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No. 10 (April 1955)
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TE AO HOU
The New World

the maori affairs department April, 1955

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HAERE KI O KOUTOU
TIPUNA

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HAERE KI O KOUTOU TIPUNA

TE PAIRI TU TERANGI

Te Pairi Tu Terangi, last of the old-time chiefs and tohunga of the Tuhoe tribe, died in his mountain village Tanatana, last November. He belonged to the Ngati Haka subtribe of Tuhoe and was a direct descendant of the famous chief Pukeko. His life is described by Elsdon Craig elsewhere in this issue.

TEMUERA MORRISON

Temuera Leslie Morrison passed away at Ohinemutu last December at 46 years of age. He had been closely associated with the rebuilding of Tamatekapua meeting house and with Maori land development in his district. He was a field officer of the Department of Maori Affairs. He was also well-known as a Rugby footballer.

TOROA NGATAUERUA

Toroa Ngatauerua died at Manaia last January, at the age of 74. He was deeply versed in ancient lore and ritual and had spent his youthful years at Parihaka studying under the prophets Te Whiti and Tohu. He was a son of Te Tutu and Erana. In later years, he became a devout Roman Catholic.

MRS MERE MOREHU

Mrs Mere Morehu, one of the best-known women of the Arawa tribe, died last December, aged 74. Her husband was the late Mr Morehu Te Kirikau, one of the outstanding leaders of his tribe.

Mrs Morehu had a wide knowledge of Maori tradition and was unsurpassed in her knowledge and performance of songs and chants. She was a foundation member and former president of the Maori Health League.

MRS HOKI MURRAY

Mrs Hoki Te Kerekau Murray, chieftainess of the Pirirakau tribe, died at Te Puna last January at the age of 90. She was a daughter of Te Kerekau Maungapohatau and a granddaughter of Te Ua Maungapohatau, the great Takitimu chief. Mrs Murray was highly regarded as an authority on Maori history.

WHARE MAHIHI HOTU

Whare Hahihi Hotu of Oparure, paramount chief of Ngati Maniapoto, died last December at the age of 89 years. He was one of the greatest authorities on Maori genealogy. For his work as leader of the Maniapoto tribe he was awarded the O.B.E. He was a direct descendant of Wetene and his father was Hotu Waikato, one of the chief figures in the early King movement. Mr Whare Hotu was a strong supporter of the King movement throughout his lifetime.

MRS MAORA KONATU

The death occurred at Paremata, Tolaga Bay, of Mrs Maora Konatu, who was believed by her descendants to be 108.

Mrs Konatu was born at Maungatuna, East Coast, and in her youth she was a notable horse woman and a particularly talented singer of Maori songs. She retained all her faculties till her death and had vivid memories of the early history of the East Coast.

GEORGE NEPIA

Sergeant George Nepia, eldest son of the famous Maori rugby fullback, was killed in an accident in Malaya. He was one of several New Zealand Army officers and n.c.o.s serving with the Fiji Battalion in Malaya.

Sergeant Nepia was born at Rangitukia, where his father farms. After taking a special course at Waiouru he left New Zealand for Malaya.

Sergeant Nepia was buried with full military honours at the military cemetery at Singapore.

W. W. BIRD

A widely-known educationist and authority on the Maori language, Mr W. W. Bird, died in Auckland, at the age of 84.

While still a young man, Mr Bird wa Inspector of Native Schools, and he was late Chief Inspector of Primary Schools and Direct of Native Education.

He always showed an enthusiastic interest in the Maori people, among whom he earned the affectionate title, “Manu”.

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MRS RANGI-TAURA HARA

Mrs Rangi-Taura Hara died at Waitotara at the age of 104. She had survived all her children and grandchildren.

Mrs Hara was born in the Waitotara Valley and lived all her long life there. She remained in good health until she went blind about four years ago. She had a remarkably retentive memory and used to delight in telling children of the events of her early life.

TE RAMA WHANARERE

Te Rama Whanarere, one of the best-known of the chiefs of the Wanganui River, died last December, aged 80 years. Mr Whanarere was chief of the Ngapaerangi tribe at Kaiwhaiki.

REV. HEMI HUATA

The death occurred at his home at Wairoa of one of the oldest ministers of the Anglican Church, the Rev. Hemi Pititi Huata. He was aged 87.

The Rev. Huata for over 60 years worked actively in the service of the Church, and he continued this work until just a few years ago.

He was educated at Te Aute College and Te Rau College, where he studied to enter the Church.

His father was one of the early Maori Anglican ministers, and a son, Canon Wi Huata, M.C., a padre with the Maori battalion in Italy, is now serving in the Waikato Diocese.

The Rev. Hemi Huata was also a great authority on Maori history.

TE AO HOU

He mea wharamiharo te noho tau a te Pakeha me te Maori, kore ana he komuhumuhu a tetahi ki tetahi, ahakoa ra, ara noa atu ke te tini o te hua o te iwi Maori. Kotahi tonu te mea whakataratara—otira, he tohu pai noaiho pea—ko nga kupu e rangona ana i roto i enei rangi mo te noho whakawehewehe i nga iwi, me te mea e kiia nei, ko te Maoritanga.

Ko te tokomahatanga o te Pakeha e tuturu peehi ana i te noho whakawehewehe i nga iwi, ara, kaore ratou i te pirangi kia taki-tutu haere he ropu motuhake whakawehewehe ki tenei whenua. E marama ana tenei whakatupato. I roto i te kotahitanga o nga iwi hou, penei me o Niutireni nei, i te huhua o nga iwi ke kua eke mai no tawhiti, ko te paihere kia kotahi i runga i te rangimarie, te oti, mehemea kaore i kaha te torotoro haere i nga whakaaro pumau, me nga tipunatanga mai, o tena wahanga iwi, o tena wahanga iwi.

Ko te tokomahatanga o te iwi Maori kei te manawapa tika, kei ngaro wawe nga taonga rangatira heke iho a nga tipuna, he mohio no ratou he kaha kei roto i era taonga, hei whakakorikori i tona wairua. Nana tenei mea i kii, ko te whakapumautanga o tona Maoritanga. I nga Pooti Paremata kua taha-tata ake nei, i korero whanuitia tenei taonga e nga whiriwhiri o nga ropu Maori katoa.

Te kitea ranei he huarahi e kore ai e whakamarenatia nga whakaaro o te Pakeha me te Maori. Na te Tari mo nga Mea Maori, i te Ripoata a-tau ka mahue ake nei, i whakaputa nga whakaaro o te Kawanatanga, i penei tana kii: “Kia tu pakari ai te Maori i roto i nga mahi nunui kua whawhatia e ia, a te Pakeha, me whakaae pu ia ki te nuinga o nga tikanga noho-a-iwi, kimi-oranga hoki a te Pakeha. E tika ana kia riro ma te Tari mo nga Mea Maori e whakawatea nga huarahi kia whiwhi ai te Maori ki nga mahi e ngakau-nuitia ana e ratou, ma te Tari ano hoki e arahi, e awhina. Pena ka kitea he tikanga a te Maori, ahakoa he aha, hei whakatipu i tenei kaupapa a te Tari Maori, na, ka manaomia atu, a, ka poipoia.”

Ko te whakaaro tuatahi, ko te paihere i te motu ki te topuranga kotahi, me te tu-a-rite o te noho, me te mahi tahi o nga iwi katoa. Whakapiria ki tenei, ko te tuturutanga o te whai-hua o nga mahi a te Maori, kua mohiotia nei ka puta he kaha ki a ia i roto i aua mea. Tera hoki kei te tipu te mohio ko te whiwhi tahi te Pakeha ina tahuri ia ki te ako i nga mahi a te Maori. Ka taea tonu e te Maori te pupuri i te nuianga o nga mahi a ona tipuna, me te hapai tahi i a te Pakeha tikanga. Ko te ngaki nui i roto i tenei korero ko te rapu i te taumata tika o nga mahi a te Maori, me te rohe hei Whakatunga i te pou o te noho whakawehewehe; ko te paunatanga o enei mea e rua ka waiho hei tauwhainga ma te kawanatanga me nga iwi, Maori, Pakeha.

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LITERARY COMPETITION

The judges for the first Te Ao Hou Literary Competition, Messrs W. Parker and E. Nepia and Miss Mira Petricevich, have now reported to the Editor. They recommend that no prize be given for last year's entries. The only essay to reach the required standard was in Maori, but this was submitted well after the closing date, which disqualified it.

While this result is regretted, we hope that more people will become aware of this annual competition and that the standard will be higher next year.

SECOND COMPETITION

Our second literary competition is now announced.

Manuscripts are invited from Maori groups and individuals to compete for the second Te Ao Hou Competition.

Two prizes of ten guineas each will be awarded for the best stories received at this office by September 1. One of the prizes will be for a story in English, the other for a story in Maori.

The judges will be: Mr W. Parker, Mr E. Nepia and Miss M. Petricevich.

Stories must have a length of from 1500 to 2000 words. They may have any subject based on life in a Maori community in country, town, or city at the present day or in the recent past. Persons and places may be either true or fictional.

It is hoped that entries will reveal new Maori literary talent and that the younger generation will be well represented.

In addition to the two winning entries, the most suitable stories submitted will be published in Te Ao Hou and paid for at normal rates.

It is hoped that the stories will help to increase awareness of what Maori life today really is; an awareness that will undoubtedly be of the greatest help for the future.

Send manuscripts to: The Editor, Te Ao Hou, P.O. Box 2390, Wellington.

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Contents

Page
Te Aohuruhuru (translation by the late W. W. Bird) 6
The Story of Kawerau 9
Crime and Delinquency, by Prof. Albert Morris 14
Two Personalities—A Contrast (Te Pairi and His Friends; Pat Smyth) 17
Pania of the Reef 20
Omar Khayyam Translated, by Pei te Hurinui Jones 22
Homes for the Maori People 26
Ranginui Academy for Arts and Crafts 32
Whakarewarewa Maori Children's Visit to Hutt and Wellington 36
A Baby's Toilet, by W. J. Phillipps 38
New Deal in Adoptions 41
History from Courts Records 42
1954: Maori Legislation 43
Farmers Organize in Tikitiki 44
Maoris and Sport, by Paul Potiki: The Kennys of Johnsonville 45
Books 48
A Tawhaki, te Tohunga Rapu Tuna, na Moko 50
I Waiata Taratara ai te Poroka, na G. N. Lansdown 52
Crossword Puzzle No. 10 53
Going to the Conference, by Rori Paki 55
A Parson's Family in Honolulu, from Dorothy Moses 58
East Coast Tour, by Tuhingaia Barclay 59
Mothercraft (continued), by Keritapu 62

The Minister of Maori Affairs: The Hon. E. B. Corbett

The Secretary for Maori Affairs: T. T. Ropiha, i.s.o.

Management Committee: C. J. Stace, ll.b., C. M. Bennett, d.s.o., b.a., dip. ed., dip. soc. sc., W. T. Ngata, lic. int., E. G. Schwimmer, m.a., M. J. Taylor.

Editor: E. G. Schwimmer, m.a.

Sponsored by the Maori Purposes Fund Board Subscriptions to Te Ao Hou at 7/6 per annum (4 issues) or £1 for three years' subscription at all offices of the Maori Affairs Department and P.O. Box 2390, Wellington, New Zealand.

Printed in April, 1955. Registered at the G.P.O., Wellington, for transmission through the post as a magazine.

published by the maori affairs department

WHERE TO GET Te Ao Hou

We occasionally hear of people who find it hard to get Te Ao Hou. If you are one of those, please write to the Editor (P.O. Box 2390, Wellington) and let us know.

Te Ao Hou is available from all newsagents, and subscriptions are taken by all offices of the Department of Maori Affairs and by the Editor.

* * *

Situations Vacant. Te Ao Hou needs writers and artists. Send us your stories and report anything of interest that happens. We like to hear from you. We are also very anxious to receive drawings. One of the main purposes of this magazine is to encourage Maori talent.

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Is Your Subscription Due? If it is, you will find a leaflet enclosed with this issue. This leaflet is placed in all copies for subscribers whose subscriptions are expiring.

COVER PICTURE

Our cover photo shows a member of the Ranginui Arts and Crafts Academy making a tukutuku panel for the new Judea meeting house. A full account of the Academy will be found on pages 32 and following.

IN OUR NEXT ISSUE:

*

Onehunga Community Centre.

*

Making Poi

*

How Maori mountaineers in ancient days obtained their greenstone

*

Maori Proverbs

*

The work of the dictionary revision committee

*

Review of Maori Women's Welfare League Conference.

And all our usual features.

Make sure of your copy! Send your subscription today.

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TE AOHURUHURU

Na ko Pa-maramarama te ingoa o te pa o te hoa o Te Aohuruhuru. He koroheke te tangata nei, ko tana wahine he tutua, he mea tango mai e ia i te tangata i arohatia nuitia e tenei wahine. Ko te take i tangohia ai e ia te wahine nei he pai, he ataahua, he wahine momoho ki te mahi. Ko te mahi he taka kai, he whatu weruweru mo te koroheke nei. Otira ko tona noho, e noho pononga ana ki tenei koroheke, otira ko tona aroha pea e mau tonu ana ki te tangata i arohatia nuitia e ia.

A roa rawa tona nohoanga ki tenei koroheke, a muri iho ka tahuri taua koroheke ki te hakirara i a ia.

Ko te tikanga tenei o tana hakiraratanga i a ia. No to raua moenga i te po, roa rawa raua e moe ana, ka maranga taua koroheke ki runga, ka titiro ki tana wahine tamahine, kua warea e te moe. Ko ona pakikau kua pahuhu ke ki raro i te kowhananga a nga ringaringa, a nga waewae, i te ainga a te ahuru. Katahi ka tahuna e ia te ahi, ka ka te ahi, ka tirohia e ia nga pakikau, ka takoto kau ia. Katahi ka mahara te koroheke ra ki te nuinga o tona pai. Kowatawata ana nga uru mawhatu i te hana o te ahi; ko tona tinana, ngangana ana: ko tona kiri, karengo kau ana; ko te kanohi, ano he rangi raumati paruhi kau ana; ko te uma o te kotiro e ka whakaea, ano he hone moana aio i te waru e ukura ana hoki i te toanga o te ra, ka rite ki te kiri o tuawahine.

Taro rawa te tirohanga o taua koroheke ki te pai o tana wahine tamahine, muri iho ka whakaarahia e ia ona hoa koroheke o roto i te whare ki te matakitaki ki te ataahuatanga o tana wahine. I a ratou e matakitaki ana i a ia, katahi ano ia ka oho. Oho rawa ake ia, koia e matakitakina ana e te tini koroheke o roto i te whare ra.

Heoiti ano ka maranga te wahine ki runga, ka mate i te whakama. Heoti ano ko te rangi i pai ra kua tamarutia e te pokeao; ko te uma kakapa ana, ano e ru ana te whenua. Ka tinia ia e te whakama. Katahi ka rarahu nga ringa ki nga pakikau, ki te uhi i a ia. Katahi ka rere ki te kokinga o te whare; ka tangi, tangi tonu a ao noa te ra.

Awatea kau ana, ka haere te koroheke ra ratou ko nga hoa, ka eke ki runga i te waka, ka hoe ki waho ki te moana ki te hi. A i muri o te koroheke ra ratou ko nga hoa kua riro, katahi te wahine nei ka whakaaro ki te he o tana tane ki a ia, katahi ka mahara kia

 

A gem of delicate ancient-style Maori story telling is the legend of Te Aohuruhuru, of which the Maori version appeared in Sir George Grey's Nga Mahi a Nga Tupuna. He never translated this story into English, and this has been very sensitively done by the late W. W. Bird, whose version we are presenting here.

Pamaramarama was the name of the pa in which lived the husband of Te Aohuruhuru. He was an old man. His wife, a girl of lowly birth, had been taken by him from one she loved dearly, because of her excellence, her beauty, and her accomplishments. She was skilled in all kinds of cooking and in weaving the finest mats for her old husband. But she lived the life of a slave with the old man, her heart still yearning for the loved one from whom she had been torn.

She had been so living with her old husband for a considerable time when he turned to annoying and insulting her, and this is how he set about it.

When they were in bed one night the old man woke and looked at his girl wife, who lay there fast asleep. Owing to the excessive heat, her garments had slipped down from the restless tossing of her arms and legs. He made a fire, and by its blaze he saw the clothes and his wife lying bare. Then he began to gloat over his good fortune. Gleaming were her curly tresses in the firelight, her body glowing, her skin smooth and pearly, her eyes fine and clear like a beautiful summer's day. Her breasts rose and fell like a peaceful sea in summer lit up by the rays of the setting sun. Such was the appearance of the girl as she lay there. After the old man had spent some time in feasting his eyes on his beautiful girl wife he awakened his old cronies in the house to share in gazing upon her lovely form. While they stood looking at her she awoke to find herself being stared upon by a crowd of old men in the house. Springing up from the bed she hung her head in shame. The beautiful summer's day had been covered by a dark cloud. Her breast quivered and throbbed as does the earth when shaken by an earthquake. She was overcome by shame and, seizing her garments to hide her body from their wicked gaze, she rushed to the furthest corner of the house and sobbed her heart out until day break. When

 
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haere ia ki te whakamomori. Na, tera tetahi toka teitei e tu ana i te tahatika, ko te ingoa o tenei toka inaianei ko Te Rerenga o Te Aohuruhuru.

Katahi te tamahine ka tahuri ki te tatai i a ia, na ka heru i a ia, na ka rakei i a ia ki ona kaitaka, ka tia hoki i tona mahunga ki te raukura—ko nga raukura he huia, he kotuku he toroa, ka oti. Katahi ano te tamahine ka whakatika, na ka haere, ka piki, a ka eke ki runga o te toka teitei, ka noho. Katahi ano ka kohuki te whakaaro o te tamahine ki te tito waiata mana.

Ka rite nga kupu o taua waiata; ko te tane ratou ko nga hoa kei te hoe mai ana ki uta. Ka tata mai te waka o te tane ki te taketake o te toka e noho ra te tamahine i runga, ko te koroheke nei kua pawera noa ake te ngakau ki te purotutanga o tana wahine taitamariki. Katahi ratou ka whakarongo ki te wahine ra e waiata ana i tana waiata. Ka rongo ratou ki nga kupu o te waiata a te wahine ra. Ano!

 
 

morning had come, the old man and his friends had embarked on their canoe and paddled out to sea to catch fish. Thereupon the girl, brooding over the insult to which her husband had subjected her, determined to end her life. There is a lofty crag standing near the shore, which is now known as Te Rerenga o te Aohuruhuru (the leaping place of Te Aohuruhuru). Then the girl decked herself out, combed her tresses, put on her best mat and adorned her head with a plume of feathers, huia, kotuku, toroa. Then she arose, reached the base of the rock, climbed up and having reached the summit, sat down there turning her thoughts to composing her death song. By the time she had finished, her husband and his friends were paddling homewards. Their canoe approached the rock upon which the girl was sitting and the old man's heart glowed at the thought of his wife's youthful beauty. Then they heard her singing her song. They could make out the words, now wafted over the rippling waters, now echoed back from

 
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torino kau ana mai i runga i te kare o te wai, ano te ko e pa ana ki tetahi pari, na ka whakahokia mai, ano te mamahutanga ki tona koiwi. Ana! Koia ia, ko te hou o te waiata a tuawahine, mataaho mai ana ki nga taringa. Koia tenei:

‘Naku ra i moe tuwherawhera,
Ka tahuna ki te ahi
Kia tino turama,
A ka kataina a au na.’

