Island. From this area of peaks and lakes they followed the Buller river to the sea, enduring hardships in steep country where birds were scarce and at times on a diet of semi-starvation. At one desperate stage Brunner had to kill for eating his dog Rover, ‘very palatable, tasting something between mutton and pork’. For this Brunner earned the nick-name of Kai Kuri.

Ekehu and Epikiwati were adept at improvising shelters from storms by making houses of bark. They taught Brunner how to bake roots of the cabbage-tree and ferns in an oven that had to cook for twelve hours. They helped him swim the rivers. When they reached isolated Maori settlements on the Coast near the present towns of Greymouth and Hokitika, they were better fed with potatoes and birds.

Brunner journeyed as far south as Paringa, and on his return trip went up the Grey river, down the Inangahua and back up the Buller. Again food ran short, illness beset Brunner, and he reached Nelson after the bitter trials of winter travel. He recorded that to Ekehu he owed his life, and there is little doubt that he would have died without the Maori's bushcraft and faithful attention.

Such a concrete testimonial is a pleasant reminder that in a land that is popularly held to be lacking in tradition, there have been men whose courage and vitality have pioneered new routes. In themselves these journeys constitute tradition. The unrecorded footsteps of the successors to Raureka, the ashes of their perished fires and their footprints lost in rock slides and avalanches have contributed to the fascination of the high country. Sit in the evening under the lee of a boulder at your camp fire, hear the more-pork (ruru) calling across the valley above the rustle of the wind or the rapids of the river, and though the peaks above are bleak and lonely, it is a solace to know that Maori explorers once passed that way. They, too, met the challenge of a mountain barrier, and felt the excitement of crossing a pass to unfamiliar gorges below, and knew that within a few days of fair weather they could see the breakers of the Tasman Sea beating against the wild West coast.

The next issue will describe some of the passes that are known to have been used by Maori parties and the offshoots of legends that make up an island story.

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The Last Nomads of Europe

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He tangata ahau i rite ki nga taitamariki tane katoa o Wiwi, te ngakaunui te korero i nga pukapuka o nga korero-paki mo nga haere me nga takanga whenua, i mua ke atu i taku mohiotanga, tera ahau a tetahi ra e tae ki nga whenua o tauiwi. No te tau 1951, ka whiwhi ahau ki tetahi

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Cradles are important to the Lapps. Made of a wood frame covered with skins, they are carried on the back by women. During the summer migration, reindeer carry them. The cradles can float and mothers push them when crossing the innumerable mountain streams. (Unesco—Photo by Jean Hardy.)


Like every young Frenchman, I had been a voracious reader of tales of travel and exploration, long before I ever dreamed that I would some day be able to visit foreign lands. My chance came in 1951, when I received one of the Zellidja Scholarships, which permit 250 teen-age boys every year to undertake voyages of adventure. The Scholarship had made it possible for me to visit the United States and Canada. After my return, I was lucky enough to meet the famous Greenland explorer, Paul Emile Victor, and to have him autograph one of his books for me. He wrote, ‘To Jean Hardy, hoping his wishes will soon come true’.

The wishes did come true, when my second Zellidja Scholarship permitted me to undertake a trip to the European Arctic—to visit the people of Lapland.

It was a real exploration, for nothing had been written in France about the Lapps. I chose a district, worked out a route, with the help of a few sparse maps and started off with a friend. Gerard Coppell, one morning in July 1952.

The real adventure came later, after we had walked for hundreds of exhausting miles across the tundra and over mountains, when we were accepted as members of a Lapp family, adopted as sons, by one of those households which seem so closed to strangers. We took part in the Lapps'

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karahipi e karangatia ana ko te Zellidja Karahipi, e ahei ai etahi 250 taitamariki tane i ia tau, ki te haere ki te kitekite whenua. Na te Karahipi nei, i tae ai ahau ki te kite i te Kotahitanga o Amerika me Kanata. I muri i taku hokinga mai, i tupono ahau ke te tutaki ki a Paul Emile Victor, he tangata pokai-whenua rongonui no Greenland, a nana i tuhituhi tana ingoa ki roto i tetahi o ana pukapuka, maku. I tuhia e ia, “Ki a Jean Hardy, me te tumanako o te ngakau tera e rite Wawe ona hiahia.”

I tutuki aua hiahia i taku whiwhinga tuaruatanga ki te Zellidja Karahipi, i tae ai ahau ki te Tuawhenua o Iuropi e tauria tuturutia ana e te huka, e te hukapapa—kia kite i nga tangata o Raaparana.

He tino pokaiwhenua taua pokaiwhenua, i te mea, kahore ano kia tuhia ki te pukapuka i Wiwi, nga korero e pa ana mo nga Raape. Katahi ka tohungia e ahau tetahi rohe, ka whakatakotongia e ahau he huarahi, a, he ruarua nei nga mapi hei arataki i a maua ko taku hoa, ko Gerard Coppell, ka timata atu maua i tetahi ata i Hurae o 1952.

No muri ke mai te haerenga tuturu, i to maua haerenga mo etahi rau maero, whakawhiti i nga mania, a i nga maunga, a i to maua rironga hei mema mo tetahi whanau Raape, ka taurimatia e tetahi whanau ano nei e kore e uru atu he tauhou. I mahi maua i nga mahi a nga Raape: i whakapakari maua i a maua kia taunga ai ki nga tikanga uaua o aua whenua hou; he maha nga mea i matua matatau maua i kitea ai kei hea te oranga.

He uaua te ki, i timata pu a i mutu pu a Raaparana ki hea, i te mea ko ona “rohe” e whai ana i nga hekenga o nga kahui renitia, koia ra te

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Elder, dressed in traditional costume, works reindeer bone. Note particularly the cap with long red hairs sown to the front: he takes particular pride in these. (Unesco—Photo Jean Hardy.)


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Lapp village, with sledge on foreground. (Unesco—Photo by Jean Hardy.)

activities; we struggled to adapt ourselves to the harsh life of those northern lands; we learnt a great deal before we became capable of ‘living’ in the full sense of the word.

It is hard to say exactly where Lapland begins and ends, for its ‘frontiers’ follow the migrations of the reindeer herds which are the basic livelihood for these 8,000 Northern nomads.

Thus, Lapland includes parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia. For most of the year, the soil of Lapland is a frozen desert, but during the three summer months, the tundra awakens and there is life. It is a vigorous life, since it must be packed into so short a time. The nomads who have been sheltering from the severity of the long winter night in wretched, smoke-filled huts, half-buried in the snow, shake off their lingering torpor. Feverish activity reigns in the winter camp, for the herds of reindeer are moving away from the wooded districts of the taiga, where they have been subsisting on the scanty lichen hanging from the branches and on the bark of trees.

The first rays of the April sun are already shining with a pale gleam as the reindeer gradually emerge from the shelter of the forest and move toward the lowest of the mountain valleys. For the Lapps this means a slow, difficult journey. The herd stops of its own accord among the foothills of the mountain range, in the warm thickets of dwarf birch-trees, for this is the moment when the reindeer fawns are born. The births nearly all take place within a ten-day period, and the

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oranga pumau o te 8,000 o tenei iwi-mohoao o te Taiwhakararo.

Otira, ko Raaparana, e uru mai ana etahi wahi o Nowei, o Sweden, o Finland me Ruhia. I roto i nga marama e iwa o te tau, ko te oneone o Raaparana i penei i te koraha hukapapa te ahua, engari i roto i nga marama e toru, ka kori te tini o Tane-te-waiora. He ao kakama, no te mea, he poto te wa hei mahinga i nga mahi. Ko nga iwi-mohoao nei, i te huna ra i a ratou i roto i o ratou whare ki tonu i te paoa, a e tata hipokina ana e te hukapapa, i nga po roa, po kino o te hotoke, ka whakaeaea i te hongetanga o te moe. He maha nga mahi e mahingia ana i roto i nga puni o te hotoke, i te mea kei te marara haere nga kahui renitia, ka whakarerengia nga wahi e tupungia ana e te rakau, i reira ra ratou e kai ana i nga taru tupu aruarua e tautau mai ana i nga manga i runga ranei i nga hiako o nga rakau.

Kua puta ke mai nga hihi o te ra i Aperira, ka ata puta mai nga renitia i o ratou piringa i roto i te ngahere, a ka heke whakararo ki nga raorao. Ki nga Raape, he haere uaua rawa tenei. Ka tu noa iho nga kahui renitia i nga take o nga maunga, i waenganui i nga tawai, no te mea, koia nei te wa e whanau ai nga kuao renitia. I ia tekau ra, e whanau ana he kuao renitia, no ko te kahui

This story was sent to Te Ao Hou by unesco. the international organization set up by United Nations to make people understand more about other nations and their achievements. The Lapps, although Europeans, live more like the ancient Maoris than the Europeans we know in this country.

renitia, ka hurihuri noa iho kai haere ai i nga taru aruarua kua watea i te huka; he maha nga kai e puta mai ana i nga pihipihi, na reira e rua e toru wiki ranei ratou ki reira. Ka uru mai te wairua kakama ki nga whaerere, a kei muri i a ratou e whai atu ana nga kuao, ki tonu i te wairua kakama, nanakia hoki.

E okioki ana nga kahui nei i te taha o te roto i nga wa e pakaru haere ana nga hukapapa, no reira, ka ahei nga Raape ki te hi ngohi ki te rapu kai ranei.

I nga ra whakapaunga o Mei, ka timata ano nga renitia te hurihuri haere, ka haere ano ki nga keokeotanga, i te mea, kua morake nga awhato, a, me rapu e ratou nga karaihe o nga wahi teitei ake.

