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No. 6 (Royal Tour)
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The New World

the maori affairs department 1953


A forest is easy to destroy but it takes a long time to grow.’ Some of the most valuable forest in New Zealand is protected by the Tuwharetoa Rural Fire Committee under the chairmanship of Mr. Alfred Grace. The fire officers of the committee are all of Maori blood: Messrs A. M. Kirk, Wai Tamaira, Pat Maniapoto and Bob Mariu. Using radio communications they can bring capable and well-equipped fire crews quickly into action. But remember, only you can prevent forest fires.

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Keep New Zealand Green
Prevent Forest Fires

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Vol. 2 No. 2 Royal Tour Number,

During the Queen's visit to this country a special Maori reception will be held at Rotorua, where the Maori people can express their loyalty and affection to their Sovereign in accordance with their own customs and traditions. This loyalty and affection dates from the Treaty of Waitangi, which was a solemn agreement between Queen Victoria and the Maori chiefs. According to this agreement the Maori leaders laid their chiefly powers (mana rangatira) before Captain Hobson as gifts (tahua) to Queen Victoria. She, on her part, gave to the Maori people her Royal protection, and equality in British law and custom with the pakeha. In the minds of the chiefs of those days the mana they renounced was personally held by the Great Queen, the Ariki Tapairu of Britain, and she would personally see that her servants gave protection and did justice.

Since then, the Maori people have shown the strongest attachment to the British Royal House, of ancient and venerable ancestry, whose rule is by the Grace of God, as and symbolised by the most sacred and magnificent ritual and ceremonial. On previous occasions when members of the Royal Family visited New Zealand, the Maori people have given wholehearted expression to the depth of their love for the Sovereign.

From another viewpoint, too, the Sovereign's first personal visit to this country has a special meaning to the Maori people. In the old days the doing of honour and showing of hospitality to great visiting chiefs were the great occasions of Maori life. An important part of the traditional culture was centred on such occasions.

In 1901, when the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and York visited New Zealand, Sir James Carroll and Apirana Ngata showed to what extent the welcome to Royalty could bring out the best and deepest in the Maori people. The display of dancing and the gifts presented at Rotorua on that occasion were the pinnacle of Maori achievement at a time when the rousing of the Maori spirit was the all-important aim of Maori leaders.

The Queen's forthcoming visit will again be an occasion for an unequalled display and revival of the traditional culture. At the same time, there is an increased tendency to take a full part in the receptions in municipalities outside Rotorua or Waitangi. All over the country there is, on a greater scale than ever before, collaboration between the Maori and pakeha to organise a reception together.

Thus the Queen, on her visit, will see British ‘loyalty’ and Maori ‘aroha’ at the one time, as two different expressions of the same sentiment.

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A chieftainess of the Ngati-Tuwharetoa tribe, and a direct descendent of the great chief Tuwharetoa, Mrs Arihia Savage died recently at Kawerau. She was aged 61.

Mrs Savage was born at Matata, the daughter of Wharepapa Petera, and she was educated at the Queen Victoria Maori Girls' College, Auckland. She married and settled at the Onepu Springs, and became an authority in the district on Maori lore and custom.

In the year before her death Mrs Savage became prominent in land dealings with the Tasman Pulp and Paper Company, and much of her land has been acquired for the news-print mills.


The death occurred at Wellington in September of Mr Henry Dargaville Bennett, who was a brother of the first Bishop of Aotearoa, the late Bishop F. A. Bennett, and for many years a leading citizen of Wellington. He was aged 77.

Mr Bennett was born at Maketu, in the Bay of Plenty. His grandfather, Dr John Bennett, an Irishman, was New Zealand's first Registrar-General. Mr Bennett's mother was of Te Arawa descent.

He was educated at Te Aute College, and began his career as a farmer in the Taihape district. Later, he settled in Wellington and took a prominent part in local body affairs, achieving a position in Wellington business and civic life that had never previously been occupied by a Maori.

Mr Bennett was married twice. There were three sons and three daughters of his first marriage to a chieftainess of the Rangitikei district, and two sons and two daughters of his second marriage, to Miss Wikitoria Amohau Park.


One of the most popular guides at Whakarewarewa, Georgina Te Rauoriwa, died at Rotorua in August. She was 73.

Mrs Te Rauoriwa was a twin daughter of the late William Strew and Mareti Watene, chieftainess of the Ruingarangi and Rauhoto subtribes of the Tuwharetoa, of Taupo.


Mr Matauranga Wikiriwhi, better known as Matt Wickliffe, who was chief guide at the Wairakei thermal valley for many years, died in the Rotorua Hospital, at the age of 48.

Mr Wickliffe's death breaks a link with two of New Zealand's greatest warriors, Hongi Hika and Te Rauparaha, both of whom are to be found on his genealogical tree.

It was Mr Matt Wickliffe's great grandfather, Te Tuahu, who, on Te Rauparaha's request for allies, led a party of Arawa warriors from Rotorua to Kapiti Island. Te Tuahu fought with Te Rauparaha at Kaiapoi, and later directed the construction of the Rangiatea Church at Otaki.


Mr Matiu Pura Logan, well-known in Hawke's Bay where he farmed extensively, and took a prominent part in Maori affairs, has died at the age of 60.

Mr Logan attended Te Aute College and, in his youth, he was a very good all-round athlete. He represented Hawke's Bay at Rugby as a five-eighth when only 16. Later, he became a member of the Hawke's Bay Rugby Referees' Association; and he was also a provincial tennis champion and a keen golfer.

Mr Logan was enthusiastic in promoting any movement leading to the advancement of the Maori people, particularly in connection with education and Church affairs.


The death occurred recently of a well-known personality in the Gisborne district, Mrs Ripeka Halbert, the last survivor of a group of women who had a great influence in religious and social work for the Maori race. She was 88.

Mrs Halbert was a daughter of the well-known chief Wi Paraone. She was a staunch worker for the Church of England, and was a second mother to students at Te Rau Theological College, Gisborne. During the First World War she helped Lady Carroll to care for Maori soldiers both at home and abroad.

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Kei te takatu nga iwi o te Motu mo te tira mai o te Kuini. Hei Rotorua ta te Maori tana manaaki i runga ano i a te Maori i ana tikanga. Hei reira ka whakaatu te Maori i tona piripono me tona aroha ki te Karauna he piripono he aroha i tuku iho i nga tipuna mai rana i te Tiriti o Waitangi, i tapaea ra nga mana o nga rangatira i re aroaro o Kapene Hapihana hei tahua ki a Kuini Wikitoria. Ko ta Kuini Wikitiria koha ki te Maori ko te maru o tona haki, me nga ture katoa o tona Emepaea hei painga mo te Maori raua ngatahi ko te Pakeha. Ko ta nga rangatira o aua ra ko te manai tukua e ratou he koha pu ki te Kuini, te Ariki Tapairu o Ingarangi a mana marika e ata tiaki o ratou iwi kei tukino pokonoatia.

Mai rano to te Maori piripono me tona aroha ki te Karauna o Ingarangi te taonga tuku iho i nga tipuna o namata, he taonga na te Atua he taonga wehi whakaharahara. I era taenga mai o nga uri o te Karauna ki Aotearoa nei i puta nga manaaki tino nui a te Maori.

Waihoki ko tenei, e ko te Kuini tonu ra tenei ko te tikanga ara noa atu nga manaaki ma nga iwi o te motu tana tuatahi hoki te tae a tinana mai o Te Kuini tonu. Ko to te Maori puiaki tenei he manaaki manuhiri ara ia te manuhiri penei rawa tona ihi. Hei konei ka puta a te Maori ana mahi; ana haka, ana waiata, ana korero nunui, a ka tapaea ana taonga tapu.

I te tau 1901 i te taenga mai o Te Tiuka raua ko tona hoa wahine ara o Kingi Hori te tuaono raua ko tana kuini ko Meri, ko Ta Timi Kara raua ko Apirana Ngata nga kaihautu na raua i whakahaere nga manaaki wehi ate Maori. Ko nga haka me nga mahi o taua hui mau ana te wehi a ko nga koha ko te mutunga mai o te Maoritanga. Ko te whakaaro nui o nga kaihautu o aua ra he whakaohooho i te wairua haumaruru o te iwi Maori.

E tika ana kia oho te mauri o te iwi ka whakakotahi ki te manaaki i te Kuini. He pai tonu pea te whakapiri atu ki te taha o nga manaaki i waho atu o Waitangi me Rotorua. Ka nui te pai o te mahi tahi a te Maori raua ko te Pakeha ki te whakahaere i nga manaaki a te Motu ki te Kuini, tona tikanga tika.

Ka tae mai te Kuini ka kite kei te noho pai ngaitaua o Totearoa, te Pakeha me te Maori.

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The Queen and the Maori people by the Rt Rev. W. N. Panapa 7
Royal Reception at Rotorua 9
Historic Visit to Waitangi 12
A Royal Visitor in Troubled Times 13
Moutoa, by Kaata 15
Past Royal Visits in Pictures 25
Rangataua Farmers' Club, by W. Ohia 29
The Work of Our Forefathers, by Rora Paki 32
Producing a Play 39
Waiata a Hinewahirangi, by R. T. Kohere 43
O Tatou Ingoa Maori, by R. T. Kohere 44
Whare Iti, by H. H. Martindale 46
The Home Garden, by R. Falconer 47
Crossword Puzzle 48
Maori Personalities in Sport, by Wallie Ingram 49
Women's World, by Beatrice Ashion 52
Short Essays in Maori 57
Tractor Accidents 60
The Farm that Won the Ahuwhenua Cup, by Gordon Mead 63
Special feature in this issue:
The Maori Gave His Best 18

Taken from the official publication, ‘Royalty in New Zealand, 1901’, this material gives a fine picture of the royal reception of that time. It is probable that the larger part of this material was from the pen of the late Sir Apirana Ngata.

The Minister of Maori Affairs: The Hon. E. B. Corbett

The Secretary for Maori Affairs: T. T. Ropiha, i.s.o.

Management Committee: C. J. Stace, ll.b., C. M. Bennett, d.s.o., b.a., dip. ed., dip. soc. sc., J. M. McEwen, ll.b.

Editor: E. G. Schwimmer, m.a.

Sponsored by the Maori Purposes Fund Board

Subscriptions to Te Ao Hou at 7/6 per annum (4 issues) or £1 for three years' supscription at all offices of the Maori Affairs Department, 200 Post Offices in Maori districts and P.O. Box 2390, Wellngton, New Zealand.

Printed in December 1953. Registered at the G.P.O., Wellington, for transmission through the post as a magazine.

published by the maori affairs department

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They are procurable immediately from your local dealer.

Firth Concrete Ltd.

Frankton, Rotorua, Stratford, Hastings, Putaruru, Mt. Maunganui

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Te Kuini Raua ko te Iwi Maori

Kua kake ki te torona ona tipuna he Kuini tamawahine, i te wa e taukumekume ana te Ao, e anga nui mai ana hoki nga take nunui whakahirahira. Na tona kawa tonu, na te mea hoki he uri tipu iha ia, ka whakatapua nei (a, nana ano hoki ia i tapae) ki tona turanga teitei, i tetahi karakia whakawahinga ihiihi mona.

E Haere mai ana ia ki a tatou he Kuini, he Mangai hoki no te Kotahitanga o te Emepaea. Tera tetahi korero a taua a te Maori no mua iho, e ki ana, ki te whakarangatiratia te wahine, ka tutuki te kawa, he tohu pai, ka moai roki-roki te marino, ka ranea nga mea katoa ma tona iwi.

He mea nui tenei hei korerotanga maku i muri tata tonu o nga Pakanga e rua mo te Ao, me te noho weherua o te Ao, ko nga mea o roto, ko nga mea o waho o te Arai-Rino o Ruhia. Kei te ringa tonu o te tangata i raro i te maru o te Atua tona whakamutunga, he whakamarumaru ranei, he whakamomoti ranei. Kaati koa, ahakoa i roto o enei mea katoa, ka here tonu te piripono ka u tonu. No reira ka maiohatia te Kuini, ka panga nga kupu a te iwi, mai no te po:

Kia hora te marino,
Kia whakapapa pounamu te moana,
Kia tere te karohirohi
I mua i tou haunui.

Ko te mea nui kei te hopungia e te hinengaro i runga atu i etahi mea katoa, ko te haere a te Kuini ki Waitangi.

Katahi te raru, katahi hoki te mea kihai e taea e te whakaaro, mehemea i tae mai te kuini ki tenei whenua, engari kaore i peka atu ki tenei wahi tapu. I reira ka motiotia te hitoria o tenei whenua, a ka hiiritia te whanaungatanga o tatou iwi e rua.

Kei ko tata atu o te takutai, he whakahua kau naku i tetahi o nga wahi rongo nui o Pewhairangi, ko Oihi, ko te akau i tu ai a te Hamuera Matenga ki te whakahaere i te karakia Karaitiana tuatahi, a i kauwhau ai ia i ‘te maungarongo hari nui, mo nga tangata katoa’. Ko taua rangi ko te ra o te Kirihimete o te tau 1814. Kaore e tapepa taku ki penei, wahemea kahore tenei, kua kore tetahi atu ra; na, mehemea kahore i tae mai nga Kai-kauwhau-o-te-Rongo-pai, kua kore hoki te Tiriti o Waitangi. He pepeha Maori ta tatou:


The Queen and the Maori People

A young Queen has ascended the throne of her forbears, at a time fraught with great difficulties and faced with vast issues. In her own right and by right of succession, she has been consecrated (and she has consecrated herself) to her exalted office in a deeply religious Coronation Service. She comes to us as our own Queen and Head of the Commonwealth. We have a traditional belief among our Maori people that when a woman takes over the Chieftainship, the cycle is complete, and it spells peace and prosperity for her people. This is a tremendous thing to say following on two world wars, and with a world sharply divided within and without the Iron Curtain. Man's destiny under God lies in his own hand, either for construction or destruction. And yet, despite all this, the conviction persists and remains. And so we shall greet Her Majesty in the traditional words of our people:

Let the calm be widespread,
Let the sea glisten like greenstone,
And let the shimmer of summer dance
Across thy path.

The visit of the Queen to Waitangi, more than any other single event, has captured the imagination of the Maori people. It would have been unthinkable that Her Majesty could visit this country without a pilgrimage to this sacred spot. There, history began in this country, and the relationship sealed as between our two peoples. Further along the coast, to mention only one of the significant spots in Pewhairangi, lies the Oihi beach where Samuel Marsden conducted the first Christian service and delivered his message of ‘good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people’. That was on

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‘Ko te amorangi ki mua, ko te hapai o ki muri.’

Na wai ra, ahakoa i pakangatia i taua wa, a i muri nei ano hoki, i oti taua Kirimina Tapu; a no te ono o nga ra o Pepuere te tau 1840, ka hainatia te Tiriti o Waitangi i waenganui i a Kapitana te Hopihona, me nga ranga tira o te Kotahitanga o te iwi Maori.

He mea whakamiharo ki te hinengaro tenei, te ngakau nui o nga Kaiwhakahaere o te Raipera a Turnbull i Poneke, i whakanohoia ai e ratou tenei kaupapa nui, i runga ano i te ahua tika mo tenei mea rongo nui.

Na, ki o tatou iwi e rua, a ki te iwi Maori motuhake, me korero tenei kupu, a me whakapumau hoki. Ehara i te mea ko te ha o te korero ka whiua ki te mea nui, engari ko te whakatinanatanga o taua ra. He Kuini ke tenei, ko te mokopuna tuatoru a Wikitoria, ko ia te waewae tapu ka takahi i te marae ki Waitangi.

Na te tahuhu korero o te Whare-runanga kei Waitangi i ki, ko tatou katoa ka tae ki reira. Ko te whakahaere poto he whakarite whakamohotanga, ka whakaotia e te karakia whakamoemiti ki te Atua Kaharawa.

Kei te paoho tonu te wairua o te Tiriti o Waitangi, kei te ora te Kirimina Tapu. Ma tatou ma nga iwi e rua e atawhai hei mauri mo tatou, mo naianei a mo nga ra kei te heke mai.

Hei tui i aku korero, lo te ut mo to tatou piripono ki te manawa o to tatou whenua tupu. I te Pakanga Tuatahi, kihai te Maori i whakaaetia kia tu i nga parepare o mua o te riri, ehara i runga i tona hauarea mo taua turanga, engari na te whakaaro tupato kei mate nui ia i nga mea whakahouhou o te pakanga o tenei ra. I te whawhai ka taha ake nei, i tono ia kia tu-a-rite tana riri ki roto tonu o te mura o te ahi, a i purena ki tana i hiahia ai.

Kua ea ranei tana tono kua whai hua a ia ki tenei whenua? Kua utua ranei e ia te utu tika mo tenei taonga piripono ki tona whenua tupu, me tou? Kua wareware ranei nga iwi o Niu Tireni, tangata ma, wahine ma, ki te hohonutanga me te whanuitanga o tenei ngaki i tu ngatahi ai te Pakeha me te Maori i tenei papaatanga ihiihi whakamutunga, mo te taumata o to tatou tika ki to tatou whenua kura?

E haere mai ana to tatou Kuini ki a tatou, ko te tapaiuru matamua o to tatou Emepaea, kororia nui, whakaharahara, hei hiiri i to tatou pumautanga ki te oneone o tenei whenua ataahua. Kia matapopore tatou, kia kake rangatira nga whakaaro, kia atawhai tetahi ki tetahi, kia whiwhi katoa ai tatou i te taonga tuku iho a nga tupuna kia tatou e noho tahi nei i konei.


Christmas Day, 1814. It is not too much to say, that without this the other could not have taken place; that without the influence of the missionaries there would not have been a Treaty of Waitangi. We have a trite Maori saying: ‘Ko te amorangi ki mua, ko te hapai O ki muri’, or The Emblem of Deity to the forefront, and the bearers of food in the rear. And so it was, in the face of opposition then and afterwards, the sacred Pact was made; and on February the 6th, 1840, the Treaty of Waitangi was signed between Captain Hobson as the direct representative of Queen Victoria and the Maori Confederation of Tribes.

It is significant that the authorities of Turnbull Library in Wellington have thought it fit to house this Great Charter in a manner commensurate with its historical importance. And so to our two peoples in general, and the Maori people in particular, let this be said and stressed. It isn't what may be said at Waitangi that matters, but the significance of the occasion itself. Another Queen, the direct mokopuna of Queen Victoria, will set her ‘sacred feet’ (waewae tapu) on the marae at Waitangi. In accordance with the inscription in the Waitangi Meeting House, we shall be there also. The short ceremony of recognition will close with a brief service of Thanksgiving to Almighty God. The spirit of Waitangi lives, the Sacred Pact remains. It is for our two peoples to carry out that spirit into our lives now and in the days to come.