Na ka mutu tana waiata, katahi ia ka whakaangi i taua toka nei ki te whakamoti i a ia. Katahi ka kite mai taua koroheke ra i a ia ka rere i te pari. I kitea mai e ia ki nga kakahu ka ma i tona rerenga ai.

Katahi ka whakau mai to ratou waka ki te take o te toka i rere nei te wahine nei, ka u mai, u noa mai ka kite ratou i a ia e takoto ana, kua mongamonga noa atu. Ko te waka whakairo nei kua paea ki te akau, kua pakaru rikiriki. A kua ngahae hoki te waka whakairo a tenei koroheke, ara te pai whakarere rawa atu o te tamahine nei. A mohoa noa nei maharatia tonutia e matou te ingoa o tera toka ko Te-Rerenga-o-Te-Aohuruhuru. A maharatia tonutia hoki e matou nga kupu o tana waiata. No te taenga mai hoki o nga tauhou ki konei, ka arahina ratou e matou ki te toka nei kia kite.

 

some cliff and bringing joy to his spirit. Listen! these are the very words of the girl's song falling clearly on the ear:

‘As I was lying there exposed
The fire was lit
The house was ablaze with light
And I was laughed at.’

(She was dwelling on her betrayal—how when she was sunk in innocent sleep he had lit the fire and she had been humilated and shamed by her husband before the eyes of his friends.)

Having ended her song she hurled herself to destruction from the top of the rock. Her husband saw her as she hurled downwards, her white robes gleaming in her flight.

They brought the canoe to the foot of the cliff from which she had leapt and as they neared the spot they saw her lying there—her beautiful body dashed to pieces like a richly carved canoe that had been smashed into fragments on the reef.

Just so had this old man's treasure, the girl wife of surpassing beauty, been destroyed.

To this day that rock is known to us as the Leaping Place of Te Aohuruhuru and her dying song is still retained in the memory of our people. And when visitors come to our district we lead them to this spot so they can see it themselves.

The Maori Survey

A Social Survey of Hawera carried out recently by the School of Social Science, Victoria University College (see the Book Review section, page 49), makes a study of Maoris in the urban area of Hawera and also in three pas nearby—Te Aotearoa and Kanihi (both belonging to the Taranaki tribe), and Taiporohenui (Ngati Ruanui). If the facts shown by the survey were true only for the area studied, they would perhaps have little interest; but we can be reasonably sure that many of these facts apply to other places just as much:

  • Maori husbands help more in the home than Pakeha husbands.

  • Maori and Pakeha have almost the same tastes in spending leisure time, namely: listening to the radio, visiting friends, doing the garden and entertaining.

  • 83% of Maori adults would like more education as against 48% of Pakehas. The kind of further education they want is almost the same for both groups: dressmaking, needlework, engineering, carpentry, woodwork, general nursing, home science, farming, accountancy and office work. In addition some of the Maoris asked for Maori arts, crafts and history.

  • The number of people who have no children's books in the home is appalling. It is bad for the Pakeha group (57%) but far worse for the Maori (87%). Comics, of course, are not counted.

  • Most Maoris, unlike most Pakehas, believe that young parents should be taught how to bring up children. Most Maoris, but only a few Pakehas, think the teaching should be done by relations.

Of great interest, but too complex for discussion here, is the survey of Maori opinions on the aims of education.

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Picture icon

The Mill. (sparrow industrial pictures ltd.)

The Story of Kawerau

This year the world will be watching with much interest the opening at Kawerau of New Zealand's greatest industrial enterprise. In a small valley near the Tarawera river mouth some £15 millon have been spent in building a giant pulp and paper mill, as well as the country's largest sawmill. Even greater has been the country's effort in growing the 260,000 acres of forest that supply the mill, building railroads, houses and a harbour, establishing a power and geothermal steam supply and other facilities.

The Maori people have a great stake and a deep interest in the past as well as the future of Kawerau. A tribal boundary between the Arawa and Mataatua canoe areas, the Tarawera river is particularly rich in history, reaching back as far as the arrival on the scene of the mountain Putauaki (Mount Edgecumbe) which casts its sombre shadow over Kawerau in the mornings.

Long ago Putauaki lived with his wife Tarawera, a mountain upstream. After years of married happiness, Putauaki began to feel restless. His roving eye caught sight of Whakaari (White Island), an enchanting little lady who enticed him and signalled to him with her puffs of smoke. She teased him so much that one night, driven crazy with love for her, Putauaki deserted his wife and went to Whakaari. Cautiously he tiptoed away, but his daughter heard him and followed him. She asked where he was going, but feeling ashamed of his plans he did not answer her. All night, the child tugged at him.

This made travelling dreadfully slow—so

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Picture icon

The site of Kawerau township as it was in 1952. (n.z. forest service photograph)

slow, that the sun caught him where he now stands. In the full light of day he could not go on and advertise his intentions to the world. He looked back and saw his wife weeping for him. This made him more ashamed. He could not go forward and he could not go back; so he sayed where he still is, with his child. Tarawera still weeps for him and her tears form the Tarawera river. The child is the foothill to Putauaki.

Tuwharetoa spent most of his life at Kawerau and also died there. His shrouded body was entombed in a hollow totara at Te Atuareretahi, a few miles from Kawerau. As the tree grew in later years, the gap closed up. The tree is still growing and can be found by some of the local people, but they are not at all eager to point it out.

The Maori wars, the Tarawera eruption and intermarriage with other tribes help to explain the smallness of the present Maori population of Kawerau. Mrs Monica Hardman, office worker with Fletcher-Merritt-Raymond, who are building the mill, told Te Ao Hou that there are about 150 at the pa, and about three quarters of these get their living from mill construction work.

The Kawerau people took the government side during the Hauhau wars. Their land was included in the blanket order confiscating a large area of Maori land in the Bay of Plenty, but under this order loyal hapu were still allowed to keep their land. The Kawerau people accordingly had their land given back to them after long negotiations.

Most of it was later included in the Putauaki Maori Land Development Scheme, consisting of some 10,000 acres, partly now in full production. Unfortunately, it was found not to be particularly good farm land. Although it gives a splendid first strike of grass, drainage through the pumice soil is too easy to allow grass to do well for long. Just at present, the scheme carries about 2,000 sheep and 250 head of cattle on a grassed area of 1,000 acres.

Steam Gave the Answer

Until September, 1952, the feeding, mustering and shearing of stock grazing about the Tarawera river was the most urgent matter in Kawerau. At that time a government geologist made the discovery that was to transform the settlement to the most up-to-date, highest-pressure industrial centre in New Zealand.

In itself there was nothing sensational about discovering geothermal steam. The Maoris had always known of it; it may well have been because of the geothermal steam that Tuwharetoa settled on that spot and it was the site of such populous pas. To people living in the stone age, an abundant supply of hot water available without effort was a priceless possession. Right through the ages, the Maoris of Kawerau have bathed in the pools which are now to supply Tasman's geothermal steam.

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It was left to modern science to discover that a reservoir of steam confined under the earth can produce a long-lasting supply of electric power, drive machines and heat huge industrial boilers. In New Zealand large scale experiments are still continuing to produce such power at Wairakei; but at Lardarello, in Italy, geothermal steam has been successfully used for the last thirty years for power generation and for the extraction of chemicals.

At Lardarello, the steam was easier to harness than it will be at Wairakei or at Kawerau, but nowhere can the sensation have been greater than at Kawerau, because of the very fortunate time of the discovery. In June, 1952, the giant Tasman Pulp and Paper Company had been registered. The all-important question of the site of the mill had not yet quite been decided, although it had been studied off and on for twenty-five years. Ngaruawahia, Mount Maunganui and various other places had been rejected and Murupara, although for various reasons not quite ideal, had been tentatively chosen by the company. The discovery of steam at Kawerau, offering prospects of savings in coal of up to 50,000 tons per year, made it easy to come to a decision. Apart from its steam, Kawerau offers an abundant water-supply—life-blood of a paper-mill—and a flat plain good for industrial building.

A Desert made Fertile

Tasman's story began in 1925 on the Kaingaroa plains, a 350,000 acre pumic plateau, in 1925 still a desert sparsely covered with tussock. An English visitor, Mr William Adamson, suggested that if New Zealand only had the courage to plant the whole of these plains with pine trees, it could sustain not only sawmills but a pulp and paper industry big enough to compete in world markets.

The idea was taken up by Mr Alex Entrican, then departmental engineer in Forest Products and the then Director of Forestry, Mr L. M. Ellis. Most of the stands totalling 260,000 acres were planted between 1927 and 1931—the period of the slump. At present, the Kaingaroa plains boast a greater concentration of wood growth than there is in any other similar area in the world. There may be other forests as dense, but none so quick-growing. It can produce a constant yearly output of 23 million cubic feet.

Planting was followed by a long period of study, during which the Forestry Service found out by tests that the New Zealand pine could make pulp and newsprint as good as is made in Canada or Scandinavia—not quite as white, but making up for this in greater strength. Government experts also worked out an unsurpassed method—later adopted by Tasman—of making the very best use of the trees. In 1951, the government was ready with its plans and preparations and offered the timber output of Kaingaroa for sale to a private company by tender. The only tenderer was the Fletcher organization. In June, 1952, the Tasman Pulp and Paper Company was registered with a capital of £6 million and the right to issue debentures. At this stage, the only shareholders were the government and the Fletcher organization, although others came in later.

The Mill is Built

As a mill site, Tasman chose 483 acres of flat land next to the Tarawera river—part of the Putauaki Maori Land Development Scheme. The owners sold this land to Tasman for £50 per acre, over double the government valuation. To satisfy the people, owners were offered Crown land in exchange for what was sold, so that nobody would be left landless against his will. Only one owner actually asked for such an exchange, however.

The mill, constructed by Fletcher-Merritt-Raymond, measures 280,000 square foot floor space and has cost over £14 million. It is the fourth largest newsprint mill in the world and its paper machine delivering newsprint at the rate of 2,000 feet per minute, is the fastest in the world. Working round the clock, it will produce 75,000 tons of newsprint per year.

Newsprint is however only one side of the story. The Kawerau plant comprises in addition to a sawmill, a groundwood pulp mill and a chemical pulp mill. The sawmill, the biggest in New Zealand, will produce 72 million

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Kaingaroa Forest today. (r.n.z.a.f. photograph)

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board feet per year. The groundwood pulp mill will grind logs into pulp with huge carborundum stones driven by 1200 h.p. motors. The making of groundwood pulp, the main material of newsprint, has been described in an article in Te Ao Hou on the Whakatane Board Mill (issue 1).

You cannot, however, make newsprint out of this ‘groundwood pulp’ alone. If paper is to hang together and have strength, it needs longer fibres than you can get by grinding, and these are made chemically. To make chemical pulp, wood is chipped with knives into half inch to one inch long chips. These chips are cooked under heat and pressure with sodium sulphate. After cooking, chemical pulp consists of loose fibres, longer, stronger and more pliable than groundwood pulp. 51,000 tons per year are produced of which 16,000 tons goes into Tasman's newsprint and the rest is sold.

The interesting point about the three mills is that each specializes on a different part of the tree. The sawmill gets the valuable ‘straight butt logs’ which have the most heartwood and are easily made into timber. Oddly enough the top logs, which make inferior timber, are actually the best for the groundwood pulp; being free from heartwood, they are easily ground. The rough ‘butt logs’, the smallish logs, the slabs from the mill—in fact any pieces not particularly good for timber or groundwood pulp—are sent to the chippers, to make chemical pulp.

The bark of all the trees is sent to the boilers as fuel. From the sawmill bark-free slabbings and edgings go to the chemical pulp plant for chipping. Sawdust and other sawmill and pulpmill waste likewise are used for fuel.

Never before have trees been used in industry quite so economically. By joining the three mills together, raw material, capital and running costs are cut in a startling way. At the same time, by making so many products at once, Tasman is unusually well protected against the whims of the market.

The knowledge of experts from all over the world went into the planning of this mill. It is impressive to read the long list of consultants from England, the United States, Canada and Scandinavia who at one time or another studied the paper-making qualities of the wood or the prospective yield of the forest or the economics of the whole project. We have had specialists on plant design, plant construction and even the management of the enterprise when it starts production. Since Tasman was created, there have nowhere in New Zealand been more high-powered foreign experts to the square yard than there were at Kawerau.

Obviously, Tasman will enrich the country considerably as trainload after trainload of profitable produce rolls forth each day from a place where hardly anything was produced before. To make this possible, the government not only did most of the basic planning, but also made available to Tasman in shares and advances £11 million and invested in public works another £11.4 million. The new industry needed better roads through Kaingaroa forest, a railway from Murupara to Edgecumbe, much rolling stock, the harbour at Mount Maunganui, 50 houses at Kaingaroa, 220 at Murupara and 450 at Kawerau and numerous other works. Private capital subscribed for the Tasman venture has so far totalled £5 million.

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Mrs Monica Hardman, resident of Kawerau works at the mill office. (sparrow industrial pictures ltd.)

New Life for the People

What part will the Maori people play in the future of Kawerau? Out of the 1200 to 1400 construction workers several hundred are Maoris. Some live in the camp and 200 come to Kawerau every day in buses from Te Teko, Ruatoki and other settlements. For many, the regular well-paid work in their own district is a new experience. A warden told Te Ao Hou that the people's way of life has greatly improved as a result of the new opportunities and the old social problems are now much less marked. Many of the workers are saving for motor-cars.

A Maori club, called-Kumea Te Ora, with 50 members is active in Kawerau. Half are Maoris. The club, organised by Fletcher-Merritt-Raymond's recreation officer, Mr Frank Cooke, organizes all kinds of entertainments, raises money and has the distinction of being the only club in Kawerau that can hold dances

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—they have secret sources of dancing partners who are a great rarity.

The chairman is August Honata, from Opotiki, whose talents as a showman were developed as a member of the Torere Youth Club.

Will the workers stay when the mill opens and will all this community activity be kept alive? On that question, it is possible to be reasonably hopeful. Tasman's personnel officer, Mr Stoneham, has visited the Maori settlements to discuss employment at the mill for people within travelling distance.

Te Ao Hou asked the company's general manager, Mr Maurice L. Hobday, what the prospects of the Maori people will be. Mr Hobday expressed particular interest in giving the local people whose land he had bought the fullest opportunity to get permanent and well-paid employment for themselves and their children.

He also hoped that Maoris from other parts of New Zealand would look to Tasman for work in its newsprint—paper, pulp and timber mills. ‘Above all I hope,’ said Mr Hobday, ‘that many young Maori men will show themselves keen to learn the highly skilled craft of paper-making.

‘For five generations my family have been paper-makers, and my son intends to become a paper-maker. I am proud that I shall be responsible for training New Zealanders in the craft and I should be happy to think that there will be Maori families in which there will be the tradition of son following father as a skilled paper-maker.’

This should give food for thought, together with the fact that about 450 State houses and 50 company houses are available for people from all over New Zealand who get jobs with Tasman and have families. These jobs and homes will be offered to tradesmen of all sorts—skilled sawmill workers will be specially sought after—as well as young men to be thoroughly trained by Canadian experts in pulp and paper making. For paper-makers educational standard is not so important; the Company wants bright workers of good physical build whose history shows that they are stable and reliable.

Payment will be fairly high, particularly because of the round-the-clock shift system which that for an average 42-hour week a worker gets an average 53 ¼ payment hours as well as shift allowances. There is also to be a pension scheme, a company doctor, an industrial nurse and an accident prevention officer. The Company is interested in helping the town in establishing a full and healthy community life and has, to this end, appointed a welfare officer.

Maori participation in life at Kawerau may, considering all this, be quite considerable and it looks as if living conditions will be most favourable. Many young people, particularly from the Bay of Plenty and East Coast districts, may decide to settle in Kawerau rather than Auckland, and this, particularly for married couples, may be the better way of life in many cases.

E. Schwimmer

IN THE NEWS

Keith Davis, All Black and Auckland rugby halfback, was the outstanding Maori rugby player in New Zealand again last season and won the Tom French Cup for the third year in succession. During the season Davis captained the New Zealand Maori team which toured Fiji and played a number of matches in the North Island.

* * *

Captain of the Auckland team which took part in the 1954 women's indoor basketball championships at Wellington was a Maori woman, Mrs May Smith, who besides being a star basketball player is also a grandmother.

Mrs Smith has represented Auckland at the national championships since 1949, and her club, Akarana, has missed winning the Auckland provincial title only once in recent years. Her daughter, Violet Watling, was a prominent member of the Auckland B team at the championships.

* * *

A Maori rugby league forward, J. Yates, of Auckland, was a member of the New Zealand team which took part in a world series of matches in France in November. He is a son of the 1922 New Zealand rugby league representative, Moses Yates.

* * *

At the 1954 skiing championships at Mount Ruapehu a national women's skiing title, for the giant slalom event, was won by Miss Dora Davies, a young Maori woman.

Miss Davies has been head waitress at the Chateau Tongariro for the past five years, and she has been a keen skier for most of this time.

* * *

A leading Latin-American dance demonstrator in Britain is a Maori. Mr John Delroy, who is reputed to be the best demonstrator of the paso doble in the country.

* * *

A new Maori school was opened recently at Pukemoremore. It is mainly attended by children of the settlers of Pukemoremore Maori Land Development Scheme. Its roll is expected to be 80.

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CRIME AND DELINQUENCY

One of the satisfying experiences of the visitor to New Zealand is that of seeing Maori and Pakeha meeting each other and working together with mutual respect, while still maintaining legitimate pride in their own cultures. It is unfortunate when the misbehaviour of a few, in either group, is extended by the uninformed and uncritical into a characterization of the qualities of Maoris or Pakehas in general.

It is apparent to anyone visiting the prisons and Borstals of New Zealand that Maoris are a larger proportion of the prison population than they are of the population of the country as a whole. Maoris received into prison under sentence comprise about 18 per cent of the total prison population, whereas only 6.5 per cent of the total population of New Zealand is of Maori ancestry, and Maoris aged 15 and over are only about 4.56 per cent of the total population. This would suggest to the casual reader of figures that Maoris are contributing three times as many prisoners as their population numbers warrant.

Perhaps they are; but such figures are not an accurate or adequate measure of either the Maori or the Pakeha contribution to the prison population.

There is obviously a dearth of data necessary for adequate and significant analyses of the crime situation. Much that we would like to know cannot be ascertained with desirable certainty or precision. Such limitations are understandble, and are not confined to New Zealand. The one point that unfortunately does remain reasonably clear is that Maoris are sentenced to prison in considerably greater proportion to their part in the population than are Pakehas, even when corrections are made for age distribution.

Why is this so, and what can be done about it?

Until the recent predominance of Europeans and their culture the Maoris had lived for centuries a rural and communal life in small villages. The family and the tribe were more important than the individual, whose interests were merged and bound up with those of his kin group. Maori land use involved concepts of inheritance, kinship rights, animism, and emotional ties different from those involved in European land ownership. Maori land cultivation was largely co-operative. In general, rights in private property were not emphasized and the custom of the muru sanctioned the group plundering of one who violated the tribal mores.

In general pre-European Maori culture was a collectivist culture welded together and symbolized by the institution of the chieftainship, born out of the need for co-ordination and leadership, and perpetuated in a hereditary aristocracy possessed of mana and justified by its serviceability. Such a society tends also to be traditionalist, conservative, and with great pride of ancestry.