Na ka puta nga Raape i o ratou whare Koanga, ka whakarerengia e ratou o ratou mokihi-waewae ma a ratou panuku ki reira. Ko nga wahia, nga kai, nga pou teneti me nga teneti, ka hereherengia ki nga tuarua o nga renitia, a ka timata ano te piki, waihoki, ka mutu tonu te wa e okioki ai ratou, i nga po, mo tetahi wa poto nei.

Ka tae ratou ki runga ki nga matarae, ka tohungia e nga Raape he wahi mo o ratou puni mo te raumati. Ko aua wahi, he whenua whanui tonu, a, kei nga taha, he maunga, he roto, he repo; ma


herd, suddenly calming down, roams round browsing on the fresh lichen just laid bare by the melting snow; the abundant feed provided by the sprouting twigs keeps them on the spot for two or three weeks. The females delight in their recovered agility, the fawns are already trotting after their mothers, full of energy and zest for life.

This pause often takes place beside a lake whose waters are thawing, and the Lapps spend their time fishing, and hunting a little.

Towards the end of May, the herd becomes restless again, and turns once more towards the peaks, for the lichen is now withered and they must seek the grass of the higher regions.

So the Lapps move out of their spring huts, leaving their skis and sledges inside. Supplies of wood and foodstuffs, tent-poles and tent-cloths are strapped to the backs of reindeer and the hard climb begins again, interrupted, when the herd allows, by short pauses at night.

Reaching the crest of the fiells, the Lapps choose a spot for their summer camp. The district usually consists of broad strips of land, surrounded by natural barriers, peaks, lakes or swamps, which limit the wandering of the herd.

In the summer camp, wolves are the chief danger, for they attack in the dark, in groups of half-a-dozen. Becoming conscious of the prowling beasts, the herd scatters, panic-stricken, and the

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Lapp housewife watching the fire, crouching in the traditional manner. (Unesco—Photo Jean Hardy.)

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konei ka kore ai e kaha te marara o nga kahui renitia.

He wuruhi nga mea kino ki nga puni raumati, no te mea, i nga po, ka puta ratou, e ono i ia roopu, ki te patu. Ka mohio nga renitia he kararehe kino kei te haere, i to ratou tino mataku, ka timata to ratou marara, na, ka arungia ratou e nga wuruhi, ka patungia nga renitia nunui me nga kuao, ka titorea nga korokoro, ka horomia orangia ranei.

Ka riria e nga Raape o ratou hoariri kino rawa me te mea nei, ma te makutu, na ko tetahi o a ratou karakia makutu e penei ana:—

“Haere atu i konei, wuruhi kino rawa,
“Kati to noho i roto i tenei ngahere,
“Haere atu, ki etahi whenua tawhiti,
“E mate ranei i te maripi a te kai-hopu!

E pau ana te tau i nga iwi mohoao nei me a ratou kuri, e whaiwhai ana i nga wuruhi me nga pea. Pai ke ki a ratou kia mau a tinana nga wuruhi i a ratou, ka patu ai ki a ratou naihi, kei maumau noa iho a ratou mataa utu-nui. He uaua rawa atu tenei tikanga mo te patu kararehe, na, he maha nga wa, e mau pumau ai nga nawe ki runga i nga kai-hopu—nga nawe ngaunga me nga nawe tihoretanga o nga ringaringa—engari ki nga Raape, he pai noa iho tenei tu momo patu; ki a ratou, ko to ratou ake kaha, tetahi o o ratou oranga.

Na ka rangona te reo o Ngahuru. Ka timata te pupuhi o nga hau kopeke o ngahuru, ka pa ki nga taha o nga matarae, arai atu ana i nga hukapapa, kua timata ke ra te rere ki runga ki nga tahataha, ka timata ano te haere o nga iwi nei. Tae rawa atu ki waenganui o Hepetema, kua tae ratou ki tetahi wahi e takoto ana i waenganui i nga tawai me etahi


wolves seizing their chance to attack, fling themselves on grown reindeer and fawns, tearing them slitting their throats or devouring them alive.

The Lapps berate their worst enemies with magic spells and incantations such as:

‘Go away from here, accursed wolf,
‘Stay no longer in this wood,
‘Go away, to some far country,
‘Or perish under the huntsman's knife!’

With the help of their dogs, the nomads must keep up a steady, year-long pursuit of the wolves, wolverines and bears. They prefer to bring the wolves to bay and kill them with their knives, rather than use expensive cartridges. This is a dangerous form of hunting and often leaves permanent scars—fang-marks, lacerated arms—but the Lapps enjoy the sporting fight; it is a natural struggle which forms part of their life.

Then the voice of autumn is heard. When the first cold winds of autumn strike the fiell sides, forcing a retreat before the snow that is already beginning to sprinkle the crests, the caravans resume their tireless march. By about mid-September they are back again on the meandering boundary-line between birch-woods and open heath, in a landscape of purple and gold. The nights grow longer. After the summer days of midnight sun, the valleys are cool and pleasant.

The Lapps take up their quarters again in their spring-time huts. They must begin by sorting out

Picture icon

Bone work: These are the traditional wedding presents to a Lap bride. From left to right: Match container, borach, knife, cutting tool for reindeer hide, sewing kit. (Unesco-Photo Jean Hardy.)

– 43 –

atu momo rakau, ano, me te mea nei, he papura he koura te ahua. Ka roa haere nga po. I muri mai i nga ra wera o te raumati, kua matao, kua pai nga awaawa.

Ka timata ano te noho a nga Raape ki roto ki o ratou whare koanga. Ka timata to ratou wehewehe i nga renitia i marara ki roto ki nga kahui tinitini. Ka horingia nga taringa o nga kuao, na ko etahi o nga uha ka mirakatia, a, ko etahi o nga kararehe, ka patungia hei miiti, a, ko nga kiri, ka tiakingia mo te hotoke roa.

Na, ka timata ano te haere o nga iwi nei, ki nga wahi e tupu ururuangia ana e te rakau i te taha tonga-whakarawhiti, kei reira nei o ratou kota mo te hotoke, e huna ana. Ka tahuri nga tane ki te patu renitia; ko nga wahine hei tao i nga kai, he whakamaroke i nga miiti, he pakipaki i nga kiri, he ngaungau i nga kiri me nga uaua kia maroro ai hei tuituinga, a he mahi tiihi hoki. Ko nga tamariki, kei roto i nga kota nei e akoako ana i a ratou ki te paniora, a ko etahi kei te whai; e kore e roa ka mahue ratou ia o ratou whanau mo nga marama e whitu—e whitu marama e mawhehe mai ai ratou i te taitokerau—e whitu marama e hurahura ai ratou i nga pukapuka i roto i nga kura o nga iwi mohoao, e whitu marama e kore ai ratou e kite renitia.

E tu kau ana nga kota, e mo ratou paatu oneone, na ko te hotoke he tino roa.

Ko tenei mea ko te kota, he whare nohinohi, he porohita te waihanga, ko te tuanui he papaku, a ko nga papa o nga taha, ko te mutunga ake he keokeo a runga, na ko nga taha he mea taupoki ki te oneone matotoru. Kei waenganui e tu ana he umu, he mea mahi ki te kohatu. Kei te wahi teitei o te tuanui e tautau mai ana he tiini, a, e mau ana te kohua nui i runga, na kei raro ko te kapura e ka ana, me te kohua kawhi e koropupu ana i te taha. Kahore nga tangata o roto i nga kota nei e maharahara ki te paoa (haunga ia nga tauhou kahore ano kia tino taunga noa), a ka puta te paoa i tetahi pihanga kei runga i te whare.

I nga ra o te hotoke, ko nga mahi a nga wahine he tuitui kakahu—ko nga kakahu nei ka whakapaipaingia e ratou ki te taniko o nga momo kara katoa na ratou ake ano i mahi, a, ko nga weuweu, ka tuituingia e ratou ki te tarete koura, kapa ranei—a, ko tetahi o a ratou mahi, he tuitui hu, na ko te mahi a nga tane, he mahi kohua hou me nga ipu, a, he whakairo i nga wheua renitia hei taonga mahi ma ratou (he naihi, ngira, me etahi atu). Na, ko tetahi mahi ano a nga tane, he hi ngohi i roto i nga rua e puare haere ana i runga i nga hukapapa e taupoki ana i nga roto nunui, a he patu wuruhi, he tiaki hoki i a ratou kahui renitia. Na, he tawhiti to ratou haerenga i runga i o ratou panuku ki nga wahi hokohoko, ki te hoko huka, kawhi, to te, paraoa—pungarehu, hei kinaki mo nga kai kua taunga ke ra ratou, nga miiti renitia, me nga ngohi maori, maroke ranei.

Ka tae ratou ki nga wahi hokohoko, ka hokongia e ratou a ratou kiri, nga wuuru, me a ratou taonga whakairo, mo nga moni hiriwa torutoru nei me nga pakete tupeka.


the reindeer, which have mingled in several flocks. The young reindeer are branded on the ear, some of the females are milked, and certain of the animals are slaughtered to provide meat and skins for the long winter.

Then the caravans make their way back to the wooded regions in the south-east, where the winter kottas are hidden. The men slaughter a few more reindeer, the women cook, dry the meat, scrape and prepare the hides, chew leather and sinews to make thongs and coarse thread, tan hides and make cheese. The children make the most of their last few days in the kottas, practising with the lasso and playing string games; soon they will have to leave their families for seven months—seven months cut off from the complete freedom of the far north, seven months of pouring over books in the nomads' school, seven months without sight of a reindeer.

And winter will drag on, outside the earth walls of the kottas.