Lastly, there is the price of Citizenship. In the First World War the Maori was denied a place in the front lines, not because he was deemed unworthy, but because of a sentiment that he should be spared the decimation of modern warfare. In this last war he asked for his full share in the forefront of battle, and in this he has been fully indulged. Has he proved a claim to be an asset to this country? Has he paid the price of full citizenship in his own country and yours? Have the civilians of New Zealand, men and women, fully realised the implications of the joint participation of Pakeha and Maori in this last and greatest demonstration of the highest citizenship?

Our Queen comes to us as the First Citizen of our great and glorious Empire, and sets the seal on our full citizenship in this fair land of ours. Let us then be worthy and proud to share in the great and grand heritage that our forbears have handed down to us in this country.

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The lookout in his puhara will shout a warning and three warriors will advance with their taiahas, ready to challenge the ‘intruder’: the most illustrious visitor to step on to any Maori marae. When Her Majesty the Queen picks up the twigs of peace from the grass at Arawa Park, Rotorua, on January 2 next year, it will be the signal for the greatest of Maori welcomes.

More than 15,000 Maori people, it is expected, will be assembled to greet her. They include more than 2000 for whom the Government is providing food and transport and who will be acting as hosts to outside visitors. In addition, 200 Maori leaders have been invited to Rotorua as the Government's guests. For many months on the East Coast, in the Bay of Plenty, at Rotorua and Taupo, and among the Taihauauru people to the west, preparations have been made for the songs and dances with which scores of Maori men and women, boys and young maidens will salute and entertain their sovereign.

Her Majesty will arrive at the park at 2.45 p.m. and her car will halt at the end of a long arena, made by uniting the ‘straight’ and the lawns before the grandstands. There she will be greeted by the Minister of Maori Affairs, and presented with a bouquet by a Maori girl. Then, following the challenge and the acceptance of the people, she will advance slowly up the lawn while 140 warriors of Te Arawa and Ngati-Tuwharetoa perform three war dances: Uhi uhi mai te waero, a peruperu; Koia ano koia ano, and waikurekure ha. They will be

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succeeded by Te Arawa singing Utaina and toia mai te waka.

The Queen will now have reached the dais at the end of the lawn. When she takes her seat there, she will be given a morocco-bound programme which will explain to her all the songs and dances she is to see, and provide her with an English translation of the words.

Five of the paramount chiefs will then advance to the dais carrying a carved box containing the Maori people's address of welcome. As they come, the performers at the sides will chant a pokeka. Mr Corbett will take the address and read it to Her Majesty, and the Bishop of Aotearoa, the Rt. Rev. W. N. Panapa, will read it in Maori.

The Tuwharetoa people on the platform below Her Majesty's dais will then thunder into their war dance: Te aea o ia rangi. Chiefs will come forward with gifts for the Queen, and the chiefs themselves will then be presented to Her Majesty. The Queen will reply to the address of welcome, and the official part of the programme will close with 300 girls performing a combination poi dance.

Then, for 20 minutes, the Matatua people of Whakatane, the Ngati-Porou people from the East Coast, and the Taihauauru people, will entertain their Royal guest with action songs, hakas and dances. The ceremony will conclude with all parties joining in a great massed haka.

PREPARATIONS: This short ceremony before Her Majesty will represent the culmination of months of enthusiastic work by the performers and the Rotorua Maori Reception Committee under the chairmanship of Major H. R. Vercoe.

When the Arawa, Mataatua and Ngati-Tu-wharetoa people undertook to act as hosts at the Rotorua reception they knew that the task would not be easy. They knew that every little detail would have to be properly planned and prepared so that nothing should mar the final ceremony. They have entered into this work with the greatest of enthusiasm, and have given the utmost assistance and co-operation to those of their people whom they have elected to the Reception Committee. The work of this committee has been divided among sub-committees, and these have been able to call on the assistance of many willing helpers.

CEREMONIAL AND ENTERTAINMENT: The Ceremonial and Entertainment sub-committee has decided on the detail of the actual ceremony and entertainment to take place at Arawa Park. Meetings with tribal representatives throughout the district have been held, and these have laid the foundation for the final form of the ceremony. Hundreds of Maoris, men and women, young and not so young, have been busy practising their dances and songs for many months. They will all be assembled in Rotorua a few days before the actual reception, so that they can practise together on the marae which has been constructed on Arawa Park.

ACCOMMODATION AND SUPPLIES: The first big problem was to decide where to accommodate the performers and the official guests during the three or four days they were to be in Rotorua. The official intimation had been that a camp would not be erected on Arawa Park as for previous receptions to members of the Royal Family. It was finally decided to accept the offer of those maraes near Rotorua and Rotoiti to make their accommodation available for the visitors. Each of these maraes has set up a committee, to be responsible for the well-being of its visitors, and to co-operate with the Reception Committee in matters relating to transport, food and tentage.

All visitors to Rotorua will be expected to bring their own blankets and cutlery with them. It has not been found possible to obtain sufficient quantities of these articles to provide for the expected number of visitors. On each marae temporary dining rooms and cookhouses are being constructed and temporary water supplies are being laid on for the tented areas. The Army Department has been closely cooperating with the Reception Committee, and has made large quantities of tents, palliasses, cookhouse equipment and other essential camping items available for the period that visitors will be accommodated on the maraes. The Reception Committee proposes to accommodate the visiting performers and guests at the following maraes:

1 Whakarewarewa Tuwharetoa.
2 Ohinemutu 200 official guests and people from Ngati-Raukawa and Ngati-Poneke.
3 Owhata Taranaki and Wanganui.
4 Pikirangi Waimana, Waiotahi, and Kutarere.
5 Ruamata Tauranga, Motiti, Patuwai and Pukehina.
6 Takinga Ngati-Porou and section
7 Kahu of the Tuhoe people
8 Parua from Ruatoki.
9 Ruato Whakatohea.
10 Uenuku Ngaitai, Ngatiawa, and Whanau-Apanui.
11 Awahou Waitaha and Ngati-Rangiwewehi.

The feeding of all these visitors during the holiday season has been made easier by the

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helpfulness of the local wholesale merchants and the management of the Horotiu Freezing Works. Fresh meat and butter will be delivered each day to the host maraes, and there will be no shortages of bread and other groceries. Several tons of potato seed were planted early in the year at various places in the Bay of Plenty with the assistance of the Maori Affairs Department, and the crop will go a long way towards providing for the needs of the various maraes.

TRANSPORT: The 200 official Government guests and the performers will be brought to their host maraes by train and bus under arrangement made by the Transport Sub-Committee. On the day of the reception they will be taken to the park and returned later to their maraes, and on the two following days they will be transported back to their homes. The transporting of these people from such a wide area will be difficult, but the sub-committee feels sure that it will have everybody in the right place at the right time.

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Mr J. H. Grace, organiser of Maori reception.
(Publicity Studios Photograph

BUILDINGS: The Buildings Sub-Committee has two main tasks: that of preparing Arawa Park for the Reception, and that of making and erecting the temporary accommodation required on the host maraes.

The front panels of an old meeting-house have been cleaned and repaired, and will be erected to form the entrance to the marae on Arawa Park.

In addition to the existing grandstands on the Park, temporary stands large enough to hold between 5000 and 6000 people are being built. The marae will be bounded on three sides by large grandstands, and the Royal dais will be at the other end of the marae, facing the entrance gate.

With the large number of performers and spectators expected at the reception, provision is being made for them by providing food stalls on the Park. The St. John Ambulance Brigade will be in attendance at the Park, and will be staffing the First Aid posts which are being erected at various points.

From all parts of the country the Maori people will flock to Rotorua. It will be not only a great gathering of the people, but a great opportunity for the strengthening of interest and enthusiasm in Maori dancing and singing. Between 1500 and 2000 will be performing. In the weeks ahead these expressions of their culture will take on new importance in their lives, and for the thousands—Maori and pakeha—who watch them, and for the millions more who will see them in action on cinema screens and television viewers, it will be the greatest display of our singing and dancing ever made.

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The Queen's Visit to Waitangi Treaty House on December 28, although short, will be of particular symbolic importance. British Sovereignty of these islands began at Waitangi; the Treaty House will bring before the Queen's mind how this Sovereignty was established. The honour of welcoming her will be shared, as is appropriate, by the same parties who met together in 1840; the Navy and the Maori people.

The programme of the welcome was arranged in the office of the Hon, E. B. Corbett, Minister of Maori Affairs, in consultation with a committee consisting of Mr W. A. Lindsay, manager of the Waitangi Trust Board; Mr C. A. Furlong, deputy-director of the Royal Tour; Mr J. T. Henare, representing the Northern Maori people; Captain M. L. Hardie, D.S.C., R.N., representing the Royal New Zealand Navy; Mr J. H. Grace, organiser of the Maori Reception; and Mr R. E. Stone, secretary of the Waitangi Trust Board.

The Royal Party will be met at the gate of the Treaty House reserve by the Hon. E. B. Corbett, Mr Riri Maihi Kawiti and Mr Vernon Reed, who will be presented to the Queen. This will be at 3.30 p.m. on Monday, December 28. A powhiri will follow, and the party will be escorted by Maori women from the gate to the bridge over the haha. The Hon. E. B. Corbett, Mrs Corbett, and Mr Kawiti will remain at the bridge, where the Queen will be met by Captain Hardie. When Her Majesty reaches the haha bridge, the naval guard will give the Royal Salute, the band will play the National Anthem, the Royal Standard will be broken, and after the firing of twenty-one guns by H.M.N.Z.S. Black Prince, Her Majesty will inspect the guard.

After this, at 3.43 p.m., according to the time schedule, the Maori welcome will begin, consisting of a wero, with two sticks, and the men's hakas. The Royal Party will then be seated in a position facing the Maori people. One European citizen and one Maori chief are to give short speeches. Five minutes will then be given to the presenting of Maori chiefs to the Queen. A short religious service will follow, after which Her Majesty and party will move to the Treaty House for afternoon tea. Arrival at the Treaty House is scheduled for 4.02 p.m. At 4.30 the Party will leave for Whangarei.

The committee organising the Maori gathering consists of Rev. Rangi Rogers (chairman), Messrs J. T. Henare (secretary), Hone Heke Rankin, Kahi Hadfield, Eru Pou and other Maori welfare officers.

Financial support given to the function totalled £1400, of which £500 was provided by the Maori Purposes Fund Board and the rest by the Government. This amount will meet transport costs of haka parties, hire and transport of marquees and various works in the camp.

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Members of the Waitangi Maori Reception Committee: From left to right, Hone Heke Rankin, Member of the Board of Maori Affairs; Heme Henare, a former Commanding Officer of the Maori Battalion, and now District Welfare Officer for Tokerau; and Rev. Ranginohoora Rogers, Chairman of the Tokerau District Council.
Photos: National Publicity Studios

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1869 Old newspapers give fascinating glimpses of
A Royal Visitor
Troubled Times

‘Be assured that the Queen will receive with no little satisfaction the account of my reception amongst you, proving as it does that her feelings towards her Maori subjects are met on their part by the most devoted and loyal attachment to Herself, her Throne and Family.’

These Words of Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, were spoken in reply to a loyal address from Maori chiefs who had welcomed him as he sailed into Wellington Harbour aboard the Galatea in 1869.

The first Royal Visit to New Zealand occurred in dark times: King Tawhiao and Te Kooti were both still under arms. While the Prince was in New Zealand fighting was in full swing.

During the Prince's visit King Tawhiao made some moves to meet him, but too many difficulties stood in the way. The Duke of Edinburgh received tokens of profound loyalty and attachment from the loyal tribes. At Wellington, a welcome and loyal address were given him by Ngati-Toa, Ngati-Awa, Ngati-Raukawa, Whanganui, Ngati-Kahungunu, Ngati-Porou. Maori chiefs from all parts of the Island also met him in Auckland, at a large Government House reception.

By browsing through old newspapers it is possible to obtain entertaining glimpses of this first Royal Visit and the way the Duke was welcomed by the Maori warriors of that time. Let us look, for instance, at the files of the Wellington Independent and read the report of the Wellington welcome.

Representatives of the loyal tribes had gathered at Wellington wharf to welcome the Duke. These tribes had supported the British Queen throughout the wars, and suffered many casualties in her service. The first meeting with a representative of the Royal Family was a great event to them. This was in the times when European influence had not yet softened down the ferocity of the welcome haka. How the Maori welcome to the Prince appeared to the Europeans present is eloquently described in the Wellington Independent of April 13, 1869:


‘We are all standing in suspense when suddenly the boom of the Galatea's gun is heard. It is the salute for the Duke, who is about to leave the Royal vessel. All is now expectation. The Maori band who face the edge of the wharf begin to move their arms and limbs, the rest of us press forward to get good places. Nearer and nearer comes the sailor Prince. The excitement of the Maoris becomes uncontrollable. They gesticulate, they dance, they throw their weapons wildly in the air, while they yell like fiends let loose. But all this fierce yelling is of the most friendly character. They are bidding the Duke welcome. “Haere mail Haere mail” they yell and the boat's crew seem profoundly puzzled to know what on earth they mean.’

On the night of the Prince's arrival there was a grand civic ball in his honour. All Wellington's notables were present: the number of dancers was such that there was no hall in Wellington large enough to accommodate them. The halls of the Legislative Council and the House of Representatives were therefore appropriated for the purpose. It is interesting to see how the Maori chiefs joined with the pakeha in entertaining the Duke of Edinburgh

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at this ball. The Wellington Independent has this to say:

‘The speech for the Maoris at this ball was delivered by Wi Tako. Many leading chiefs and their wives attended and it is due to them to say that they behaved with the utmost propriety — some of them joining in the dances in a way which would not have disgraced any ballroom in the world. Wi Tako's wife had her little baby with her, and although it was only a few months old, it behaved admirably and never caused the least annoyance.’

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Te Rangihiwinui, known as Major Kemp.


Tamihana Te Rauparaha and fifteen other chiefs were invited to visit Prince Alfred on his ship, the Galatea. This visit is described in Tamihana's own words, in a letter to the Independent:

‘On gaining the deck we saluted the Queen's Flag. The Prince then met us and led us over his ship; but who can speak of the great excellence of this ship. After this, we went to see his room. It glittered like the rainbow arched in the sky. We sat down to dinner with the Prince. After we had finished, Mr Cooper (Native Secretary), said: ‘Tamihana, present the Motoi Kahurangi named Kaitangata to the Duke.’ I then gave him the greenstone, and with it an account of how it had descended to me. After I had given this greenstone of so great a name, there was no strength left in my body. When we took leave of the Prince he presented to each of us his own likeness.’


It had become known that the grand reception of the Maori chiefs by the Duke of Edinburgh was to take place at Government House in Auckland. This gave the tribes in many parts of New Zealand about a month to organise parties to travel to Auckland. Here many chiefs, some from as far south as Whanganui, gathered in May for the Duke's arrival.

The Auckland newspaper of the time, the Southern Cross, gives an interesting description of Prince Alfred's meeting with the assembled tribes. The Maoris were allowed the honour of escorting the Royal gig to land, when the Galatea appeared in Auckland harbour on May 10:

When suggesting this proceeding, the chiefs said, ‘Why should you pakehas go out to meet the Prince? We all know you are glad he has come. He is a pakeha and so are you pakehas. It is for us Maoris to go out in our canoes, according to Maori custom, and welcome the pakeha Prince to our shores.’

Two large canoes, fully manned, put off to the Galatea from the Wynyard Pier. The first was the wakataua known as Toki-a-Tapiri, which was manned by 60 of the Ngati-whatua and Rarawa, under their chiefs, Reihana and Taiawhio. The second was the canoe Ngapuhoro, which contained 50 of the Ngati-paoa under Hetaraka Takapuna, and Hoera Te Wharepunga. A third canoe also put off, named Te Tuatara, which was manned by 70 of the Ngati-paoa under their chief Te Ngohipaki. The heads of the Natives were decorated with feathers, and as they paddled out towards the Galatea their appearance was picturesque in the extreme. The Ngati-Paoa canoes bore the British Ensign at the bows and stern, and the figure-heads were effectively decorated with feathers. The stern-posts were highly carved and embellished.

On May 14, chiefs from Whanganui, Waikato, Tauranga, East Coast, Mercury Bay, Hauraki, Tokerau and Upper Thames assembled on the lawn in front of Government House. The flag presented to the Whanganui Maoris in 1864 as a reward for their heroism on the island of Moutoa was borne by Meiha Keepa, and occupied a prominent position at the extreme left of the assembly.

Loyal addresses were delivered and priceless heirlooms from all over the North Island were presented to the Duke. The Duke left New Zealand after a few weeks in Auckland. His visit was regarded by many as a ray of light in the darkness of the times.

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Photo: K. Newton

Among the Many Historic Maori Flags which have been unfurled on important and significant occasions is ‘Moutoa’, which made its first appearance before Royalty at Auckland in 1869, when Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh (the ‘sailor son’ of Queen Victoria and her Consort) visited New Zealand.

The flag, of considerable import to Whanganui, now rests in Alexander Museum, and commemorates a pitched battle between hostile Hauhau and a defending Maori force which withstood the threat of the former to drive the Europeans from the settlement and into the sea. The action was fought on the lozengeshaped island of Moutoa, some 45 miles up river from the present city.

‘Moutoa’ was taken to Auckland on that occasion by the redoubtable Major Kemp (Keepa Te Rangihiwinui) and a detachment of his fighting men who joined in the greeting to the Royal visitor. Again, at the turn of the century, ‘Moutoa’ was seen at Rotorua, during the tremendous Maori reception in 1901 to the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and York, who were later to become King George V and Queen Mary.

With the visit by Queen Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh scheduled for Whanganui early next January it is likely that ‘Moutoa’ will fly again, waving overhead its message of loyalty, and unfurling memories of stirring, anxious and unpredictable days.

Historic Battle

Early in May, 1864, information reached the inhabitants of Whanganui that a taua, led by the fanatic prophet Matene Rangitauira, was on its way to attack the river settlement. A force of defenders was rapidly assembled, and left the township in five canoes, commanded by Kereti te Hiwitahi, Hemi Nape (both later slain in the battle), Riwai te Atua, Mete Kingi and Apereniko. Reinforcements were gathered at Pamoana—a famous river stronghold near Koriniti (Corinth).

Well up river, negotiations in Maori fashion between the opposing forces were opened, and it was decided that they meet to the death on Moutoa Island the following day—May 14, 1864.

The island is said to be a part of Taranaki, which broke from his flank as he drew the deep gorges of the Whanganui riverbed on his flight from the wrath of Tongariro and Ruapehu after he had failed to abduct Pihanga, Tongariro's wife.

The battle on Moutoa Island surged so much in favour of the hostile force in its early stages that victory was within an ace of the Hauhau's grasp. A rally led by Tamehana te Aewa, Haimona Hiroti and Mete Kingi with reinforcements saved the day, and the raiders, variously estimated at from 118 to 300 strong, were routed by the original 100 of the force—nearly 400 strong—who were put on the island to meet the first assault. Hauhau losses were between 50 and 80, with as many wounded, and the Wha-

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nganui force suffered 14 killed and about 30 wounded.