The shock effect of European aggression and colonization upon Maori culture must have been tremendous. The evidences of superior physical power and technical achievement were all about them for everyone to see. The power of the chieftains declined. Much Maori land was confiscated and their religious, economic, and social life was disorganized. A proud people was overwhelmed and their confidence not only in themselves, but in the spiritual forces they trusted, was shaken. They dwindled in numbers and found themselves dependents in a land where once they had been masters.

Within a space of a few decades the Maoris, with some help from the now predominant Europeans, have re-established themselves as joint partners in a new commonwealth, and their population has increased. In the light of what this has involved in the way of readjustment, especially by the Maoris, the achievement is a remarkable one in which both Maoris and Pakehas may take pride. It should hardly be a matter for surprise that the adjustment has at points been difficult and not perfectly accomplished.

That a higher percentage of Maoris than Pakehas should be found guilty of conversion

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and wilful damage and of burglary and theft might be expected of those who have not been brought up in a tradition which stresses the inviolability of private property. Even when youthful Maoris know the rules of British culture they can hardly regard them quite as seriously as do those whose families have been schooled in the British tradition. It might be expected that British restrictions upon the sex behaviour of youth could hardly be adopted and followed so completely by Maoris whose culture had approved a greater measure of freedom.

Maori culture has not been characterized by the teaching of detailed rules of conduct, by the development of a sense of personal responsibility for individual, self-reliant conduct, or by the restraints that are so important a part of the upbringing of children in a British culture. No doubt there still persist among the Maori a degree of casualness and lack of

PROFESSOR ALBERT MORRIS, who teaches criminology and anthropology at Boston University (U.S.A.), visited New Zealand in 1952 for a short period on his way to Melbourne. He is a world authority on crime and delinquency and we are pleased to present his views on a disturbing problem in New Zealand. After so short a stay, Professor Morris' understanding and sympathy for Maori life, culture and tribal institutions is remarkable. As the reader will see, this sympathetic understanding does not lead him to see the situation through rosy glasses.

concern with the details of behaviour among children that is understandable but foreign to the majority stock, and that is reflected in some of the difficulties of Maori youth trying to function under British standards of conduct.

The urbanization of several thousand Maoris has thrust especially difficult problems of adjustment upon a people accustomed to a rural communal life, and who find themselves in an environment that lacks many of the physical and social satisfactions of the Maori kainga. In the city, the sun and the sea and the smell of the earth are not so close to man. Work is intensive, regular, and frequently on an individual basis. The social life of the Maori community is lacking and so also is its guidance, its support, and its control of behaviour by the opinions of those whose approval or disapproval carries weight. Here in the city the Maori frequently finds himself in a society but not wholly of it; socially awkward, lonely, frustrated; a marginal person on the fringes of two cultures but without status or hope of position in either. In proportion as the urban Maori finds himself so affected, he may be exploited by the irresponsible sophisticates who offer him satisfaction at a price, or he may react aggressively upon the society that seems to make no approved provision for his legitimate needs.

The diagnosis is sketchy rather than exhaustive. The remedy indicated will, hopefully, be suggestive. It can hardly be adequate.

It is assumed that whatever is known about the biological-sociological-psychological sources of delinquency and crime and of their treatment will be adapted and applied to criminal and delinquent behaviour among Maoris. Beyond this certain suggestions may be made for dealing with the unique factors in Maori criminality.

Probably whatever can be done to develop and encourage responsible Maori leadership, informed, progressive and adaptable enough to help guide the Maori people in their necessary adjustment to a rapidly changing world, will help to foster the basic social health of all Maoris.

Pride in the past is wholesome and it builds a stabilizing sense of continuity, but neither Maori nor Pakeha can turn the clock back. Change is not new. It is characteristic of all living, healthy societies and the world of both the Maori and the Pakeha will change. This is normal and inevitable. It is a condition to be accepted and to some extent guided. In any case it is a process to which a workable adjustment must be made. Whether the leadership should be sought among the traditional chiefs or among a newer group will depend upon the adaptability and progressiveness of the hereditary aristocracy and the ability of a new leadership to command respect and emotional loyalty. Associated with this leadership would be the fostering of a feeling of community through tribal assemblies at the marae court, and with this a sense of community responsibility and purpose directed towards achieving the best possible Maori-Pakeha relationship through a series of specific, consciously planned projects directed towards limited reachable ends.

For example, what about the encouragement and guidance of a series of projects by the Maori Women's Welfare League or the Welfare Officers of the Department of Maori Affairs? These might include:

(a)

The organization of summer community youth projects to which Maori and Pakeha young people would contribute labour for the clearing of land, the building of a farm dam, the erection of small community buildings, the painting of a school, the remodelling of a barn to serve as a youth canteen and recreation

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(b)

The development of youth canteens or recreation centres through the planning and building and organizing efforts of young people. These would be equipped with a variety of games (many of which would utilize equipment made by the young people), with record players for listening and for dancing, and where possible with moving picture projectors.

(c)

The organization of conferences for the discussion, in small groups, of such social problems as are most pressing; and as a means of including, at least incidently, discussions of child welfare, delinquency, alcoholism, sex education, preparation for marriage, parent-child responsibility, and similar topics.

(d)

The further development of small local manufacturing establishments, which would broaden the economic base of the Maori community while still permitting Maories to work in small groups away from the larger cities and close to their own community life.

No doubt the limitations of interest and of finance among those in need will make any such efforts difficult. Nevertheless a start, or many starts, must be made. Projects similar to these may already be in existence, but possibly techniques need to be improved. For example, visiting teachers may at times find that poorer Maoris do not welcome visits because they are ashamed of their homes. A somewhat similar situation was met at a school in Boston by inviting the children of Italian mothers to obtain their favourite receipes for use in the domestic science class. Then the mothers, themselves, were invited one at a time to come to the school and supervise the teacher and the pupils as the class prepared their dishes.

The wholesome effects of such simple devices can be amazing.

In other areas of Maori-Pakeha relationships, responsible Pakehas need to acquaint themselves as much as possible not merely with how Maoris behave but with the significance of the behavior to the Maoris. Perhaps a brief handbook, a sort of primer, might be compiled for use by judges, probation officers, prison officers, policemen, social workers, teachers, and any others who want to make use of it. Perhaps, also, greater access to the Maori point of view could be encouraged by the use of Maoris on boards of visitors to Borstals, on the Prison Board, on probation staffs, and on the staffs of Borstals and prisons. Maoris who through such service become acquainted with the problems of handling Maori delinquents might help to develop within the Maori community resources for the supervision and guidance of Maori youth which the courts and the probation service might use. The objectives here would be greater understanding of the significance of Maori delinquency and the invention of new facilities and devices for helping to control it, by and often within the Maori community.

Within the Borstals and prisons conscious thought might be given to utilizing the Maori enjoyment of group work and group recreation to build a group loyalty towards their country and all its people, rather than their kin or their local village groups; a sort of intelligent nationalism and national pride, if you will, such as might be found in a team representing New Zealand in a football tour of England or such as might have been found in the Maori Battalion during the war. It will probably have to be realized that if the Maori who are in trouble are to be made once again into New Zealanders (new New Zealanders) it will be necessary for the Pakehas to accept Maoris psychologically as full members of the nation.

To return once again to broader considerations: it may be hoped that there will continue to be full, frank and realistic discussion of the future possibilities in Maori-Pakeha relationships. Can the two groups agree upon those features of the cultures of both that are work able in the world of today and tomorrow? Can it be agreed that these are the elements in both cultures that all of us should try to develop and use for the common good? Can it be agreed that other features of the two cultures, however serviceable in the past, are no longer useful nor helpful, and must be discarded regardless of any emotional commitment we may have to them? No doubt unaminity cannot be hoped for, and it might not be desirable. A loyal opposition has its function too; but perhaps a clear-cut, long range policy with reference to the future of Maori-Pakeha relationships can be sufficiently agreed upon to serve as a guide both to action and to the training and selection of those who will play a greater or lesser part in guiding that action.

MORIKAU FARM BLOCK

The Morikau farm block, covering 12,000 acres on the Wanganui River, was passed back to the control of its 2,500 owners last January, Like the East Coast stations released from government control earlier. Morikau, worth about £200,000 in unencumbered assets, will become an Incorporation under the Maori Affairs Act, 1953.

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TWO PERSONALITIES
A CONTRAST

I. Te Pairi and his Friends by Elsdon Craig

Te Pairi Tu Terangi, of Waimana, is dead. Haere ra, e koro e. Haere ki te Hono-i-wairua. The last human link between the old world and the new has been severed.

Death comes to the lovable old man in his mountain village, Tanatana, in the folds of his beloved Urewera hills under a starlit sky on the night of November 23–24. For four years he has been a cripple, confined to his house, looking out on to the misty valleys where he spent his life, waiting patiently for the end. When it came it was the signal for a great tangi for Te Pairi was united by birth and marriage with many tribes. They came from all over the North Island to farewell the last of the great kaumatua of an age gone by.

Nobody knew exactly how old Te Pairi was. Some said he was nearly 100. Others claimed he was nearer to 110. That he was a great age is certain for he not only lifted the war trail with Te Kooti but he also remembered Kereopa and the hanging of the Rev Volkner, in Opotiki, in 1865. He was an old man when Peehi (Elsdon Best) was in the Urewera Country in 1900. A photograph taken by the white man at that time shows Te Pairi with a flowing white beard, resembling the one which was so familiar to those who knew him in later years.

Te Pairi was educated in the school of ancient Maori culture. He clung affectionately to the ways of his forefathers until the end. He never learned to speak English. He was immersed in the traditions and ritual of a romantic past. One of his prized possessions were the shark tooth ear ornaments which he always wore. As a member of the Ringatu Church he was deeply religious and his spiritual life was an example to others.

Time and again he impressed on young people the value of home life set on firm spiritual foundations. “Home,” he once said, “is the most sacred possession which the Maori has.” He regarded “home” as the marae and saw Maori society undergoing a change in which the marae was no longer its centre.

His sentimental regard for his Queen was touching. Dearly though he wanted to meet

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Te Pairi Tu Terangi (new zealand herald photograph)

her during her tour, his crippled body would not let him make the journey. However, his devotion was such that he lent his fine collection of family heirlooms for display during Her Majesty's Coronation.

Tuhoe was the last Maori tribe to emerge from a primitive state into the new world. They were notable fighters and a conservative people who long defied the white man's civilization. Nevertheless, they have always been a wise people. This wisdom was evident as long ago as 1843 when the Rev William Colenso visited them. He offered them trinkets and ornaments thinking they would fascinate these wild tribesmen. Instead Tuhoe asked him for books in their own language so they could learn to record their traditions.

Te Pairi shared this wisdom and foresight. So did his kinsman, Tutakangahau, of Tamakai-

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moana, at Maungapohatu. When the Maori school at Te Whaiti opened in 1890 this long since departed veteran of Te Kooti's campaign, who was completely immersed in his own culture, brought his grandchildren to the school to be educated. He even braved the disapproval of his tohunga in allowing them contact with the tapuless Pakeha that they might learn about the new world. Tutakangahau specially requested that the children should be taught the ways and customs of the white man. Then he addressed to them these words which, judged by any standards, were full of wisdom and a sound lesson in behaviour.

“Should the Pakeha correct or chide you,” he said, “you must not be angry or sullen—that is a token of ignorance and low birth. It is by such correction that you shall learn to live well in this world”.

Another of these farseeing patriachs was Paitini Wi Tapeka of Ngati Maru, also a contemporary of Te Pairi. He was born in 1844, fought against the British at Orakau, marched with Te Kooti, and was steeped in the ancient culture of his people. Yet, he believed the future of his race lay in the Maori retaining the best of his own and the European way of life. Even when Tuhoe was tearing up the survey pegs on the Te Whaiti-Ruatahuna road line, Paitini was giving of his wealth of knowledge to be recorded for the inspiration of future generations.

Given the advantages of modern education, men

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Elsdon Best and Paitini.

like Te Pairi, Tutakangahau, and Paitini, would no doubt have ranked with Ngata, Buck and other great leaders who refashioned Maori society and adjusted it to western standards. In any case they will go down in history among the thinkers who pioneered the new age.

II. Pat Smyth by Melvin Taylor

Patrick Smyth's death last May marked the close of an era in the history of St. Stephen's school, Bombay. In his 44 years' association with the school he became one of its traditions. He loved St. Stephen's—the predominantly Maori school standing like a sentinel in the Bombay hills, commanding the southern approach to Auckland.

In fact, he loved the Maori people. It was not always so. Though a half-caste Maori himself, as a lad he disliked the Maoris. It was when learning the Maori language and traditions, to teach Maori boys English that he learned to love the people. He became one of the Maori champions. As a child he had tried to wash the brown off his face with soap and water. In Auckland he would cross the street to avoid the kuias sitting on the pavement.

Smyth was born in the remote, bush-bound settlement of Pungare, Keri Keri, in 1893. The settlement was made up of five scattered homes surrounded by a sea of gorse, bush, ti-tree, fern, and acres of rush-covered swamps.

His mother was a chieftainess from Waihou, Hokianga. His father was an Irishman who had come out to New Zealand in the army to fight in the Maori wars. Only English was spoken in the home so the boy had no chance to learn Maori there. He was 16 when he first went to St. Stephen's—the place he called home up to within a few months of his death 44 years later. He knew this home from all angles. From ordinary schoolboy he made his way to prefect, head boy, junior assistant, senior assistant, acting headmaster and, finally, headmaster.

Young Smyth was a real backblocker when he

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first went to St. Stephen's, never having seen a ship, policeman, piano or football, and not knowing the difference between a half-crown and a two-shilling piece. He had come to town to be educated in more ways than one. He marvelled at the huge buildings and the trams. Looking out a tram window on one occasion he sprang to the other side of the car believing that a lamp post was heading straight for him. Most of his brother pupils were Maoris. That irked him, but did not stop him from working hard at his studies. In his second year he passed the Public Service examination and then went pupil teaching at Newmarket School. Leaving St. Stephen's he vowed there would be no more Maori for him. He could not have been more wrong.

The headmaster at St. Stephen's, whom he respected and loved dearly, kept bothering the young teacher to take a job at the school. He offered £80 a year and keep. It was a millionaire's offer to what he had been getting. He was soon back at St. Stephen's, his vow to “finish with the Maori” conveniently set down In his job of teaching the Maori boys English he felt he needed to know the Maori language. He took it up and mastered it. Gradually he became interested in the Maori people. Reading of their traditions and history, he was won over and devoted his life to the Maori race, especially to Maori youth. For many years he lectured on Maori education and Maori matters generally. He published Te Reo Maori and Maori Pronunciation. Through Te Reo Maori, the familiar little book with the pretty Maori cover designs, his name is now known throughout the country to those with an interest in the Maori language. While teaching at St. Stephen's Smyth decided to study for his B.A. degree on a part time basis. This was despite the fact that he had never had the time or money to attend a secondary school—St. Stephen's was a primary in his pupil days.

While studying for his degree he was bringing up a young family. Getting the degree was a stiff climb but he made it, finishing his studies in 1930 when he was 37 years old. The Greek course nearly stumped him, as he had never seen any Greek before starting university, Twice he failed the subject, but on his third shot he made it.

During the second World War Mr Smyth was a captain in command of A (Ngapuhi) Co., 2nd Maori Battalion, stationed at Ohaeawai. He wanted to go overseas but, because of his age, was not allowed, and he was sad when, one dark dawn he stood quietly on the side of the road and watched his men marching for overseas.

At that time St. Stephen's was closed. It had been shut down in 1942 and was not re-opened till November 1946, when Mr Smyth was appointed acting headmaster. From the date of its re-opening it was exclusively a secondary school. Mr Smyth was appointed headmaster in 1947. Because of the school's shaky financial position he never pushed for the salary he could have commanded. His interest in the Maori was so great that he refused many better paying propositions. He revelled in work and in overwork. The strain took its toll on his heart, and forced him to retire early this year.

Enforced retirement bewildered him. He had counted on another ten working years and had geared his retirement plans to fit. Sudden retirement caught him without housing provision and this brought a new worry to a man for whom worry was bad. Four months after his retirement he was dead.

Quietly reminiscing at his daughter's sunny Pukekohe home one day, not long before his death, Mr Smyth said that he felt he owed everything he had enjoyed and achieved to the years when he attended St. Stephen's. St. Stephen's had baptised him, confirmed him, and given him the privilege of climbing every rung of its ladder.

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PANIA OF THE REEF

THE LEGEND

I te mea kua oti te ahua o te wahine nei o Pania te whaka-kohatu (bronze) e te ropu pakeha e kia nei ko te Napier Thirty Thousand Club a mea ake nei whakaturia ai ki te taha takutai o Nepia — Marine Parade — E tika ana kia korerotia nga korero o tenei wahine tipua a Pania, kia matau ai te hunga i na kite i te kohatu whakamaharatanga mona e tu ana i Nepia nei.

Na tetahi tohunga o Itari i waihanga ki te whakaahua o tetahi kotiro Maori i tukua atu i konei, a he mea whakairo he ahua o te wahine nei tona atabua, ona tukemata ano ka te whakatauki ra, ‘ko nga tukemata whanui o Kahungunu.’

Ina nga korero mo Panía

Ko Pania inaianei he papa kohatu e wha maero pea te tawhiti atu ki waho o Hukarere. Nepia — Napier Breakwater — kau mai ai te wahine nei ki uta i nga abiahi i te toonga o te ra, a hei te ata po i mua atu o te putanga mai o te ra ka hoki ano ki tana iwi i te moana. Ko te wahi nohoanga o Pania i na haerenga mai ki uta ko roto i tetahi pu harakeke, tipu ai i te taha o te puna wai maori i te putake o te kari o Hukarere tata atu ana ki te moana. I tetahi ahiahi ka hiainu wai tetahi rangatira e noho pa tata ana ki reira ka haere ki te puna nei me tana taha ki te inu wai. I a ia e inu wai mai ana i tana taha ka kite atu ia i a Pania e noho mai ana i roto i te pu harakeke. Ko tana haerenga atu ka mauria ki tana whare ka moe raua. Otira i te ata po ka hoki ano a Pania ki tana iwi i te moana, hei te ahiahi ka hoki mai ano ki uta ki tana tane. Ka taka te wa ka whanau te tamaiti a Pania he tane, maheni tonu kahore he huruhuru o te mahunga, tapaia tonutia iho ko Moremore. I tenei wa ka pa te awangawanga ki tana tane kei tiro tana tamaiti i te iwi o te moana, katahi ka haere ki te Tohunga ki te ui tikanga e mau ai tana tamaiti raua ko te whaea. Ka mea te Tohunga me tuku a Pania raua ko te tamaiti kia warea te moe ka uta ai he kai maoka ki runga i a raua, me ta maoa kai, kia kore ai e hoki ki te moana. Otira ana ano te raruraru kaore pea i pai te tamaotanga i nga hoki i hoki ano a Pania ki tana iwi i te moana oti atu. Ko te tamaiti i hurihia bei mango, Taniwha, ko ana wahi nohoanga ko Hukarere — Napier Breakwater

(Kei tua te roanga atu)

 

Pania today is a ledge or reef of rock, commonly known now as the Napier breakwater, lying about four miles beyond Hukarere point.

This was the home of Pania, a beautiful sea maiden who, in ancient times, daily swam shorewards at the setting of the sun and returned to her sea people before the break of day. While on shore she hid herself in a clump of flax beside a freshwater spring at the foot of Hukarere cliff, close by the sea.

One evening a chief who lived in a nearby Pa became thirsty, and went for a drink at the spring. While drinking from his calabash he spied Pania sitting in the middle of the flax bush. There and then he took her to his home, and they became man and wife. But always, every morning, Pania would return to her sea folk and every evening come back to her husband.