The kotta is a small, low-roofed round hut, consisting of a conical framework of wooden poles, covered with thick sods of turf. In the middle is a hearth, consisting of a circle of stones. Hooked to a chain which hangs down from the highest point of the roof, a heavy iron pot is suspended over the blazing birch-logs, and the coffee-pot sings beside the fire. Nobody (except strangers still unaccustomed to it) seems to mind the thick smoke which winds its way slowly out of the ventilation hole at the top of the hut.

The women spend the winter making clothes—which they decorate with beautiful, multi-coloured braid of their own weaving and with embroidery in gold or copper thread—and sewing shoes, while the men make fresh pots and drinking vessels out of birch-logs, and carve reindeer-bones into engraving tools and instruments (knives, needles, etc.). The men go fishing, too, through holes in the ice that covers the great lakes, they hunt wolves and watch over their flocks. And they make long sledge trips across the smooth, white northern wastes, to trading posts where they find sugar, coffee, salt and flour, the now indispensable adjuncts of a diet which used to consist entirely of reindeer meat and fresh or dried fish. There they barter their hides, furs and carved bone objects for a few silver coins and packets of tobacco.

This reindeer civilisation is wealthy in its poverty. It is primitive but this does not detract from the worth or stature of the human being. In the barren, icy expanse of the tundra I met the most genuine, trustworthy and warmhearted men of my experience. (UNESCO).


Ahakoa te rawakore o nga iwi nei, he iwi rangatira. Ko ta ratou noho, no nehera ke, engari ko nga tangata, he rangatira. I runga i nga mania kore-take noa iho nei, ka tutaki ahau ki nga tangata pai, tangata humarire hoki, o nga tangata katoa kua tutaki ahau.


– 44 –


I nga wa o mua, i noho te Kea me te Kaka i roto i te ngahere. He korerorero tonu ta raua mahi, a kahore i tau o raua arero pera ano hoki me etahi atu kaka.

I runga i tona pakiki, tirotiro ai te Kea ki nga mahi a etahi atu o nga manu.

I tetahi ra, i tutaki te Kea me te Kaka i tetahi manu tau hou, a ko te manu nei he Kakapo.

Katahi ka mea te kakapo ki ana manuhiri. “Tena korua, ko aku whakaaro i mua o to tatou tutakitangi, ko au anake te kaka i roto i te ngahere nei.”

I muri iho o etahi korerorero, ka mea te Kea ki te Kakapo.

“Kahore koe i te kaka, ko tou ahua ano he ruru, a, puta mai ai koe i te po pera ano me te ruru.”

Katahi te Kaka ka whakaputa i ona whakaaro mo tenei take, a ki ana he kaka ano te kakapo nei, no te mea, pera ano me te kaka, riro ai ma tona ngutu e piki rakau ai a ia.

Kahore te Kea i whakaae, a, i muri iho o tetahi tautohe nui, ka mea a ia, kahore a ia e noho i roto i te ngahere, mehemea ka noho hoki te manu nei, tetahi wahi ona he kaka, tetahi wahi he ruru. Katahi te Kea nei ka whakarere i te ngahere, a, e noho nei i runga maunga.

Kei te mau tonu tona ahua pakiki, no te mea, haere ai a ia ki nga puni o nga hepara, me nga tangata piki maunga tirotiro haere ai.

– 45 –


Planting Fruit Trees:

Trees should be ordered early in the year. The late placing of orders may result in disappointment through the non-fulfilment of the order. Strong well branched two year old trees will prove the most satisfactory. When trees are received from the nursery they should be unpacked with-out delay and heeled in in a damp shady position to await planting in their permanent position. Take care that the roots are well covered with earth. Apples, peaches, plums and apricots should be spaced from 12 to 18 feet apart. Holes should be dug if possible sometime before planting commences and a good dusting of bonedust applied; about 1 lb. per tree would suffice. Be careful to plant the tree at the same depth that it was growing in the nursery, not too deep and not too shallow. This is most important. Usually one can note the colour of the bark which is pale beneath the surface and darker where exposed to the daylight.

Always tramp the soil thoroughly after planting so as to consolidate trees and exclude air from the rooting system.

A schedule for spraying citrus and tree tomatoes will appear in our next issue.

Preparation of Bordeaux Mixture:

To make 4 gallons: Powdered bluestone may be dissolved readily in 2 pints of hot water in an earthenware or wooden vessel. Bluestone crystals may be tied in sacking and suspended just touching the hot water. Mix the hydrated lime to a thin paste with 2 pints of water. When bluestone is dissolved add 3 ½ gals, of water and then thoroughly mix the 2 pints of hydrated lime with the bluestone solution, stirring rapidly for a few minutes.

Containers for spraying and mixing sprays should be of copper, brass, wood or earthenware. Bordeaux must be used within 8 hours. after mixing.

All quantities given in this spray programme are for 4 gallons of spray.


Time of Application Treatment Pest or Disease
Early Green Tip
Bordeaux Mixture. Bluestone 6 ½ ozs.
Hydrated Lime 5 ozs. 4 gals. water.
Open Cluster to Pink Lime Sulphur 1/3 pint, 4 gals. water. Blackspot.
Powdery mildew.
Petal Fall Arsenate of Lead 1 ¼ ozs. Hydrated Lime
3 ozs. 4 gals. water.
Codling Moth.

Thereafter every 18 to 21 days until picking commences.


Blossom, bud move-
ments usually early
to mid-August for
most varieties.
Bordeaux, Bluestone 6 ½ ozs. Hydrated Lime.
5 ozs. 4 gals. water.
Leaf Curl.
Shot hole fungus
Bladder plum.

Important: Bordeaux is the only spray for control of leaf curl. Buds must just be swelling prior to breaking.

Late pink, Petal fall.
Repeat every 3 to 4
weeks until two weeks
before picking.
Lime Sulphur 1/3 pt. 4 gals. water.
Lime Sulphur 1/3 pt. 4 gals. water.
Brown rot.
Brown rot.
Leaf rust.

BERRY FRUITS (Not Strawberry)

Greentip about September
Bordeaux Mixture, Bluestone 6 ½ ozs.
Hydrated Lime 5 ozs. 4 gals. water.
Bordeaux Mixture, Bluestone 4 ozs.
Hydrated Lime 5 ozs. For Raspberry
and Loganberry add 1 ¼ ozs. Arsenate
Leaf spot.
Cane wilt.
Leaf spot.
Cane wilt.
Bud moth.


September and October Bordeaux Mixture, Bluestone 4 ozs.
Hydrated Lime 5 ozs.
Brown spot.
April, May, June Bordeaux Mixture, Bluestone 4 ozs.
Hydrated Lime 5 ozs.
Grease spot.

– 46 –

Tribal Committees are a big movement in Maori life today. Since they were started in 1945, 467 have been formed and seeing that they have, on the average, 10 members, this means there are 4,670 Maoris who serve on tribal committees—one out of every fourteen adults is a member.


Picture icon

Hauwhenua Kirkwood, prominent elder and ex-chairman of the Onehunga-Mangere tribal committee, looks on as the younger people are enjoying themselves at the Onehunga community centre Christmas party. (Hill-Thomas Photograph.)

IN ORDER to look at tribal committees from the inside. Te Ao Hou interviewed Mr Earle Opai, chairman of the Onehunga-Mangere committee. We could have selected any of a large number of committees and got a very similar picture. Mr Earle Opai works as head barman at one of the hotels in Onehunga. We found him at his job; we asked the manager for permission to interview, but the manager seemed to be quite accustomed to Mr Opai doing tribal committee business at work—and more than that, he seemed to be pleased about it.

The Onehunga-Mangere tribal committee was formed in November 1949, and it was officially gazetted under the Maori Social and Economic Advancement Act in March 1950. Mr Opai was then secretary and the chairman was Mr Hauwhenua Kirkwood.

The committee area covers two Maori settlements, near Auckland City, one at Onehunga and the other at Mangere. These settlements have changed considerably in the last few years; whereas only five years ago, the Onehunga people lived and worked mainly on the market gardens, they are now spread over every type of occupation in Auckland and a good number of the market garden shacks have made place for modern standard State rental and Maori Affairs houses. In Mangere, State housing for Maoris has made similar progress so that one may say the Onehunga-Mangere people are living in an atmosphere of hope and steady improvements.

What contribution has the tribal committee made to these people's lives? Has it helped to ease the transition from one way of life to another? The Maori Social and Economiec Advancement Act gives a definition of tribal committee functions well worth quoting here, because nothing could tell more clearly the true nature of Maori self-government; its general function is to promote, encourage, guide and assist members of the Maori race.


to conserve, improve, advance and maintain their physical, economic, educational, social, moral and spiritual wellbeing;


to assume and maintain self-dependence, thrift, pride of race, and such conduct as will be conducive to their general health and economic wellbeing;


to accept and maintain the full rights, privileges and responsibilities of citizenship;


to apply and maintain the maximum possible efficiency and responsibility in their local self-government and undertakings; and


to preserve, revive and maintain the teaching of Maori arts, crafts, language, genealogy and history in order to perpetuate Maori culture.

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Picture icon

A Christmas present was given to every child at the Christmas party organized by the Onehunga tribal committee. (Photo: Hill-Thomas.)

This is a formidable task indeed; it is a task in some ways far more difficult than that imposed on European local government. After all everybody knows what has to be done to maintain a road, but maintaining social wellbeing, pride of race or Maori arts and crafts—how does one go about that?

It says a great deal for the tribal committees that they have often been able to give working answers to such perplexing questions. At One-hunga-Mangere, as in so many other places, the tribal committee has been preoccupied from the start with the need for tribal—or community—centres. As Ngata said, until these are provided, the community will not seriously take up other problems. There had been talk of a community centre for the district as long as 25 years ago. However, the formation of the tribal committee brought a new approach to this problem.

Consisting mainly of young men with a high-school and town background, the committee decided, in the words of Mr Opai to use their pakeha education in the problem of building a maree.