One unusual incident of the engagement reported at the time was the use of chloroform by a doctor of the 57th Regiment, during an operation to amputate the badly wounded leg of the Whanganui man of rank, Tamehana. But perhaps the most amazing features of the clash were that it lasted only 15 minutes, and that when rank met opposing rank the riflemen shot at targets only inches away from them.

After the battle the women in the Whanganui district raised funds from which were purchased materials to make the flag, and clothing, and food. The flag was later presented to the survivors of the Whanganui force, and a distribution of the clothing and food was made to the families of all who participated in the action. Independent and individual gifts were made by residents of the town to their Maori friends. Presents of tobacco seemed to be among those most readily acceptable.

In addition, a memorial was built by public subscription to commemorate the battle, and the column, with its superlative inscription, rears high and proud in Moutoa Gardens, adjacent to the city's courts of justice.

The flag is made of white silk and oversewn with a Union Jack in the upper left canton and a gold crown in the centre, while underneath are displayed a European and a Maori hand clasped in friendship.

‘Moutoa’ was presented to the museum authorities 40 years after it was made and given, with full honours and ceremony, tribute and gratitude, to those who had defended with their lives the struggling river settlement. For many years it was in the safekeeping of the Mete Kingi family, and from them it passed into public possession.

The flag has been used on various occasions and flown in Moutoa Gardens, and it has paid its own silent tribute to Major Kemp and other notable Whanganui chieftains as it lay draped over their funeral caskets.

In this article an attempt has been made to outline the story of an historic flag and the event it commemorates. Elsewhere in New Zealand flags are known to exist with equally important historical backgrounds.

Before it is too late, before history itself perishes with these tribal and other emblems, could the author, through Te Ao Hou, make a plea that further flag histories be gathered and recorded with appropriate diagram, description and story?

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Manuscripts are invited from Maori groups and individuals to compete for the first TE AO HOU LITERARY PRIZES to be awarded on March 1 of next year.

Two prizes of ten guineas each will be awarded for the best stories received at this office by February 1. One of the prizes will be for a story in English, the other for a story in Maori.

The judges will be: Mr W. Parker, Mr E. Nepia and Miss M. Petricevich.

Stories must have a length of about 2,000 to 3,000 words. They may have any subject based on life in a Maori community in country, town or city at the present day, or in the recent past. Persons and places may be either true or fictional.

Apart from the two winning entries, the most suitable stories submitted will be published in Te Ao Hou and paid for at normal rates. Certificates will be issued to the winners of the competition, and also for the best entry from each district council of Maori Women's Welfare Leagues and from adult education groups, in each of the adult education provinces.

It is hoped that the stories will help to increase awareness of what Maori life to-day really is; such awareness will undoubtedly be of the greatest help for the future.

Send manuscripts to: The Editor, Te Ao Hou, P.O. Box 2390, Wellington.


HEI TE 5 O NGA ra o te Maehe e tu mai nei ka tukua te paraehe mo te Whakataetae Tuhituhi tuatahi a Te Ao Hou. Na reira e te iwi manaakitia tenei whakaaro o ta tatou pepa.

E rua nga paraehe £10 10s. i te mea kotahi ka tukua ki nga tangata tino marama ta raua na whakatakoto i te tuhi o te korero a kia tae mai aua tuhituhi ki tenei tari a te 1 o nga ra o Pepuere. Kotahi te paraehe mo tetahi tuhituhi reo Maori a kotahi mo te tuhi Pakeha.

Ko nga Tiati mo tenei whakataetae ko Mr W. Parker, ko Mr E. Nepia a ko Miss M. Petricevich.

Kia 2000 ki te 3000 kupu te roa o ia tuhituhi. Ko te kaupapa o te korero me haere i runga i te noho a te Maori i tuawhenua i nga taone ranei a te noho ranei a te Maori i nga ra o na tata ake nei. Kei nga kaituhi te whakaaro me korero purakau noa nga korero me korero tika tonu ranei.

Ko nga korero e whiwhi ki te paraehe ka panuitia ki Te Ao Hou a ka utua nga kaituhi ka whakawhiwhia hoki nga toa o tenei whakataetae ki te tiwhikete honore raua me nga kaituhi o nga ropu penei me to Nga Wahine Maori Toko i te Ora, Ropu whakaakoako mahi mo te hunga pakeke me era atu ropu e raroto a ratou na korero ki nga tiati.

Ko te tumanako ma nga mahi me tenei whakataetae tuhituhi e whakaatu te noho tuturu a te Maori hei matakitaki ma te tangata toena pea tona hua o enei tu mahi.

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The Maori Gave His Best
Visit of T.R.H. the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and York

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Visitors to the Maori Reception, 1901 Photo: Turnbull Library



Early in March of the year 1901, the Hon. James Carroll, Native Minister, issued a circular to the chiefs and Maori tribes throughout the North and South Islands, calling upon them to meet at Rotorua in the month of June to welcome their Royal Highnesses the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and York, then about to leave England on a tour of the Colonies. As early as April negotiations were commenced for transport by horse, coach, rail and steamer. Men, young and old, and even women, sought temporary employment to earn a few pounds to take them to the land of Waiariki, for the moment made doubly attractive by the projected visit of Royalty. Chants that emphasized the points of a weighty speech in the runangahouse, short ditties that maidens carolled forth about the pa, war-songs that fired the hearts of warriors on the march—these were heard through the length and breadth of Te Ika-a-Maui, Maori poets vieing one with another to compose songs suitable for the occasion. Dainty fingers played deftly with raupo, and evolved the poi-ball. Old, scarred warriors waxed wrathful in heated debate over ancient wardances to be used in mimic warfare at Rotorua, the almost obsolete ‘peruperu’ that were wont to awake echoes in the New Zealand forests in the fighting-days of the past. Once more the Maori lived in the past. For a brief space the edge of the heavy curtain that screened it was raised, old memories revived, old chords were touched anew, and hearts thrilled and vibrated to the weird music of the dead ages.

This fascinating account of the Maori display given during the visit of Royalty to Rotorua in 1901 is taken from a very long account in Royalty in New Zealand, 1901 by J. A. Loughnan. There is evidence that a large part of the text reproduced below was written not by Mr Loughnan, but by Sir Apirana Ngata. We believe it is an important, if unknown part of his literary inheritance.


The Maori was—as the Duke had requested he might be when His Royal Highness should have the pleasure of seeing him—on his own ground; what is more, he was managing his own ground. It was the beginning of a new era, the keystone of which was that in his own capacity for improvement lay the future hope of

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the race. He was developing that capacity at Rotorua, and it was not the first time, as those familiar with his history know.

He laid off the camp, and regulated the building and the water-supply. He made the rules for its government, and the arrangements for their observance, finding a force equal to all requirements. He supplied the sanitary regulations, and saw that they were neither misunderstood nor evaded. All the authorities were of his own choosing, and all the experts were of his own race. The result was that with five thousand people (in round figures) in camp for a week or ten days there was no sickness, no discontent, no disorder, and not one case of drunkenness.


As it appeared within one week after the arrival of the first party—the Ngati-Kahungunu from Wairarapa and Hawke's Bay—the encampment formed a great semi-circle on the eastern side of the racecourse, midway between the township of Rotorua and Whakarewarewa. It was separated by a very wide belt of very short manuka scrub from a cleared space of ground in front of the Royal grandstand. The one wide and long street was flanked on either side by many scores of tents, and by large raupo whares; and from the main avenue there branched off various small lanes, forming the divisions between the camps of the different tribes. Some tribes were housed in large marquees; others were detached in sections, like a regiment of soldiers in a line, or a square of bell tents; others made themselves at home in the familiar raupo huts; and all were merry and good-tempered, in spite of the drizzling rain and the sulphurous gases that pervade the atmosphere of these regions at all hours, and are particularly offensive in the witching hours of night, just when creation seems to pause a space before ushering in the ever-recurring miracle of dawn.

An executive committee was formed by Sir James Carroll to advise him on all the more important questions pertaining to the control of the camp, and the arrangements for the grand display, and to make known his wishes to the assembled tribes. To them all doubtful points were referred. The staff consisted of Hone Heke, Member of Parliament for the Northern Maori electoral district; Te Heuheu Tukino, chief of the Ngati-Tuwharetoa; Hone Omipi, of the Ngati-Maniapoto, a man of advanced and progressive views; Ru Rewiti, of Ngapuhi, a scion of the great Pomare family, and husband of Wikitoria Taitoko, daughter of the late Te Keepa Taitoko (Major Kemp), of Whanganui; and Apirana T. Ngata, of the Ngati-Porou of the East Coast, a graduate of the University of New Zealand, and the organizer of the Young Maori Party of reform. These supplied the directing power of the organization of the camp.

There was an abundant supply of pure water, brought in pipes from the Rotorua system, with taps at various central points numerous enough to enable the occupant of every tent and ‘whare’ to supply his wants with no more trouble than the walk of a few steps with a bucket. The arrangements were all carefully overhauled every day, waste was strictly prevented, and instructions were issued—and obeyed—to boil all water before use.

All refuse in camp was buried every day in places especially set apart, and in manner specifically ordered. There was a liberal supply of disinfectants, which were freely served out and used. The other sanitary arrangements were adequate, and the camp was free of nuisances of every kind. All cooking was done in appointed places, and most of it in the wholesome Maori manner.

The camp was always clean and fresh at every tent and whare, whether by day, when the blankets were rolled up neatly and the tents and ‘whares’ swept and garnished, or by night, when the people were abed. Liquor was not allowed to be brought in by the Maori. Hawkers and peddlars were prohibited, and

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The Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and York during their New Zealand visit.
Photo: Turnbull Library

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roaming dogs were all seized, tied up, and fed till claimed by their owners.

Every morning at 6 o'clock the bugle sounded the Reveille, and there were services in various parts according to the rites of various denominations. From that moment the camp lived by rule: Breakfast at 8 (brought from the ‘hangis’); dinner at 1; tea at 5; and lights out at 11 p.m.

Lastly, for the enforcement of these regulations there was an elaborate list of penalties. Most of these were doubled in the case of repetition of the offence for which they were provided. The heaviest of all was deprivation of the right to see the Duke during the whole or part of his stay at Rotorua.

Looking into the sleeping-places, if you were privileged to walk around with Dr Pomare and Mr W. W. Hipango—full of responsibility—you saw the mirror of civilisation in abundan-

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Sir James Carroll, moving spirit behind the Maori reception. Photo: Turnbull Library

ce, and the comb and brush of cleanliness appeared to be the rule, not the exception. Various little knick-knacks drew attention to improvised toilet-tables; sheeting was by no means rare, neither were mats and other contrivances for coming between the ground and the foot of Maori nobility. Hangings were not infrequent, and decorations (of flower and foliage for the most part) were both abundant and graceful, telling unmistakably of dainty fingers, and eyes instinctively appreciative of form and colour.

The large number of Maoris coming from all parts met without friction (despite the provocations of tradition and recent wars); settled quietly to discipline without hesitation, and at their departure took with them to every part of Maoridom the principles of sanitary practice which have helped to secure the preservation of the race. It was a great opportunity for the Native Minister, for Dr Pomare, for the Young Maori party, and all concerned.


There was a curious mingling of the old and new. Deeply tattooed warriors, some of whom had witnessed a cannibal feast, rubbed noses with young men who rode bicycles and pounded the big drum in the brass band. In dress an effective compromise was effected. Over a creaseless frock coat fresh from the hands of the pakeha tailor a Maori mat was thrown, and a belltopper surmounted the combination. A high-born lady decked in silk of bright hues yet wore a ‘piupiu’ round her waist and a ‘heitiki’ round her neck. It was one huge fancy ball, full of fantastic anachronisms characteristic of a time of transition. The past was revived, and mingled with stately dignity in the whirl of the present, seeking to grasp the bewildering changes that a century of contact with civilisation had effected.

The sound of rehearsing was heard from early morning till far into the night. The large circus-tent that served as central rununga-house and town hall was engaged by each tribe in succession for the practice of its ‘peruperu’, ‘Haka’ or ‘poi’. In the early morning, before morning prayer and breakfast, the wardance parties, armed with ‘taiaha’ or ‘koikoi’, held practice in the cleared spaces among the manuka south-east of the camp, where experts keenly watched the ‘tutu-waewae’ or step, and the close ranks rent the still air with mad shouts in the wild excitement of the ‘peruperu’. Each tribe was careful to conceal the peculiarities of step and gesture on which it depended for success in the friendly competition with other tribes. The wiry Ngapuhi from the north were less jealous, for twice every day,

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when the weather and the ceremonies of the camp permitted, their ranks were formed at one end of the main avenue. There they crouched on the ground awaiting the challenge or ‘wero’, when presently a half-naked warrior leapt into the open with ‘taiaha’ at the charge, and as he turned the ‘taua’ or war-party rose, and with fierce yells gave chase. In their large marquee the combined men of the East Coast—the Ngati-Kahungunu, the Ngati-Porou and kindred tribes—held regular practice, once in the morning and once in the evening till nearly midnight. For hours the rehearsing of songs and postures would go on, and many a wild refrain was chorused to the accompaniment of resounding slaps, in unison, on the bodies of the ‘ope’. The arrival of visitors was the occasion for full-dress rehearsals out in the main avenue, by three or more parties in succession, while the observant spectators criticized the step and action of each, and turned aside into their tents to compare notes. Far into the night—for the special trains from Auckland did not arrive till a little before 9 o'clock—‘ngeri’ (weird songs) and the ‘heriheri-kai’ were heard, as parties from each division of the camp, with food for the fresh arrivals, wended their way to the central marquee, the receiving-tent. A foretaste of the feast of song and dance that would be spread before the eyes of Royalty was daily vouchsafed to the curious visitor.

And so, for nearly two weeks, the rehearsals went on. There was a babel of sounds, a constant repetition of ‘haka’ and song with fierce action, until every movement was perfect, and the choruses attained the highest possible volume of sound. There was no tiring, no consideration for personal ailments and inconvenience; for was not the honour of a great tribe at stake?


On June 14, at ten o'clock, the Royal coach started for Ohinemutu. The welcome party here was lead by Pokiha Taranui, of the Ngati-Pikiao, known better to the pakeha as Major Fox, carrying the sword of honour—a large, handsome claymore—presented to him by Queen Victoria for his brilliant services.

Kneeling, facing the Duke and Duchess, they swung their weapons in perfect time, chanting in perfect unison together, the chiefs marching up and down in front of the lines leading the measure with martial gesture. Old Pokiha brandished his claymore, and they shouted their words with stentorian power and unanimous emphasis.

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After the ceremony, the tribal presents were offered by Pirini Mataiawhea. The Duke and Duchess bowed low, and the Duke thanked the Arawa warmly for their gifts. Strolling back between the lines of the warriors, Their Royal Highnesses found old Pokiha seated on a chair, his exertions having been too much for him. The veteran at once stood to attention, and was presented. In the course of conversation he handed over his bright sword of honour for the visitors to admire, and when the Duchess, in her kindly way, found fault with him for

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Pohika Taranui (Major Fox)

coming out from his sickroom into the rigorous weather at his time of life, he proudly declared that his love for the Royal Family was so great he could not stay at home. No empty phrase this, for in a few weeks the loyal old soldier was dead.

He, too, made his present to the Duke, an ancient, elaborately carved ‘toki’ (adze) with greenstone blade, handing it to the Royal visitor with stately grace. The Duke, who was wearing in his hat a huia feather presented to him on his arrival at Tama-te-Kapua, accepted the ‘toki’ with cordial thanks, and kept it in his hand, not putting it with the heap of presents made by the tribe. The Duke wore the feather and carried the ‘toki’ throughout the Rotorua celebrations, the Maoris greatly appreciating this respect for the badge of chieftainship and for the weapon of many traditions.


The brawny warriors were in full war costume, their own buff relieved by the ‘piupiu’ round the waist, white ‘toroa’ feathers in their hair — all but the Ngati-Porou, who were in their white, purple and black. Their arms were spears, ‘taiahas’, ‘koikois’, ‘tewhatewha’, and ‘meres’. The chiefs, in characteristic array of rich feather cloaks and huia plume, carrying their ancient weapons proudly, were the great martial figures of the pageant.

In front of all, in the space between the pageantry and the stand, was seated the venerable figure of the veteran Pokiha Taranui wrapped warmly in rugs; on his shoulders a rich cloak of feathers, on which his full beard descended picturesquely, his head covered with a fur cap; at his side his great ‘taiaha’, ornamented with feathers and dogskin, his sword of honour in its red scabbard across his knees. On one side of him was the handsome model of Arawa canoe, which, with other gifts lying upon it, he was to present later on to the Duke, and on the other side stood his wife in rich feather mat and ‘piupiu’, with feathers in her hair. The ‘painful warrior famoused for fight’ sitting there broken and spent, waiting for the son of his King, gave a finishing pathetic touch to the scene.

The tribes gave the Duke their best in wardance, ‘haka’, ‘waiata’, ‘powhiri’, ‘poi’, and every dance and chant of their elaborate ceremonial of welcome. The manhood of Maoridom went through their dances, doing justice in whole-souled fashion to their various moods. They gave all the war-cries of their race, many ancient ‘waiatas’, laments on the death of the Queen, and verses composed for the occasion. ranging over a variety of subjects: war, welcome, politics; the relations of the races; loyalty to the Throne. In vehement, athletic action, frankness, detestation of the enemy, humour, pathos, courtesy, generosity of sentiment, and facility of expression, it was a splendid display of Maori manhood. The graceful ‘poi’ girls on the other side, a spectacle abounding in rhythmic accord of movement, in elegance of rippling words, in brightness of colour, in halo of twirling raupo balls, was a beautiful presentation of Maori womanhood. This mixture of martial manhood and feminine grace made a scene the like of which will never be seen in New Zealand again. Some invisible hand moved those masses of colour with kaleidoscopic rapidity, keeping the living picture ever restless, vibrating at one moment with the quiver of the ‘pois’, at another with the fierce whirl of brandished spears. Now the scene was dominated by coy glances from soft dark eyes and fascinating

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smiles, and now the leading note was of warriors frowning savagely in mimic war. Love succeeded battle, and war gave way to mirth, each time changing the broad face of the scene in a twinkling; and then the frenzied ranks subdued their wild song and action to the moderate stateliness of the ‘haka’ — ‘finest physical drill in the world’, as one of the soldiers in the Duke's suite put it — with military enthusiasm. And ever amid the yells of the ‘peruperu’ and the triumphant chorus of the ‘haka’, ever amid the broad humour of the chants and the playful musical phrases of the women, there was a note of sadness woven into the restless fabric of sound, just as the tone of mourning ran right through the ever-changing masses of colour. It was the ‘irirangi’, as the Maori calls it, growing fainter as the martial cries rose in volume, only to return as they fell away; and as the other sounds decreased it rose higher and higher, until it became the pervading wail of the tribes, the song of mourning for the Great Queen, the ‘tangi’ that every section in its turn raised with mournful cadence and sorrowful expression.