After awhile Pania gave birth to a son who was completely without hair and so was named Maremare, ‘the hairless one.’ With the birth of this child, Pania's husband became concerned that he might lose him to the sea people. So he consulted a tohunga, in the hope of finding how to keep his child and wife with him always. The tohunga told him to place cooked food upon the mother and child while they slept, and they would never again return to the sea. Evidently something went amiss. Perhaps the food was not properly cooked; for Pania returned to her people never to return.

The child Moremore was turned to a shark (taniwha) which lived in the waters around the reef off Hukarere, and at Rangatira, the entrance to the inner harbour at the delta of the river called Ahuriri.

When fishermen of today tell the legend of Pania, they claim that at ebb-tide she may be seen lying outstretched at the bottom of the rocky shelf, with her hair still as black as ever and her arms stretched shoreward.

According to old Maori folk, however, she was turned into a fishing rock, from which various kinds of fish might be caught. Within the hollow of her left arm-pit only rawaru may be caught, and from her right arm-pit snapper alone, while her thighs yield only the hapuka. In the days of old these fishing grounds were sacred, but today, being frequented by pakehas, the place has become common to all and fish are no longer plentiful.

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THE STATUE

— me Rangatira kei te Ngatuawa o Ahuriri. Ko Pania inaianei e ai ki to korero a te hunga mahi ika, i na purata te moana ka kitea tonutia iho e takoto tapapa ana, pango tonu nga makawe o te mahunga, a ko nga ringaringa matoro mai ana ki uta. E ai ki nga korero a o matou pakeke he toka ika inaianei. Kei roto i te keke maui he rawaru anake nga ika o reira, kei te keke matau he tamure anake nga ika o reira, kei waenganui i nga kuha he hapuku anake nga ika o reira.

He tauranga tapu i te wa i a ratou, na te pakeha kua noa noaiho, kua kore e rite te nui o te ika ki reira me te wa ia ratou.

Over thirty years ago the late Rt. Rev. F. A. Bennett, then Bishop of Aotcaroa, accompanied members of the Thirty Thousand Club on a drive round Napier and suburbs. He pointed out many places of historical interest associated with the days when Maoris occupied Mataruahau (the Napier hills), and the Whanganuiorotu (the Aburiri Lagoon); days before the pakeha came in his sailing ships from far across the sea.

When passing the tall bluffs near the break-water, the Bishop recounted the legend of the Pania Reef. Until that time it was not generally known. The romantic story greatly appealed to several members of the Club.

The suggestion was made that a statue be erected to perpetuate the legend in bronze. There were many delays of one kind and another, but the time arrived when a Maori girl was required as a model for the statue.

The ready co-operation of Miss I. L. Hunter, Principal of the Hukarere College, proved invaluable. Several students were selected as prospective models. The girls, attired in traditional dress, posed on a pile of cardboard (to represent the rock).

Photographs were taken, and from these Mei Irihapiti Robin, of Kohupatiki, was selected. The grace of the natural, easy pose she took for the photographs has been faithfully portrayed in the finished statue.

Photographs, drawings and detailed instructions were then forward to the sculptor at Cartara, Italy. So that there would be no mistake, a piupiu was sent for the sculptor's inspection.

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Pania: Bronze.

It would have been disastrous if he had ma a piupiu look like an Hawaian grass skirt. Careful drawings of a tiki belonging to the Robin family were also sent to ensure accuracy.

As the work on the statue progressed, photographs were taken and sent back to New Zealand, until ultimately the photograph of the finished work was received. When this was approved by the Club the clay model was recast in plaster and then in bronze.

When unveiling the statue on June 10, 1954, the Prime Minister, the Rt. Hon. S. G. Holland, said that he had heard the story of the legend and thought it a delightful tale. The Bishop of Aotearoa, the Rt. Rev. W. N. Panapa, and the Mayor of Napier, Mr E. R. Spriggs, also spoke.

A pleasing and appropriate feature of the unveiling ceremony was the singing of the students of the Hukarere Maori Girls' College. Mei Robin, who is a prefect of the college, was given an ovation when she appeared on the platform to present shoulder sprays to the wives of the official guests. At the conclusion of the ceremony she consented to be photographed with the statue of which she was the original.

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Omar Khayyam Translated

Illustrated by HARRY DANSEY

The poems printed here are just a few samples of a complete translation of Omar Khayyam's Rubaiyat into Maori done by Mr Pei Jones. As a new departure in the use of the Maori language, this translation is of considerable interest. It may be hoped a publisher will be found for the entire collection.

Omar Khayyam was a great Persian mathematician, astronomer and poet of the eleventh and twelfth century A.D. His poems, called Rubaiyat, consist of four lines, of which the first, second and fourth rhyme and the third (but not always) remains rhymless.

Mr Jones has used the famous English translation by Edward Fitzgerald (5th Version).

12.

Here with a little Bread beneath the Bough,
A Flask of Wine, a Book of Verse—and Thou
Beside me singing in the Wilderness—
Oh, Wilderness were Paradise enow!
Ko reira ahau me te Taro iti noa nei i raro i te Peka Rakau,
He oko Waina, he Pukapuka Waiata—me koe tahi, e te tau,
E waiata ana i taku taha i te Raorao—
Ka meinga hoki ra te Raorao hei Mâra inaianei!

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17.

The Worldly Hope men set their Hearts upon
Turns Ashes—or it prospers; and anon,
Like Snow upon the Desert's dusty Face.
Lighting a little hour or two—was gone.
Ko to te Ao Tumanako i whakamau atu ai te Ngakau o te Tangata
Kua meinga hei puehu—a i te tupunga, ina ake nei,
Ano he Hukarere e tau ana ki te Mata puehu o te Raorao,
He haora kotahi e rua ranei i muramura ake ai—a ka tino ngaro atu.

18.

Think in this batter'd Caravanserai,
Whose Portals are alternate Night and Day,
How Sultan after Sultan with his Pomp
Abode his destin'd Hour, and went his way.
Maharatia ano koa a roto i tenei Whare-wharau,
Ko ona nei matapihi he Po he Ao.
Ka pahemo he Ariki ka puta mai ano he Ariki me ona nei Nuinga.
I whakatau iho mo tona Haora i whakaritea ai, ka haere ai i tona ara.

19.

They say the Lion and Lizard keep
The Courts where Jamshyd gloried and drank deep:
And Bahram, that great Hunter—the Wild Ass
Stamps o'er his Head, but cannot break his Sleep.
E ki ana ratou ko te Raiona me te Tuatara kei te tiaki
I nga Marae i whai kororia ai a Tama-hihi i inu ai hoki a makona noa;
Ko Poharama hoki, te Toa-rongonui na te Kaihe mahoao
Takahia iho a runga i tona matenga, engari kia oho ake i tana moe, kore ake.

20.

The Palace that to Heav'n his pillars threw,
And Kings the forehead on his threshold drew—
I saw the solitary Ringdove there,
And “Coo, coo, coo” she cried; and “Coo, coo, coo.”
Ko te whare tiketike e tu nei poupou tonu ki te Rangi,
I haerea atu nei a kitea ana te kanohi Kingi ki tona mahau—
I reira i kite ai ahau i te Manu moke nei,
A, “Kui, kui, kui” tana tangi, a, “Kui, kui, kui”.

23.

And we, that now make merry in the Room
They left, and Summer dresses in new bloom,
Ourselves must we beneath the Couch of Earth
Descend, ourselves to make a Couch—for whom?
A ko tatou, e harakoa nei i roto i te Rûma
I mahue iho ai i a ratou, me o tatou kahu hou o te Raumati
Ko tatou hoki ka taupokina iho ano ki te Moenga i roto i a Papatuanuku
Tatou hoki ka heke, kia whakapaia te Moenga—mo wai ra?

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24.

I sometimes think that never blows so red
The Rose as where some buried Caesar bled;
That every Hyacinth the Garden wears
Dropt in her Lap from some once lovely Head.
I etehi wa mahara ai ahau kaore he Whero hei rite
Ki to te Puawai i tupu ake nei i te wâhi i nehua ai i maringi ai hoki nga toto o tetehi Toa-taua;
Me nga Pua katoa e uhi nei i te Mâra ano nei
I taka iho i nga Turi no runga mai i te Mahunga o tetehi tau-purotu.

25.

And this delightful Herb whose living Green
Fledges the River's Lip on which we lean—
Ah, lean upon it lightly! for who knows
From what once lovely Lip it springs unseen!
A ko tenei Tarutaru oranga ngakau e tupu matomato nei Kakariki tonu
Whakapapa rawa i te Ngutu-awa e okiokitia nei a taua—
Kia ata okioki iho! Ko wai hoki e mohio
Tera pea i tupu ake i nga Ngutu ataahua o te tau-purotu o mua ra, kua ngaro nei.

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More than half the children who are treated in the Maunu Health Camp near Whangarei are Maoris.

There are usually about 24 to 27 children in the camp and each group stays for six weeks. Not only are the children brought back to good condition, but they are also trained in health habits.

Health Camps are run by private and voluntary contributions. The sale of Health stamps provides much of the revenue. The camps can be helped not only by money gifts, but also by sending vegetables, clothing and children's books.

Miss Deane, the nurse in charge, is very pleased about the way the Maori and European children get on together. The Maori children that come here are usually very quiet and the European children very nervous; they have a good influence on each other.

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The kitchen in Mrs Ihaka's home, Mount Albert, Auckland. (photo: clifton firth).

HOMES FOR THE MAORI PEOPLE

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A detail from a beautiful home built privately by Mrs Heather, Taukau. This cupboard design shows an excellent and unusual way of saving space in kitchens. (photo: john ashton).

WHEN the war ended a Maori family with a modern home was an exception. That is no longer so though many houses are still required. Statistics do not tell us just how many homes have been built for Maoris over the last generation, but we know that the government has built 4,259 since 1929, and most of them after the war. This is likely to be by far the biggest proportion and the total number of Maori homes built since 1929 would be between 5,000 and 6,000. To many Maori women, at least one out of every four, this has meant a complete change in daily life and outlook.

Moving into a modern home means that altogether new standards can be set for family health, children's education, and the practising of homecraft in the true sense of the term. These are circumstances in which an organization such as the Maori Women's Welfare League, whose activities are centred on the home, can be expected to flourish.

The flow of new houses began in 1929 with the establishment of the Maori Land Development Schemes. Those who were settled on the land had houses built for them if needed.

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This house was built at Tokomaru Bay by the Department of Maori Affairs for Mr Kareti and Mrs Heapera Collier. (photograph: john ashton).

To help those who had no farms two Acts were passed: the Maori Housing Act of 1935, and the Maori Housing Amendment Act, 1938. In the first the Government made housing finance available to the ordinary run of persons who had no large land holdings but could repay a mortgage out of earnings. The Amendment provided a special fund for those who badly needed housing but could not raise the security and loan repayments the earlier Act required.

At the outset the houses were simple and inexpensive. Built by the field supervisors of the Native Department and by the Public Works Department, they cost between £300 and £600 and provided just the bare essentials. In 1944, a separate building organization was established as part of the Department of Maori Affairs. Building supervisors and oversers were appointed and gangs of workmen recruited. An architect was put at the department's disposal with instructions to gradually make designs equal to the best for pakeha housing.

Maori welfare officers help the people to apply for housing and report on living conditions and personal circumstances. If the build-

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The front entrance of Mrs Heather's home Tuakau. (photograph: john ashton).

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An instance of homes built by the Government ten years ago for the Maori people. Pleasant and comfortable though this home is, it does not quite measure up to the design standards set today. Grounds and garden of this Northland homestead are in fine condition and typical of many Maori homes of this generation. (photo: national publicity studios).

ing site is not one bought by the department, the supervisor inspects it, estimates its value and looks at all those points so easily forgotten by the layman: is the locality close to work, school, post office, etc, is it going ahead? Is there suitable and adequate transport? Is the section subject to flooding, close to a road, level? Will extra height be required for foundations, as this may add considerably to the cost of the house? Is the section served with high pressure water supply, sewer, electricity? If not, how can amenities be had and what will they cost?

Building supervisors help applicants to select a plan, give cost estimates, supervise all stages of construction. On completion a supervisor hands over the keys, gives advice on maintenance and laying out of grounds and section drainage. After the owner has been in the house for 31 days, the supervisor makes a maintenance check of the house and anything that needs attention (for instance a sticking door or window) is put right. Usually the welfare officer also makes a call about this time to help the new house owner to settle in, if any help is necessary. Advice on furnishing, homecraft and general management is often welcome.

What kind of homes are these? On these pages we have given some pictures of them. Applicants can have their houses built to plans of their own drawn up by qualified outside people, but most use the department's plan service. This consists of over ninety designs, published in a book which every applicant may see at any departmental office.

The main problem with which the designer has had to struggle is costs. Most Maori families are large and need considerable floor space. The loan maximum is £2,000. Average basic building cost under private contract lies somewhere between 48/- and 55/- a square foot in the North Island, except for the Wellington area where the cost is higher.

The plans of the Department of Maori Affairs should be viewed mainly as attempts to solve the problem of cost. There are two ways: first, to cut building cost a square foot and second, to utilize the available floor space as well as possible and eliminate wastage. Whatever way is used, the highest standard of plan and specifications has to be maintained.

The department's success in this respect can be gauged from the accompanying pictures and the prices given for final costs. Buying in bulk, storing supplies and always watching expenses are methods by which costs can be cut. Reasonable three-bedroom homes are being built by

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the department in many parts of the North Island at costs ranging from £2,050 to £2,300.

Let us have a look at a typical three-bedroom house, plan number 3/1. Its area is 855 square feet, or just a little under the average size of the homes the department builds. Its general appearance is no different from a European house. It is big enough to house a family with four children comfortably. (See page 31, top.)

How is the floor space made up? Only 50 square feet is given to passages. The rest is all for living and sleeping. Bedroom space is just enough from a health viewpoint. The living room of 180 square feet is, however, well above the legal minimum and of comfortable size. The kitchen is not big enough to eat in, but it is the right size for the mother of a biggish family to work in.

Like many other departmental plans, this one is easy to add to, if the need arises, by extending the present sleeping porch. Incidentally, the plan service offers sleeping porches in most of its designs. They are particularly suited to Maori homes. One reason is, of course, they are handy for putting up guests. Secondly, air and light are of special importance because of the danger of T.B. The window space in a sleeping porch is larger than in an ordinary bedroom.

The Maori housing organization can, under its statutes, help any descendant of a Maori, whatever the proportion of Maori blood. In actual fact, it could never hope to build houses for the whole of this group. There are about 130,000 Maoris and the number rises by 3,000 every year. In addition many who are counted as Europeans by the census are Maoris under the Maori Housing Act. With an output of just over 500 houses last year, the building organization can fill only part of their need.

A recent policy statement from the Secretary of Maori Affairs shows how the department allocates its effort. It deals with eligible applicants in one of four ways:

1.

A house may be constructed for them by the building organization.

2.

They may be granted a loan for a house to be built by a private contractor.

3.

They may be referred to another lending agency such as the State Advances Corporation.

4.

If a deserving applicant is living in bad conditions but the paying of normal instalments is proved to be a hardship, he may be considered for a loan out of the special housing fund and

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The living room in the house of Mr C. Lindsay, Grey Lynn, Auckland. (photo: clifton firth).

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– 31 –

be asked to pay instalments suited to his circumstances.

The principle is that everyone should make the strongest efforts to help himself and the department's limited resources be reserved for those unable to do so. Those able to get loans from other lending agencies, should do so. Those who cannot offer enough security to satisfy other lending agencies, but who still have the resources and ability to engage private contractors, should engage them and get their finance from the Department of Maori Affairs. This leaves the department free to provide those homes which, were it not for its own building organization, would never be built.

With building costs as they are, a great effort has to be made by the people to save money for a home. Saving, either through the Post Office Savings Bank or by paying interest bearing deposits into the Department of Maori Affairs, should start early in life. Perhaps school savings accounts would be a useful beginning. Parents who build up their children's savings accounts are helping them with the house they will need later and at the same time are teaching them a useful habit. This might be something for Maori Women's Welfare Leagues to think about. There is no doubt that the social future of the Maori—and the standard of his housing—is largely bound up with his capacity to save.

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BELOW: A home built recently by the Department of Maori Affairs for a client in Hamilton. Its number in the plan service is 3/1, area 855 square feet and the cost of the house at present would vary from £2,100 to £2,300. LEFT: Floor plan.

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On the previous page and below are some homes built by the Department of Maori Affairs in and around Auckland; the floor plans (showing the plan numbers and the areas) are printed next to the photograph of each house Today's cost of all these homes would vary from £2,100 to £2,300.

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It takes two to weave tukutuku. At the Judea hall, the woman on the left is seen in front of a tukutuku panel, laying the flax over it according to the design. She passes the ends through the panel to the woman shown on the right who performs the no less skilled work of tying the ends down. (photo john ashton).

RANGINUI ACADEMY
FOR ARTS AND CRAFTS

Some time ago, Te Ao Hou visited the people of Judea, a settlement near Tauranga. We found that here wood carving and tukutuku work were practised with a zeal and perseverance that would have delighted bygone generations. Faced with such a hive of industry and enthusiasm. Te Ao Hou discarded its notebook and said to the people: ‘Please tell your own story. You can do it better than we.’ A little while later, the people of Judea sent in the following story:

The shrill cry of seagulls wheeling in everwidening circles around Mount Maunganui holds a special significance for us. We watch the aged Mount towering majestically above the chaos of holiday-makers and the nearby seaport—a lonely but jealous guardian.

We remember how long ago Atamatea discovered this haven, with its tall stately bush, its shellfish, birds and untouched scenery. ‘Here we shall live,’ said the great chief, ‘to worship our atua in peace and safety.’ To preserve the home of his ancestors, he named the landing place after the great Tauranga, and the hill Maunganui too was named after an ancestor.

Today this fine picture is transformed by the ‘civilization’ of the pakeha; each day ships come and go at the newly constructed wharf.

Two miles west of Tauranga is Judea, a small Maori community inhabiting an area of about forty acres, insufficient to support its inhabitants. The misfortune of the people, Ngati

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Ranginui, arose from the part they took in the battle of Gate Pa (1864) and the confiscation of their land by the Crown. In spite of setbacks, social progress remained the aim of the elders of the Pa, so they made plans to build a meeting house.

After several meetings the men decided to take the timber for the house from certain land owned by them. Then war was declared. The plan was dropped; some of the men enlisted for service abroad, while others formed a Home Guard platoon. All money raising from then on was for the Patriotic Fund. At long last, when peace returned, the people decided to concentrate first on the building of communal baths (described in an earlier issue of Te Ao Hou and since successfully operated), and also a chapel.

The year 1949 opened a new era for the people of the Pa. It was then that Adult Education, through Dr Maharaia Winiata, first brought us closer to European culture. Dr. Winiata, who besides holding a doctorate in Philosophy, has a degree in Theology, a Diploma of Education and some stages of Law to his credit, worked with us for two years and rekindled and transformed the idea of building the long-planned meeting house.

At first he came, together with his Director, Mr Morrison, and discussed the origin of the Maori. He contended that all Polynesians em barked from a common point thought to be in Siberia or Tibet. If this was so, the Maori must at one time have passed through or near India. This theory led to a lot of discussion, with Koroua, our elder, strongly opposing him with arguments based on the Kon Tiki expedition.