The committee organised sports, particularly competitive football. After two years, it was on a sound financial footing and in addition had made substantial donations to every local, national and even international appeal held during the period.

Among the causes helped by the committee were the Onehunga Plunket Society Building Fund, the Dominion Appeal for the Blind, the United Nations Childrens' Appeals as well as local sports clubs. They raised £1000 for the Onehunga War Memorial.

The committee built up 12 football teams, four basketball clubs and numerous other organised competitions. They won the respect of the community. They did not forget their ultimate purpose; the community centre.

Their chance came when an old building belonging to the Onehunga Borough Council suitable for club rooms, fell vacant in April 1953. The tribal committee applied for the lease—and was successful, at the very low rate of £1 per week. The council decided, because of the extreme importance of the tribal committee's project not to call for tenders for the lease as this would have put the building out of the Maoris' reach, but to use its special powers to grant a low-priced year-to-year lease by private contract.

The Onehunga Maori people at once set about improving the old building. They repaired it, painted it, built new kitchen cupboards, and a shopping corner. They bought crockery and other kitchen ware and started to serve Sunday dinners in Maori style. Many of the Onehunga people still do not have suitable homes where they can spend Sundays pleasantly.

To fit out the old building completely it will also be necessary to build a stage, a sanitary block and later two tennis-basketball courts. Altogether the expenses may be about £1,500, and it is probable that half of this sum will be contributed by the Government as a subsidy under the Maori Social and Economic Advancement Act.

From a longer view, the old building will only solve the Onchunga people's problems for a while—perhaps fifteen years. Once the present centre is fully developed, the people plan to start raising money for a new building fully adapted to the thousands of people to be served by it in the foreseeable future.

Of a total of 1500 Maoris in the Onehunga-Mangere area, between 300–400 use the centre every week. It is a centre for the sports groups; on Monday and Wednesday nights table tennis and other indoor games are played, on Tuesday and Thursday nights boxing and physical training,—the centre is a registered boxing gymnasium, while Friday and Saturday are reserved for committee functions such as dances, concerts and entertainments. On Sundays religious services are held (Anglican, Methodist, Catholic and Ratana in successive weeks), meals are served and people have a chance to get together.

There is also a women's committee which runs a kindergarten.

Classes are given in Maori Arts and Crafts and other subjects. There is a very effective group of wardens, including female wardens, who keep an eye on the five hotels of Onehunga.

The committee's major problem, says Mr Opai, is still housing. Quite a few Maori Affairs houses have been built and the tribal committee is on the allocation committee for new homes. Cases are referred to the committee which may write an support of applications.

The difficulty with the housing scheme, to the Onehunga Maori, is that people marry young and have large families before they have moved into

– 48 –

an income group in which they can save much money. The committee has pushed the idea of state rental housing, but where husband and wife are both working, or where there is only one child or none, the committee advises to go to the Department of Maori Affairs as it feels such people could have little chance of a state house.

Out of all money raised at functions, the committee allocates 10% to an Educational Assistance Fund, to be used to help promising young people to get education they would not otherwise get. Mr Opai knows from personal experience of boys doing well at school who had to leave because of lack of money in the home. Under the government's recent scheme, this revenue of the committee is subsidisable for approved cases.

Activities such as Mr Opai described are typical of the way many tribal committees interpret their functions. Almost invariably social and sports activities are encouraged; in the moral sphere, wardens are often active and effective in dealing

Picture icon

Mr Earle Opai, chairman of the Onehunga tribal committee. (Photo: Hill-Thomas.)

with problem cases; housing is a concern of many of the more lively committees; so is the reviving of arts and crafts.

The very close relations between the Onehunga-Mangere committee and the European population is perhaps less general; it is, however, a very progressive pattern, especially for people who are living near the city and who must be more closely involved with Europeans than would be necessary in country districts.

The committee has an Advisory Board ‘consisting of one member representing the Onehunga Borough Council, one from the Onehunga Business Men's Association, and another from the Onehunga Rotary Club. The Board's Chairman and one other member come from the tribal committee itself.

Through this Board it has been possible to get European goodwill behind all the committee's actions. At times this has meant financial help; at other times material help such as odd jobs done by the borough council staff. Police and borough council refer difficult cases to the tribal committee. The Senior Sergeant of Police gives the committee 100% support. Naturally the Advisory Board could do nothing without the Maori people taking the initiative but outside help has been appreciated, while the committee always stands ready to contribute to outside causes.

Te Ao Hou unfortunately did not meet the whole committee. Obviously, it must contain quite a number of very active members. There is a sub-committee for each of the activities and tribal committee members are all serving in and leading these sports, social and cultural sub-committees, helped by many people for whom there is not room in the controlling body. At the time Te Ao Hou called, there were 16 members instead of the statutory 11 and reducing the number was almost impossible. Through the delegation of work to sub-committees, leadership and responsibility was shared by a good many people and this in itself satisfies a very important requirement in the M.S.E.A. Act. Responsibilities of citizenship and in local self-government were things tribal committees were intended to promote.

The most important sub-committee. Te Ao Hou was told, is the judicial committee. The wardens are all members of this committee and it is responsible for order at the marae and in the community generally. The power to fine has never yet been used, but one man who caused a fight sent the committee a letter of apology afterwards, enclosing a self-imposed penalty of one pound.

Mr Opai, the only committee member Te Ao Hou interviewed had lived at Onchunga for 21 years. He got his job at the hotel through his work with the Maori people. The hotelkeeper met him at a football committee of which he was chairman and Mr Opai a member. Mr Opai was then living in a caravan with his wife and family

– 49 –

and was offered a State House away from One-hunga. To keep him in the district, where he could continue his work among the Maori people, the hotelkeeper offered him a job and a cottage. This was five years ago and Mr Opai is now head barman with a staff of ten.

The committee finds the hotels very co-operative in regulating Maori drinking. When a man needs correction, a hotel will say he can't come in for a month. The other hotels in Onehunga are at once informed of the incident and also refuse to serve him for that period. Hotelkeepers can see the value of wardens to their business. One hotel pays the tribal committee 10/- per week towards wardens' expenses; another hotel pays one-pound.

Last Christmas a grand children's party was held at which photographs were taken for Te Ao Hou. It was an example of community collaboration for at this party all supplies were brought from local shopkeepers at wholesale rates; there was, besides Father Christmas, a magician and a picture show.

So, the tribal committee has brought the people of Onehunga the warmth and comfort of a true community centre. It has also brought them higher standards of behaviour and outlook and in short better lives.


The payment of old survey charges is to be made easier for Maori land owners, the Department of Lands and Survey announced recently. When the original cost of survey, plus interest at 5% per annum for five years has been paid, all further interest will be remitted and the land cleared of the entire charge.

Prior to 1932, it was the general practice for the Lands and Survey Department to engage surveyors on behalf of the owners to survey land which had been partitioned by the Maori Land Court. The Crown provided the money for these surveys and to enable it to recover the money spent the Court made orders' charging the lands with the amounts involved. The survey of partitions of Maori land is necessary before any negotiations can take place, and if these surveys had been left to be carried out in these days, the work would have been infinitely more costly.

Survey liens still owing to the Crown bear interest at the rate of 5% per annum from the date of completion of the survey to the date of payment. Interest charges on unpaid liens have mounted up considerably over the years. In the past, this interest charge could only be reduced in certain special cases. The Chief Surveyor, however, is now authorised to clear the land of the whole charge, on payment of survey liens together with interest at 5% per annum for a period of five years only.

– 50 –



Kei te whakaraneatia atu nga kupu mo roto i te kape tuarima o Te Pukapuka nei, a kua tata te oti; tona nui o nga kupu Maori kaore i uru ki te pukapuka o te kape kua korerotia ake nei.

Heoi ki te whakaaro iho tera e ahei te taa i te kape hou tua ono hei tapiri ki te kape tuarima. He tino mea nui tenei; a pai atu mo te hunga e aronui ana ki te ako i te reo Maori.

Koia nei tetehi raruraru nui o te ako i te reo Maori. Ko te ruarua o nga pukapuka kaupuka kaupapa tuturu o nga kupu o te reo Maori e ahei ai te tangata ki te ako i taua reo. Ka mutu ano ko ta Te Wiremu, a kua torutoru noaiho hoki, i te mea kua kore i taia. Tuarua ki te hokona mai tetehi inaianei, he utu nui rawa ka riro mai.

Noreira ka whakaarongia kia ata waihangatia he kape tua-ono hei tapiri atu ki te kape tuarima; ehara i te mea he pukapuka hou rautami i ta Te Wiremu, engari hei tapiri kau atu. Ko nga kupu o tenei kape, he mea ata waihanga; wananga rawa, e tetahi ropu he mea ata whiriwhiri mai no tena wahanga no tena wahanga o te iwi Maori, he tohunga mo te whakamarama i te kupu Maori ki te reo Pakeha.

Ko te whakaaro kia wahangatia he Tapiri tuaono mo te “Pukapuka o te reo Maori a Te Wiremu” i pupu ake i a Ta Apirana Ngata i te tau 1949. Ka awhinatia e te Minita monga take Maori o taua wa, e te Rt. Hon. Pita Pereiha. Ka tu ko Ta Apirana hei tiamana, ko M. R. Jones no (Waikato-Maniapoto) hei Tepu-tiamana a ko J. McEwen te Hekeretari. Ko enei tokorua he apiha no te tari mo nga take Maori i Poneke.

Timata tonu atu te whakaemi haere i etehi kupu i kitea iho i roto i nga korero a Aritana Te Peehi me etehi atu; he mea tango mai no etehi putonga kupu Maori i roto i te (Polynesian Journal). He tuturu kupu Maori. Ko McEwen te



The revision of the fifth edition of the Williams Maori-English dictionary, at present being undertaken, is nearly completed. It is intended to have the new edition published before the end of the year.