One of the great events of the day, this ceremony began very unceremoniously. An ancient warrior, leaving the ranks of his ‘taua’, marched solemnly up to the rail of the stand, flung a big flax mat, yellow and brown, and rustling, over the rail in front of the Royal Party, turned without further sign, and marched grimly back to his station. But no one had time to reflect other than that the reality of this very prompt politeness was greater than its appearance; for at once a stream of presents set in with a rush from all sides — mats, cloaks of fur and feather and flax, ‘piupiu’ and ‘korowai’ floated up in willing hands, and were piled in front of Their Royal Highnesses. The donors approached, making smiling obeisance, deposited their presents, throwing in a pleasant word of goodwill, and, departing, made a stream of diverging figures which, mingling with the stream of present-laden people converging on the grand-stand, filled the space in front of the ‘marae’ with a dense, hurrying crowd.

The feathers of these mats and cloaks were of the weka, the pigeon, and the kaka. The flax was made up in many ways, and the skin of the Maori dog (kuri), extinct for forty years, was much in evidence. The weapons were of a emery kind—ancestral ‘mere’ of ‘pounamu’ (greenstone), spears, ‘koikoi’, ‘wero’, ‘tewhatewha’,

Enjoy a ‘Royal Tour’ this holiday!

for carefree motoring equip your car with- Reidrubber MOTOR TYRES & TUBES


– 24 –

‘hoeroa’, ‘timata’, ‘taiaha’, ‘toko’ of the greenstone with rare carvings, ‘tiki’ and ornaments of every class, variety and degree.

Tribe vied with tribe to swell the crowd of donors; Hauhau warriors jostled fragile ‘poi’ girls in the throng; veteran and boy struggled along in equality of fervour. During the presentation an ancient chief, with orthodox and plentiful tattoo, made up for the bluntness of him who had set all these gifts in motion. He advanced bearing a priceless polished two-handed whalebone sword (‘hoeroa’), gave the Duke the magnificent bow of hospitality, together with the broad smile of kindness, and deposited the weapon with great reverence in his hands. His Royal Highness having reciprocated the courtesy, the old man retired backwards, smiling broadly and repeatedly bowing. He gave us the rare spectacle of courtesy not only spontaneous, but finished — a combination probably rarely found in any Royal or Imperial Court of the civilized world.

The gifts came from everywhere, and the Maori drew largely on his ancient treasures to furnish them. Moreover, many gifts were spontaneous — the chieftainess and other women suddenly tearing off their precious ornaments to lay them on the growing heap.


A shout and a call of ‘Haere mai’, a tumultuous waving of branches and poi-balls, a tremendous brandishing of weapons, greeted the approach of Royalty. As the party mounted the stand the Tuhoe drum-and-fife band struck up the National Anthem. At once the ‘poi’ ranks bowed to the knee, while the mass of warriors behind, with one stentorian shout, raised their spears and ‘taiahas’ aloft, then sank crouching on the ground. As the strains of the National Anthem died away the Ngaiterangi women advanced in two ranks—their two leaders, both men, one at each end and slightly ahead—to dance the ‘poi’. The right leader opened with a chant, and ere he paused to take breath the left leader caught the measure, and so the song alternated from right to left and back again. Between them the ranks, in perfect time, quickening as the measure hurried on, accompanied the song with the ‘poi’—the ‘poi’ of which the Maoris sing:

‘How my heart longs for the poi-leaf,
How beautiful a flower it is to grace
Thy breast; my love.’

The poi-balls twirled; the hands twirling them moved up and down, sideways, backwards and forwards, hovering now over the shoulders, now over and across the knees, the flying balls appearing to surround with a network of gossamer the bodies of the dancers as they swayed from side to side, lifting alternate feet and throwing them across gently in front with a lilting motion, giving the effect partially of a waltz step. The women were handsome and shapely; they waved with grace; they sang soft words of welcome with musical voice in exact accord of time, in a strangely attractive monotone; they did it with flashing teeth and smiling lips, and beaming great eyes, as they kept their ‘pois’ twirling and waving with daintiest play of arm and wrist, and the rhythmic swaying of bodies from side to side. Sometimes the song was of welcome, sometimes it saddened and slowed down to a weird lament for the Queen; again it quickened, with a note of triumph as the maidens bowed ‘Kia ora’ to the Duke and Duchess, and wished long life to the King and Queen far across the ocean; then it wandered gracefully over many appropriate topics. The effect was superb. The soft voices, the ordered motion, the bright colours of dress and mat and ‘piupiu’ moving with brilliant beauty, together with the white albatross feathers in the black hair, completed a singularly gracious, delicate example of the poetry of motion.

At length came the end, like the finale of some admired composition the approach of which gives the absorbed listener a pang of regret. As the ‘pois’ flashed overhead the command suddenly rang out. The poetry and the movement ceased at once, the flashing colours were still, the infinite variety of the faces gave place to a settled gravity, and in the same instant each poi-ball came down over the right breast of its owner, and was caught firmly in her left hand. Then the shining ranks bowed once more to the knee; a long, steady, courteous salute. Having bowed they filed off with dainty precision, disclosing the massed ‘matuas’ in the second line; and as they went, thunders of applause went with them from enthusiastic Royalty and all the assembled shouting people, pakeha and Maori.

The old Maoris say that the ‘poi’ dances of their time were even more effective; the strings used with the poi-balls being far longer; some six feet, and extending the picturesque gossamer effect of the twirling balls; the dancers being necessarily in extended order, and the display more imposing. The old dance was slower, and allowed more time for the display of grace and the elaboration of gesture. The ostensible object of the ‘poi’ from the first was to give graceful welcome to strangers (‘manuhiri’), visiting tribes, ‘tino rangatira’, and other persons of distinction. But gradually there grew up another object, which was to attract

(Continued on page 58)

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H.R.H. Prince Edward, Prince of Wales, in New Zealand (Turnbull Library).

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Welcome haka (Turnbull Library).

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Prince replies to Maori loyal speech, spoken by the Hon. Sir William Herries (on steps). Left of Prince on dais: Sir Maui Pomare (Turnbull Library).

1920—PRINCE OF WALES: H.R.H. Prince Edward, Prince of Wales, who visited New Zealand in 1920, met the Maori people at Rotorua on April 27–29. The Prince visited Ohinemutu, where a welcome address was given by Rangi Te Aorere and Kiwi Amohau. The Royal party also visited Whakarewarewa, where Bella Papakura and Miriam acted as guides, and the welcome address was spoken by Mita Taupopotei.

At the main celebration in Athletic Park, Sir James Carroll led the Maori welcome. The loyal address was spoken by Sir William Herries, Minister of Maori Affairs, and interpreted by Dr Maui Pomare. Guy Scholefield states that the number of Maori hosts on this occasion was 5,500, which might be slightly larger than the figure for 1901.

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Late Paul Thomas, wei [ unclear: ] known taiaha expert of Ngat [ unclear: ] Tuharangi (Turnbull Lib [ unclear: ] rary).

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Women ready for poi dance (Turnbull Library).

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Duke and Duchess of York. (National Publicity Studios.)

1927—DUKE AND DUCHESS OF YORK: Permanent monument of the visit to Rotorua of Their Royal Highnesses the Duke and Duchess of York, later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, is the Arawa War Memorial, unveiled by the Royal visitors. Arriving by train on Saturday, February 26, 1927, the Royal Party was welcomed by the Rt. Hon. J. Gordon Coates, who had with him his colleague, Sir Maui Pomare. There was again a grand demonstration of Maori dancing at Arawa Park, chief marshal this time being Dr Peter Buck. On the Sunday night, the Duke and Duchess attended divine service at the beautifully carved Maori church at Ohinemutu. The service was conducted by the Rev. F. A. Bennett in the Maori language. The collects for the Royal Family were repeated in English.

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Canoe poi. (National Publicity Studios.)

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1934—DUKE OF GLOUCESTER: Another grand display of Maori dancing took place when His Royal Highness, Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, visited Rotorua on December 22, 1934, during his New Zealand tour. On this occasion the loyal demonstration was organised by Sir Apirana Ngata, H. H. Balneavis and Tai Mitchell. The loyal address was read by the Rt. Rev. F. A. Bennett, by then Bishop of Aotearoa, who also conducted a divine service for the Royal visitor at the Ohinemutu church. Although this gathering was somewhat smaller than those on previous Royal visits, there were still 2,000 Maoris fed and accommodated in and around Rotorua on this occasion.

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Duke of Gloucester with Guides Rangi and Bella. (Weekly News.)

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Duke meets Sir Apirana Ngata and Mita Taupopoki, paramount chief of Arawa tribe, in Rotorua. (Auckland Star.)

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Top View

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Bottom View

Some of the most beautiful carving ever done by Maoris is to be seen in the museums of the world on ancient waka huia, or feather boxes, in which were kept huia feathers, greenstone ornaments and other heirlooms. Almost every waka huia has at the ends either pierced carving, or carved heads projecting from the box. The purpose of these was to enable cords to be fastened to the box, so that it could be suspended from the ridge pole of the house. Thus the bottom of the box was the part most seen, and it was usually richly carved. The box illustrated here is the one which was presented to Her Majesty the Queen on behalf of the Maori people by the Hon. E. B. Corbett, when he attended the Coronation. The box, which contained two huia feathers and a taniko headband, is carved in the style of the North Auckland carvers of former times. These carvers used very beautiful designs, and it is a great pity that their characteristic form of art died out early in the nineteenth century. The North Auckland waka huia were usually rectangular like the example shown here, rather than the oval shape which is more commonly seen.

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Side View

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Lying east of Tauranga on the main Whakatane highway, and extending between five and nine miles from Tauranga, is a farming district which has made history in the Young Farmers' Club movement of New Zealand. In that district in October, 1949, was formed the first all-Maori Young Farmers' Club. Although there is now a second all-Maori Y.F.C. at Matakana Island in the same district, the club at Papamoa was the first to be formed.

The district is essentially a dairying one, embracing places with such euphonious names as Maungarangi, Ngapeke, Waitao, Papamoa, Kairua and Matapihi. Because of that diversity of names the Club has adopted the Maori tribal generic name — Rangataua.

The Rangataua Y.F.C. is not a large Club; at no time has its membership exceeded 22. It remains at about the 15 mark, with an average attendance of 10 at meetings. But smallness of numbers does not worry the stalwarts, whose enthusiasm keeps the Club not only alive, but effectively functioning. As members remark, they prefer a small Club composed of active participants to a large Club of dormant visitors. It is with the effect that the Y.F.C. has had on the economic prosperity and progress of those young Maoris that this article deals.

The first meeting was held in the Papamoa Maori School on October 26, 1949, through the enthusiasm of three men—a young Maori farmer, Mr W. Ohia; an elder who later became senior adviser, the late Mr W. Werohia; and Mr A. V. Allo, supervisor of the Department of Agriculture, Tauranga. It was the pertinacity of those three and the sympathetic co-operation of the headmaster of the local Maori School, Mr F. M. Pinfold, which has carried the Club successfully over the four years of its existence. And that same spirit has permeated all present members, whose loyalty to the Club is one hundred per cent.

Though it is not claimed that all the progress on the farms of these young men is due to their Y.F.C. activities, it is claimed that no other Maori farm in the district is better than the farm of any Club member. In other words, every one of those properties is a shining example of farm management to all other farms in the district. Cause and effect go hand in hand. One wonders whether the members' interest in the Y.F.C. movement is a manifestation of the qualities which are carrying them to success on their farms, or whether their association with the Club's activities brings about that success. My guess is a ‘fifty-fifty’.

Monthly meetings of the Club have been held regularly over the years, and all members are agreed that the aspects of farming brought to their notice have helped them very materially. At practically all meetings there has been a guest speaker, so that members have been given the benefit of a lifetime of experience, much of it specialised, from farmers and government officials. In particular, officers of the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Maori Affairs have been very helpful.

Besides speakers from the Tauranga County Council, Auckland University College, and Maori Adult Education group, the Club has been addressed by a Tauranga dairy factory manager, a Maori Welfare Officer, a district officer of the N.Z. Dairy Board, a stock inspector, a veterinarian and several outstanding local farmers. The diverse topics studied have covered a multitude of farming activities. The enumeration of half a dozen may be of interest:

Administration of a Dairy Factory:

Seed Certification:
Hormone Weedkillers;
Rating of Maori Lands;
Silage Making;
Copper Deficiency in Local Soil.

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The author, (Photo: J. Ashton)

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In addition, at some meetings there have been film shows, debates, and impromptu talks on various farm activities. Field-days have taken members out to well-kept farms in the district; they have studied ensilage on Mr Turi Te Kani's farm; the outstanding Jersey stud farm of Mr K. A. Bennett; and a system of pasture cropping by the use of electric fences on Mr W. Newman's farm.

Social activities have not been numerous, but then the young men point out that it was not for social activity they joined the Y.F.C.

The proof of the pudding is, of course, in the eating, so we may ask what effect all this has had on the members of the Rangataua Y.F.C. Let me say immediately that the effect is clearly apparent to all who pass through the district in their travels, and who have eyes to see. It is much more apparent when one is conducted over members' farms. Granting that all these young Maori farmers have still much to do in the way of improvement, the effective use of the knowledge gained from their Club is obvious to all. The quality of the pasture grass, its freedom from noxious weeds, the quality of the livestock, and the well-planned cowsheds and piggeries are all a reflection of initiative and hard work. Of one of the farms a visitor, who previously had been judge for the Ahuwhenua Trophy, said it was up to the standard of farms visited by him in the course of that judging. Furthermore, the mark of individuality is on each farm, so that the personal preferences of each are seen on his property.

With one exception, all are small farms ranging from 48 acres to 100 acres, and all require intensive work to bring success. Members are careful in their choice of stock; all use pedigree sires. One member went as far afield as Taranaki for his dairy sire, and has raised his butterfat production from 207 lb over 230 days in the 1951–52 season to an outstanding 306 over 273 days in 1952–53. He, like most of the others, has his herd tested regularly, culls heavily and rears his own heifer replacements.

Within the last three years all these young farmers have changed over from hay as a winter fodder to ensilage, under the guidance of Mr A. V. Allo, of the Agriculture Department. Last season the Doidge Cup, for ensilage competition among Y.F. Clubs in Western Bay of Plenty, was won by a Rangataua member, Mr Turi Te Kani. At present several members are concentrating on methods to improve both the quantity and quality of pig-meat, with a change-over from baconers to pork.

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Member of Rangataua Young Farmers' Club working in his ensilage pit.

Dairying, however, is not the only activity. All, rather than put their eggs in one basket, have sidelines, and produce small areas of pumpkins, potatoes and kumara. Mr D. Werohia has as a sideline a poultry run of 300 birds, and regularly sends supplies to the egg-marketing depot. The only sheep man among them all is Mr A. Kahotea, who manages the Ngapeke block under the Maori Affairs Department. It is a run of 800 acres, carrying 1300 ewes and 300 cattle.

(Continued on page 55)

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Cowshed of W. Ohia.

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At the Kaikohe Clothing Factory, machinist Bunny Tango is sitting next to the mascot she has made to decorate the factory for Christmas. The owner and manager of this recently opened factory. Mr H. M. Platt, has come to Kaikohe from Auckland because he desired to do voluntary youth work for the United Maori Missions in this locality. Originally he had intended to have only a branch in Kaikohe, but the experiment turned out so well financially that the factory, making coats, trousers, shorts, blouses, shirts and skirts, is now entirely separate. For the girls, the factory provides a good and steady job, which is important in Northland. In addition, the United Maori Missions run a hostel in which many of the seventeen employees are accommodated. Absenteeism in the factory is practically nil, says Mr Platt; there is no problem of rapid staff changes; standard of work is entirely satisfactory. Mr Platt considers there is no financial sacrifice involved in operating in Kaikohe instead of Auckland. Although freight charges are higher in Kaikohe, operating costs are lower, and in the final analysis there is no difference. “One of the great problems in Maori youth work,” says Mr Platt,” is to provide steady employment in the home environment.”

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Nga Mahi o Nga Tupuna …

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Mrs Te Kanawa teaching Te Ropa Hynes
how to make a piupiu. (Desgranges.)

Greetings! Greetings from Oparure!!!

Let us hear a story that shows a revival of the old community spirit.

It All Began when our youthful and versatile schoolteacher, together with his bride, took over our school of sixty-odd Maori children and two Europeans. Filted with amazement at the lack of Maoti culture among his pupils, he immediately began to ply his school committee with such questions as: ‘Could you find someone who would volunteer to come to the school once a month to teach the correct pronunciation of Maori place-names? ‘Could you find someone who would volunteer to teach the boys haka - and the girls poi?’ ‘Could you find a woman who would volunteer to come to school and teach the care and cutting of flax, and the Maori Arts?’

Finally, the children were all happily engaged in learning haka, poi, and action songs, their 'teachers' often going out of their way to get to the school for these short periods of practice. Our energetic schoolteacher, far from being satisfied, then proceeded to sponsor a ‘Youth Club’ run by a committee of our high school children. He has a Junior Red Cross class, which meets with the District Health Nurse once a week, and a singing class, where, for half an hour, the children learn to harmonise.

The senior classes are taught Maori Arts and Crafts for an hour every week by a young mother with seven children of her own, and it is quite common for her to arrive at school with Junior in the pram, and a bundle of flax on top; but that is another story.

The children have now taken part in two New Year carnivals, performing on suitably decorated floats, and at a Queen Carnival,

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Study in Patience; Mrs Meri Iki teaching her pupils. (Desgranges.)

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hence, when a discussion on the Queen's visit came up, the children were asked to perform. What a joy! What an honour!

Then a serious question arose! What about costumes? For up to this time the children had been using rather make-shift costumes and ‘quick-way’ piupius.

As is usual when working out any problem, a meeting was called — haka teacher, poi teacher, arts and crafts teacher, school committee; a real gathering of the clans. As a result of this meeting, the old pa is now ringing again with the rhythmic stamp of many young feet. Maori maidens of various sizes, whether engaged in small duties, or going off to school, or returning the cows to the pastures, can be seen nimbly twirling ‘tiny poi’. Smoke is issuing contentedly from the old kauta (cook-house) chimney, from Monday till Thursday.

There is not a great deal of activity on the marae — the weather is against it, anyhow; just the arrival of an odd mother with familiar kete (kit) containing perhaps a fresh loaf of rewena (leaven) bread, or perhaps a dozen golden fried scones. Maybe two or three mothers, complete with baby snugly on the back; but inside the closed doors of the old whare kai (dining house) a large group is working with great concentration. Some are weaving. (They take one strand, miss three, turn the next back under first, and whatu (weave) the first, then second, then third, then draw fourth back over first and whatu.) There are the feather artists, carefully sorting into colour groups the feathers of kaka, cock pheasant, pukeko, etc. (Place two feathers together evenly and hold firmly in left

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Te havo muka: Netana Atutahi. (Desgranges.)

hand, rub tip of first finger of right hand across piece of soap, and twirl stem ends of the feathers, thus waxing them together ready for place of honour on garment.)