From these discussions Dr Winiata moved on to genealogies. Cyclostyled pamphlets were is sued to each member of the class and our elder Te Hare Piahana lectured us in great detail. It was at this point that the idea of a carving school arose. We saw that we wanted a carved house where our ancestors could be remembered. We also saw that, having no money pay carvers, we would have to do the work ourselves.

The answer came to us through Adult Education. Mr Morrison, the Director of the Auckland Regional Council, knew a most worthy gentleman, Mr Henry Toka, of the Ngati Whatua (Northland) now living in Auckland and a great expert in this form of Maori art. Some of his most noted works may be found in Wanganui, Auckland and Northland. Adult Education arranged for Mr Toka to come to Judea regularly and guide the people in the carving of their meeting house. Perhaps providence inspired Mr Motrison in selecting Mr Toka for we have surely gained much benefit from his teaching.

We formed a committee to administer the building of the house; its chairman was Mr Robert Nepia and the secretary Mr Hoani Kohu. The carving and tukutuku work was entrusted to thirty-five people—all financial supporters too—who formed the ‘Ranginui Academy of Maori Arts and Crafts’. Mr Toka directs them, but in his absence Messrs Danny Greening and Anaru Kohu deputize, both of whom gained their carving experience during

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Dan Greening, one of the skilled carvers of the group, is looking at a completed panel.
Behind him are the plans for the new meeting house
. (photo: john ashton).

the erection of the Nuhaka War Memorial Meeting House.

Twenty students were assigned to the woodcarving. Timber was bought in Taumarunui, through the help of Mr Pei Jones.

We learnt the proper use of the different chisels, and the right ones for the various cuts. We learnt to handle the adze, quite an ordeal at first, but with a casual reminder on stance, swing and balance, this art was also mastered. The need for razor-sharp tools became obvious to us.

Mr Toka gave lessons on design drawing and pointed out that one has to be an accomplished artist to draw the various curvilinear patterns. He taught the moulding or ‘opening up’ of the slab of totara which in time would form a figure. He explained the human anatomy depicted on the hewn log, dividing the figure into head, body and leg sections. We also learnt much about the symbolism of carving: for instance we were told that a figure which had a koukou (a knob located on the forehead of the figure) always referred to a male.

Finally, surface decoration and body ornamentation had to be learnt. The most common

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A student carving. (photo: john ashton).

design is the pataki or notched ridge running parallel to one or more plain ridges. We were shown various types of pataki, such as the tara-tara-o-kai, waharua, whakarare and others. The school uses the pataki with the four-sided notch and calls it tuarakuri.1

Every Monday, Wednesday and Friday evening the school comes together from 7.30 to 10.30. The soft tapping of mallet on wood resounds through the silent darkness. A woman laughs; a baritone breaks into a crescendo. The instructor's voice is just audible. On one side of the hall the men are carving, on the other the women carry on with the tukutuku work. They too are guided by the Adult Education organization, for with Mr Toka on his visits to Judea comes his wife, who is an acknowledged expert in these crafts.

The new meeting house will be sixty feet long and thirty wide. It will be called Ko Atamatea Pokai Whenua after Atamatea, navigator of the Takitimu canoe and a great explorer and adventurer. Mr Vernon Brown, the noted Auckland architect, has helped us without charge by designing the house, which incorporates many modern features such as coupe louvre windows and corrugated fibrolite roofing. Mr Brown also revived an ancient Maori structural idea that had been forgotten of late, although our ancestors knew it.

In the old meeting houses, the ridgepole was supported chiefly by powerful centre posts sunk deep into the ground. In Pakeha days timber flooring was introduced, the centre posts were put on top of the floor, and in this way the task of supporting the ridgepole was chiefly left to the rafters. In the bigger houses rafters had to be supported by ungainly steel girders.

In Mr Vernon Brown's design stout centre posts go through the floor deep into the ground. Their strength is enough to hold up the ridgepole. As an added precaution, the lower end of the rafters will be tied to the ground outside the house. Inside there will be no tie-beams, no steel girders. The structure will be simple and stark like that of the pre-pakeha meeting houses.

A women's committee was organized to raise funds for the building. They tried every conceivable idea — jumble sales, contributions, dances, tennis tournaments and recently a bring-and-buy raised £150. The money collected will be eligible for a £ for £ government subsidy. A substantial sum is already available.

A new era is dawning for the people of Judea pa. They are trying by their great undertaking to restore their lost prestige. Their effort reflects the spirit of love, unity and co-operation and a determination to succeed. This whare nui will stand as a symbol of progress and great achievement, a memorial to the immortals of the seven canoes, and an appropriate meeting place for future generations.

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Robert Nepia. (photo: john ashton).

* Tuarakuri (lit. ‘dog's back’) is a Northland term given because of the likeness of the notching to the manner in which the hairs stand up straight on the back of a native dog when it is angry. (Phillipps, Maori Carving for Beginners).

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Robert Nepia. (photo: john ashton).

Whakarewarewa Maori Children's visit to Hutt and Wellington

When 42 Maori youngsters from Whakarewarewa Maori school visited Lower Hutt recently, local residents competed keenly to billet them. On the first day it was known that billets were wanted offers came from 60 homes.

The Maori children, whose ages ranged from 10 to 13, were the guests of the Eastern Hutt School which, though a public school, has a Maori headmaster, Mr William Sparks, and a Maori first assistant master, Mr E. H. Nepia, who comes from Nuhaka.

Mr Sparks, who was born at Waikawa, a small Maori settlement near Picton, has spent most of his teaching career at Maori schools. He left the Maori Schools Branch in 1950 when he was appointed headmaster at Eastern Hutt, a school with some 550 children on the roll.

The purpose of the Maori children's stay with the Eastern Hutt children was to make an educational tour of Wellington and the Hutt Valley. Mr F. H. Leonard, a master at the Whakarewarewa school and Mrs D. T. Alexander, wife of the headmaster, accompanied the youngsters on the trip.

The visit was a sequel to another which a group from Whakarewarewa made to Auckland last year with Mr Alexander. That trip was such a success that he decided to send a group to the Wellington district.

The billets question was a big one, but when Mr Sparks asked his pupils to put it to their parents the matter was solved. Many offers rolled in after the initial 60 were received.

Some of the visiting children felt a little strange at their billets at first but their hosts made such cordial efforts to give them a good time and make them at home that the youngsters were soon revelling in the excitement. And there was plenty to be excited about. The itinerary included visits to the museum, zoo,

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fire station, aerodrome and a Vienna Boys' Choir matinee. There were informal outings too, arranged by the hosts themselves.

The Hutt Valley parents gave the Maori children high praise for their behaviour. There were no exceptions. The children won their respect.

In one case a little Maori girl helped so much about the house that the girls of the house, who did not usually help much, followed her example.

Throughout the visit the two groups of children mingled and romped together, enjoying each other's company and friendship. What they had they shared; sweets, soft drinks, food. Binding friendships were formed.

So successful was the visit that arrangements were quickly made for a group of Eastern Hutt School children to visit the Rotorua-Bay of Plenty area, on an educational tour, as guests of the Whakarewarewa Maori School. On the itinerary were hydro-electric and forestry projects, as well as sight seeing trips round Rotorua.

The exchange of visits has not been limited to the youngsters. Since the Maori children's trip some of the Lower Hutt parents have visited the Rotorua parents, and more intend doing so.

Though the purpose of the visits was to give the children educational tours, they have done more than that. For out of the contact, understanding and goodwill have been developed—not only between children of the two races, but between parents as well.

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Tommy Morrison, Murray Cooke and Jennifer Cooke at the home of Mr and Mrs John R. Cooke, Lower Hutt. (photo: john ashton.)

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Wrap for baby, East Coast. (photo: charles hale.)

maori baby's toilet

As with us the toilet of the infant babe was a vital matter to the old time Maori mother. A special hut termed ‘whare kohanga’ (or nest house) was usually erected for the mother to occupy before and during the birth of the child. When the child at last entered the world of light and life, it was in part smeared with oil from the titoki tree, if that was available. Its little body was then usually enveloped in a bandage made from the beaten soft fibres of the lacebark tree, a New Zealand tapa cloth. Each day it was washed, and dried with the selected soft tow of phormium fibre (muka).

The next requirements of the tiny baby were diapers and some sort of a wrap to keep it warm at night. These items were considered essential, and it is a little curious that all books on Maori life studiously avoid them. Aristocrat or plebeian, high or low they are the necessary heritage of all. Before the birth of the infant, masses of the finest tow (muka) of the flax plant were prepared and separated into bundles to serve as diapers. Sometimes quantities of moss were preferred. Mr J. M. McEwen supplies us with the name ‘kukukuku’ for this soft tow, kuku being the mussel shell used in the preparation of flax fibre. However, the name for the actual diaper, collected from districts as widely spaced as Southland and Te Kuiti, is ‘kope’. This name was also supplied by Mr Rangi Royal, Maori Affairs, Wellington, ‘Rope’ appears to be the Ngapuhi term.

Concerning the wrap which held the kope in place, information is hazy; though it seems that lacebark was sometimes used. Recently Mrs Hetit and Mrs Tumohe told us that at Te Kuiti the wrap is taka or rapaki. In the North Island most of my informants used the word ‘whariki’. However, the most authoritative account which we have comes from Bluff. From here Mr E. P. Cameron (one of Herries Beattie's informants) writes:

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“The cloak was called ‘pokeka’. This cloak took a lot of making. The outside part was of very fine flax, and the inside part made of very fine whitau (fibre) with feathers (aweawe) taken from the inside of the albatross wing. (The wrap was apparently double, for Mr Cameron goes on to say): This was sewn to the other part, made of the very fine flax I have mentioned before.”

A sling of lacebark or hohere, plaited to form a soft band, was formerly used by the mother in some localities to hold the baby in position on her back. This sling went out of fashion well back in the last century, and none can be seen in our Museums today.

Pokeka is a well known southern generic term for fine cloaks. Tiny children appear to have become used to a state of nudity at a very early stage unless the weather was very cold, as it often was in Southland.

About the year 1875, an English child named Florence Rogers was born at Ohanga, on the East Coast of the North Island. Her parents immediately engaged the services of a local full-blooded Maori woman, a gentle person named Heterina. She was greatly honoured to have charge of the child, and to show her esteem for the infant, straightway decided that a wrap must be made for it. This was to be no ordinary garment, but a wrap which a high-born infant of Maoridom well might envy. The weaving must have its appropriate ‘poka’, or shorter weft rows, to make the wrap fit more snugly around the small body. Warmth was not essential for the child had other tiny garments; so the open work technique of the ornamental basket, ‘kete whakawaitara’, was used in the weaving. Lastly, around all was a fringe of European wool.

The wrap was used on all important occasions during the first year of the baby's life, then carefully stored away, until recently Florence Rogers, now no longer young, presented the garment to the Dominion Museum.

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Details of wrap for baby, East Coast. (photo: charles hale)

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Above: Mrs Victoria Butt, wife of the proprietor of Taneatua Hotel, is arranging flowers in the hotel foyer. Once active in the Maori Health League, she understands—and so does her husband—the responsibilities of hotelkeeping in a Maori district.

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Left: The concert party of the Torere Youth Club is putting on a variety act. The club makes tours throughout the East Coast and Bay of Plenty. Its concert party includes vocalists. guitarists, even a hula-dancer.

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Below: Miss Tirahoia Rangiwhakarea Ranginui, aged 12 years, sent Te Ao Hou this photo of herself studying for a typing examination.

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ABOUT ADOPTIONS
NEW LEGISLATION PROPOSED

Teta tetahi kaupapa ture whaitikanga nui, ka pa tahi ki te Pakeha me te Maori, he mea hora ki te aroaro o te kahui ariki o te whare Paremata e noho nei, engari kihai i whakaotia. Ko te Pire tenei mote tamaiti whangai, a, ko te whakaaro i Pera me te ahuatanga mo te Pire mo nga Mea Maori, kia whaiwahi ai te hunga e rapu ana i enei mea, ki te hurihuri ki te whakapuaki ranei i o ratou whakaaro mo aua mea i mua o te whakaotinga hei ture.

E pa ana te Pire nei ki te ahuatanga mo nga tamariki-whangai katoa o Niu Tireni.

E whakarerek; ana hoki i etahi wahanga nunui tonu o te ture, a, ka pa, a ka whaitikanga ki te iwi Maori.

Tuatahi, e ki ana te Pire, ko te tamaiti, ahakoa Maori Pakeha ranei, ka ahei hei tamaiti-whangai ma te tangata, ahakoa Maori, ahakoa kore-Maori ranei. Inaianei hoki, kaore te Maori e whakaetia ki te tamaiti-whangai mehemea chara te tamaiti i te Maori i te uri ranei o te Maori. Ma te Pire nei ka ahei te Maori, ina pirangi ki te whangai tamaiti a te Pakeha, a etahi atu iwi ranei, pera me nga iwi o nga moutere penei me te Rarotonga.

Mehemea nga kai-tono, tetahi ranei o aua kai-tono he Maori, ka riro ma te Kooti Whenua Maori e whakahaere te tono mo te tamaitiwhangai. I etahi katoa atu o nga keehi a mau nei te ture inaianei ka tukuna te tono ki te Kooti a te Kai-whakawa Tuturu.

Ko te hunga anake kaore ano kia eke nga tau ki te rua tekau ma tahi nga mea ka whakaetia hei tamariki-whangai (inaianei he tekau ma rima tau ki te Kooti Whenua Maori). Ko nga kai-tono mo tetahi ota, ko tetahi ranei o raua, me matua nuku atu i te rua tekau ma rima nga tau, a, me rua tekau ma tahi tau ranei te pakeketanga atu i te tamaiti-whangai, na me rua tekau ma tahi tau ranei engari me

(Kei te wharangi 43 te toonga atu)

Important draft legislation affecting both Maoris and Pakehas was introduced to Parliament during yast year's session, but not proceeded with. This was the Adoption Bill, introduced to give anyone interested an opportunity to consider and comment on the proposals before enactment is sought.

The Bill applies to all adoptions of children in New Zealand. It proposes some important changes in the law, which will affect and be of interest to Maoris.

First, the Bill provides that any child, whether a Maori or not, can be adopted by any person, whether a Maori or not. At present a Maori cannot adopt any child other than Maori or descendant of a Maori. This will enable Maoris who so desire to adopt Europeans or children of other races, in particular Polynesian races such as Rarotongans.

Where the applicants or one of the applicants is a Maori, an application for an adoption order is to be heard by the Maori Land Court. In all other cases, as at present, the application will be heard in the Magistrate's Court.

Only persons under twenty-one may be adopted. (At present the limit in the Maori Land Court is fifteen years). The applicants for an order, or one of them, must be over twenty-five years old, and twenty-one years older than the child: or be over twenty-one and be a relative of the child: or be the father or mother of the child. An adoption order will be made in favour of two people only if they are married to each other. A male cannot by himself adopt a female child unless the court is satisfied that he is her father, or that there are exceptional circumstances.

On the lodging of an application for adoption, a report has to be made to the Court by the Child Welfare Officer (in the case of

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the Maori Land Court by a Maori Welfare Officer.)

The application is not to be heard in open court as has been the case in the Maori Land Court, but in private.

Normally the court will first make an interim order which will be made final after a specified period; but it may dispense with an interim order if special circumstances warrant.

The Bill makes it unlawful for any person to give or receive any reward in consideration of an adoption or the arranging of an adoption.

Apart from these points, the requirements are substantially the same as at present. The effect of an adoption order is still to put the child for practically all purposes (including intestate succession) in the same position as if it were the child legally born in wedlock of the adopting parents, and had no connection with the natural parents. A European does not, however, by being adopted by Maoris, become a Maori, since an order does not affect race, nationality or citizenship.

Copies of the Adoption Bill have been circulated to District Welfare Officers and are held in District Offices of the Department of Maori Affairs. They may be purchased from the Government Printing Office, Wellington.

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Maori Land Court minute books are being microfilmed at the National Publicity Studios by staff photographer Tom Ransfield, a member of the Raukawn tribe. Mr Ransfield is working at present with the Soil Conservation Council as a photographer. (n.p.s. photograph)

HISTORY
FROM COURT RECORDS

The greatest source of knowledge on Maori history, and the original of all existing Maori land titles, are the minute books of the Maori Land Courts. The evidence they record contains many orations of chiefs long dead describing old wars, and authentic stories about every tribe in New Zealand.

If these books, which are kept in the offices of the Department of Maori Affairs, were to be lost through fire or other disaster, students and historians of the Maori people would suffer an irreparable loss, and the whole Maori administration would be gravely affected.

Although Maori Land Court Judges have long been worried about this danger it is only two years ago that the present Chief Judge, Mr D. B. Morrison, asked for a microfilm record of all the Court minute books, particularly the early ones, to make sure of their preservation.

In many other countries records have been microfilmed to guard against loss and fire, also to make them more readily available for study. A 35 m.m. camera is used, specially designed for a sharp focus, and a good operator under good conditions can film 12,000 sheets a day.

In New Zealand, micofilming has been little practised except for extra copies of special documents. In using film to prevent the loss of valuable records, the Maori Land Court is therefore doing pioneering work in this country. Considering how many important documents have already been lost through calamities in New Zealand's short history, the money now spent on the minute books can hardly be called a luxury. Very little space is needed to store microfilm records. One massive tome of court minutes is reduced to one cubic inch of film.

The job of putting the many hundreds of minute books through the machine will take a number of years, but so far all minutes from the establishment of the Maori Land Court up to 1890 have been filmed. There are 367 of these. Negatives have been placed in fireproof storage, and positive prints have also been made, and lodged in the Turnbull Library in Wellington where students can look at them. This will be a great help, as access to the minute books was difficult in the past.

The government is now planning the next stage, the filming of about 400 minute books dating from 1890 to 1900. The work is being done by the National Publicity Studios.

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1954 Maori
Legislation

Legislation affecting Maoris and Maori land during the 1954 session of Parliament comprised two Acts: the Maori Vested Lands Administration Act, and the annual Maori Purposes Act.

The Maori Vested Lands Administration Act provides for the continued administration by the Maori Trustee of 161,000 acres of Maori land known as the ‘vested lands,’ and settles various questions concerning the rights of the lessees and the owners. The lands are those which early in the century were vested in the Maori Land Boards for lease to Europeans for a limited period. With these leases, 390 in number, either already expired or expiring by the end of 1957, it became necessary to settle points concerning the future of the lands by legislation, following the Royal Commission of 1951.

Maori Purposes Act

This ‘washing up’ Act, as is usual each year, deals with a number of particular matters.

A slight change is made in the law about the accounts in connection with the Department's Maori Housing operations, which have to be presented to Parliament each year. This is to bring into line all the various statements of accounts which have to be laid before Parliament.

Another section records the settlement of a long standing claim against the Crown by the Ngati Whakaue people of Rotorua, in connection with the Pukeroa Oruawhata Block upon which the town of Rotorua now stands. This was effected by the payment of compensation of £16,500, the amount recommended by a Royal Commission in 1948.

A special provision deals with the administration of Ratana Settlement lands. The special Trust Board set up to control this settlement has had difficulty in carrying out its wide functions. One of the main problems is housing, and this has been impossible to overcome owing to land title difficulties. The Maori Purposes Act provides for the replacement of the Trust Board by trustees to be appointed by the Court to hold the land (apart from sites of public buildings, etc., which will be controlled by other trustees) on trust, to subdivide it into house and business sites, and sell or lease these sites to the people. This will open the way for the lending of money for housebuilding under the Maori Housing Act.