This is good news for all those interested in the Maori language as Williams, the only full dictionary can rarely be bought today and copies, when available, are usually priced high. With the present live interest in the language the lack of suitable dictionaries has been a considerable obstacle to students.

The reason for a revised edition rather than a reprint can largely be found in the preface to the Williams fifth edition which says, inter alia: ‘There must be many hundreds of genuine Maori words still unrecorded, and much further light may yet be thrown upon many of those already treated.’ The new edition will contain two or three thousand words and meanings not included in the old one For all that the committee feels that the fifth edition is a remarkably good job, and with all it additions, the sixth will still be substantially based on the methods, the scholarship and patient per severance of H. G. Williams.

It will cost £6000 to print. In addition there i considerable editorial expense.

Like so many of the good things in Maori lif the new edition owes its beginning to Sir Apiran Ngata. In 1949 he talked the matter over with the then Minister of Maori Affairs, the Rt. Ho Mr Fraser, who arranged for a meeting to be he at which Sir Apirana and others discussed the project. This resulted in the dictionary revision committee being formed with Sir Apirana as chai man; Mr M. R. Jones (Waikato-Maniapoto) of to Department of Maori Affairs, Wellington, deputy chairman and Mr J. M. McEwen, secretary.

– 51 –

tangata i kaha ki te ata titiro i te kupu mehe mea he tuturu Maori a ehara noa ranei.

No tenei wa o te mahi nei, ka hinga te koroua a Ta Apirana, a ka tu ko M. R. Jones hei tiamana, ka haere tonu te mahi a te komiti, kei te nui hoki nga kupu kua rapopoto te whakaemi e McEwen.

No te hui a te Komiti i tu ki Turanga ka rihaina a McEwen i tana turanga hekeretari, i te mea kua oti ia te w hakatu hei Komihana mo te moutere o Niue; ka tu ko Wiremu Ngata hei hekeretari.

I te hui a te Komiti i tu ki Akarana i te Noema 1954 ka kitea i reira e tika ana kia karangatia ano he hui, kia ata tirotirohia me te ata wananga haere ano, i nga kupu kua oti nei te whakaemi.

I tino taumaha nga mahi o taua hui, ata tairuhi ana nga mema i te turakahatanga ki te whakatikatika me te wananga i te tikanga o te kupu. E rua nga wiki o te komiti e hui ana ka hiki. Ahakoa hiki te hui ko te mahi ma tena, ma tena ka haere tonu. Kua oti i te hekeretari te tuha haere o nga kupu, hei whakamarama ma tena mema ma tena mema, i na hoki atu ki tona kainga. Kei te huinga o te Komiti i muri atu, tera e mama nga mahi; ko reira i a mema whakapuaki ai i ana whakamarama mo nga kupu i ata tirohia iho e ia te tupunga mai me ona tikanga.

Penei me te kupu nei me (Kiringutu) me etehi atu. Na ko (Kiringutu) kua hoatu ma Rev. Dan Kaa e kimi atu ona whakamarama, kei te kiia hoki no Ngati Porou tenei kupu.

Na ko tetehi ko (Koheko). E kia ana a Te Hurinui Pei Jones tona whakamarama (mataara ara moe hewa) (“Koheko noa ana i te po ko koe anake”) (Moteatea, part I waiata 60).

Kaore kau enei kupu e rua i roto i te “Puka-puka Reo Maori a Te Wiremu.

Koia nei mahi a te Komiti nei, tera atu etehi o nga kupu e whakapororaru nei i nga whakaaro; no reira i tika ai kia tino whakatuturutia nga whakamarama o ia kupu o ia kupu ka tuhia nei ki te tapiri-tuaono a te Pukapuka Reo Maori a Te Wiremu.

He nui tonu nga kupu kei roto i te Pukapuka Reo Maori a Te Wiremu kaore ano i ata tirotirohia e te nuinga o nga mema o te komiti.

Tera hoki etehi kupu kei roto i nga waiata, patere, oriori, kaore he whakamarama i roto i te Pukapuka a Te Wiremu a i roto ranei i te Tapiri tuarima.

Hei whakaatu i te whanui o te kowhiti haere i nga mema mo te Komiti whakatikatika i te Pukapuka Reo Maori a Te Wiremu koia enei o taua ropu. Ta Apirana Ngata (kua mate) no (Ngati Porou), M. R. Jones no (Waikato-Maniapoto), J. M. McEwen; the Rt. Revd. W. N. Panapa, Bishop o Aotearoa no (Ngapuhi); Rongo Halbert (Rongowhakaata Turanga), Revd. Dan Kaa (Ngati-Porou); Raniera Kingi (no Te Arawa); Pei te Hurinui Jones (Waikato-Maniapoto); Rangi Royal (Ngati Raukawa, Ngati Maru, Mataatua), Eru Pou no (Ngapuhi); Revd. Canon Paora Temuera no (Ngati Raukawa); W. T. Ngata no (Ngati Porou); B. Biggs (Waikato-Maniapoto); Morris Jones; Kepa Ehau no (te Arawa); Hoeroa Marumaru (kua, mate, no Ngati Apa, Wainui a rua).


Mr McEwen, though a pakeha, has a wide knowledge of Maori and Polynesian dialects and legends. When appointed secretary to the committee he was an officer of the Department of Maori Affairs, Wellington.

For a start the bulk of the work consisted of gathering new material such as word lists compiled by Elsdon Best and published in the Polynesian Journal, as well as unpublished lists by committee members. These were genuine Maori words. It was not intended to introduce Maori versions of pakeha words into the dictionary proper though a glossary of these words will be included. Most of the work associated with compiling the additional words was done by Mr McEwen.

It was at that stage that Sir Apirana died. Mr Jones became chairman and the committee decided to carry on working mainly from the material which Mr McEwen had in hand. Apart from the word lists this included copies of Williams' dictionary annotated by Sir Apirana from information mainly gathered through his work on Nga Moteatea.

Mr McEwen carried on arranging the work for the committee's consideration but before the next meeting of the committee, which was held at Gisborne, he relinquished the secretary's job as he was taking up the position of Resident Commissioner, Niue. Mr W. T. Ngata took over the secretary's position.

The committee, meeting in Auckland last November, actually worked its way through to the end of the dictionary though at that stage it had deferred defining many words so that further research could be made.

That meeting was a long grind lasting two weeks. For the first week the committee met in the evenings for two hours as well as throughout the days. Towards the end of the week the strain began to tell so for the second week the evening session was dropped. At the same time the day sessions were lengthened. Even so it meant that the committee members had more free time.

It is not only at the meetings though that the members have to work on the dictionary.

The method of preparing for committee meetings has been for the secretary to have all notes on words and meanings to be added or changed to be typed on pages numbered corresponding to the dictionary page where the additions would occur. Copies of these notes have been sent to all committee members who have then been able to consider them and interleave the notes in their own dictionaries. At full committee meetings the interleaved suggestions have been considered.

Other words and meanings have also been discussed where any member desired to make a point. But the committee as a whole has not considered every word in the existing dictionary.

Neither have individual members been responsible to do so though some have done much research on words additional to those which they were asked to consider.

Many of the words which do not appear in the Williams fifth edition have been found in chants

– 52 –

A lot of these words are explained in Sir Apirana's Nga Moteatea. Legends have also been a source of words and meanings not given in the dictionary.

Words deferred for further research have been made the responsibility of particular committee members. Where the words have a known local origin they are referred to the member with a knowledge of that area.

A random example of the way words, the exact meaning of which could not be determined by the committee, were dealt with is found in the case of the word kiringutu. This word is associated with the Ngati Porou tribe so it was left to the Rev. Dan Kaa, a committee member who is also a member of Ngati Porou to do some research on the word to help the committee make a sound decision on its definition. At time of writing no decision had been made on that particular word.

Another example is the word koheko. This word was referred to Mr Pei Te Hurinui Jones, a committee member. He has suggested that it means sleepless or be wide awake. The word occurs in Nga Moteatea, Part 1, waiata 80, as follows: Koheko noa ana i tou po ko koe anake. The meaning there is not clear.

Neither kiringutu or koheko appeared in Williams fifth edition.

In the personnel of the committee many areas are represented and between them the members have a knowledge of the language covering the whole of New Zealand.

The members of the committee and others who have taken part in the revision are: the late Sir Apirana Ngata (Ngai Porou tribe). Mr M. R. Jones, (Waikato-Maniapoto), Mr J. M. McEwen, the Rt. Rev. W. N. Panapa, Bishop of Aotearoa (Nga Puhi). Mr Rongo Halbert (Ngati Rongowhakaata), Rev. Dan Kaa (Ngati Porou), Mr Raniera Kingi (Aawa), Mr Pei Te Hurinui Jones (Waikato-Maniapoto). Mr Rangi Royal (Ngati Raukawa, Ngati Maru, Mataatua), Mr Eru Pou (Nga Puhi), Rev. Paora Temuera (Ngati Raukawa). Mr W. T. Ngata (Ngati Porou), Mr B. Biggs (Waikato-Maniapoto), Mr Morris Jones, Mr Keepa Ehau (Arawa), and the late Mr Mr Hoeroa Marumaru (Wainuiarua).

The decorative scheme of the Maori Affairs Committee Room in Parliament Buildings is to be completed.

At one end of the room is a representation of a Maori entrance porch. On one side is a large panel which will contain a photographic representation of the Treaty of Waitangi; and in two small panels will be placed portraits of four great Maori leaders—Sir James Carroll, Sir Peter Buck, Sir Maui Pomare, and Sir Apirana Ngata.

The loyal address to the Queen and her reply will be displayed on the other side.