There is the muka (fibre) party, almost ankle-deep in discarded green backs of flax, the muka or topside having been removed with a makoi (shell), a tricky process calling for much patience and a good strong left hand.

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Schoolgirls making koronae and kono. (Desgranges.)

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Splice flax almost halfway up, and then beginning from splice, hold topside of flax firmly against makoi with right hand braced on right knee, draw firmly and slowly over makoi with left hand, gaining in momentum as root end is reached.

In a day or two a huge pile of flax will have disappeared, and in its stead rows of snowy white muka hang along the rafters of the old kauta to dry. Then begins another tricky and tedious process—that of miro-ing (two-plying) the muka into the various thicknesses required, first head and tailing strands for even thickness. Whenu (foundation strands) thick, aho (weaving strands) very thin. So the work goes on, interspersed with sometimes gay banter, sometimes in more serious vein, sometimes broken by a visit from one of the menfolk, which never fails to bring forth much teasing and laughter. Then, perhaps, supplies in all fields become low, and the eyes of the ‘lady in charge’ will look over the little groups, a few quiet words, and two or three renowned ‘cutters’ will leave the premises. Then an ancient truck of questionable model can be seen laboriously making its way up a side road and grunting and snorting its disapproval, as it disappears into the hills, to return surprisingly soon, with a load of fresh, green, rustling flax, and the ‘cutters’ with happy, smiling faces. Another day they may step into a bright blue V8, or a classy little Austin, but the cargo is invariably the same — flax, flax and more flax, and why not? Is not the goal in sight? Ten more piupiu, twenty-eight more tipare (head gear), and two more tateka (wrap).

One of them is for a pakeha girl, because she's just as good at poi as our girls! And so the work goes happily on. It's not easy, pro-

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He korero paki: Poutu Hihiti is speaking. (Desgranges.)

gress is quite slow, the workers are willing, but not always wise; the conditions are not as comfortable as at home; but progress is sure, hopes are high. The work and workers were blessed by the aged Apotoro (Apostle) on the first day of the gathering. The men are pleased. And so our story ends!

Tatou, tatou, iroto i te whare kotahi!!

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Boy being taught by Mrs D. R. Te Kanawa. (Desgranges.)

– 35 –


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General view of housing settlement built by the Maori Affairs building organization. (J. Ashton.)

When Te Ao Hou's photographer was passing Pukekohe he took the opportunity to look around the new houses built by the Maori Affairs Department for Maoris in that district. These shots indicate what he saw. The interiors are typical of the new homes. There was no opportunity for ‘stage managing’, the photographer's visit being unexpected, and the shots undoubtedly illustrate that once people have good houses, they look after them carefully.

So far, 25 housing sections have been obtained for Maori housing in Pukckohe, and building on most of them is completed. Great difficulty is experienced in the purchasing of suitable land for further Maori housing, which is badly needed for a total Maori population generally estimated to be 1,000.

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Below: Living room and kitchen in one of the homes. (J. Ashton.)

– 36 –

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The carver's spare time in Korea. With a large army pocket-knife as his only tool, Bombardier Boy Mangu, of Ruatoria, has turned out some excellent swagger sticks with Maori carving similar to the one shown here. (Kayforce Official Photograph.)

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Charles Taite, one of the ex-servicemen settled by the Maori Land Development Scheme near Te Kuiti, shearing a sheep in his new woolshed. (J. Ashton.)

– 37 –

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Organised to raise money for two hostels, this Catholic Queen's Carnival held last winter, was one of the greatest social events among the Auckland Maoris so far. The function, organised by Mrs Whina Cooper, Dominion President of the Maori Women's Welfare League, was distinguished by the attractive dresses worn by all those associated with the “Queen's” coronation and by the splendid decoration of the Auckland Community Centre. (Weekly News.)

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This Anglican Church at Ohaeawai, now one hundred years old, arouses many memories for the Ngapuhi Tribe. (J. Ashton).

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PRESENTED TO THE GOVERNORGENERAL: Miss Myra Love, daughter of the late Lt./Col. E. T. W. Love and the late Takau Makea Rio Love, who was Ariki Nui of Rarotonga, is a direct descendant of Te Wharepouri Te Puni and Wi Tako Ngatata, and also of Te Whiti, the paramount chief of Te Atiawa. Miss Love, formerly head girl at the Hutt Valley High School, is studying for B.A. at Canterbury University College. (W. H. Love.)

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Some time before the year 1899, on the suggestion of Augustus Hamilton, a basketry strip of ten patterns was made by Te Ikapuhi of Ngati Pikiao. Augustus Hamilton, in Maori Art, 1899, p. 348, pl. 49, fig. 2, figures this series making acknowledgment of the good offices of Mr C. E. Nelson. Recently we have had the patterns drawn for us by Miss L. L. D. Buswell. With a little re-arrangement it will be seen that the designs fall readily in three groups. The first four in the series belong to an alternating line group. The next three, Nos. 5, 6 and 7, illustrate a group in which the triangle (5), the diamond (6), and the hour glass (7) become dominant features. The related elements of this group are clearly evident. Last are three designs in which a zig-zag line makes its appearance, leading to the sacred step design of Te Arawa, No. 10.

A list of the names of the patterns seen in in the accompanying illustrations are:

1, Poutama; 2, Raukumara; 3, Whakatutu; 4, Nihotaniwha; 5, Whakanihoniho; 6, Torakaraka; 7, Purapura-whetu; 8, Whakakanae; 9, Kowhiti-whakakoki; 10, Takitahi-whakakoki.

The above names are by no means universal, and many variants of these are known outside Bay of Plenty and Te Arawa. For example, the step design is poutama in many places.

– 39 –

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The writing committee. (Ashton.)

A project specially prepared by the Maori Club at Auckland Teachers' Training College.


This year for the first time the Maori Club at the Auckland Teachers' Training College has staged a play to be shown publicly in Auckland. Not only have they acted this play, they actually wrote it. They put on the stage the love affair of Ponga and Puhihuia, whose love affair three hundred years ago reunited the people of Maunga Whau with their cousins from the other side of the Manukau. As the college itself stands in the shadow of Maunga Whau (Mount Eden), it is an appropriate theme to have chosen, and the credit of the choice goes to Mr R. A. Dennant, an English lecturer, who suggested this story to the Maori Club.

Five students from the Maori Club formed the writing committee. The original story was re-written to take place within twenty-four hours, half at Maunga Whau and half at Awhitu. Having roughed out a scenario on these lines, the committee began writing the actual dialogue.

Here, first-hand experience of speech-making on the marae was useful, for the first few minutes of Act I are taken up by a debate which, while based upon genuine marae procedure, also tells the audience about the situation when the story opens. Two Elders plead for peace, and two for war, whilst the Ariki listens and the rest of Maunga Whau look on. The Elders are able to explain in their argument about the expected visit of a peace party from Awhitu, led by Ponga. Into the midst of their debate comes a messenger to say that Ponga will arrive at any moment. The Ariki decides for peace, and when the visitors arrive both sides dance a haka of welcome and greetings.

The first act of the play went ahead quickly—after the debate, and the visitors' arrival and welcome, Ponga sits alone with his slave, and the slave (who sees that his master has fallen in love with Puhihuia) suggests a plan by which Ponga can speak to the girl alone. The final scene of the first act shows the plan car-

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ried out, and Ponga stealing out of the whare whakairo to talk to Puhihuia in the moonlight. The lovers decide to run away with the whole of Ponga's party before dawn, whilst all the people of Maunga Whau are still asleep.

To make the plot a little easier, it was decided to cut down the number of chiefs who in the original story fall in love with the beautiful Puhihuia, and make Ponga the only lover. In addition, a new figure, Turi, was created, belonging to Puhihuia's own tribe. This Turi would have married the maiden had it not been for Ponga's unexpected arrival. At the end of the play. Turi was married off to another invented figure, Keere, sister to Puhihuia. Apart from these simple variations, the story follows the original legend.

This is to be a play and not a musical show; a drama of real life rather than an excuse for stringing traditional songs and dances together. But the very fact that it is Maori real-life means that songs and dances do appear, since Maori culture is so intensely alive and rich in these things. The haka of welcome and its response in Act I have already been mentioned; Act II opens on the marae at Awhitu, with a poi dance by the girls of the pa before the news comes of Ponga's unexpected return with Puhihuia. In addition, Maori speech, even when translated into English for a pakeha audience, is vividly poetic and exciting to listen to. The Club hopes that this venture will prove to be not only a new development of living Maori culture, but a successful New Zealand play in its own right. At present, casting is in progress, costumes and scenery are being designed, dances are being worked out by Kahu Ngata—the Club is fortunate in having this grand-daughter of Sir Apirana as one of its members—and rehearsals will begin at once next term. The production is to be early in December.

(The facts for this article were related to Te Ao Hou by Mr R. A. Dennant.)


Some of the students who produced this play have written to Te Ao Hou, describing the activities of their club and their own part in the production of the play. Here follows a story from Bill Murray, Maori Club leader (1953):

There are in College 52 Maori students, comprising 24 first-years, 22 second-years, one special trainee and 5 homecraft students.

The Maori Club has a membership of 62 students all told, including 12 very interested and enthusiastic Europeans.

This year the Club meets every. Thursday afternoon during the College Club period, when hakas, action songs, stick and hand games are practised. In past years the learning of these arts has been invaluable, both as a help to those in the Club who have not had the opportunity to learn them before, and for the occasions when the Club has been invited out by various social, community and school organisations and gatherings, to give items and to take part in an evening's entertainment. This, I feel, has helped the Club in two ways:

1It has given members the opportunity they might not have had otherwise to mix and share ideas with people of the town, not directly connected with the College, and
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Action song rehearsal. (Ashton.)

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2It has made the work and function of the Club more widely known to outsiders.

The Club in recent years has progressed considerably, both in strength of numbers and strength of purpose. This year the inclusion of the Maori Club as an integral part of the whole College club organisation seems to be a definite landmark in its development.

Most of our activities so far this year have been with an eye to making a success of the production of our play, ‘Ponga and Puhihuia’, to be put on at the end of the year.


I came to Training College from Kaikohe, North Auckland, in 1952, and am now completing my second year there. I had five years at Te Aute College, and after a year at University decided to take up teaching.

This play we are about to produce had its origin on the day I saw Mr Dennant, an English lecturer, about the difficulties which some of the Maori students were having with the English language. Together we discussed the aspects which had proved most troublesome, and from this discussion arrangements were suggested for possible classes for those requiring them.

Out of this developed the committee on which several of us volunteered or were nominated to serve, and which discussed the play, ‘Ponga and Puhihuia’, suggested by Mr Dennant.

We entered into this new experience with enthusiasm, and several fine written efforts by members, and much work and more script writing by Mr Dennant resulted in the first act before the end of the second term. All work was discussed, and corrected where necessary, by the committee. Casting was completed for the first act before the vacation, and on our return the script for the second act was completed. At the moment casting is in progress for this.

My part is that of Elder I, with the opening speech telling our warriors to defend the pa against the visiting party from Awhitu.


I come from Ahipara, about ten miles from Kaitaia, at the southern end of Ninety Mile Beach, and went to St. Stephen's School, Bombay, for three years, to Kaitaia College for a further two years, entering Training College in 1952.

I was invited to join the Maori Club Committee to help write the play, ‘Ponga and Puhihuia’, contributing ideas about the customs of the old-time Maori.

I helped to write speeches for Ponga and the Ariki. We wanted as many speeches as possible, because each speech was certain to contain some genuine Maori lore, and if these good points were put together the play would be ‘right’. Many contributions were received.

In the play I have the part of Ponga.

I am taking part-time studies at Auckland University College. Last year I passed in Maori I and Anthropology I. This year I am taking Education I and Anthropology II. The Anthropology course at University, I find, has much to do with the Maori people, their customs, problems, social life and so on. It also gives an insight into the attitudes of the Pakeha to the Maori, and vice-versa — what each should do to adjust themselves to living together in friendship and mutual respect.

EDITOR'S NOTE: We feel that the enthusiasm of Mr Dennant and his students may lead to a most fruitful social activity in Maori communities. There are many groups who could start a drama group right now and Mr Dennant's students could start them wherever they go.

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– 43 –

Nga Titotito a te Maori


Tera ia nga pukitanga Tipare o Niu, e;
Ko te ara tonu ia whanatu ai koe ra;
Maku nei e riringi ki te wai roimata, na!
Te kotonga nei mana hau e whiu, e,
Noho ana hoki au te motu a Kaiawa, e,
Te Kura a Tarawhata e kore nei e taea, na!
Te ata kitea atu e au te pae ki te whenua, e,
I te wai o te kamo ka utuhia ki waho, e,
I te mata i ahau i te po roa nei, e,
I te kore rawa ra kihai rawa i whairo, e,
Nga rakau o te hore kia mowai ana, na!

Nga Whakamarama

He tino waiata tenei na Ngati-Porou, te tangi a Hinewahirangi, mo tana tamaiti, mo Te Wikiriwhi Matauru, Ko te tane, ko Tikitikiorangi, he rangatira no Ngati-Porou, na Ngapuhi i patu. Ka taka te wa, ka hiahia a Hinewahirangi ki te hoki ki tona ake kainga ki Tokomaru. Ka tau ona whakaaro, ka hiahia ia ki te tane, ka mamae nga tupuna o te Matauru, ka tikina ta ratou mokopuna, ka tangohia mai i te koka i a Hinewahirangi. Kei te huarahi tana tamaiti, ka tangihia atu e Hinewahirangi. E kore e taea e ia te aru tana huatahi ki Te Pakihi, East Cape, kahore hoki ia i te paingia e te iwi o tana tamaiti, heoi ano tona hiahia kia tata noa atu ia ki tana tamaiti, ka mariri tona pouri. Katahi ia ka karanga ki te kotonga hei whiu i a ia ki te motu, ki Whangaokeno i huaina nei e Kapene Kuki ko East Island, a i huaina hoki e Hinewahirangi, ko te ‘Motu a Kaiawa’. Ka nui tenei tona tae awairua ki te mout, titiro atu ai ki uta, kei reira nei tana tama, ahakoa he puke kei waenganui i a raua, kei runga o te puke he uru rakau, he hore. Kei raro atu ko tana tamaiti, Ka nui tenei.

I haere mai a Kaiawa, tama a Taiau, i Turanga ki te rawhiti, kia kite i te kahawai

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Maori Poetry


A winding path up Tipare-o-Niu, I see,
Recently thou hast trodden it;
And with mine tears it I lave.
Southerly breeze waft me on thy wings,
Until on Kaiawas Isle, I alight,
And Kuri-a-Tarawhata beyond reach.
Yonder shore dimly I see,
Mine eyes tears copiously shed,
For all night long I've suffered;
If I could only have a glimpse
Of trees at hore, satisfied I would be.

After the death of Tikitikiorangi by Ngapuhi near East Cape, his widow, Hinewahirangi, returned to her home at Tokomaru, taking with her her little son, Wikiriwhi Matauru. On hearing that Hinewahirangi wished to marry again Wiki's people at East Cape, felt agrieved that a Chief's wife should want to re-marry. Some of them went to Tokomaru and took Wiki from his mother and brought him back to East Cape. Then did she compose her song. She could not see her son at East Cape, for she was not wanted there, so she implored a southerly breeze to carry her to East Cape, not on the mainland but on East Island, where she could gaze across to where her little boy lived. Although a hill stood between her and him, she would be satisfied to realise, at any rate, that she was not far from him.

Wikiriwhi Matauru was one of Ngati-Porou's great chiefs, and with Mokena Kohere was penned up in Hatepe. He helped to end the Hauhau rising on the East Coast in 1865, and lived to a good old age. His mother's song is well-known amongst the Ngati-Porou and beyond the East Coast.


e uru ana ki nga wai o Ruawaipu ara ki Waiapu, ki Awatere, ki Karakatuwhero me Wharekahika. I ui atu a Tangihangaroaahau ki a Kaiawa ki te take o tana haere. Ko te whakautu a Kaiawa na te rongo o nga wai a Ruawaipu ia i kawe mai. Ka ki atu na a Tahingaroaahau, ‘Hei aha te ika raumati, e ako i ana ko taku motu e tu mai ra, he whare kai mo nga wa katoa.’ Ko te tapaenga tenei i te motu ki a Kaiawa, ka tapiritia atu ko te tamahine, ko Hotomoori. Ka moe a Kaiawa i a Hotumoori ka puta ki waho ko Ngati-Porou.

Na konei na te moenga o Hotumoori i a Kaiawa i tae ai te rohe potae o Ngati-Porou ki Turanganui awa, ara ki te Toka-a-Taiau kei te wai. Na te pakeha i tukituki kia watea ai te huarahi kaipuke.

Tipare-o-Niu? he pikitanga i te hiwi i te Kautuku, e tata ana ki East Cape.

Kuri-a-Tarawhata, i eke mai a Tarawhata raua ko tana kuri, ko Mohorangi i runga i te waka a Maangarara, ko te utanga o runga, he tuatara, he mokomoko, he teretere. No te auautanga o te kuri ka panga ki te moana, ka pikarikari nga waewae, ka kino te moana, ka totohu te waka. I kau nga ngarara ki te motu, ko te waka i pae ki Okauwharetutu. Kia pakihi te tai ka kitea a Maangarara me ona tangata, he kohatu.

He ana roa kei te tonga o te motu. Ki te ki te tai ka haruru ki roto o te ana, ka kiia ko te kuri a Tarawhata e tau ana.

Te Hore, he wahi taurakitanga koiwi tangata kei runga o te tihi o Otiki. He whare-raiti kei runga o Otiki inaianei.

Kua korerotia e au he wahi nui tonu no te poetry te purakau, te pakiwaitara.



Kua puaki noa atu taku korero, ko te Reo Maori te reo tino pai o nga reo katoa, ara te reo pai ki te whakarongo a te taringa. I pai ai te Reo Maori no te mea kahore kau he reta tangi kino, pera me nga reta o te Reo Ingarihi, ara te G, te V, te Z me era atu reta. I te hihii o te reta S o te Reo Ingarihi, ka kiia e te Maori he reo kihi. Ko tetahi take ano i reka ai te Reo Maori, na te nui o nga reta pakupaku ara o te A, E, I, O, U, ki te whakauruuru ki te reo. Ko enei reta e rima, te ha o te Reo Maori. Ma enei reta hoki e whai reo ai nga reta nunui ara te h, k, m, n, p, r, t, w, ng, wh. Ko tetahi mea ano i ngawari ai te Reo Maori, na te tikanga e kiia nei e te kura, ko te passive voice, ko te reo ngawari. Na tenei tikanga i mea te huri kia hurihia, te aroha kia arohaina, te haere, kia haerea, te moe kia moea, te tangi kia tangihia. He kupu ngawari katoa.

Kua whakahaua e te Tari o nga Kura kia whakaakona te Reo Maori ki roto o nga kura Maori; kua whakaritea hoki ko te Reo Maori tetahi mea hei wahi mo te whakamatautau B.A. me te School Certificate.