Another section gives to the Court of Appeal and the Maori Appellate Court certain powers needed to complete proceedings in the Court of Appeal about the ownership of the bed of the Wanganui River.

One other matter dealt with is the settlement of the rights of people interested in purchase money paid on the purchase by the Crown, of Stewart Island (Rakiura) in 1864. By arrangement at the time, some of the purchase money was held by the Government, and interest paid on it to the sellers and their successors. The number of people entitled to this interest has grown through succession, and they have agreed to accept a lump sum payment in full discharge of their interests. The Maori Purposes Bill authorises this method of settlement.

 

ADOPTIONS (Nga Tamariki-whangai)
continued from page 41

whanaunga toto ki taua tamaiti, a tera ranei he papa he whaea ranei ki taua tamaiti. Ko te ota mo te tamaiti-whangai ka whakaetia ki te tokorua, engari ki te tokorua anake kua honoa he tane he wahine. E kore te tangata kau e ahei ki te tono tamaiti-whangai wahine mana, kia tau ra ano te whakaaro o te Kooti ko ia te papa o taua kotiro, a tera atu ranei etahi take tika tonu hei whakawatea i tenei arai, ara, he keehi rongonui.

Kei te tukunga o te tono mo te tamaitiwhangai ka hanga he ripoata ma te Kooti e te Apiha Kai-tiaki Tamariki (engari mo nga keehi ki te Kooti Whenua Maori, e te Apiha Maori Toko i te Ora).

Kaore e whakahaerea te tono i mua o te aroaro o te Kooti, i runga i te ahuatanga o te ture o te Kooti Whenua Maori o mua, engari ko whakahaerea paraewetitia.

Ko tona tikanga, hanga ai e te Kooti he ota tu-a-waenga i te tuatahi, na kei te paunga o te wa e tika ana, katahi ka whakaotia, engari kei te whai mana tonu te Kooti ki te waihanga ota whakamutunga, ahakoa kore ota tu-a-waenga, mehemea e kite ana te Kooti he mea pai tenei, a he take whaitikanga nui.

Na te Pire nei i whakatau te kati a te ture mo te hoatu mo te tango ranei i tetahi whaka aro mo te whakotinga mo te whakaritenga ranei i tetahi ota mo te tamaiti-whangai.

Aut atu i enei paina, kei te taurite tonu te noho o te nuinga o nga tikanga i naia nei, a, ko te mana o te ota mo te tamaiti-whangai he whakatau i te tamaiti ano nei na he tamaiti tuturu ake na nga matua whangai, a, kahore he paanga ki ona ake tino matua, ahakoa whiwhi wira, kore wira ranei.

Engari koa ko te Pakeha, kahore e kiia he Maori mehemea he tamaiti-whangai na te Maori, no te mea, kahore te ota e mana ki te whakarereke i te iwi o te tamaiti, i tona turangawaewae ranei i roto i te iwi.

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Farmers Organize in Tikitiki

Te Ao Hou has recently acquired a new competitor on the East Coast. The Waiapu Young Farmers Club, formed in September last, has started a cyclostyled publication, the ‘Waiapu Y.F.C. Recorder’, which so far has appeared three times. Behind the ‘Recorder’ is the story of a vigorous new offshoot to the Young Farmers' Club movement formed at the suggestion of Mr Pine Taiapa, the well-known carver who has of late years withdrawn to his sheep farm.

The club is the second all-Maori Y.F.C. in New Zealand, the first being the Whirinaki Club described in an earlier issue of Te Ao Hou. There were nineteen foundation members, and the number has increased with the inclusion of boys from the Tikitiki Maori District High School. The Chairman, Mr K. Dewes, is a master at the school. Successful farmers of the locality act as advisers to the club.

In its second issue, the ‘Recorder’ tells the story of the club's birth. Its foundation was first discussed at a field day in the woolshed of Tikitiki station. Visitors at the field day were Mr J. Flowers, chief supervisor of the Department of Maori Affairs, and Mr Swarbrick, a member of the Y.F.C. at Otoko. Both stressed the value of Young Farmers Clubs, Mr Swarbrick explaining in detail how one goes about forming a branch and the great benefit he and his fellow members at Otoko had derived from the club.

On September 8, 1954, Mr H. Conway, horticulturist of the Department of Maori Affairs, brought 1,000 pine seedlings, and a quantity of seed and took the opportunity to give a lecture on the value of shelter-belts on the East Coast, where erosion is a great worry at present. He demonstrated the laying of a nursery, preparation of a seedbed and the treatment of seeds prior to sowing. The high school students were on the scene with notebooks.

Four days later the people gathered on the marae at Tikitiki to consider the formation of a branch. The meeting opened with a short service by Mr Matauru Wanoa, during which he welcomed Mr Chamberlain, of the Department of Agriculture, Gisborne, to the marae and touched on the people's need for leadership and guidance in farming.

Mr Chamberlain spoke of the aims and aspirations of the Y.F.C. movement and explained its activities, which include not only lectures and field days, but also social life, sports and competitions in shooting, stock judging, shearing and debating. The chairman of the evening, Mr Pine Taiapa, put the motion to form a Y.F.C. branch for Waiapu and it was carried by acclamation.

The branch stepped off on a promising note. In the first month the club had a barn dance, addresses by two interesting visiting speakers, and a full and varied field day.

‘The Recorder’, the branch's magazine, has performed a great service in giving important information on farming to its members, covering many points about shearing and woolclassing, vegetable growing, and tanation assessments.

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Maori Personalities in Sport

* THE KENNYS OF JOHNSONVILLE *

Although many Maori families have distinguished themselves in sport, I would most certainly hand the palm to the Kennys of Johnsonville. Not only have they achieved success in a diversity of sports, but also they have achieved it in an atmosphere not encountered by many Maoris. The Kennys have made their mark in the city, where competition must necessarily be more intense than in the rural areas because of greater numbers, a more scientific approach, and a higher degree of specialisation.

Although they have been prominent in several sports, the Kennys are best known as Rugby footballers. Their Rugby tradition began with Aylmer, but in succession as they left school his younger brothers joined him in the Johnsonville senior XV. They were Mervyn, Mick and Brian, and in those days Johnsonville was a force to be reckoned with.

Aylmer, who played senior football from 1928 to 1949 and represented Wellington from 1930 to 1945, has a niche all his own in Wellington Rugby. He is still regarded as one of the hardest yet shrewdest forwards the province has had, and I well remember the ruthlessness of his rucking when in one of my first senior games I foolishly stayed on the ball a little longer than the rules provided for, yes, Aylmer Kenny was tough, yet in no game have I ever seen him do anything dirty. He believed football to be a man's game. He neither gave nor sought quarter. He knew and exploited many tricks which may have stretched the laws somewhat, but he was so adept that few referees could ever catch him out. There may be people who deprecate such tactics, but Aylmer and many other sportsmen—including myself—consider that one should play to the limit of what one can get away with. Perhaps this, today, would be called gamesmanship. In Aylmer's day it was simply the way Rugby was played.

Aylmer Kenny was a Maori All Black in 1938 on the tour of Fiji. He is one of the very few Maoris ever to have the distinction of leading a Wellington representative team. He was Wellington captain in 1940. Aylmer was also a prominent member of the Centurians, and it was in these sides that I first played with him. During the war he held a commission in the Maori Battalion and played for the side which won the Freyberg Cup.

The next brother, Mervyn, was a most versatile footballer and, like Aylmer, had a very long playing career.

Mervyn began his career as a fullback—and a fine one he was too. That he did not reach the same heights as Aylmer was no real reflection on his ability. He played during an era of exceptionally good fullbacks—men like Bunk Pollock, Herb Lilburne and Ron Masters, Also, because of his nature, he may not have applied himself with the same zeal that Aylmer did. Nevertheless Mervyn was a very sound fullback and, when young Mick joined the team, he moved up into the line and played well as a three-quarter.

For a time Mervyn played league, but was later re-instated. Wellington has had few better goalkickers than Mervyn Kenny. He is a big man and kicks with tremendous length and considerable accuracy. His son, who is carrying on the Kenny tradition, seems to have developed the same capacity for goalkicking.

The third Kenny, Mick, needs little introduction—especially to those Maoris who served in the Middle East and Italy. Mick was a fullback, and what a good one too.

Like his brothers, Mick began his career with the Johnsonville Club, and at the age of 19 he had the distinction of being named “one of the five most promising players of the year” by the New Zealand Rugby Almanac. Mick was one of the bigger fullbacks, but he was as agile as men half his size. He was the epitome of coolness, he was a prodigious kicker with either foot, and he specialised in the bonecrushing tackle. He is a fine modest and extremely popular sportsman, and those of us who played with him or saw him play overseas —for the 22nd Battalion and the 2nd N.Z.E.F.—are the only ones who realise just how his very serious war wounds affected him. Mick was wounded in Italy—so seriously that it seemed a miracle he survived. But not only did he survive where 999 men out of 1000 would have died, he also returned to football; and although the 1946–47 Kenny was not a shadow of the splendid player of 1942–43, he was still good enough to represent Wellington and the New Zealand Maoris.

Just let me give you an idea of how good Mick Kenny was before he was wounded.

You have all heard of Bob Scott, no doubt.

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and perhaps even Herbie Cook, the other ‘Kiwi’ fullback—the man who on the ‘Kiwi’ tour was said to be better than Scott. Well, Mick Kenny was the clear superior of both these players before the Kiwis were chosen. He was the byword of the New Zealand soldier. You will find many knowledgeable footballers who would insist unhesitatingly that Mick Kenny (of 1942–43) was the greatest fullback we have ever produced—Scott and Nepia included. I played with him in Battalion matches in 1943 and 1944 and I can say that without doubt I have never played in front of a fullback who inspired greater confidence.

The baby of the family—and incidentally the biggest of the brothers—Brian, played no representative football. This does not mean he was no good. He had a fairly short career owing to a persistent leg injury which caused his retirement just when he should have been qualifying for higher honours.

Aylmer, Mervyn and Mick are all better than average cricketers in the summer, with Aylmer possibly the best. He has represented the Hutt Valley on occasions, and although now well into his forties he is still a very handy club player.

The record of these four Kennys is in itself a handsome one, but the family record by no means ends with them. There is a new generation—the children of Mervyn, and I forecast that in these three youngsters the future will reveal even greater talent than we have seen from the older generation.

Mervyn junior, at present 18 years of age, has already drawn attention to his ability as a footballer. A product of Wellington Technical College, he was the mainstay of a very smart backline, and also a most successful goalkicker. Mervyn, like the older generation, is a big lad. He moves with really deceptive speed, and although playing in the 18-year-old group (4th Grade) he was selected for the Wellington Maoris who overwhelmed the Wairarapa Maoris by 39–3. Mervyn's personal tally in this match was 15 points—not a bad debut to first-class football. Mervyn is also a very good indoor basketballer. The Wellington ‘Tech,’ is no doubt an outstanding nursery for indoor basketball, and both the boys' and girls' teams have a liberal allocation of Maoris.

Janie Kenny, also still at Technical College, is this season a member of the Wellington Hockey representative team. She is the star of the Technical College indoor basketball team which plays in the Senior A competition, and anyone who has seen a national championship will know the strength of Wellington's indoor basketball. Technical College Old Girls provide the first line-up in the Wellington ‘reps.’

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NEWS IN BRIEF

We hear from Mr Roy Moke of a recent successful field day at Maketu Pa, Kawhia. It was organized by the Kawhia Tribal Committee and combined sports with an effort to revive interest in Maori arts and crafts. Haka items presented by the newly-formed Manurere club and the Okapu group, in competition, were a pleasant surprise to the unexpectedly large gathering. All approved the prize (a cup donated by the Manurere club) going to the veteran Okapu group, although the Manurere double long poi dance brought a big round of applause. Trophies for sports, and arts and crafts were presented at a dance at Maketu Pa in the evening by the president of the tribal committee, Mr John Paki.

* * *

Money is being actively collected for the new Maori hostel in Tauranga. A committee, set up last year by all the tribes concerned with the help of the Tauranga Rotary Club, has organized a three months' appeal, and a substantial part of the £4,000 objective has been collected.

The late Te Rangihiroa's numerous medals, awards and trophies were deposited in Te Aute College last December. They can now be seen in a glass cabinet near the main entrance. This Memorial to the late Sir Peter was dedicated by the Bishop of Waiapu, the Right Rev. N. A. Lesser and the Bishop of Aotearoa, the Right Rev. W. N. Panapa, in the presence of Sir Willoughby and Lady Norrie.

* * *

23 pupils of the Kawerau Presbyterian Mission School made a five-day sightseeing tour of Auckland recently.

* * *

The Papakai Branch of the M.W.W.L. has raised money for the installation of telephones for the community.

* * *

The Catholic young people of Wanganui have formed a club known as the Maramatanga Catholic Maori Youth Club, which has already a membership of sixty and is giving Maori entertainments at local functions.

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Books
VIKINGS OF THE SUNRISE

It was in 1927 that Sir Peter Buck (Te Rangihiroa) relinquished his position as Director of Maori Hygiene to take part as an ethnologist in a regional survey of Polynesia with a team of experts from the Bernice Bishop Museum, Honolulu. From then on he devoted himself wholly to this study, apportioning his time between field work and museum study, and visiting and re-visiting almost every sector of Polynesia. For this reason alone, Sir Peter was well qualified to write the story of Polynesia. But his qualifications did not end there. He himself had a Maori mother and was fostered throughout his youth in a Maori atmosphere. It was this background which enabled him to give a warmth of feeling to the legends, the chants and the genealogies of his seafaring ancestors with which the book abounds.

In his book ‘Vikings of the Sunrise’, first published in America in 1938 and now published in New Zealand for the first time, Buck attempted to reconstruct the story not only of the migration of the Polynesians from Indonesia to the Eastern Pacific, but also of their spread throughout Polynesia.

Before we discuss the question of their migration, we must spend a moment or two on the origins of the Polynesian peoples. The racial composition of the Polynesians has been, and still is, the subject of much conjecture. Men like Huxley think they are essentially Mongoloid; others like Wallace, Negroid. Tregear, Percy Smith, and Fornander, amongst others, class them as belonging to the Caucasian or white race. Colenso thinks they may have been a kind of isolated race, with their origins right there in the Eastern Pacific. Thomson classes them as a mixed race having their origin in South India.

Buck's theory was that the Polynesians are a mixed race, with both Negroid and Mongoloid confacts, but essentially Caucasian in character. They may have lived in some part of India and worked east, but the myths and legends did not go as far back as that. Buck firmly believed, however, that the really determinable history of the Polynesians begins in Indonesia, where they must have settled for quite some period before being forced to move on to the Pacific by the hordes of Mongoloids pouring in upon them from the mainland.

The Polynesians could have entered the Pacific by either of two routes; first, the southern, Negroid, route through Melanesia; and secondly, the northern, Mongoloid route through Micronesia (though the Mongoloid element, according to Buck, crept in after the Polynesians had passed through).

Buck maintained that the northern, Micronesia route was used by the Polynesians, and he used extensive and convincing argument to prove this. He pointed, for instance, to the lack of physical similarities between Melanesians and Polynesians. He also dealt with the matter of projectile weapons. In Melanesia one of the main weapons of war was the bow and arrow; in Micronesia it was the sling. The how and arrow was known to the Polynesians, but was used only in sport. Their weapon of war was the sling of Micronesia. Incidentally, neither weapon was known to the Maoris of N.Z. In fact they didn't go in for projectile weapons at all, but tended rather to develop the more difficult and dangerous techniques of close hand-to-hand fighting, with the ‘patu’ or club as the main weapon. Their natural environment more or less demanded this type of fighting.

It is interesting to note that although Buck believed his Polynesian forbears entered the Pacific by the northern, or Micronesian, route, he also believed that the major food plants of Polynesia (the breadfruit, the yam and the fine taro) were brought from Indonesia by the southern or Melanesian route. So too with the domesticated animals of Polynesia—the pig, the dog and the fowl. He based his argument in brief on the fact that whereas the islands of Melanesia are for the most part volcanic, having rich soil able to support almost all plants, the low-lying coral atolls of Micronesia are almost devoid of soil and could support only the most hardy of plants like the coarse taro, the pandanus, and perhaps the coconut.

Fundamentally, therefore, Buck like most others believed in the west to east migration theory: and in ‘Vikings of the Sunrise’ he attempted to reconstruct this story not on any written record (of which there is none) but on language, legends, genealogies and all the other culture products of the areas concerned. The only worthwhile challenge to this theory was issued by Heyerdahl of Kon Tiki fame in 1952 when he published his monumental work in support of the opposing view; namely, that the movement was from east to west—from the western shores of America into Polynesia. A final answer to these questions has not yet been given.

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N. Z. SHORT STORIES

One of the functions of fiction is to entertain. But the writer of good fiction sets out to do more than just that. If you take a close look at a short story, you will usually find that the author, as well as spinning a yarn, has told you something about his attitudes to life in general.

Whether you are interested in these underlying ideas, or in descriptions of particular times, places, and people, I think you will be attracted, as a New Zealander, to this volume of short stories about New Zealand.

It is sometimes interesting, and often sobering, to see ourselves as others see us. We discover features a mirror never reveals. In these stories you will read about the kind of people you know, the places you have lived in or hope to visit some day, the work you do and the recreation you find, and perhaps the way you feel about it all.

Nearly a quarter of these stories have Maori themes. Writing about Maoris has always proved a ticklish business for New Zealand authors. Too many of them have been hampered by their own private dissatisfactions and the conviction that the grass on the other side of the fence (the Maori side) is greener. Their

sympathy is with the Maori, but they are apt to idealise his way of life and to ignore its problems.

However, this criticism cannot be levelled at many of the stories in this volume, which is a collection of some of the best stories written about New Zealand to date. It will give you a pretty fair idea of what writers in this country are capable of doing. Read them seriously or for pleasure, or to learn something about New Zealand and New Zealanders, or to find out how pakeha writers can handle Maori themes—whichever way you choose, I think you will find the reading well worth while.

—J. C. Sturm

HAWERA—A SOCIAL SURVEY

Some people in Hawera thought a community centre would make a good war memorial, and this is a report of the survey conducted by a team of Wellington social scientists, which will be used as a guide in planning a building to provide facilities for community activities. Open it at almost any page and you will be nearly blinded by a dazzling array of figures. But don't let this put you off. Take a closer look and you will find nothing unfamiliar. The figures stand for commonplace matters, like how many husbands in Hawera help their wives wash the dishes. It seems a round-about way of getting such simple information, and althogh the figures are impressive, their value depends on the honesty and co-operation of the people who answered the interviewer's questions in the first place. It's amazing what people will say when they have to answer a list of questions on the spot. However, the report is a good example of the methods of social scientists, and as a guide to planning a community centre for Hawera it should prove invaluable.

One of the most interesting sections of the report is the Maori survey—an excellent comparison of Maori and pakeha groups living in the same area under similar conditions. Certain matters not related to erecting a community centre are only mentioned in passing, but they suggest a whole field of inquiry which sane able research students might care to follow up. For instance, instead of observing what Maoris do, how about discovering how Maoris feel about what they do Such a study may explain why ‘the chief disgrace to the town according to many of the Maoris interviewed is the state of Maori/pakeha relationship’, while no pakeha included it anywhere on his list of disgraces.