Plans to have the famous Henare Potae carved meeting house returned to the East Coast district after an absence of eighty years in the South Island have come a big step closer to realisation. The house, named Hauteananui-o-te-Tangaroa, was carved by Hone Haahu, one of the last great East Coast carvers. The Canterbury Museum, the present owner of the house, has generously offered to sell to the Gisborne Art Society for £250—the same price they paid for it 81 years ago. The Maori committee, of the Gisborne Museum chaired by Mr Rongo Halbert, has undertaken to raise the money. So far £700 has come to hand, but total costs will be over £1000.

* * *

‘It is heartening to see Maoris, especially training college students, attempting to combine a theoretical interest in anthropology with a practical desire to help their people,’ said Mr Andrew P. Vayda, on his departure for the U.S. He had spent a year in New Zealand gathering material for a doctor's thesis on Polynesian warfare for Columbia University, New York.

In Mr Vayda's view, the Maori can interpret his own history much better than the pakeha. He can discover what elements in his cultural heritage could be made to help him in his adjustments to the future. More easily than the pakeha, the Maori can recognize Maori attitudes persisting from former times.

* * *

Mr Te Tau, a farmer, of Norsewood, became the first Maori to be honoured by the award of the N.Z.R.S.A. certificate of merit and gold star badge—a high honour granted by the New Zealand Returned Services' Association in recognition of outstanding services rendered by its members.

Mr Te Tau has been a driving force in the Norsewood sub-association for the past 28 years.

* * *

Arrangements have now been made for maintenance in perpetuity of the Sir Peter Buck memorial at Okoki, according to an announcement by Mr T. T. Ropiha. A sum of £400, part of the surplus from the memorial appeal, will be invested and the income used for maintaining the national memorial and the area adjacent, by arrangement with the Lands and Survey Department.

* * *

The meeting of Maori first world war veterans at Kaitupeka Pa, Taumarunui, last March was a most successful event. It was decided to hold similar meetings every year in future, and to this end an organization named Hoku Whitu a Tu Association was formed. Next year's meeting is to be at Waihi, Tokaanu.

– 53 –


Cry, the Beloved Country was first published way back in 1948, but it is never too late to review a good book, and this is undoubtedly one of the best novels of our time. The dust-jacket describes it as ‘a novel with a purpose’, which is true, but it is also a work of art. Mr Paton's prose alone, simple but powerful and intensely moving, places his book in the front rank of contemporary writing. The ‘purpose’ of the novel is to convey to the reader the problems and tensions existing in South Africa, where black and white live in close proximity but mix as much as oil and water.

It is hard for a New Zealander to imagine customs which dictate that white and coloured must use different buses and churches and schools. Such things are happily outside our experience. But Mr Paton makes it plain that in spite of these barriers it is possible for both sides to help each other if only people who care about such matters will find the courage to go against public opinion.

The story takes us from country to city and back again, and tells how the young people are forced to leave a land too weakened by crosion and ignorant farming to support even the remnants of the broken tribes. They exchange the peaceful poverty of their country homes for the violent poverty of a city that neither needs them nor wants them, that cannot house them decently or feed them properly, that ignores them till they break the law then shows them little mercy.

But Mr Paton is too wise a man to pass judgment on either party. His account is analytical but compassionate, emotional but not sentimental, and could only be written by someone who knows the situation as well as he knows his own house. However, the author of a good novel should be primarily concerned with people and relationships, and Mr Paton's success in both his books comes more from his understanding of how people feel and act than from his knowledge of their living conditions. His story of how a father seeks and finds a lost son carries meaning for all age-groups in any nation, whether or not they are interested in South Africa's social problems.

Cry, the Beloved Country is published by Johnathan Cape (9/6).

—J. C. Sturm.

Too Late the Phalarope has much in common with Cry, the Beloved Country: the setting, prose, and purpose are the same. But here Mr Paton concentrates on one particular social law separating white from black—the one forbidding a white man to touch a native woman—and describes the effect it can have on particular people. The result is a novel which does not sweep so wide but penetrates deeper than his first book. The inner conflicts of the main character are reflections of the conflicts of his society, and Mr Paton's detailed and sensitive study of his every wish and feeling and motive is so cleverly done that the reader cannot help identifying himself with the unfortunate man. But it is not just a clever book and it is never smart. Insight and understanding are more necessary in a writer than cleverness or even style. Mr Paton has both these qualities to an extraordinary degree, and when he uses them to the full he can turn a familiar theme into an unforgettable novel.

Too Late the Phalarope is published by Johnathan Cape (10/6).

—J. C. Sturm.

Teach Yourself Maori, by K. T. Harawira, Wellington. A. H. & A. W. Reed. 10/-. (Second edition.)

A second, expanded edition of this book appeared in September last year. Simpler than the well known work by Williams, it has found favour with many students of elementary Maori. The grammatical material is based on the Williams grammar and dictionary, but the examples and exercises are often original and valuable. Mr Harawira is an enthusiastic champion of the beauties of the Maori language and this enthusiasm enlivens his book. He does not pretend to have solved the very tricky questions that lie at the core of Polynesian grammar. This is left for a future investigator.

– 54 –


The National, Tennis. Tournament was completed in Wellington in early January.

Again Miss R. Morrison played her way into the quarter finals of the Women's Singles but was eliminated by the experienced Mrs Robson.

On the day Mrs Robson played above herself and Miss Morrison was not at her best.

Last year Misses Morrison and Dewes, both school-girls at the time, showed splendid promise for the future by reaching the quarter-finals. Miss Dewes, now at Wellington Teachers' College did not enter this year. Miss Morrison in reaching the quarter finals again has shown that she still has the potential. It seems, however, that she has shown little improvement during the year. This may be a disappointment to her supporters but as she is still a school girl it may be that they are expecting too much.

For my part, I have no burning desire to see Maoris reaching the highest pinnacles of sporting success if it means their having to devote more than a reasonable proportion of their lives and their interest to the sport of their choice. I am afraid that a single purposed fanaticism is an inescapable ingredient of success in modern sport.

The day of the accomplished all-rounder winning National or international honours is a thing of the past—except in team games perhaps where the individual lapse in concentration can be recovered by a team mate. The tennis star must be a martyr to tennis, the swimming champion must forever be swimming; the olympic stars of track and field must begin their training preparations for the next Games ere the crowds have found their way home and the shouting died from the last.

Miss Morrison is New Zealand's outstanding Junior. She won 3 titles at the junior championships. She obviously can go a long way in the game.


In 1954, the Maori Tennis Championships were held at Gisborne and among the players was a small contingent from Dunedin, including two young cousins of mine—Les Potiki and Clinton Anglem.

The Gisborne tournament was probably their first contact with a large group of Maoris and they were so impressed by the experience and the hospitality that they sought an agreement to hold the 1955 tournament in Dunedin. This tournament was completed on the 25th January.

Although a number of familiar faces were missing a large contingent from Poverty Bay, Hawkes Bay and the East Coast made the trip. I saw the Gisborne people on the way through—the whole 82 of them.

All finals were fought out between Takitimu and Horouta and I am told that the standard, especially among the juniors was very encouraging.

A tribute has also been paid to the fine sense of sportsmanship in all sections and this, I think is even more important than good tennis.

The following are the results of the finals in detail:—

Men's Singles: J. Pere (Takitimu) beat S. Wehi (Takitimu) 6–2, 2–6, 6–4.

Women's Singles: Mrs L. Ngata (Takitimu) beat Mrs R. Harvey (Takitimu), 6–4, 2–6, 6–2.

Women's Doubles: Miss T. Waititi and Mrs S. Smith (Horouta) beat Mrs Ngata and Mrs R. Harvey (Takitimu), 6–1, 6–4.

Men's Doubles: J. Pere and M. Harvey (Takitimu) beat J. Te Kawa and J. Cosgrove (Horouta), 6–3, 6–3, 6–3.

Mixed Doubles: M. Harvey and Mrs Ngata (Takitimu) beat Wehi and Miss M. Nepe (Takitimu), 6–2, 8–6.

Girls' Championship Singles: Miss T. Waititi (Horouta) beat Miss A. Dewes (Horouta), 6–1, 6–2.

Boys' Singles: D. Goldsmith (Horouta) beat W. Hoeria (Horouta), 6–1, 6–3.

Boys' Doubles: H. Kershaw and D. Goldsmith (Horouta) beat L. Moeau and W. Ackroyd (Takitimu), 6–2, 2–6, 6–1.

Girls' Doubles: Misses A. Pipi and J. Edwards (Takitimu) beat Misses T. King and M. Collier (Takitimu), 6–3, 3–6, 6–1.

On the Social Side the Tournament was an unqualified success. It may be that we southerners are not used to organising large huis but we do have at least one natural advantage which virtually ensures success. Ours is the home of the titi and I understand that the visitors were well catered for in this respect—many having titi at every meal.


A lot of Maoris—and not a few pakehas too—are prone to wonder why in every All Black team there are rarely more than one or two Maoris.

I have even heard it said that the N.Z.R.F.U. supports a colour-bar. This of course is not so. The union has two responsibilities to the people who put its members in office. First it must select the best available team but secondly it must not endorse the inclusion if anyone ‘who, on or off the field, may not be a fit and proper person to represent New Zealand.’

Too many Maoris have played for New Zealand for there to be any thought of a colour-bar existing. The New Zealand Union Executive is the central ruling body but, after all, it operates only on the delegated authority from the union itself which is composed of representatives of all the provinces.

Many Maoris reach provincial status. Many have captained their provinces and it would be ridiculous to say the provinces which are glad to have Maoris in their teams would condone any bar to their representing New Zealand.