E whakarongo ana tatou ia ra ia ra ki te he o te whakahua a te pakeha i Otaki, i Wairarapa, i Manawatu, i Taranaki, i Waikato, i Taihape. Ka he te whakahua i te kupu Maori ka kawa ki te whakarongo. Kia tupato kei aru a tatou tamariki i te whakahua he a te pakeha, ka taungatia, ka uaua te whakatika.


Ko ta tatou he whakaako i te Reo Maori ki a tatou tamariki, ki a tatou mokopuna, waihotia atu ma nga kura, ma nga tohunga, ratou e whakaako ki te Reo Ingarihi. Inakoa kua he te whakahua a etahi tangata i te nga, kua rite ki ta Tuhoe ar-a na. Na tanata kaore e nga tangata. Kei te kaha tenei he. Kei te he ano te whakahua i te wha. Ki etahi tangata e rite ana ki he ‘f’ a te pakeha. He he kino enei. Anei na ano tetahi he. Ki te tatau i te tangta me penei te mea tika ara, tokotahi, tokorua, tokotoru, tokowha, tokorima, tokoono, tokowhitu, tokowaru, tokoiwa, ka mutu. Inakoa me penei te korero, tokorua nga tangata, e rua nga kiore. Ki te tatau i te tangata me hono atu te toko ki te kupu tatau. Me hono atu te kupu toko ki te maha me he mea he tangata ara he tokomaha nga tangata, he maha nga kuri. He he te ki, he maha nga tangata. Mo nga pito o te ao, kia mahara, ki te Maori ko te North ko raro, ko te South he runga. Ko te northerly wind ki te Maori, he hau raro, ko te southerly he tonga. Ko te Rerenga Wairua, ara ko te hiku o te ika, ko raro tera, ko te Whanganui-a-Tara ara ko Poneke, ko runga tera, ko te upoko hoki o te ika. Kia mahara kahore te Reo Maori i whanau mai i roto o te Reo Ingarihi. He reo motuhake tonu te Reo Maori.

Kua rongo au ki etahi tamariki e ki ana, ‘Kei runga Rangi i te huarahi’ ‘Rangi is on

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the road’. Kei te he tenei. Anei na te mea tika, ‘Kei te huarahi a Rangi’.

Anei ano tetahi korero he a te tamariki; ‘Rangi is with Peter’, ‘Kei te taha i a Pita a Rangi’. Anei na te korero tika, ‘Kei te taha o Pita a Rangi’.

Kua waihotia hei tikanga, a kaore nga koeke i te watea i tenei he, ara, te whakaranu i te Reo Maori ki nga kupu pakeha, ahakoa he kupu ano a te Maori. He aha i kiia ai, rukauta—look out—i kore ai e kiia kia tupato? He aha i kiia ai, pohara—poor fellow—i kore ai e kiia rawa kore? Ka poriro to taua reo rangatira i tenei tikanga pohehe.


Kua waihotia hei pepeha ma te ao katoa te patai a Hakipia.

What's in a name! that which we call a rose,
By any other name would smell as sweet,
He aha kei te ingoa! te mea e kiia nei he roohi,
Ahakoa he aha atu he ingoa, ko taua kakara ano.

Ki te kia te roohi he puha, ko taua kakara ano, engari hoki me he mea ko Roohi toku ingoa e kore au e whakaae kia karangatia au ko Puha. He iwi tohunga o tatou tupuna ki te tapatapa ingoa. Whakarongo ina: Potatau, Heuheu, Rauparaha, Rangihaeta, Turoa, Moananui, Takamoana, Tomoana, Te Atahikoia. I enei ra ia kua whai ke taua i nga ingoa pakeha.

Na Manu i korero mai ki a au i nga tau e kopikopiko ana ia ki te tirotiro i nga kura Maori, i kite ia i te panui o tetahi toa hokohoko na te Maori. Anei na te panui.

Moses and Habakkuk
Ko Mohi raua ko Hapakuku

I mahara pea te hunga no raua te whare hokohoko, kei te tau atu ta raua panui. He hemonga tonu no era iwi te ingoa pakeha.

Ko te ingoa o toku tupuna nana nei au i kiia ai he tangata, ko Mokena Kohere. I kiia matau nga uri ko Nga Morgans. I au i tae ai ki te kura, ka tuhituhia toku ingoa ko David Morgan. Ko tenei toku ingoa i au i Te Aute, no tera wa ano hoki au i anuanu ai ki taua ingoa. No toku haerenga ki te university hohoro tonu taku tapahi atu i taua ingoa, taku whakawhiti ki a Kohere—Reweti Kohere.

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It is a far cry from the old ‘paepae whakaarero’ perched on top of a cliff, to the modern water-closet properly fitted into a small room inside the house, but both have the same objective—that is, the rapid and complete removal of waste matter from the immediate vicinity.

The way the two systems achieve their objectives is well worth looking into.

The old system was undoubtedly successful in removing the very objectionable and dangerous waste matter rapidly from where it was produced. It was also very useful in protecting a man from being taken unawares by an enemy who might be waiting for an opportunity to attack him. In fact, in the old days, when New Zealand was still sparsely populated and many of the present epidemics were not in the country, the ‘paepae whakaarero’ might not have been the cause of much disease, although even then waste matter at the foot of the cliff might endanger water supplies.

If the ‘paepae whakaarero’ were used to-day, however, it would be very objectionable and dangerous.

On the other hand the waste matter deposited into the water-closet is carried away by a flush of water to the town's sewerage system, or to a suitable septic tank. In either case, the final disposal of the waste matter is achieved in such a way that there is no fouling of somebody else's living place.

It would be best if everybody could enjoy the convenience and cleanliness of a water-flushed closet in the home, but for many reasons that is not yet possible, so we need to think of other ways of getting rid of body wastes.

The simplest way of all is the one which Moses gave to the Children of Israel—that is, for every man, woman or child to dig a small hole in the earth and deposit their body wastes into it, and then immediately fill up the hole. It is such a simple method that one wonders why it is not always done, but unfortunately, people grow careless, or think they are in such a hurry to be doing something else, that the filling up of the hole is neglected.

Speaking of holes in the ground reminds us of other methods which may be used for getting rid of larger quantities of these body wastes.

Probably the best of these is the bored hole privy, or tube privy, which is very easily constructed in suitable soil with the use of a 10 inch post-hole borer, and any Health Inspector can help with instructions as to how this excellent arrangement can be fixed up. He may even be able to arrange for the loan of a post-hole borer of the right size, or to advise what other method can be used in a particular case.

Some of the modern chemical closets are very good because they prevent flies from getting on to the body wastes, and then spreading filth and disease germs.

A modern, water-flushed closet may be provided in a country district if the soil is suitable for disposing of the liquid from a septic tank, but it is a fairly expensive arrangement, though if one can afford the cost, it is almost the complete answer to the problem of disposing of these body wastes in a safe and sanitary way.

Whatever your problem may be in getting rid of waste matter, get into touch with your local Health Inspector, and you will find him most helpful in supplying a suitable answer.

Let us examine some of the reasons why it is necessary to arrange for the rapid and complete removal of these body wastes.

At best such wastes are very objectionable, as already stated, and at worst, they may be very dangerous because they may contain the germs of dangerous diseases. Body wastes, as everybody knows, are attractive to flies, which will feed freely on them.

Picking up filth on their feet, legs and bodies and sucking it into their stomachs, these same flies will later settle on our food if they can, or on our cups, plates, knives and forks and other food utensils, and even on our faces and hands, and they leave behind them traces of filth wherever they walk or rest. Because flies have no mouths they cannot eat solid foods, but they are very fond of some solid foods that are soluble, such as sugar. In order to get a feed of sugar they keep on vomiting drops of the filthy liquid from their stomachs on to the hard sugar to dissolve it, and then sucking back the sweetened vomit. They cannot suck up all the vomit, and when they fly away they always leave some of it on the sugar, together with some of the disease germs which we mentioned before. The same applies to other foods which flies feed on, and this is one way in which diseases are spread.

Again, filth lying about on the ground may be picked up on the shoes and then get on to the hands when shoes are being handled, or a child's ball or other toy may be dropped and pick up filth which gets on to the child's hands in further playing with the toy.

If a person's hands become infected with disease germs in these ways, it is easy to see how many things the person can infect. Everything he touches is liable to become infected, and to pass on infection to other people who touch those same things.

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As soon as the Spring season crops are fit to handle, thin out all weak and over-crowded seedlings and keep the surface of the soil between the rows well stirred by continued hoeing to conserve moisture, encourage growth and destroy weeds. Continue sowing beans, carrots, parsnips and beet for succession. Tomato, sweet corn and cabbage for late Autumn use should now be planted. Continue spraying potatoes and tomatoes, for at this time of the year blight is very troublesome. Use cuprox at the rate of 2 ½ ounces to three gallons of water.

Cucumbers can now be sown as well as pumpkins, water melons, rock melons and squash. Good dressings of blood and bone should be well worked into the soil before planting, as well as quantities of decayed vegetation incorporated in the soil some time before planting takes place.

Varieties recommended are:—

CUCUMBERS: Green, money-maker, white spine, short prickly, apple cucumber, crystal apple.

ROCK MELONS: Greilly wonder, Hales early.

PUMPKINS: Crown for early harvesting, and triamble for late (a good variety for keeping for Winter and Spring use).

Cucumbers and rock melons should be sown some five or six feet apart, and pumpkins and pie-melons, about ten to twelve feet apart Strawberry plants which were set out last May will need mulching. Give the final topdressing of manure, which should consist of two parts blood and bone to one part of superphosphate, evenly mixed and sprayed at the rate of one ounce to the square yard down the centre of the rows. Mulch with a good dressing of sawdust, pine needles or a good, clean oaten straw free of weeds, and on no account use hay as the resultant growth of grass seed will cause considerable trouble before the crop is harvested. A good plan is to build a frame and cover the strawberry bed with fine wire-netting or fish net, as birds cause considerable damage, and in many instances consume a big proportion of the crops.

At this time of the year, when growth is rampant, clean up all vacant areas in the garden, putting all trash and vegetation into a tidy heap for compost, and use at a later date to increase the humus content of the soil. In the hunt for humus-forming organic matter with which to enrich the soil gardeners seldom think of sawdust. For compost it is better to spread sawdust three to four inches deep on vacant ground, and leave until it is invaded with earthworms. It is then ready for compost, and may be included in the garden compost heap in the proportion of one part sawdust to four parts of other material available.

For the home orchard continue spraying apples for the control of codlin moth with arsenate of lead, at the rate of two ounces to four gallons of water every fourteen days. Continue spraying peach and nectarines with lime and sulphur—one third of a pint to four gallons of water. Passion-fruit and gooseberry bushes should be sprayed at regular intervals with bordeaux mixture for the control of leaf spot. Spraying is an important factor in producing good, clean fruit, and careful attention to detail at spraying time will repay the time spent on this essential work. Do not spray when the sun is very hot, as the fruit and foliage may be scalded. Do not spray during or just after a shower, or much of the value of the spray may be lost. The application is most effective when the leaves are dry.

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No. 6

Through the late appearance of the previous issue, we are unable to announce the winner of the last competition. This will be done next time. Some people have been suggesting that our Crossword puzzles were too hard to solve. The present puzzle is much simpler than the preceding ones. It is hoped that we shall now receive more solutions than previously. A guinea prize is again offered for a correct solution. If more than one correct solution is received, the winner will be determined by lot.

Closing date: 15th February, 1954

CLUES (all answers are Maori words)


12To be asked
15Other side of
27Dog's hair
35Pulled up
38Back of neck
42To be entered
45To be beaten
48To be avenged


6Our (two words)
16Out of reach
22Be turned away
25Block up
28To set up
41River mouth
43A tree
44To be paid
47I don't know

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Maori Personalities
in Sport

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S. T. Reid Photo: Crown Studios

In the wellington Sports Post on July 4 there appeared a series of pictures showing Kahu Ropata, ‘Wellington's ace Rugby League goal-kicker’, in action, and suggesting that he was New Zealand's best kicker in any code. High praise indeed for the young Maori player, when such men as Bob Scott, veteran All Black, and Des White, record-maker Rugby League representative, are taken into consideration.

But Maoris have long had a reputation at football, not the least being at the art of kicking goals. George Nepia, of course, needs no extolling, but less is known of Jack Hemi, who played his first Rugby representative game at 15 years—when he represented Wairarapa as full-back. It is on record that Hemi, who was also an excellent hop-step-and-jumper, had to get permission from his schoolmaster at Masterton before he could travel to Auckland with the Wairarapa team.

In 1935 Hemi figured in the trial matches to find players for the All Black tour of Great Britain and Ireland, and though he scored 17 points in two matches, he was unable to gain selection. The only New Zealand Maori representative player to be selected for the 1935 All Blacks was Tori Reid, whose record at football will be referred to later in this article.

Though he missed selection in the 1935 All Blacks, Jack Hemi gained a place in the New Zealand Maori team taken to Australia under the captaincy of George Nepia the same year, and it was there that he kicked one goal from his own side of half-way to make the Australians sit up in astonishment, for Hemi was not a big man physically. Later Hemi turned to Rugby League. He went to England with the New Zealand League team in 1939, the team playing two games, both of which were won, before World War Two started and the tour was abandoned. A few years back he made a reappearance at Wellington's Basin Reserve against an English team, and showed that the passing years had made but a slight impression on his form. Mark Jack Hemi down among the Maori giants in football!

Might I digress at this point? I am not Maori, but I was born at Gisborne and lived in the shadow of that great statesman, Sir James Carroll. I saw the legendary A. P. Kaipara play, saw Pare Tureia, Tom Dennis, Jack Hall, Jimmy Mill (of blessed memory for grand games), Sam Gemmel, Peter Kaua, Jimmy and Bill Lockwood, George Nepia, and Moana Paratene, among other stars of the oval ball, in action. I have long admired the Maori in sport, and look forward to the day when there is even greater representation for the Maori in New Zealand representative teams.

Fitness, allied to outstanding play, gave Alma and H. W. (“Mick”) Kenny, such fine records in Rugby football.

Alma Kenny, a forward, played in Wellington Rugby Union representative teams from 1930 to 1941 continuously—12 seasons in a row —and again in 1946, and he was in the New Zealand Maori team to tour Fiji in 1938. Younger brother H. W. (“Mick”) Kenny, was a full-back—and a grand one, too.

Badly wounded in the Middle East battles during World War Two, it was a miracle that Mick ever played football again, but he won Wellington representative honours in 1937, 1940, 1946, 1947 and 1948. Like Alma, he, too, was a New Zealand Maori representative. Sport was traditional—and is still carried on—in the Kenny family.

Father of Alma and Mick was Ted Kenny, an outstanding competitor at rowing, in which sport he gained the coveted “Red Coat,” or New Zealand championship blazer. Ted Kenny was a son of Captain Kenny, M.L.C., and it would have done his heart good to see two of his grand-daughters, Alice and Janie, on the

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hockey field. Daughters of Merv. Kenny, yet another of the sporting family, these two players have won the admiration and respect of capable judges of hockey. Mrs Ina Lamason, Wellington selector and New Zealand representative at hockey and cricket, tells me that Janie, now about 14 years, is likely to develop into one of New Zealand's greatest hockey players.

Luxford Peti, one-time sports enthusiast, of Dannevirke, who did so much for the Maoris in women's hockey at a time when Ruahine held supremacy in that sport, would be thrilled to know of the progress being made by the young Maori women.

Janie, who played senior for Wellington's Toa team, had to transfer to Wellington Technical College in the Secondary Schools' grade, but her average of about six goals a match indicates that she is far too good for that grade.

Elder sister, Alice, would have made the Wellington — and perhaps New Zealand — team last year had it not been for injuring the cartilage of a knee. This put her out of action and at her own request she was not considered for the Wellington team to play in the K Cup tournament, a tournament lasting a whole week. Instead, she played for the Wellington Seconds and was the star player.

‘You can't go wrong in forecasting great things for these two splendid hockey players', was Ina Lamason's assurance to me.

From the foregoing it is evident that sport in the Kenny family is traditional or inherent. And so it has been with many a Maori family. Look through the list of Maori Rugby representatives and you will find the Gemmells (with Jack and the evergreen Sam as the stalwarts), the Graces, the Lockwoods, Macdonalds, Warbricks, Ellisons, Wynyards, Paratas, Tureias and Winiatas — great names in New Zealand and Maori sport.

But the name of Asher doesn't appear in that list of New Zealand Maori Rugby representatives because, perhaps, the greatest player New Zealand ever produced, Albert (“Opai”) Asher, who played for New Zealand in 1903, turned to Rugby League before the first official “New Zealand Maori” team was chosen in 1910. (The great team of 1888–89 was officially known as the ‘N.Z. Native Team.’)

Albert Asher was only 11 years old when he played his first senior Rugby representative game, playing for Tauranga against Rotorua. Eighteen months later, still under 13 years, he played against Auckland—the youngest senior representative on record. I am indebted to R. A. Stone's ‘Rugby Players Who Have Made N.Z. Famous’ for some of the details about ‘Opai’ Asher. He tells that ‘Opai’ Asher played many brilliant games for Auckland, but none better than in 1902, when Auckland was awarded the Ranfurly Shield, to become first holders of that ‘Log of Wood’ for which many Maori players have battled in winning and losing teams.

They used to call ‘Opai’ Asher the ‘India. Rubber Man’ and not without good reason. It was in 1903 that Australians saw him at his best. ‘Thrilled were the crowds by the Maoriland wonder who, when picked up and dumped, appeared to bounce, and was the next moment making for the goal line, with a running action entirely his own,’ wrote R. A. Stone.

‘When White, the N.S.W. three-quarter, collared Asher in the 1903 match; Asher fell to the ground. White turned to take up his position again and when next he looked was astounded to see Opai running over the goalline. Opai had jumped, or rather bounced, up and was off to the desired haven.’

Asher scored 17 tries on that tour, playing in 10 matches.

In 1904, Bedell-Sivright captained the British team to New Zealand, the team playing a series of wins in Australia before coming to New Zealand. Flushed with success, they were warned that they didn't know what footballers were until they had seen ‘Opai’ Asher. But ‘Opai’ didn't get in the New Zealand team — and Sivright was said to have exclaimed: ‘What sort of players have you if Asher can't get selection?’

But there was good reason for his non-selection. Working with the fire brigade, he had suffered a leg injury. He insisted on playing for Auckland in the Ranfurly Shield match won by Wellington, 6–3, but his old-time speed and trickery were missing. They took him to hospital for a more thorough medical check, and there they found that a splinter of glass had been lodged behind his knee. That piece of glass kept Albert Asher from almost certain selection in the 1905 All Black team to Great Britain. He played his last Rugby Union match in 1907, and then transferred to Rugby League.

The first New Zealand Maori Rugby League team to play in Australia, says a Rugby League publication,’ was organised by prominent Maori footballers and assisted to a great degree by “Opai” and Ernie Asher.’