—J. C. Sturm

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A TAWHAKI,
TE TOHUNGA
RAPU TUNA
Na MOKO

I tetahi ahiahi ka whakaaro a Tawhaki ratou ko ona hoa kia haere ratou ki te rapu tuna i nga awaawa o Parahaki. I mua i to ratou haerenga ka mea a Tawhaki ki a Te Tomo, mana e mau te hinaki, ma Tame e mau nga rama. Ka whakaemihia a ratou mea, ka haere. I te taenga ki te awa ka waiho i te hinaki me nga rama. Ka mea atu a Tawhaki, ‘Me huna a tatou mea kei kitea e nga whanako o Parahaki!’ Ka hunaia nga mea nei ka haere ratou ki te rapu tuna. Ko te awa nei ko Te Waiau te ingoa.

Ka heke ratou ki roto i te wai, Kaore tonu i roa e whawha haere ana a Te Tomo, ka ngaua tona ringaringa e tetahi mea ka aue te waha.

‘Aue! e hoa ma, he taniwha kei konei. Kia tere mai, kei motu taku ringa!’

Ka oma ake a Tawhaki raua ko Tame. Ka mea a Tame, ‘Taihoa, maku e kimi te aronga ki te waero.’

Ka karanga a Tawhaki, ‘Kia tere werohia mai ki te rakau, kia puta mai ai te mahunga. Maku e whakatika atu te pihuka hei hopu.’

Ka mea atu a Te Tomo, ‘Kia teretere e hoa ma, taea rawa ake te tuna nei, kua pau ke tetahi wahi o taku ringa te kai.’

Ka patai atu a Tawhaki tena kei te mamae ano, Ka whakahoki a Te Tomo, ‘Tena iana, haria mai tou ringa ki roto ki te waha, kia mohio ai koe, he mamae ranei kahore ranei!’

I te werohanga mai a Tame ohorere ana te tuna, ka makere mai te ringa o Te Tomo, ka puta mai te mahunga ki waho. Ka rere atu a Tawhaki ki te pihuka. I tona mataku mau ke ana te pihuka ki te rakau, ka hoki ano te tuna ki tana rua. Ka ki atu a Te Tomo ki aia, ‘E tama kaore o take, homai ki au te pihuka na. Ana, werohia mai ano!’ Ka werohia mai ka puta ano te tuna. Katahi ka pihukatia e Te Tomo ka mau, ka mea ia, ‘E koe, e koe! Tena e ngau ano i taku ringa!’ Ka tiwaha atu ia ki a Tawhaki kia mauria mai he raku he patu.

Ka mea a Tawhaki, ‘E hoa e mahara ana ahau he taniwha te mea na. Kite rawa ake ahau he punua noa iho!’

Heoi, ka mau te tuna nei ka rapu haere ano ratou. Ko Ngaheu kei mua e rapu haere ana, kaore i te aro ake ki ona hoa. E toru ke nga tuna rarahi kua mau i aia. Ka rapu nga taitama nei, ka rapu, a ka tino ahiahi, ka hoki ki te kainga o Tawhaki. I reira ka whakairihia a ratou tuna e ono. Ka mea a Tawhaki kia mutu ta ratou kai ka haere ai ratou ki te tuku i te hinaki, ki te rama hoki.

Mutukau ana te kai ka puta a Tawhaki ki waho ka haere ki te whare o a ratou heihei. Ahakoa tona mataku ki te heihei ka hopua e ia tetahi, ka wiria te kaki. Tae rawa ake a Te Tomo ratou ko Ngaheu, ko Tame kua ka te ahi a Tawhaki, a, e hunuhunu ana i nga parirau.

Ka ki a Tame ki a Tawhaki, ‘E hoa, te reka hoki o te haunga o te mea na!’

Ka whakahoki a Tawhaki, ‘E ki, kei te mate kai tonu koe! E hoki ki te tepu ki te whakaki i to puku. Ma nga tuna ke tenei kai, e hara mau!’ Ka mea ake a Ngaheu. ‘Koina te he

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o te puku-kai, ahakoa pehea te kai kaore rawa e ngata te hiahia.’

Ka ahua pukuriri a Tame i tenei korero, ka karanga ia, ‘Kaua koe e korero, he nanakia tonu koe ki te kai.’

Ka ki a Tawhaki, ‘Kati noa te korero e hoa ma. Haere tatou ki te tuku i ta tatou hinaki.’

Haere ana nga taitama nei, ka tae ki te wahi i hunaia ai a ratou taputapu. I reira ka kuhua te maunu ki roto i te hinaki, ka herea ki te taupoki, ana ka whakatikahia e ratou te rohe. Ka mea a Ngaheu, ‘Kei au tetahi wahi pai hei tuku i ta tatou hinaki.’ Ka patai a Tawhaki, ‘Kei hea tena poke? Kia pai tonu tena wahi. Ko taku hiahia hoki, kia ki tonu ta tatou hinaki i te tuna momona.’

Ka whakahoki a Ngaheu, ‘A, he tino poka tenei no nga koroua o mua!’

Ka mea a Tawhaki, ‘Homai maku e tuku. Haere koutou ki te tahu ai mo nga rama.’

Ka whakaae nga hoa, ka haere, ka waiho ma Tawhaki e tuku. Kaore i roa ka herea e ia nga taura o te hinaki ki te rakau hei pupuri, kia kore ai e tere. Oma ana ia ki te whai i ona hoa.

Ko a ratou rama, he taea motoka i topea, a i herea ki te rakau hei puritanga. I te mea kahore ano kia tino pouri ka noho ratou ki te taha o ta ratou ahi korerorero ai.

Heoi, ka tino pouri ka tahuna ratou rama ka mau ki a ratou pihuka ka haere ki te awa. Ka aue a Tawhaki ki a Te Tomo, ‘Ana e hoa! Ana tetahi e haere atu na, Pihukatia!’

Ka rere atu a Te Tomo ki te pihuka, ka hinga he mania no nga kowhatu. Ana, maku katoa, ka weto tana rama. Kua rere atu hoki a Tawhaki ki te hopu i te tuna nei; hinga ana ki runga i a Te Tomo. Tata mate ana a Tame raua ko Ngaheu, i te katanga ki o raua hoa.

Ka mea a Tame ki a raua, ‘E hoa ma, e mahara ana ahau i haere mai tatou ki te tama tuna. Titiro kia korua e kaukau na. Kua mataku katoa na tuna i a korua.’

Ka tu ake a Tawhaki ka mea, ‘Turituri e tama. Tena homai to ramahei tahu ano i taku.’

I te kanga ka tahuri ano ratou ki te rama, Kahore i roa, ka mau tetahi tuna tino nui i a Ngaheu. Ka rama ratou a waenganui po noa. Ka hoki ratou ki te moe.

I te ata po tonu ka maranga a Tawhaki ki te whaka oho i ona hoa kia haere ratou ki te to i te hinaki ki tua.

Ka mea atu a Ngaheu, ‘E tama, e hoki ki te moe. ‘Taihoa ta tatou hinaki.’

Ko Tawhaki kei te rika katoa kia tirohia te hinaki, ka ki atu ia ki a Ngaheu, ‘Maranga e hoa! Ki tonu te hinaki, i te tuna, kaore e taea e ahau te to. Tera pea ma te hoiho ra ano ka taea.’

Ka mea a Ngaheu, ‘E hoa kei te wairangi ke o mahara. Me pewhea koe e mohio ai, e hia nga tuna? Taihoa tena hinaki. E hoki ki te moe.’

Karanga atu ana a Tawhaki, ‘He tino tika taku korero nei. Haeremai, maranga mai!’

Ka hoha a Ngaheu ka maranga, ka haere raua ki te awa.

Ka ki ano a Tawhaki, ‘Ki taku mohio, kaore e taea e taua, te hiki. I taku moemoea hoki e rua ke nga hoiho hei kukume mai, ka taea.’ Ka mea a Ngaheu, ‘E hoa! koia ke na te take e rika na koe ki te titiro i ta tatou hinaki—na te moemoea! Tena pea kei te he katoa to moemoea.’ Ka mea ano a Tawhaki, ‘Na te kaha marama o taku moemoea, kei te tino mohio ahau he tuna kei roto.’

Ka tae raua ki te tukunga, ka tahuri ki te to mai i te hinaki. Ka mea a Ngaheu, ‘Te taumaha hoki; akuanei kei te tika tonu to moemoea.’ Ka kukume raua, a, ka rewa. Ana, mama noa iho! I mau ke ki te rakau. Puta mai ana te hinaki ka titiro a Ngaheu ka mea, ‘E hoa, titiro! He aha ke tenei mahi au ki ta tatou hinaki, ana kei te huri muri ke? Tino he rawa atu koe. Me pewhea e mau ai he tuna? Whakarongo, me penei ka. Tukua te pito maunu ki te ia, ko te waha o te hinaki ki raro!’

Ka kumea mai te hinaki ki rahaki, ka tirohia. Kaore kau ana te tuna, tino kore nei!

Ka huri a Tawhaki, a na te tino kaha o tana pouri, me te pukuriri ki a ia ano, ka hoki taumaha ia ki te kainga. Ka pa mai te aroha ki a Ngaheu, mo tona hoa, mo Tawhaki, ‘te tohunga rapu tuna.’

Alamein War Memorial

Lieutenant-Colonel C. M. Bennett, a former commander of the Maori battalion, was the Maori representative in the New Zealand contingent which attended the unveiling of the Alamein memorial in North Africa to those who lost their lives in the Middle East in the last war and have no known graves.

After the service Colonel Bennett presented to the Imperial War Graves Commission a carved box as a token of the Maoris' appreciation of the Commission's care of graves of their people in the two world wars.

There are nearly 100 Maoris buried at Alamein, among them Lieutenant-Colonel E. T. W. Love, who was the first Maori to command the Maori battalion.

The names of a further 50 Maoris who have no known graves are inscribed on the memorial panel.

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I WAIATA TARATARA AI TE POROKA

I mua noa atu, kaore he parirau o te pekapeka, engari noho tahi ai penei me te poroka i roto awa, repo ranei. He hoa takatapui te poroka me te pekapeka, na kaukau tahi ai raua puta noa i nga wahi katoa.

No tetahi rangi ka puku te rae o te pekapeka, katahi ka mea atu ki te poroka, ‘ki te noho tonu au i roto i tenei awa repo, tera pea ahau ka whara, ka mate ranei. Titiro hoki ki te hau tutu a te tamariki e pangapanga kohatu nunui nei ki roto i to taua wai kainga, me te kaukau, me te takatakahi haere. Kei tetahi rangi ki te kore au e tupato ka kopenutia ahau. Kaore ahau i te tahi me pirangi ki te noho tahi me nga ika weriweri nei,’ ano ra te auareatanga o tona waha. ‘Ka whakatipu parirau au moku, a ka whakahoahoa ki nga manu ataahua.’

‘Aue, kaua ra e whakarere i ahau,’ te tangi atu a te poroka. ‘Ka tino mokemoke au ki te whakarere koe i au. Ko koe anake kei, “i au,” te awa nei hei korerotanga atu maku, no te mea, kia maumahara, kahore he arero o te ika kia korero ai ratou, na he waha-ngu katoa.

Engari koa kua oti ke te whakaaro o te pekapeka, ka whakarerea e ia te awa. Muri nei kaore i roa, ka tipu ona parirau, na ka ngana na ki te whakapiri ki nga manu papai o te rangi. Engari ka mea atu ratou. ‘He kiore ke koe. I rite ou huruhuru ki o te kiore, kaore i penei me o matou. Matika atu, noho, tahi me te kiore.’ Ka whai na te pekapeka ki te pera, engari ka whaka hokia e te kiore. ‘Ehara koe i te kiore, engari he manu ke,’ na haere atu ana i tana haere.

Katahi te pekapeka ka whawhai ki te maunu i ona parirau, ka hoki ai ki te noho tahi me te poroka i roto i te awa: kore ake nga parirau i makere atu. Koia na ka waiata taratara atu te poroka ki tona hoa ki te pekapeka kia hoki mai ano ki te awa he mokemoke nona, engari hoki ka noho ke atu te pekapeka he whakama nona ki te whaaki i tona whakahaweatanga e nga manu me nga kiore.

– 53 –

CROSSWORD PUZZLE
No 10

Winner of our puzzle of last issue was Mr S. E. Swift of Wanganui. We must apologise for another error in this puzzle, probably the reason why so few solutions reached us. We hope this one is really absolutely correct. Another guinea is offered for a correct solution to reach this office (P.O. Box 2390, Wellington) by the end of May.

Clues ACROSS

1. A numeral.
3. To snatch food.
7. Soot.
9. Calabash.
10. Carver's tool.
12. Cave.
13. A Kahungunu siege.
15. Brave.
16. To run.
18. Opening of a haka taparahi.
19. Alas.
20. Affirmation.
21. Earthquake.
22. A common N.Z. Shrub.
23. Stake.
25. Preposition (dialectal).
26. Emerge from water.
27. Moonlight.
30. Son.
32. Pronoun.
34. Glowing.
35. Fisherman.
36. Be left as a remnant.

Clues DOWN

2. Illustrious.
3. Embrace (verb in the passive form).
4. Composer of waiata for Te Tahuri. It recites the five canoes.
5. Road.
6. A South Island leader.
7. A common Arawa exclamation.
8. Gaze.
11. Scoop towards you.
13. Sparrowhawk.
14. A chief, name means one hundred ovens.
15. For.
17. Affirmation.
24. Raw.
25. Negative command.
28. Appearance.
29. A local noun.
31. Personification of knowledge.
33. A spear.

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Community Centre for Te Kuiti

The Te Kuiti Maori Centre (Te Huinga) is rapidly becoming a community centre in the true sense of the word. It has become the venue for Maori Women's Welfare League, Temperance Union and various other types of meeting, is organizing classes in Maori culture (taniko to be taught by Mrs Tumohe, carving by Mr Eketone Tane), and provides a restroom and dining room for Maoris from the country visiting Te Kuiti. People can make their own cup of tea and the doors are always open.

Until 1952, the Hall was owned by the Salvation Army which had dedicated it ‘to the Glory of God’. The Army would only sell it for a religious purpose, and disposed of it to the Methodist Church, which made it into a social, cultural and spiritual centre for the Maori people of Te Kuiti. A deaconess, Sister Grace Clement, lives there and looks after it. A committee which is half Maori and half Pakeha, manages it, under the benevolent chairmanship of Mr Gabriel Elliott. The Centre is, nevertheless, conducted without regard to denomination. Some of the furniture has been donated by the local M.W.W.L.

Mr Elliott told Te Ao Hou that although the centre is often left open and unattended, there had never been trouble or wanton breakages.

Christmas Sermon

Last Christmas, the Rev. Canon Wi Te Tau Huata of Te Kuiti held ten services between midnight and noon. With a driver, he started at Paeroa and worked west and south until he returned to Te Kuiti. Over 600 people attended the services, and at one place no fewer than 89 communicants attended a service held at three o'clock in the morning.

At one place, no one turned up. He talked about abandoing the service but his companion asked him: ‘What's wrong with you?’ That question taught him a lesson. He conducted the service and preached a sermon, his congregation being his sleeping companion.

People in the neighbourhood heard the service in progress and assumed that the building was full. When they saw the preacher and his companion coming out alone after the service, they literally cried with shame. Services held in that centre on subsequent dates became the best-attended on the circuit.

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Picture icon

Women's World

Going to the Conference

In our last issue we described the history and purpose of the Maori Women's Welfare League. This time we are publishing an article by Mrs Paki which shows the social side of the League in a juicy tale of preparations for annual conference.

Now it is nearly time for another conference of the Maori Women's Welfare League, and once again our minds turn to such things as remits and giving day contributions, travelling arrangements and such like. It's a big responsibility and yet lots of fun too. Meetings take on new life, and our minds go back to other such conferences, and we think of those we met and those we are likely to meet again, and we wonder if there'll be as many there and so on. Now let's start reminiscing!

When preparations began in earnest for the big event, and members met, conference to us women was the favourite topic. Forgotten was the water shortage, the poor potato crop, or the early drop in milk production. All these were secondary to preparations for conference, and we lent only half an ear to hubby's small talk of ‘the new fence’ or the ‘fat lambs’ or ‘gettin’ the hay pressed’, and such like. A feeling of anticipation ran high, every member being keyed up to a state of great expectation, even our hubbies who, through the course of the year, had become sceptical, now became caught up in the excitement of the hour, to the point of discussing the approaching event with non-league friends, carefully pointing out what the Maori Women's Welfare League was endeavouring to do for the community as a whole.

Now our story concerns just one delegate to conference, yet I think, is typical of the majority of them—mothers of families and in quite humble circumstances, taken from the average everyday women not over endowed with initiative, but with a great desire to make a go of things!

So back to the preparations—first and foremost, the family had to be considered, clothing prepared and sorted and left in readiness, the cupboard stored and extra cooking done and every little detail seen to. Then mum's wardrobe came in for close scrutiny, not being an elaborate one, certain sources had to be tapped to make the necessary additions.

As the time neared, an occasional visitor

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The Taumarunui District Council of M.W.W.L. is holding its first annual progress day. (20TH CENTURY PHOTOGRAPHY)

would drop in, and the following conversation may have been heard.

‘Hello Rangi! I brought these things along for you to take to the conference for display, do you think there'll be a display room?’

‘Yes Janie! I'm pretty sure there'll be a display room, and I'm getting in touch with Maggie for that cloth she crocheted.’

‘Oh yes, do! And look, I brought my cardigan, I'm sure it'll go with your floral linen frock, and how are you for a suitcase? You'd better take that new one of mine?’

‘Oh, ta Janie. I think I will too.’

Enter another caller.

‘Hello folks! All ready for the fray?’ to hostess.

‘Oh hello Kura! Take a seat. How do you like this for a match?’ indicating linen frock and Janie's cardigan.

‘Very nice indeed Mrs ….’ in mocking seriousness. ‘And look I brought along my short coat, it might be handy to wear if it turns out chilly. What have you planned for the social evening? Practice up that song, you know …. and that recitation.’

‘Oh Kura! My song days are over’ rather regretfully. ‘I can only tackle hymns, and no one would want to listen to them, and as for the recitation—that's stale.’

‘No such thing,’ say callers in unison.

‘You think it stale but it will give pleasure to some at the Conference, and it's something different,’ says one. ‘And besides,’ says the other, ‘you must show them that we aren't altogether dumb.’

Much laughter and demonstrations by callers, while delegate smiles warily, fully realising her responsibility to her fellow members, and trying not to think of herself.

‘Oh well, we'll see,’ she says, Just then the telephone rings and Janie answers it.

‘Hello—yes this is 2390—yes Hera, she's here checking over her pretties—yes—yes—you don't say!—how nice—very well Hera, ta!’

‘What's all the news?’ ask the others.

‘Hera rang to say she was up in …. on Monday and she met so-and-so and so-and-so doing their shopping for conference: they had bought evening frocks for the social and were all ready for the road.’

‘Are you wearing your evening skirt, Rangi?’

‘Hera said she has a nice lacey blouse to go over it, unless you're going to invest in a new evening frock.’

‘Oh I couldn't do that, it's alright for those that can, but I'll be glad of a loan of Hera's blouse.’

‘And she said that the Hon …. will be at the social and also …. and ….’

‘How nice,’ says Kura, ‘I wouldn't mind being there to dance with the Hon….’

‘Me either,’ says Janie, ‘I'm going to learn me a special waiata for next year, you'll see! And I'll go to Conference too, but just now I'd better dodge off, or my bread will be risen and overflowing, so sing out if I can help you Rangi.’

‘I'll walk along with you Janie,’ says Kura.

‘Thank you both,’ says hostess. ‘See you on Friday.’