– 55 –

A far more consistent outery about All Black representation is the scarcity of country players to win selection. I will deal more fully with this later but at this stage I would say that Maori representation and country representation are inextricably woven together. So many Maori footballers are at the same time country footballers.

Selectors I feel are very prone to rely on the good, known and proven player—the chap who can be relied on to play a sound game—in preference to the possibly brilliant player who is not so well known but who might not be consistent.

The selectors, once the trials begin, see every nominee, but some no more than once or twice. Many country players drop out early in the trials, simply because on the day they do not show the characteristics one would expect in an All Black. The city player is seen more often and so known. Although the country player is usually very fit muscularly, he is often found short of wind when engaged with or against gymnasium-trained players.

This question of peak fitness and training method is perhaps one of the reasons why so many of our Maori footballers get so far but miss out on the top honours. To win All Black selection through an exhaustive series of trials demands a high peak of physical fitness and the luck to stay free from injury.

The competition for a place in a city senior team forces players to train at least two nights a week and on Sunday mornings. The training is hard and is designed to sharpen reflexes. It more than compensates the city office worker for the lack of hard work which many country players do and which builds their physique. Also, not all city players work in offices. Many have really tough jobs and this with well-planned training in the gymnasium makes them formidable opponents.

Ctiy players too are used to a higher standard of Saturday play. In almost every team one sees All Blacks, ex-All Blacks and potential All Blacks. In the country the chap who is good enough to become an All Black trialist is often an isolated star shining on his own. He can play ducks and drakes with his less talented opponents but when he enters a trial where everyone is talented he is often prone to try too much on his own. This I think is the crux of the matter from the Maori's point of view. The selectors are seeking talent but they have to choose a team, not a group of 15 brilliant individuals. They seek men who can make play for their supports as well as capitalise on openings made by someone else. The whole basis of John Smith's fame, for instance, lies in his ability to make play and few will deny that he is our greatest post-war centre.

In the next issue of Te Ao Hou I shall give the Maori player—city or country—some idea of what New Zealand selectors expect of the men they choose.

– 56 –


We shall announce the winner of puzzle no. 10 in our next issue. Answers to puzzle no. 11 which we hope will come forward in great abundance, are to be in by August 8. A guinea is offered for a correct solution, and if more than one correct solution is received, the winner will be determined by lot. (Send to: Te Ao Hou, P.O. Box 2390. Wellington.)


1. Pleasant or agreeable
6. Perhaps
8. To beget
9. Fern
11. Belonging to
12. Down from above
13. Free from tapu
14. A double canoe
16. A lie or untruth
17. Night
19. Up from below (adverb)
22. Exclamation of surprise
23. Consumed, exhausted
24. Forest
26. Sand
27. The world
28. Foodstuff from the sea
31. To urge or incite
33. Form, shape or shadow
34. Which
37. Evening
38. To creak
39. A number of persons moving together
40. Be revenged or requited


1. Uneasy in mind
2. Difficult
3. Point (of land)
4. Type of tree
5. Presently
6. Type of plant
7. String or line
10. Inside
15. Rain
17. To paint or besmear
18. Variety of flax
20. Preparation of kumara
21. Louse
23. Food or bait
25. To turn aside or wander
28. Flint or obsidian
29. To lead
30. Snare
31. By and by
32. Be accomplished or effected
35. To put out the lips or pout
36. To mount a horse

– 57 –


The Leagues are Judged

The Te Puea Trophy for the best annual report of a district council or isolated branch of the Maori Women's Welfare League has returned to Heretaunga.

It changed hands at the Auckland conference last April after a brief and moving ceremony. When the judgment was announced. Mr Rewi Tumokai, widower of Princess Te Puea, came onto the stage. Chanting in ancient style he bade farewell to the trophy, until then held by Waikato North District Council, and compared it to Te Puea's spirit which was now to leave her tribe to go to Heretaunga. The women from Heretaunga responded with a chant of their own and for a while the old tribal spirit, aroused by friendly rivalry, filled the Auckland Community Centre. Tears were in many eyes.

Te Ao Hou had been honoured with the task of judging the contest. In the two previous competitions, Heretaunga and Waikato North respectively had been the winners. This time there was the unprecedented number of 19 entries—still only a small proportion of the district councils and isolated branches. The 10 top entries were announced:

Heretaunga D/C 88
Kahungunu D/C 83
Wellington D/C 80
Waikato N. D/C 76
Tauranga D/C 76
Hauraki D/C 74
Taumutu I/B 72
Awarua I/B 71
Apanui D/C 69
Aperima I/B 65

Judgment had been based on how the constitutional aims and objects of the League had been pursued; some little credit was also given to organisational efficiency and presentation of the report. A league's job was divided, for the sake of marking, into ten equal parts, namely:

Home management.


Education (both children and the league members themselves).

Maori culture.

Community work (helping in the work of the community as a whole).

Welfare of individuals who are sick or otherwise distressed.

Good relations and co-operation with local bodies, departments of state, organizations and the Pakeha world generally.

Fund raising.

Management and organization.

Presentation of report.

The importance of this competition goes beyond the mere rivalry of it. Councils with high marks usually have good ideas which have stood the test of experience and the competition helps to spread the ideas. Here follow some interesting projects pursued by some of these leagues:

Heretaunga District Council

Education Finance: This district has five boys and one girl at boarding school and members endeavoured to meet their school fees by running raffles and dances.

Hospital Visits: Regular visits are made by members to all hospitals in the area and comforts distributed. Parcels are sent for distribution to sanatorium patients, both pakeha and Maori.

Drama: A full Maori cast entered the drama festival at Waipukurau and was highly commended.

Homecraft: A pakeha lady donated a silver challenge cup for the best-kept Maori home and garden. Members and non-members responded readily and the competition was a great success. (See page 28 of this issue.)

Kahungunu District Council

Garden Competition: The league has sponsored a garden competition together with the Tb. Association of Wairoa. The main idea is to encourage parents to grow vegetables and fruit to improve the children's diet as well as beautifying home surroundings.

Tauranga District Council

Community Centre Drive: Five Tauranga leagues and the Matakana league together succeded in raising £1000 at a Tauranga ghymkana in a single day. Each league had one marquee, making six in all, from which produce and handcrafts were sold. Before sunset, all these had been sold out. Concert parties organized by each league competed in the evening.

Taumutu Isolated Branch

April Showers: Whenever a baby is born to league members, parents are helped and provided with comforts and the baby is presented with a Post Office money box.

Apanui District Council

Doctor's Clinics: Both the Te Kaha nad Omaio branches have raised funds to provide doctor's clinics which are now used by the public.

– 58 –


Making and hanging curtains to give them a professional finish is not difficult, but it needs some forethought and care.

Curtains look best when they are either floor length or sill length. Half way between usually looks wrong and spoils the appearance of the room. Floor length curtains should hang from the top of the outer frame of the window (the architrave) and should clear the floor by 1–2 inches. If they drag on the floor the hems will soon be dirty. Short curtains, suitable for kitchens, bathrooms, and small rooms usually hang from the top of the architrave to 1/16′ –¼′ above the window-sill. Thus, as they blow to and fro in the wind the hems just clear the sill. Straight hanging curtains are the easiest to make and look better than crossed or looped curtains.


Allow at least 3 inches for the hems and 2 inches for the heads.


If the curtains are to be pulled across the windows it will be necessary to measure the distance across all the windows and to allow for half as much material again to give sufficient fullness. If the curtains are to be drawn away to the sides of the windows in the day time, add 12–18 inches to the overall width on each side curtain.

Curtain material is usually 48 inches wide, so the number of yards required is found by measuring the length for the finished curtain and adding on at least 5 inches for the hem and heading. This figure is multiplied by the number of widths of material needed to give 1 ½ times the width of the windows and wall to be covered.

For example, two curtains each 5 feet long are to be pulled right back from the windows during the day. The amount of material needed would be:—


5 feet + 5 inches, say 5 ½ feet for each curtain


The windows are 4 feet wide.

Add 12 inches on each side = 6 feet.


6 × 1 ½ = 9 feet.

The curtain material is 48 inches wide, and two widths would measure 8 feet. This is barely enough, but with such small windows as these it would probably suffice. Therefore two widths each

Picture icon

The placing of curtains.

Picture icon

Top hem, showing the heading and the rod slot.

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Lining is attached to the reverse side of the curtain at the top (not shown) and at the sides. The bottom is kept free.

– 59 –

5 ½ feet long (3 2/3 yards) would be required for the curtains. If they are to be lined the same amount of a cheap unbleached calico or white sheeting should be used.

The Material:

There are many varied coloured and patterned curtain materials to choose from nowadays made from many different fibres. Undoubtedly the hardest wearing and the most satisfactory material is a heavy grade of cotton, although nylon and terrylene make excellent light-weight curtains. These two fabrics are slippery and rather difficult to sew, and the beginner is advised to use a cotton material which is easier to manage. Make sure that the colour matches the rest of the furnishing of the room, and if there is already a pattern in the carpet or chair covers, choose a plain material. One pattern in a room is enough. If a pattern is used, remember that this pattern will be repeated at regular intervals along the material and the main part should occur in the same place in each curtain More material may have to be bought if the curtains are to match each other.


Cut the material according to the pattern printed on it. This may not always be straight, but it should be so on all good quality fabrics.

For a plain material it is best to pull a thread before cutting. Turn up 3 inches for the hem and 2 inches for the heading. If two or more widths are to be joined together, this may be done with a french or a flat fell seam. All selvedges (plain edges of the material) should be removed, as they are inclined to shrink. Hem the sides with small hems. The bottom hems can be weighted every 2 feet with small lead weights or with pennies enclosed in small muslin bags. For a good finish sew the hems.

Attach the lining at the top of the curtain and catch it every 12 inches down the sides. Leave the bottom free.