The Maori team of 1909 created a sensation, winning the O. T. Punch Cup by wins in the first three of five matches between the Maoris and the ‘Kangaroos’. The third match was seen by 45,000 people, and it was after this match that ‘Opai’ Asher (Albert Wharepapa) jumped the fence at the Sydney Cricket Ground to take the cup! His brother Ernie (Pouwhiuwhiu) was also in the team.

A great player, ‘Opai’ Asher was later, and for many years, custodian of Carlaw Park, the

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home of Rugby League in Auckland.

And now for a little, in conclusion, about another great Maori footballer — Tori Reid.

It was in the ‘Rugby Almanack of New Zealand’, 1950, that a great tribute was paid to this great forward, who was born at Tokomaru Bay in September, 1912. In part, this was written: ‘An amazing match appearance record was completed by S. T. Reid (East Coast, Hawke's Bay. New Zealand Maori Team and New Zealand) during the season, when he took into his keeping all records associated with the game in the matter of appearance in first-class contests.

‘During the New Zealand Maori tour of Australia, Tori Reid beat Sam Gemmell's record of 144 matches for all games when he appeared against Australia at Brisbane on June 11, and on his return to New Zealand his game for Hawke's Bay against Wellington on September 3 broke the record for most first-class matches in New Zealand — 122, held previously by J. C. Stringfellow.

‘Tori Reid entered the first-class arena in 1929, for East Coast aaginst Waikato, at the age of 16 years; twenty years later he was still in the top flight as a forward.’

To the end of the 1949 season, this great Maori forward had played in 157 representative matches—including 27 for New Zealand and 14 for New Zealand Maori teams.

Picture icon

Rugby team of the Maori Affairs Department, Wellington, which
won Public Service championship last season
Photo: Publicity Studios

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Picture icon

Women's World


One of the Coronation gifts the Maori people sent Her Majesty the Queen was a tipare or taniko headband.

It was not difficult to find out whose skilled fingers made the headband for the Queen, but quite impossible to persuade the maker to enjoy any publicity. ‘Just say that I'am a member of the Wellington Maori Women's Welfare League … there are so many women who taniko as well as I do, and some of them much better …’

I asked her how she had become so expert. ‘Taniko is not so difficult!’ she said. ‘Once you have the patience to master the first steps, the rest is easy. About the time I left school in Rotorua I watched my aunt making a taniko belt. When I asked her to teach me how to make one for myself I certainly didn't realise that I was giving up one whole day of my young life! My aunt wouldn't let me stop until I had managed the first steps, and by the end of the first day I was in tears.’

It is her opinion that anyone should be able to learn the fundamentals of taniko in one day with or without tears, but that the hard thing is to master the weaving of the main fabric—the body work. Taniko is an art that has always been handed on from one expert to another, but now that Mr Mead's book Taniko Weaving is available I asked what she thought of it as a guide.

‘I think it is very good and easy to follow once a person has had one lesson. There is a knack to taniko that you can really learn only from watching someone working.’

Indeed, she told me that the old taniko experts jealously covered their work from the curious eyes of their friends who could take in a new pattern at a glance. Some even went so far as to camouflage the true pattern by combining another design with it, so that only a close examination would reveal the secret.

Like their great-great-grandmothers, modern

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taniko experts are always on the look-out for new designs.

‘I'm a conservative, and can't be bothered with the fern-leaf and star patterns,’ she told me, ‘though I'm tempted to try a Fair Isle design because the bases of taniko and Fair Isle are very similar. For the Queen's headband I went to the Museum, and studied the old designs, and then set the patterns off on a very solid black background. Any expert in Maori design would recognise the patterns I used immediately.’

We discussed the many possibilities for using taniko. The modern materials, macramé twine and hanks of silk thread, are as far from the patiently prepared flax fibres used originally as the modern wallet is from the ancient cloaks with their taniko borders. But more and more women are learning to taniko through the efforts of the Maori Women's Welfare League, and experiments are being made with circular weaving, which is a complete departure from the traditional method. Coin purses, serviette rings, watchbands and belts have been made from taniko for many years, but the modern taniko worker is always discovering new ways to apply her art. The fabric is firm, even stiff, and it makes excellent panels for leather bags and good, heat-resistant table mats, and it has been used as cuffs for gloves and jackets. Taniko has decorative possibilities for shoes and sandals if some commercial firm were enterprising enough to use it.

The idea of putting taniko to commercial use led us to discuss the desirability of making it available to the tourist market. ‘I have always regarded taniko as something special. I've often been asked to sell some of my work, but I feel I should lose a lot of pleasure if I began to make money out of it. If I did my work on an assembly line basis the pleasure of working out the design, and of giving something creative and unique would disappear. But nowadays the interest in taniko is very wide, especially among pakehas, and I'm sure the time will come when it is sold commercially.’

In the beginning a certain amount of tapu attached to taniko, and even in her lifetime certain rules were observed. ‘My aunt used to do her taniko only in the day-time—a rule I have broken long since. But one piece of advice I always observe. She used to say that aho tapu, the first line in taniko, is your brain-child, the beginning of your design, and that you must carry that line right to the end without stopping.’

It is a long way from Wellington to Buckingham Palace, but the gift chosen for Her

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Majesty was singularly fitting in character and appropriate to the occasion of the Coronation. When I asked her how she felt when she was asked to make the headband she laughed. ‘I was sure I couldn't possibly do it well enough. The Maori Purposes Fund Board asked me to do it, and it took a lot of talking to persuade me. But once I had decided to make it I was very thrilled. I felt it was a great privilege and a great honour to my particular Welfare League that I should be asked. I realised then the great value of the art, and the very special effort I would have to make. Once you learn taniko you never lose the art, and many times when I was working on the headband I thought how easily I could have missed such an opportunity if I handn't paid attention to my aunt that day in Rotorua.

Filling the Xmas Stocking

Christmas shopping is such fun if you do it early, and such a headache if you leave it until Christmas Eve. Late shopping is very expensive, because all the cheapest and best things have disappeared from the shelves, and you are forced to spend more than you intended rather than disappoint the children.

It is not the money you spend that makes a good Christmas stocking so much as the time you take to plan what you will put into it. There is no need for a Christmas stocking to cost very much because children are not really interested in the price of a present. What they are interested in is waking up on Christmas morning to find the stocking that hung limp and empty the night before, mysteriously filled with all sorts of good things.

Christmas morning should be full of surprises. This is sometimes difficult for busy mothers, who can get to town only if they take the children with them. It is quite difficult to shop for a Christmas stocking if the children are right there at the counter beside you, but it can be done, and wondering what is inside the package makes all the difference to opening the present.

What goes into a really good Christmas stocking? First that great round orange. Then anything else that looks colourful and exciting. Some of the delightful plastic toys that cost two and three shillings make excellent fillers, even though they are flimsy and seem hardly worth the money. But they are colourful and clean, and the dolls' picnic baskets, the cars and trucks for the speedway, the hen that lays eggs, and the eggs that hatch chickens can make the first few hours of Christmas Day very gay. There are bound to be some casualties among them before the sun goes down. But some of them are better and stronger than others, and it is amazing what treatment they survive. It is certainly foolish to spend a lot of money on any plastic toy, however, when so many good toys are on the market, made from stronger materials like rubber and wood.

To fill in the spaces between the small packages there should be some peanuts and walnuts; some paper lollies, perhaps, or chocolate; a couple of balloons, and something to make a loud, cheerful noise with. Something extra special should pop out of the top of the stocking—a full-blown balloon, perhaps, or a windmill on a stick, or a long cardboard trumpet. Sometimes the present, the really important present, the one that has been ordered from Father Christmas, can be stuffed into the top of the stocking, or tied on somehow, so that it is the very first thing the child sees when he wakes up.

This present should be chosen very carefully, to please the particular child for as long as possible. It should be well-made and sturdy. A cuddly doll for a toddler; a tip-truck made with strong wheels, for a four-year-old boy; a ball-bearing skipping rope for a seven-year-old girl, and so on. You know just what your children want, and what they need.

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(Continued from page 29)

Some of the members are participants in a unique experiment under the Maori Affairs Department to place young Maoris on developed land after a term on a farm school. Three returned men, Messrs Bryan, Hayward and Milroys, after a term of training on the Maungarangi Farm School, have been settled on dairy farms cut out of that block, and are among the keen members. Two other members, Messrs T. Cairns and B. Te Kani, are participants in yet another experimental settlement scheme. They have been nominated by the owners to sttle on and farm an aggregation of small, uneconomic Maori holdings on the Kaitemako block. They, also, have grasped the opportunity of help offered by the Young Farmers' movement.

As businessmen, the young farmers are also meticulous in the records they keep. All those facts, figures and dates necessary for running a farm smoothly are entered in diaries; production figures, dairy returns, herd tests, management and overhead costs are all entered into appropriate books and files, so that all have a pretty fair idea of what it costs to produce a given quantity. In fact, they realise they are businessmen as much as farmers and, as such, must be able at any given time to analyse capital accounts, as well as to find the balance of working costs in their income and expenses account.

Meet these young farmers, and you realise you are in contact with men who are determined to ‘go places’. It was my privilege recently to hear them take part in a debate with a neighbouring Y.F.C. Their knowledge of the subject they were debating and their facility in the use of the English language would put many a pakeha to shame. They were a treat to listen to. And the thought came to me as I listened to them that their attack and handling of the debate were in keeping with the way they handle their own farms—a practical, commonsense manner, determined as they were from the outset that nothing but their best was good enough.


1Aims & Purposes of Y.F.C.
2General Pasture Management.
3General Pasture Management.
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As above, and Seed and Topdressing Mixtures.


Pasture Renovation, Gorse, Blackberry Eradication.


Administration of a Dairy Factory; Flavours to Eradicate. All the above lectures by A. V. Allo, Department Agriculture, Tauranga Supervisor.


Veg. Cropping in Tauranga. R. Falconer, Horticulturist, Maori Affairs.


Rating of Maori Land, Tauranga County. Ross Carter.


Calves, Gestation Period. Mr Cook, Vet. Surgeon.


Spring Feeding of Stock; Electric Subdivision. Mr Allo.


Dairy Farm Management in Tauranga. Mr Lauder, Farmer.


A Study of Pig Carcasses. J. Kenyon, Pig buyer.


Resume of Current Production in Wai Auki Maori Land District. Mr Falconer, Maori Affairs Department.


Club Discussion of Farm School on Maungarangi.


Y.F.C. Baconer and Pork Competition. R. Woogue, Te Puke farmer, overseas trip.


Hormone Weedkillers. Mr Allo.


Maori History. Mr Merohia, Senior Adviser.


Methods used by Maori Affairs Dept. in Breaking in Virgin Scrub Country. Mr Cram, Supervisor, Maori Land Board.


Propagating Young Fruit Trees. R. Falconer, Maori Affairs Department.


Activities of Welcome Bay Y.F.C. O. Sorrenson, Member Y.F.C.


Films: (1) Efficient Milking Machines; (2) Milking Time. E. H. Mandeno, Consulting Officer, B.P., N.Z. Dairy Board.


Farming Conditions in Oklahoma, U.S.A. I. Smith, Farmer, Oropi.


History of Dairy Industry. Mr Mandeno.


Rearing of Calves. B. Cook, Vet. Surgeon, Tauranga.


Selection of Ideal Dairy Cow. T. Te Kani, Member.


Ensilage Making. Mr Allo.


Proposed Sub-division of Idle Maori Lands into 10-Acre Blocks for Market Gardening. R. Falconer.


Rating of Maori Lands. I. Tangitu, Welfare Officer.


Farming in Ohaniti. J. W. Rowe, Farmer.


Diseases of Sheep. B. Cook, Vet. Surgeon.


Cattle Breeding. K. Bennett, Jersey stud proprietor.


Impromptu Speeches from Members on Farming Affairs. Members.


Films: Silage Making, featuring the Bushrake. Mr Mandeno.


Seed Certification. Mr Allo.


Film: Whakatane Pig Show. A. F. Barwell.


Artificial Insemination. Mr Mandeno.


Impromptu Speeches.


Hormones and Weed Control. Mr Bloxham.


Debate: Necessity for Growing Supplementary Summer Feeding.


Rules of Y.F.C. Debates. Mr J. Wright, Y.F.C. member, Ohauiti.


Care of Livestock in Winter. Mr McKenzie, Stock Inspector.


Debate, under rules of Y.F.C.


(a) Copper Deficiency. (b) Calf Rearing. (c) Stock Diseases. B. R. Cook, Veterinarian.

Picture icon

Left: Members of the Rangataua Young Farmers' Club. From left to right, front: W. Ohia, D. Werohia, M. Ohia, O. Pukekura, A. Kahotea, F. M. Pinfold (senior advisory member); back; B. Te Kani, T. Cairns, T. Te Kani, A. McPhee. Right: Fowl house on farm of T. Kani at Matapihi. Photos: W. Ohia

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The children of Rangitukia School, East Coast, have sent these stories and drawing to Te Ao Hou through their head master, Mr H. Jennings. We are very grateful to them and hope others will follow their example. We shall always be very glad to print stories and drawings sent to us by children.


He hakari tino nui i te Tairawhiti. Ko te hakari o Hone, ko tona rua tekau ma tahi tau e hakari ia nei. Ka huihui mai nga tangata, ka nui nga tangata me a ratou perehana. Ka tahungi a te hangi, ka nui te kai. Ko etahi he kai pakeha. Kua maoa te kai, kua reri nga kai, katahi ano ka reingia nga tepu. He karakia, he whai-korero, me ena mea katoa, katahi ano ka timata te kai. He kai tino whakamiharo tenei, ki nga manuhiri i tae mai. Ka rawe ano nga perehana i mauria mai. Ka mutu te kai ka horoingia nga taputapu. Ka whai-korero mo nga perehana i mauria mai. Ka mutu te kai ka horoingia nga taputapu. Ka whai-korero ano nga pakeke, katahi ano ka hoki te manuhiri, me Hone, me tona hapu ki to ratou kainga.

By Rewia Kaa, age 12 years, Form II, Rangitukia Maori School.

First attempt at writing in Maori.


Te taema pai mo te hopu ika i te ngutuawa o Waiapu i muri o te marangai. I te hopu ika koe taema ma ana te wai kaire noiho e nui o ika te take hoki he marama rawa te wai ka kite te ika i te kupenga i roto te wai oreore haere ana, ka mutu ka kauhoe te ika te whango. Te tautahi ka whakareri nga tangata aratau kupenga. Tatari ratou ke hoki te ngaru mua to ratou tomotanga me o ratou kupenga ki roto te wai. Nukunuku haere tonu ai ratou. Mau ana te ika ka mau nga tangata a ratou ika ki tahaki. Parera te hau pai mo te mahi ika. Hautonga te mea kino he karekare hoki.

Na Hamuera Moana (Form II)


Te mahi tuatahi he whakareri nga whakaika. Te wahi whiti tonu ki te ra te wahi e mahia te whakaika. He kirikiri te mea kai tauiwhi nga kumara. Ko nga kumara nei i whakatakotoia ki roto i nga paipai ka tauiwhitia atu te kirikiri. Mahia enei mahi i Hurae i tetahi po i te kianga o te marama. Akuhata ra reri mo te pou. Ka pouia nga tipu kumara ka pouia kia huri ki te ra. Ka mahingia kia penei kia hua ai nga kumara e mate. Ka nunui haere nga kumara ka kore nga taru e ngakia kai motu nga tipu. Ka rei mo te hauhake ka karitia. Ka oti ka moutia ki ro rua. Ki reira ka hokitia etahi, etahi ka tohuia. I mua kaore te wahine e haere ki te mahinga kumara. Inaianei ka haere tonu te wahine. Nga Maori o mua ka waiata ka whaikorero ka karakia i nga kumara kia hua mai nui atu te kumara.

Na Rewia Kaa (Form II)

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(Continued from page 24)

the fighting-men from other tribes, and invariably the best-chosen dances and the bestordered ‘pois’ kept the ranks of the ‘taua’ up to their full strength. To-day, of course, their ‘pois’ are no more than what they were originally intended to be, the women's portion of the ceremonial welcome of a hospitable, high-minded, and punctilious people.


‘Whiti! Whiti!’ cried the leader, ‘E!’ replied the throng; and as one man they rose, two hundred and fifty strong, and in front of each rank, at the chest, there appeared one long line of spears, held horizontally, every man grasping his own and his neighbour's. The effect was as if a tall pole were being handled by each section of the ‘taua’.

‘Tena i whiua!’ At the command the long lines of spears swung from left to right, while knee-joints were set loose, and the forest of feathers waved from right to left in movement opposite to the direction of the spears, the feet stamping and keeping time. The measured contrasting movements of the white feathers and the black spears, in perfect precision of time, pace and angle, were startling in their suggestion of machinery in motion, and enchanting at the same time by the singular grace of the combined individual action. As yet there was no fire in the action, for this was the preliminary to the great war-dance with which the Ngati-Porou were wont to strike terror into the hearts of their foes in all their wars. Presently the change came, sudden and fierce.

‘A ki waikurekure ha!’ It was a mighty shout, cutting sharp across the bugle-tone of the leader's recitative. It came with explosive effect of many detonations from the deep throats of the column, and was repeated three times. Simultaneously with the first syllable of the first roar the black spears, held horizontally in combination, rose in perfect lines of sections—rose as long, dark, vibrating crests, sweeping upwards and onwards in regular succession to their leader. They swung overhead to the full length of the arm; from overhead they swept down in majestic volume to the waist-level; and as they rose and fell they gave the impression of resistless force pressing forward. Three times they rose and fell, and all the while the strange electric insistent war-cry resounded, and the terrible ‘crescendo’ of stamping feet kept up its suggestion of remorseless pursuit to the bitter end. After the third repetition the horizontal thrust from side to side was resumed, and thus the demonstration went on alternately.



It is hard to state what was the characteristic of the admirable performance of these, the ‘tangata whenua’, who had vowed not to suffer defeat in the friendly rivalry on their own ‘marae’. In the volume of sound produced they were first, for theirs was the largest ‘taua’, and incessant practice had made their throats as of brass. They made a great impression. One picture lingered in the mind's eye for days afterwards, that of the venerable Pokiha Taranui (Major Fox), aged and dying, yet calling up his last reserve of energy—almost to the last flicker of life as it proved later on—to swing the big claymore, the sword of honour presented to him by the Queen, wildly before the wide front of his ‘taua’.


With the exception of the Tuwharetoa war-dance, which followed, the Ngapuhi performance was one of the wildest of that day. Each man strove to leap as high as possible, and exerted himself in every action to the utmost extent. And this marked the special characteristic of the Ngapuhi war-dances and hakas, for in them more latitude within obvious limits is given to individual effort, the Ngapuhi combining the emulation of individual against individual with that of tribe against tribe.