Friday is sale day and the little town is very busy and our delegate wends her way through the crowds often consulting and checking her list—½ yard hat veiling, safety pins, nylons, nail file, hankies, toothpaste, suede cleaner,

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foundation garment, platignum pen, note book, lingerie, etc., etc.

She meets many League members, who all discuss conference. Some are going as observers for the first time.

‘Do you know,’ says one, ‘I tramped all over town for a coat to suit me?’

‘Goodness Riki! You don't need one at this time of the year.’

‘Oh my old man said I must have one, and I've bought three frocks, and as for nylons, I'll be broke before I finish.’

‘But my dear Riki’ says Rangi, ‘it's a Conference not a dress parade.’

‘Well my old man, he wants me to look nice.’

And so the time for leaving comes, and there are women and more women, all well groomed and looking prosperous, boarding the train at all stations, and the greetings—the chatter and laughter. Then on arrival at the city, all are taken to their various places of board, and the ‘old hands’ take over the ‘new hands’, and show them the ropes. It's a great experience! The ‘new hands’ invariably say, ‘I'm coming again next year.’

It is there that we see the other side of the question, a side we had not perhaps, dreamed of. It's good to see so many fine thinking women, and mingle one with another, and many are the little incidents that dwell in your memory long after. And how refreshing to meet someone else just as' country bumpkinish’ as yourself! Someone just as unused to living in an hotel, riding in lifts, changing every evening, and being waited upon. Then there is the getting tangled in all the cutlery at dinner, and looking at the menu as if it were a crossword puzzle, to say nothing of those traffic lights, and taxi drivers who say,’ where to Ma'am?’ when you don't know yourself, and were just on the verge of asking.

How we can bolster one another's courage, and laugh at all the little nothings, such as helping one another across the street as if it was the jungle full of tigers ‘n things, wishing we could look like some of our more experienced sisters, full of poise, and self assurance. Ah, yes! It's grand to be going to Conference; and when it's all over, it's grand to get back to the kids and the cows and old hubby, who doesn't expect too much of you.

EDMONDS PURE MAIZE CORNFLOUR ‘Sure to Set’ JELLY CRYSTALS

T. J. EDMONDS, LTD.

,
CHRISTCHURCH

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A Parson's Family in Honolulu

Full of enthusiasm for the American way of life, the Rev. and Mrs M. A. Bennett are back in New Zealand after fourteen months in Hawaii. In charge of the Wellington Maori Pastorate Branch of the Wellington Diocesan Maori Mission, Mr Bennett was granted a year's leave so that he could accept an appointment in Honolulu as assistant vicar at the Church of the Holy Nativity Mission, Ainahaina. Living and working in the ‘island paradise’ gave the couple much more opportunity than tourists ever have to get to know the place and the people, and they have returned with a wealth of interesting impressions.

A house and car went with the salary, and so Mrs Bennett was able to settle straight into housekeeping. With a washing machine and a deep freeze unit, ‘super’ markets nearby, and hospitality so overwhelming ‘that we only had dinner at home about twice a week,’ she had plenty of spare time, so she spent her mornings

teaching at the pre-school department of their church school. Handling the same age group as do kindergartens in New Zealand, Mrs Bennett found it was ‘really more like baby-sitting than teaching.’

Though a vicar's work was basically the same in Honolulu as here (as it was the same church), Mr Bennett found the pace quite hectic. ‘Compared with the church-mindedness of all denominations in Hawaii, this country seems quite pagan,’ he said. ‘There has been a great revival in religion since the war—the church is really alive—and I was always on the job.’

Three mornings a week Mr Bennett attended courses on Pacific race relations at the University of Hawaii, where he was interested to discover the predominance of oriental students. ‘Japanese and Chinese people,’ he explained, ‘will do everything possible to give their children the best education, and as students pour out of lecture halls, a white face among them is the conspicuous one. That applies on the downtown streets as well. A large proportion of the population is Oriental.’

Mr Bennett lectured to various groups on the Maori, and Mrs Bennett performed action songs and poi dances at numerous church socials. They found a number of similarities between Hawaiian and Maori ways, an ‘imu’ over there, for instance, was very like a ‘hangi’ here, except that the pig was put in whole. It was covered with ti leaves (like a lily plant), sacks and earth, and left to cook about two hours. Imus were often a feature of church fairs, and occasionally hotels used them for guests' meals.

The race situation in Honolulu Mr Bennett found admirable. ‘Everyone has an equal chance,’ he explained. ‘Americans are good businessmen. They want value, and they give jobs on qualifications regardless of race.’

Built of lava rock dug from hillsides, the church with which he was associated during most of his sojourn had a wood shingle roof and a modern interior. It seated 500 people, ‘though with the doors open it accommodated 800.’

For some months Mr Bennett was with congregations predominantly Oriental, but for one month he was with native Hawaiians on the island of Hawaii in a small village called Kohala. ‘Except for the difference in language that was just like being at home,’ he remarked.

On his way home from the Coronation festivities

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in London, Wallace Tako of Ruatoria spent a week in Honolulu with the Bennetts. Among souvenirs which Mrs Bennett has brought home is a lovely ‘muumuu’, a Hawaiian dress worn for informal evenings. Long and fitting, it has a high neckline and wide, flowing sleeves. An hors d'oeuvres dish of monkeypod wood and drinking tumblers of Japanese bamboo are other mementoes.

Mr Bennett notices a difference in New Zealand since his return. ‘The appearance of increased prosperity here is very encouraging.’ He and Mrs Bennett have just adopted a little girl, four-and-a-half year-old Linda. The church in Honolulu wants them to return; but though both loved every minute in that lovely city, they feel their place is here with their own people.

East Coast Tour

A party of Maori students from St. Stephen's School, and Queen Victoria School for Maori Girls, left Auckland on Monday, 23rd August, 1954, accompanied by their teachers on a tour of the Bay of Plenty and the East Coast. Expupils of both schools had made it known that they would like to see a representative party of present pupils, and because of their invitations the trip was arranged.

There were some misgivings when the party left Auckland. Such a tour had never been undertaken before: would it be enjoyable, and above all, what would be the results?

The main objects of the tour were to foster goodwill and to show what the young people in the Church schools are doing today. However, time was also found for basketball and football. Matches were played in Opotiki, Te Kaha, Waihau Bay and Tikitiki, and pupils of the two schools gave combined concerts at night.

The plans and preparations for the tour involved much thought and hard work, not only for the school staffs, but more especially for those who had extended the invitations. Members of the touring party will never forget the kindness shown to them by the people they met—the people of Whakatohea, Whanau-a-Apanui, Whanau-a-Maru, Whanau-a-Paraki. Kauaetangohia and Ngati Porou. Everywhere they were greeted and made welcome. Enormous amounts of food were prepared by people who had probably worked for hours to treat their visitors like royalty. Every kindness was shown and everything that could be done for them was done—the young people saw Maori hospitality at its best.

The beautifully finished meeting-houses with their intricate tukutuku panels and skilful carving made a great impression. At Omarumutu, where a new hall is under construction, Mr Pine Taiapa gave a lecture to the students on the meaning and significance of the different tukutuku designs. It is a pity that courses in a Maori art are not included in the syllabus of New Zealand secondary schools. Lack of teachers and books prevent this; but how can the young Maori of today appreciate an art of which they are ignorant?

On each marae and in many other places the elders spoke to the young people and emphasized the need for them to draw the best from the old and blend it with the best of the new, that they might help the people of New Zealand, both Maori and Pakeha, to attain a culture that New Zealand can call its own.

On the tour lessons were learnt, friendships formed, and promises made that will be kept. The parents were told what their children are doing today at school, and in their turn stated what they wished their children to do.

There were incidents outside the organised programme which deeply impressed the students. On the first day of the tour the party stopped at Rotokawa to honour a deeply respected lady (the grandmother of one of the St. Stephen's boys) who had passed away. There it was the dignity and solemnity of the tangi that will be remembered. That evening they were welcomed traditionally on the marae of Te Rere pa.

When they visited Omarumutu there was brilliant sunshine and the view from the head land overlooking the sea was breathtaking. Perhaps some of their ancestors had stood on that same spot and scanned the horizon for canoes, coming in friendship or bent on war.

It was late afternoon when they reached the marae at Te Kaha after a memorable drive along the coast. All appreciated the beauty of the evening as they sat in front of that wonderful meeting-house. Beyond the marae the sea could be seen behind the hill, the water still sparkling under the last rays of the setting sun.

Then there was the drive from Te Kaha to Waihau Bay on a rainy, windy afternoon. Far below the road, the foam-white water surged at the foot of the cliffs; but when Waihau Bay was reached, rain, wind and mud were forgotten.

On the journey from Waihau Bay to Tiki-

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Drawing by Urikore Wharehinga, Tikitiki Maori District High School, done at the age of fifteen.

tiki the visitors drove past magnificent scenery and entered the Waiapu Territory. Next day they visited the church in Tikitiki and once again realised what the young people who know nothing of Maori art are missing. They saw Hikurangi shining in the morning sunlight on their first morning.

They were entertained in the meeting house at Whangara, which is surmounted by the carved figure of the whale which is reputed to have carried Paikea on its back.

It was dark when the party arrived in Wairoa, and although several hours late, the students were given a welcome as warm as they encountered anywhere on the tour. Before they left they were shown over the meeting house, which was quite differet from any they had already seen. Its war-like appearance was both terrifying and stimulating.

After Wairoa the party split. The girls went to their sister-school in Napier, Hukarere College, and the boys went to Kohupatiki, where they were the guests of Bishop Panapa. They were prevented from visiting Te Aute College by an epidemic of influenza.

So ended a tour which had been a success in every respect, and had benefited both schools in every way.

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ELSDON CRAIG
DR. WINIATA INTERVIEWED

Maharaia Winiata, Maori Adult Education Officer in Auckland, is back from the United Kingdom with a Doctorate of Philosophy from Edinburgh University. He is the first Maori to gain this award. During two years' overseas he obtained a vast amount of valuable material on which to base his future investigations into Maori-European relations.

The thesis for which Dr Winiata received his award was on ‘The Changing Role of the Leader in Maori Society’. In the first place he finds that Maori leadership stems from certain circumstances. The inter-tribal wars produced one sort of leader; the Maori-European wars another. Tohu arose during the latter when the aim was to reorganise Maori life to contend with the pressure from Europeans. Because of the difficulty in countering this pressure supernatural forces were employed.

Then the Ngata era produced another type of leader whose aim was to refashion Maori life to fit into European society. This was a time of crisis when there were few educated men and leadership devolved upon a mere handful. They were hampered by the lack of a plan and the willingness of the Europeans to accept the Maori socially after the trouble over land.

Dr Winiata finds that leadership today aims at developing co-operation among organizations. The type of leadership is that of small men—tribal committee members, ministers of religion, schoolteachers, etc.—rather than big men, as in the past. There are also more divisions in Maori society today than there were, and leadership is a community rather than a national matter.

It was this first attempt to look at the question of Maori leadership objectively which fired the ambition in Dr Winiata to study overseas. He always felt that the time which he spent gathering material in Auckland, Papatoetoe, and Judea Pa (Tauranga) would open up this avenue. He also had the inspiration and confidence of Princess Te Puea Heragi who actually recommended him to the Nuffield Foundation for a fellowship. He went away with the blessing of King Koroki and Te Puea and their people.

Dr Winiata was born in 1912 at Ngahina, near Whakatane. He was the son of Winiata Piahana, of Ngati Ranginui at Tauranga. His father gave him every opportunity to pursue his love for learning and he was educated at Tauranga primary and district high schools. He was head prefect and senior athletic champion at the latter before he went to Trinity Theological College, and, with the help of a scholarship, to Auckland University College. There he graduated M.A. in education, later transferring to the Auckland Teachers' Training College where, among other things, he was president of the Students' Association. After qualifying he taught at Rotorua and Wesley College, Paerata.

MEMORIAL DINING HALL

The Secretary for Maori Affairs, Mr Tipi Ropiha, recently opened a new dining hall at the Kie Kie marae, Waipiro Bay, East Coast.

The hall contains carvings and tukutuku work rescued from the dining hall at Waiomatatini which was demolished by a flood in 1937. Sir Apirana Ngata had the hall built in memory of his wife. Arihia, Lady Ngata, and his son, Makarini. Mr Hoki Fox, chairman of the Hikurangi South Tribal Executive, approached Sir Apirana's brother, Mr Len Ngata, who had the carvings and tukutuku in safekeeping, to make them available for the new dining hall.

* * *

WIDER REPRESENTATION

By a new agreement all East Coast hapus are given representation on the board of management of the Poho-o-Rawiri Meeting House and marae, Gisborne. Poho-o-Rawiri is one of New Zealand's outstanding meeting houses.

Previously the management was conducted by Gisborne Maoris only, and maintenance of the property together with the cost of providing the traditional hospitality to visiting parties imposed a burden which will now be shared by other East Coast hapus.

* * *

NEW SCHOLARSHIPS

The Bishop of Honolulu has made a generous offer to provide scholarships for two Maori boys, between the ages of 15 and 18, to study at an Episcopalian school in Honolulu. News of the offer was brought back to New Zealand by the Rev. Manu Bennett, who spent 16 months in the Hawaiian Islands.

Mr Bennett thought that if the right Maori boys could be selected for the scholarships it would be a unique opportunity for them.

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MOTHERCRAFT

The Maori Mother
and her Child
(CONTINUED)

Breast Feeding

The best food for baby is his mother's milk, To nurse a baby successfully a mother should be in good health and receiving a well balanced diet as recommended for the expectant mother. Breast feeding has many advantages. It lessens the chance of disease and it is economical in time and money. The milk is present in the breast at the right temperature and usually in the right quantity. It is free from germs and contains all elements necessary for growth.

Suckling by the mother is best and safest for the baby and the mother too. Nearly every mother can suckle her baby if she wants to, and if she is properly looked after before and after baby is born. The best bottle feeding is not as good. Baby should be put to the breast at 4-hourly intervals during the day, an eight hour interval being allowed at night between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m. Always hold baby up to expel wind.

The idea held by many Maori mothers that their milk does not agree with the baby is usually quite wrong. Breast feeding is the natural and much the easiest way, and is the best for both mother and baby.

No definite rule can be laid down as to the time every baby needs at the breast; 15–20 minutes is a fair average, but some get all they need in ten minutes. If baby is under 6lbs he should be fed every 3 hours and the time gradually extended to 4 hours. Too prolonged suckling is harmful, and gets baby into the bad habit of dawdling and sucking feebly, and dozing towards the end. Vigorous suckling should be encouraged. If necessary, the baby's hands and feet should be rubbed to promote activity.

Extras for all Breast Fed Babies

Fruit juice such as orange or grape fruit and rose hip syrup may be given baby from two weeks of age onwards. It should be diluted at first with an equal amount of boiled water. As baby gets older it can be given undiluted. From the first ½ teaspoon diluted with boiled water, by the time baby is six months' old he can take eight teaspoons of undiluted orange juice.

Rose hip syrup is not tolerated well by some babies, so it should be given diluted with boiled water, commencing with a quarter teaspoon with twice as much water, and by the time baby is six months' old, two teaspoons with at least twice as much water.

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Cod Liver Oil

All breast fed babies should be given cod liver oil by the time they are a month old. Start by giving two or three drops and gradually work up to half a teaspoon twice daily. Watch and see if baby can take it before increasing the amount. Some babies vomit for a start, and if this continues tell your nurse. Cod liver oil can be given in a teaspoon, or the bottle if baby is bottle fed.

The vitamin D in cod liver oil helps form good bones and teeth and prevents rickets, a deformity of the chest, pelvis, arms and legs.

Do not feed baby during the night, as both mother and child need a good eight hours' rest. If baby cries attend to him at once, for he may need his wet napkin changed. Then give him a tablespoon of boiled water in a bottle. Do not, however, give him milk. If treated in this way he will soon give up waking during the night.

It is important for the mother to avoid strong drink while baby is fed from the breast.

Weaning

A healthy mother should be able to nurse her baby for six months at least. Some carry on for nine months. There may be reasons why a mother has to wean her child before this time, for instance if she suffers from tuberculosis, cancer, past or present mental derangement, or chronic ill health.

It is a good rule not to feed baby by bottle unless the doctor or nurse advises it. If the baby is premature or not doing well, if you find it difficult to feed him or think he is not getting enough nourishment, consult your nurse or doctor.

Pregnancy may make weaning necessary, but if the mother is in good health and baby doing well, sudden weaning is not called for. The mother should consult her doctor if she suspects she is pregnant again.

Preparation for Weaning

The wise mother will get her infant accustomed to taking water and fruit juice from a bottle from the age of two or three weeks, so that if for any reason baby has to be weaned early, he will not refuse the bottle.

Occasionally a baby who has never been introduced to a bottle will refuse to take it from his mother, because her presence is associated with feeding at the breast.

In normal cases weaning should be done gradually at six to nine months. Many a mother has experienced trouble, so it is wise to consult the nurse and not to wean suddenly. It is better to keep on with both breast and bottle feeding and commence full bottle feeding

Recommended for cases of
GOITRE and Rheumatism

GLACIA IODISED SALT is a highly refined salt of outstanding quality, containing a medically approved proportion of IODINE

It is particularly recommended for cases of GOITRE and Rheumatism, and is beneficial in replenishing deficiencies in the ordinary diet.

Always ask your grocer for GLACIA IODISED SALT.

GLACIA IODIZED SALT

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after a while, when your doctor or nurse advise the time has come.

It is always best to use fresh cows' milk. If this cannot be obtained use dried powdered milk, which is easy to prepare and easy to store. Consult your public health nurse who will tell you the right food and mixture. Special brands of milk for delicate and sick babies should also be recommended by the nurse or doctor.

Fruit Juice

As already stated, every baby needs fresh fruit juice daily, the bottle fed baby as well as the breast fed baby. This applies to cod liver oil.

Wrong Feeding

Much illness in babies is due to wrong feeding. Baby's motions should be watched carefully. Should he have scalded buttocks or frothy motions, take him to the doctor or call the nurse.

Signs of Under Feeding
(1)

The motions are small and constipated.

(2)

Baby is restless.

(3)

He is windy.

(4)

He may be fretful, and cry frequently both before and after feeding.

(5)

He loses weight, makes unsatisfactory progress.

(6)

Baby becomes too quiet and drowsy.

Over Feeding
(1)

Baby gains a lot of weight.

(2)

Too many motions.

(3)

Rash on face.

(4)

Brings up food.

(5)

He becomes restless or fretful.

(6)

He suffers from wind.

(7)

He vomits.

(8)

Diarrhoea or constipation—in every case consult nurse or doctor.

MAORI QUARTET IN BRITAIN

Continuing its earlier success in the entertainment field in Britain, the Maori Quartet recently joined the Gracie Fields show for a tour of Britain. The quartet contains four young Maori men—Joe Ward-Holmes, Henry Gilbert, Mac Hata and Pat Rawiri—who set out for Australia some years ago, and after some successes there went further afield.

ISSUED BY

THE NEW ZEALAND DEPT. OF HEALTH

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The MAORI DROWNING RATE is TIMES as high as the PAKEHA!

80 accidental drownings in 6 months1 — and nearly one quarter were Maoris.

This makes the Maori rate 4 times as high as the Pakeha. More shocking, over half of the Maoris drowned were under 15 years old.

Parents have a responsibility. Anywhere near water children must be looked after, never left to themselves. Rivers are especially dangerous. Care and commonsense is more necessary than ever this summer.

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RURU THE OWI.
SAYS
BE WATER WISE

Issued by

the National Prevent Drowning Commitee on behalf of the Internal Affairs Department.