Curtains may be hung on rods or on tracks. If rods are used, rings will have to be sewn on to the heading of the curtain 1 inch from the top.

A special tape obtainable from furnishing shops is sewn on to the curtains to be hung from tracks and hooks are fitted into slots in the tape. These in turn hook into rollers on the track.

* * *

The outstanding Maori girl tennis player, Ruia Morrison, won three titles in the New Zealand junior lawn tennis championships at Auckland.

Miss Morrison's partner in the girls' doubles was another leading Maori player. Miss Dewes, of Wellington.

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Vegetables fresh from the garden are a source of many appetising and health-giving meals. The bright colours of carrots, pumpkins, and red beets contrasted with the green of spinach, silver beet and cabbage add interest to the dinner plate.

When green leafy vegetables are removed from the ground they immediately begin to dry and some of their vitamin content is destroyed. Therefore, whenever possible pick green vegetables just before they are to be used. Wash them quickly in clean, cold water, and put them in a small quantity of boiling, salted water. The saucepan should have a tightly fitting lid. Green vegetables should not be overcooked; cabbage, for instance, or puha should not be cooked for more than 20 minutes, while silver beet needs only 5–10 minutes boiling.

Root vegetables are hardier than greens, and may be stored for several months out of the ground without any great loss of nutrients. Some of their vitamin content is destroyed, but they are better able to withstand storage and cooking than the leafy vegetables. Artichokes, kumaras, potatoes, red beets, parsnips, carrots, leeks, onions are example of winter root vegetables, and pumpkin, too, is placed in this class of hardy and useful roots. All are best cooked in a steamer with a tight fitting lid. When vegetables are boiled some of their chemicals and vitamins dissolve in the

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Potatoes baked in their jackets and garnished with parsley. (Department of Agriculture Photograph.)

water and they are lost unless the vegetable water is used for making gravy. Growing children need large helpings of freshly cooked vegetables and the whole family will benefit from a generous daily ration of mixed vegetables—some root ones and some green leaves.

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Two scholarships are available this year to Maori boys and girls to enable them to take advantage of American Field Service International Scholarships for study in the United States.

The scholarships are open to Maori boys and girls who will be over 16 and under 18 on September 1, 1955.

The Ngarimu Scholarship Fund Board is donating one scholarship, and the Hereheretau Soldiers' Fund the other. The scholarships are sufficient to cover the cost of fares to and from the United States, and also clothing and pocket money there.

The American Field Service scholarships cover the cost of a year's secondary school education in the United States, and board and lodging.

* * *

The part that Maori students are playing in the sporting life of the three North Island Teachers' Training Colleges was much in evidence at the colleges' triangular sports tournament held in Wellington late in March.

Maoris were particularly prominent in the softball events; and in the successful Wellington college's women's softball team two-thirds of the members were Maoris. The team, captained by E. Hauraki, beat Ardmore 30–7 to give the Wellington college its biggest win of the tournament.

Community development was the subject of a largely attended meeting held at Nuhukau (near Taupo) last April. Mr T. T. Ropiha and numerous other officials were present as was the Mayor of Taupo, Mr J. E. Story and a number of social welfare workers. The meeting discussed various improvement schemes: the adoption of a village plan; the subdivision and individualisation of titles to make new building possible; the construction of Maori Housing Scheme homes; power and water supply installation and so forth. Many speakers also discussed moral and spiritual topics.

* * *

It is rumoured that a party of thirty Tahitians may be visiting New Zealand to study what Maoris are doing in agriculture. The progress made by Maori farmers might provide an inspiration to the islanders.

* * *

Mr Roi Te Punga, M.A., Dip. Soc. Sc., has been appointed Auckland regional probation officer, where he will be in charge of all probation work in the Auckland metropolitan district.

* * *

A meeting of the Kati-Otautahi Maori Youth Club of Christchurch was attended by more than three hundred people. Maori items were performed and money raised for the ultimate aim of building a marae in Christchurch.

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PIG MANAGEMENT (continued from page 24)

85–100 lbs. liveweight, gradual increase to 3 ½ gallons per day.

100–115 lbs. liveweight, gradual increase to 3 ¼ gallons per day.

The value of supplementing skim-milk with roots is very important and fodder beet and similar roots help to give a balanced diet. Meal is costly but can be used to advantage with young pigs and particularly over the winter.

Chief points in production of high quality carcasses


Marketing conditions at present make it necessary to strive for the highest quality possible in both porker and baconer carcasses.


Careful selection of good breeding stock as certain carcass characteristics are strongly inherited.


Backfat on which commercial grading is largely based is capable of being controlled by feeding.

The most recent trends show a preference for smaller cuts and leaner meat. Though meat should be prime and tender it must carry only a moderate fat cover. As pigs reach maturity they tend to put on fat more rapidly and may become overfat if allowed to grow at full rate.


Early development of lean meat is essential.


Careful management and observation, particularly with regard to feeding is essential for high quality carcasses.

To summarise the important features in pig farming:—


Suitable layout with adequate housing and access to grass.


Selection of good breeding stock and use of a suitable cross.


Attention to mating and times of farrowing in relation to milk supply.


Careful attention to sow whilst in pig and at farrowing time.


Care and feeding of the litter during the suckling period so that the maximum weight has been gained by weaning time.


Strict attention to feeding and weights of pigs so as to obtain the maximum price for high quality carcasses.

* * *

The Ngarimu Scholarships for 1954 were awarded to: David Yates, Whakarewarewa Maori School, Rotorua; and Rangi Bennett, Te Hauke Maori School, Hastings, and formerly of Potaka Maori School, Hicks Bay.

* * *

A Puha (East Coast) dairy farmer, Mr Pehe Tu, won the Judge Carr Cup for citrus growing for the second year in succession.

The award is made for citrus growing in the Tairawhiti district, which stretches from Te Araroa to Raupunga. Growers with six or more citrus trees are eligible.

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The Maori Mother and her Child


All utensils used for preparing baby's food and its storage should be scrupulously clean. They should as much as possible be kept separate from the utensils for the rest of the family.

One of the greatest dangers in the preparation of food is the risk of contamination by flies. Flies carry dirt and disease. It is very dangerous for flies to settle on baby's food or on the teat or anything used for the food. All utensils therefore should be kept covered away from flies.

Remember that clean milk can be infected by careless handling or dirty utensils. The following precautions are necessary to ensure cleanliness:


Utensils should be thoroughly boiled every morning and, before use, kept in the water in which they have been boiled.


Wash your hands before making feeds and before feeding baby.


Wash and boil the bottle after feeds and leave in a basin of cold water until needed again.


The teat should not have a big hole in it; when the hole becomes too large, get a new teat.


The teat should be washed after use by dropping a little salt into it and rubbing in well with the fingers. Then pour boiled water over it to remove salt and slime, put teat in clean dry mug and cover with clean cloth or saucer. It should be put into boiling water once a day.


Above all, every single article used in the preparation of baby's food must always be kept very clean and not used for anything else.

Utensils for milk mixture

I half-pint or pint jug, marked by ounces, 1 large jug. 1 large tablespoon, 1 teaspoon, 1 knife, 1 clean plate, for the spoons and knife, 1 fine

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wire gauze strainer (one made from two thicknesses of butter muslin will do), 1 saucepan, 1 kettle boiling water, 1 bottle for feeding, with two teats.

In addition, it is very important to have some equipment to mix baby's food in.

Extra food for baby

In addition to milk, whether breast fed or bottle fed, baby will need extra food from the age of six months. A good programme for extra food follows below:

AT 6 MONTHS. Give baby a bone to chew. This helps him to cut his teeth and develop his jaws.

10 a.m. As soons as the first tooth has come through, give baby a baked crust before his 10 a.m. feed.

While he is eating keep an eye on him in case he swallows too big a lump and chokes. Do not give him bought rusks or biscuits.

2 p.m. Vegetable broth (milk) strained, give small amount till he gets used to the taste—½ teaspoon for a start.

4 p.m. Fruit juice—6–8 large teaspoons.

6 p.m. Usual bottle of milk.

AT 7–8 MONTHS. Continue giving baby crusts of bread.

10 a.m. Cereal jelly with milk—2 teaspoons. Usual bottle of milk.

2 p.m. Sieved or mashed vegetables—2 tablespoons.

4 p.m. Fruit juice—6–8 large teaspoons.

6 p.m. Egg yolk lightly cooked—your nurse will tell you how to prepare this. Usual bottle of milk.


10 a.m. Crust—Cereal—3 tablespoons. Usual bottle of milk.

2 p.m. Egg yolk, liver juice plus bottle of milk.

4 p.m. Fruit juice—6–8 large teaspoons.

6 p.m. Fruit pulp—baked or stewed apple, etc. Junket and custard—2 tablespoons. Milk bottle.


10 a.m. Hard baked crust and crisp toast buttered. Strained porridge and scalded milk 1–2 tablespoons.

2 p.m. Puree vegetables 1–2 tablespoons. Bottle of milk.

4 p.m. Fruit juice.

6 p.m. Fruit pulp 1–2 tablespoons, junket, custard, etc. Bottle of milk.

Do not overfeed or stuff baby; feed him slowly and take time. Too many mothers are inclined to overstuff baby and this creates a bad habit when he grows up.

Do not leave him to play with his food, teach him to handle a spoon correctly.

A fault that is sometimes seen is that mothers are too anxious to get feeding time over for baby. A bottle is put into baby's mouth and the pram rushed at such a speed that baby is not getting the milk at all; he is fighting to keep the bottle in his mouth, all the way. This will not do baby any good; if you must go to town or visit your neighbour feed baby before you go out.

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Issued by the National Prevent Drowning Committee on behalf of the Internal Affairs Department.