There is a marked difference in this tribe's method of dancing. Whereas all the others leap from alternate feet, the ‘tauas’ of Taupo spring from both at once. The result is a higher spring, heavier fall, and a pause between the two in mid-air, as though the ‘taua’ were on the wing—wherein lies the marked speciality of this tribe's ‘peruperu’. As the men rise, their feet, rising together, come into line with the bent closed knees, and give a grand uniform effect in the momentary pause in mid-air, every foot and lower limb in exact line.


Big, heavy men of magnificent physique, broad-shouldered, and strong-loined, they presented a striking contrast to their cousins, the Ngati-Porou, who were slim, active and wiry; and the appearance of their ‘taua’ was not so uniform. With similar words of command they rose to their feet with ‘taiaha’ lifted high to the right. They were a grand ‘peruperu’. With slower step than that of the Ngati-Porou, they leaped as high, shook the ground with heavier tread, and shouted with louder chorus.

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Relaxation of Control of Maori Lands

The object of Maori Land Development as laid down by Sir A. T. Ngata, the founder of the Maori Land Development Schemes, was to farm and develop land until debts were repaid, and at this stage the question of tenure or return of the land to the owners was to be considered. 2. The fear uppermost in the minds of most Maoris when Sir Apirana Ngata and supervisors first expounded the advantager which would accrue to the Maori land owners if they took advantage of the Government's offer to provide finance to assist them in their farming operations, was that it was a Government scheme to obtain possession of their lands. It was frequently expressed by opponents of the scheme that once there was a debt on the land it would never return to Maori control.

It has always been the policy of the Department, where lands are unsuitable for subdivision or where the owners desire that the lands be farmed by them under an incorporation, to hand over control as soon as the financial position permits, and reasonable safeguards are made to ensure successful continuation of farming operations. This policy also applies to individual farmers.

Safeguards which the Board of Maori Affairs requires before stations are released are that satisfactory arrangements are made for repayment of debt (if any), that a competent manager is employed, that station business be carried on through a reputable firm of stock and station agents, and that the books be kept by a registered accountant.

From the inception of development to September 30, 1953, including stations farmed by the Maori Trustee and Maori Land Boards, 23 stations, comprising 78,487 acres, have been returned to the control of the Maori owners. The bulk of these properties were taken over in a derelict condition on expiry of leases and through financial difficulties following the depression. Most of the properties returned were fully stocked and had substantial credits after providing for taxation.

In addition to those stations returned to the owners, a further eleven, comprising 70,964 acres, are substantially in credit and the owners have been advised the areas can be released as soon as they complete arrangements for incorporation. In some cases the owners have requested the Department to continue to farm the lands pending completion of a consolidation scheme, or to enable the committee to obtain a better working knowledge of how to prepare station estimates and to control property generally by working in conjunction with our field staff. It has been agreed that the Department will continue to farm these lands up to a period of two years, by which time the committees should, if competent, be able to successfully farm the properties, as they will be handed back with substantial credits sufficient to create a maintenance and dividend reserve. It is the Department's sincere wish that the Maori owners should make a complete success of their future farming ventures.

The committees of management are appointed by the owners, and are selected on account of their farming experience, leadership and business ability, and should, with this background, be capable of carrying out successfully future farming operations.

There are many incorporations in the Gisborne district who have, for many years, successfully farmed these lands and have paid substantial but prudent dividends to the owners.

With markets buoyant substantial profits should continue to be made, but with the passing of the years depreciation will be heavier than in the past.

In the long run the success of the farming of released properties will depend on the extent to which ample reserves are created for maintenance, and top-dressing is carried out to preserve the fertility of the land.

Hatu ngarongaro he tangata poitu he whenua’.

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DON'T DO THIS—We owe this picture to the Maori Farmers' Club at Ruatoki. It was Te Ao Hou's photographer who put the child on the tractor seat; the progressive farmers of this club would not have dreamt of doing so.
Photo: J. Ashton

He korero whakatupato na Te Honore K. J. Holyoake Minita mo nga mahi Ahu Whenua nga aitua maha kei te pa ki nga tamariki e tukua ana ki a eke i runga tarakita (tractor). I puta i roto i te Journal of Agriculture i te Maehe i mahue ake nei.

Tino ohorere taku ngakau i taku kitenga i roto i te nupepa i waenganui i te Kirihimete me te Nu Ia, i mahue ake nei i nga aitua ohorere i pa kino ki nga tamariki e rua i taka ki muri o nga tarakita a tamia ana e nga mihini e toia ana e nga tarakita, a i mate hemo rawa aua tamariki. Na enei aitua e rua ka tae te kaute o nga tamariki i mate i tenei ahua i te tau 1952 ki te 8. Ko nga pakeke i mate i te tarakita 18.

No reira e tika ana me ata whiriwhiri nga ahuatanga i pa mai ai enei aitua.

Tera te tamaiti 13 nga tau e eke ana i muri o te tarakita e to ana i te moua (mower) ka mau te owakoti (overcoat) i te wiira whakahuri i te moua ka whiua te tamaiti nei ki mua tonu o te moua ka tukia mate rawa.

He tamaiti e 3 ¼ nga tau i taka i runga i te tarakita e to ana i te roora tekau tana te toimaha. Ka tamia e te roora mate rawa.

He tamaiti e 2 nga tau i piki ki runga i te tarakita e tu noaiho ana ka taka ki muri ka rere whakamuri te tarakita ka riro te tamaiti nei ki raro i tetahi o nga wiira o muri kitea noatia ake kua mate.

He tarakita e mahia ana nga waahi mate ka paheke i runga i nga tiaki whakatarewa ka taka ki runga i te tamaiti 22 nga marama te kaumatua kitea noatia ake kua mate.

He kotiro e 5 nga tau (ko tetahi o nga tamariki e wha i runga i te tarakita) i taka ki mua o te moua ka whara mate rawa.

He tamaiti e 9 nga tau i taka ki mua o te peira (baler) ka tamia e te wiira ka mate.


A serious personal warning to parents was sounded recently by the Minister of Agriculture, the Hon. K. J. Holyoake, to protect their children from tractor accidents. In a statement published in the Journal of Agriculture he said:

I was deeply shocked to read in the newspapers on two consecutive days between last Christmas and the New Year of the tragic deaths of two children who fell off farm tractors and were killed by the machines drawn by the tractors. These two sad happenings brought the number of farm children killed in 1952 by tractors, their associated implements, or both, to the distressing total of eight—nearly one-third of the record total of 26 persons killed by farm tractors last year.

Let us consider the facts of these sad fatalities. A boy 13 years old was riding on a tractormounted mower when his overcoat became caught in the unprotected power take-off shaft, and he was pulled under the mower and killed. A boy 3 ¼ years old fell off a tractor on which he was riding and a 10-ton roller passed over him. A 2-year-old child who had climbed on to a stationary tractor fell off when the tractor moved backward, and a rear wheel crushed him. When a tractor being overhauled slipped off its jacks it fell on a 22-months-old boy and killed him. A 5-year-old girl (one of four children riding on a tractor) fell off in the path of a rotary mower and was killed. When a 9-year-old boy fell off a tractor the wheel of a hay baler passed over him and crushed him. A girl 4 years old ran in front of a tractor-drawn field roller, and was killed, and an 11-year-old boy was badly gashed in the leg by a set of tractordrawn discs, and died from loss of blood and shock.

To allow children to ride on a tractor where the driver cannot reach them is folly in the

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He kotiro e 4 nga tau i rere ohorere atu ki mua o te roora e toia ana e te tarakita ka hinga ka tamia e te roora mate rawa.

He tamaiti 11 nga tau i tapahia te waewae e te kiiwhi (disc) e toia ana e te tarakita ka mate i te pau o nga toto me te maru o te tinana.

Ko te tuku tamariki kia eke ana i runga tarakita, i te wa e kore ana e taea e te taralwa te whawha atu te hopu ranei he tino mea kuare e tika ana kia kaua rawa e tukua kia penei a muri ake nei.

E tika ana enei whakatupato ki a ata hohonu te whakaarotia e nga mea e mahi nui ana ki tenei mea ki te tarakita (ara nga mea nui te tamariki).


worst degree, and an example of a carelessness that must not be tolerated in the future.

I recommend strongly that all farmers (particularly those with young children), contractors and any who assist with tractor work should take proper care to avoid tractor accidents.

On October 15, 1953, the Oparure branch of the Maori Women's Welfare League held their third birthday. Visitors from branches in Waitomo, Otorohanga, Waipa and Te Kuiti were welcomed together with members of the Women's Division of Federated Farmers. Enjoyable items included community singing and novel guessing competitions. All food for the function was home-cooked by members themselves.

One of three lambs chosen by the Southern Hawke's Bay A. & P. Association to be exhibited in London comes from Rakautatahi, a sheep station near Norsewood, managed by the Maori Affairs Department. Rakautatahi lambs came sixth on hoof, fifth on hooks and first in the regrouping for exhibition in London.

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During my 22 years of association with Maori farming. I have seen the very important part that milking machines have played in assisting the Maori farmer to bring his lands up to the high standard of production enjoyed by hundreds of units all over the North Island—those who are guided by the Maori Affairs Department and also those who are farming on their own account.

Why should I say milking machines have played an important part in this work? One reason is that the faster cows are milked and returned to the pastures, better production results—this fact has long been established. It is obvious then that more cows can be milked in a given time and consequently higher returns are available. With the morning milking over and the cream at the gate early, the men have more time to put in on the farm bringing in more land into permanent pasture. Another reason is that cows have been used to machine milking for so many years that they now don't like hand milking and consequently returns suffer.

To retrace my steps to 1931, it was my privilege and honour to meet the late Sir Apirana Ngata, H. Tai Mitchell, and Te Weka Anarau when Sir Apirana outlined his scheme to develop idle Maori lands, build homes and cow sheds on them and put on herds of cows, to enable the units to repay the capital spent on development. At that time the scheme came in for some public criticism and appeared to many a “dream” that could never come true. I was not one of these people because after meeting these men one could not help becoming inspired by their enthusiasm. Sir Apirana at first favoured each unit milking a few cows by hand. I pointed out to him the advantages of machine milking and that I felt he knew the advantages as well as I, but he said money was the trouble, and so it was in those days. I agreed that times were hard but asked where would we get if we went back to the “oxen and wood plow?” It was the machine age and we must live for today and not yesterday.

Within a short time machines were installed on farms at Maketu and then at the Horo Horo scheme at Rotorua and at Waiuku. From then on, the success of the scheme grew so rapidly that the Native Department, as it was then known, was constituted to guide the development further along the road to success. Each year has seen ever increasing numbers of new farms developed and settled, and this development is still increasing under the Maori Affairs Department (the old Native Department under a much more appropriate title).

In retrospect it is interesting to note that the Gane Milking Machine Company has equipped more than 90% of these farms with machines. This company which deals solely in milking machines has been supplying the New Zealand and some overseas markets for 48 years, and feels justifiable pride in this achievement—not just because it has made sales, but because it knows that it has supplied the Maori farmer with the most efficient machine of the best quality for the most reasonable price and in doing so has helped him to farm on an economic basis and parity with his Pakeha contemporaries.

I have during my 22 years' association with various schemes, had the pleasure of visiting hundreds of sheds and would be doing a grave injustice if I failed to mention the wonderful job the Maori women are doing in them. In many sheds they do all the milking (this would not be possible without machines) so that the men have full time on the farm. I pay special tribute to Mrs Bob Clarke of Tikitere, Mrs Foley Eru of Horo Horo, and Mrs Prim Whata of Rotoiti for having some of the best kept sheds I have been in, and this includes Maori and Pakeha. Of course there are many others in all parts who deserve great credit also. I have been in fine sheds in Tokerau district in the north, Rotorua area, East Coast, and Bay of Plenty, Ruatoki, Wairoa, Tokaanu, Wanganui, Waikato and latest of all, the Pouakani Block at Mangakino—everywhere the story is the same.

In conclusion I would ask how could this be done without machinery. The dream of those great Rangatiras who have passed on have come true far beyond their greatest expectations and will continue to do so with your help. I think I can say the Gane Machine is the “Rangatira” of all machines. There is a Gane Machine for every size of herd from five cows to 200 cows and there is Gane Service in every town. For any information needed write, wire or phone any Branch or Agent of: The Gane Milking Machine Co. Ltd., Anzac Ave., Auckland. Branches at Hamilton, Palmerston North, and Whangarei.”

[Advertisement, inserted by Gane Milking Machine Co. Ltd.]

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The Farm that won

This year's competition for the Ahuwhenua Trophy was very keenly contested and it is evident that the competition is helping to improve the general standard of Maori farming.

The winner, Mr Rohe Takiari, is a member of the Ngati te Wehi sub-tribe of the Waikato. His farm is situated at Rakaunui on the south side of the Kawhia harbour. It is an isolated district with substandard road access, no electric power, and mail deliveries only twice a week. The Post Office and store are 8 miles distant and the nearest centre of social activities, dances or pictures, is at Oparau township, 15 miles away.

Six years ago Mr Takiari's mother gifted him 26 acres. About the same time he secured the freehold of a further 75 acres and a leasehold of 223 acres. The total area was undeveloped easy hill country, covered mainly with manuka, fern and ragwort-infested clearings. At this stage the property came under departmental control and an immediate start was made on development.

His first season's work consisted of cultivating 66 acres for swedes and some 80 acres for grass. This was done by crushing and burning off manuka and fern, then cultivating a seed-bed with the use of giant and tandem discs, harrows and roller. The tractor driving was done by Mr Takiari himself, who at times worked up to 18 hours a day to get the job done. The tractor and implements used were hired out by the Department. Following the first year's activities an area of undeveloped country has been cultivated each year for swedes and sown in permanent grass in the autumn.

Boundary fences were erected and subdivisions completed as new areas were developed.

For three years Rohe lived in a ponga whare while development was pushed ahead. The buildings now consist of a modern homestead and his own designed 2-stand woolshed with a lean-to attached for housing implements.

When development commenced only 120 ewes were wintered on the property. This winter 860 ewes were mated to Southdown rams, and 97 Polled Angus cattle, including 63 breeding cows, have been carried. It is hoped in the future to increase the winter carrying capacity to 1000 ewes and 80 breeding cows together with replacement heifers.

Rohe buys his own replacement ewes in the paddock each year and also selects his own rams.

His lambing percentages have consistently averaged around 105 per cent. Approximately two-third of these are drafted fat off the ewes at weights averaging 38 pounds. The balance are shorn and sent away fat in the autumn. Last year the woolclip averaged 10 pounds per ewe. Lambing starts on the first of August and each year a record of deaths and the causes of them among ewes and lambs are correctly kept. Rohe, with the help of a neighbour, does his own shearing and crutching.

The Polled Angus herd is of good quality, the foundation having been laid some years ago by the purchase of 30 cows which had been cast for age. In the past, pedigree aged bulls have been purchased under schemes administered by the Maori Affairs Department. This year a good two-year-old bull has been secured from a prominent Te Kuiti stud. Steers are sold as yearlings. Replacement heifers are carefully selected and the culls sold. A number of aged cows are disposed of annually.

Besides growing a crop of swedes each year, approximately 10 acres of hay is stored and a two-acre stand of pampas grass has been established. This supplementary fodder ensures that all stock can be brought through the winter in good condition. Rohe's success can be attributed to hard work, skill as a stockman and his willingness to co-operate at all times with the field staff of the Maori Affairs Department. The farm generally presents a neat and tidy appearance. Fences and yards are in good order with all gates well hung. All tools and equipment are kept under cover when not in use. Pastures have been kept in good heart by an annual application of three hundred weight of fertilizer. Particular attention has been paid to pasture management by judicious grazing with sheep and cattle. His farm books and daily diary are perfectly kept and contain much useful information. This was substantiated by the judge awarding the maximum points for farm records. From the commencement of development Rohe has planned and successfully carried out a definite programme of work for each year. His thirst for farming knowledge is never satisfied and although he has gained this highest award it is not likely he will rest on his laurels but will strive to increase his production as much as possible. His programme of development is that generally used by the field supervisors in the Maniapoto district.

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Picture icon

Ngahape Block runs this rare white bull of Shorthorn breed, which won first prizes at the Te Kuiti A. and P. Show in three successive years. Calves from this bull and Polled Angus or Hereford cows are of magnificent quality.
Photo: Ashton

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Work is still continuing on the large Memorial Hall at Omarumutu, Opotiki, and a start has now been made on the exterior lining and decorating. The Ngati-Poua sub-tribe of the Whakatohea are selecting several women to go to Tikitiki, East Coast, to learn tuku-tuku work and scroll design so that they can return and do this intricate work in the hall themselves.

They will be taught by Mr Pine Taiapa, of Tikitiki.

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Highlight of a round-the-world trip by a Maori sheep farmer from Waiomatatini, Mr Warihi Tako, was a view of the Coronation procession from a window overlooking the route.

Mr Tako also attended a garden party at Buckingham Palace and the races at Ascot. He spent a day with Lord and Lady Bledisloe. In Paris he was shown the tekoteko (carved figure), which once belonged to Titokowaru, the famous Maori fighting chief of last century. They have been in a French museum but are to be sent back to New Zealand.

On his return Mr Tako spent a week in Honolulu, where he stayed with a Maori clergyman, the Rev. Manu Bennett.

The kumara blight has as yet not made its appearance at Opotiki, and as a consequence the demand for kumaras, tipus and kumara plants has been heavy. Most growers predict a good year for kumaras and are putting in larger acreages.

Market gardening is also taking on along the coast from Opotiki and the cultivation of tree tomatoes and other sub-tropical fruits is finding new enthusiasts among the Maoris.

The export of frozen crayfish tails from Messrs Piacin Bros. factory at Opotiki to the U.S.A. and to Tauranga has given many Maori crayfishers at Whitianga and Te Kaha plenty to do in their spare time, and good money is being earned.

Plentiful supplies are arriving at the factory and the demand is keen.

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Four Maoris have been representing New Zealand's K-Force in the United Nations Platoon of the Eighth Army Honour Guard Company in Korea. They are G. Te Monou, of Feilding; L. A. Kearns, of King Country; D. W. Harris, and W. M. Clendon, both of North Auckland.

The company has its headquarters in the South Korean capital, Seoul.

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High distinction in nursing was won recently by a team from the Queen Victoria School for Maori Girls, Parnell. In the recent Dominion nursing cadet competitions of the St John Ambulance Association held at Dunedin, the team came second for New Zealand, being beaten only by a Canterbury team. It won the Linen Guild Cup. Alice Angell, leader of the Queen Victoria team, won the national championship for team leaders. Special honours were also gained by Toi Te Rito, who was nominated second best team member and scored the highest marks for both boys and girls in the resuscitation tests.

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Another Maori who is likely to be decorated by the Queen at an investiture during the Royal Tour is Mr Tohuroa Parata, who received an O.B.E. in the previous Honours List.

Mr Parata is a grandson of Kakakura Wi Parata, the first Maori to hold Ministerial rank. For years Tohuroa Parata gave yeoman service to Rugby football, latterly as a referee. Though resident in Wellington, he spends a good deal of his time on his ancestral land at Waikanae.



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