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No. 5 (Spring 1953)
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TE AO HOU
The New World

the maori affairs department Spring, 1953

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TE AO HOU
THE NEW WORLD

Vol. 2 No. I

Some people still complain of the lack of Maori leadership, and regard it as the root of every difficulty. It is true enough that the days of stirring national figures appear to have come to an end, but are these stirring national figures really the only form of leadership for the Maori people? Admittedly, the great achievements of the last fifty years were due to figures like Carroll, Pomare, Ngata, Buck and Te Puea, but there are many highly intelligent and some brilliant Maori men and women alive today and active in the tasks of leadership. Although none have a paramount influence throughout the country, there are many who can still exert a strong influence over their own tribes or groups.

One great advantage of the present-day Maori is that a rising number is highly educated. It is, therefore, far easier for a number of local leaders from all over the country, all of more or less equal status, to confer together on Maori problems, and reach useful decisions. Admittedly, they are no longer helped by the old sense of awe at the sight of great chiefs, but the recent record of the local leaders in effecting marae improvements and getting over social problems has been decidedly encouraging.

Rather than content ourselves with looking back lovingly to the old days of powerful chiefs, we should do everything in our power to make the present leadership a success. The new leadership depends on meetings, on a national or district basis, between the best of the local leaders, both men and women. Much has already been done. The most spectacular instance is the Maori Women's Welfare League, which has managed to produce a definite revival of Maori cultural activity among women, and paved the way for social improvements. A few months ago the men followed by establishing the District Councils, which now enable tribal committee and executive personalities to gather to discuss all the larger issues with which the Maori race is faced. It has already been proved that considerable weight is attached by the people to decisions reached at District Council meetings.

This is not surprising. The most brilliant leaders of the district are present at these meetings; the whole of the people are represented by local chiefs intimately in contact with local feeling; the presence of observers and members of the public keeps the meetings right out in the open, and in touch with the people.

We must never forget that most of the work done today was planned and thought out in principle by the great men of the last two generations. At the same time, everything the late Sir Apirana and the others achieved would soon be undone if the committees, executives, boards and councils of today were not able to grapple with the complex and slippery problems that arise continually. It is, perhaps, the absence of great personal leaders that throws so much weight on the best men of today.

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HAERE KI O KOUTOU
TIPUNA

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HAERE KI O KOUTOU TIPUNA

MR MUTU HIKITOA KEEPA, a member of the Wainui a Rua of the Wanganui River, died at Porirua East, aged 55. After being educated at St Patrick's College, Wellington, he farmed at Hiruharama, on the Wanganui River, until ill-health forced his retirement.

MRS TARIHIRA MARIU, a prominent member of Ngati-Turangi Tukua sub-tribe of the Tuwharetoa tribe, who died at Tokaanu, was believed to be 108 years of age.

She spent nearly all her long life at the Waihi Maori settlement on the shores of Lake Taupo and at Tokaanu, and remembered vividly the Tarawera eruption and the last stand of Te Kooti.

THE REV HOHAIA TAURAU died at the Pakanae pa, Opononi, after a long illness. He was 68.

Mr Taurau was ordained a deacon of the Church of England in 1917, and he was for many years a missionary curate in the diocese of Auckland.

MR PERE ETIKI A RANGI, who was better known as Billy Buck, and was one of the most popular Maori personalities along the length of the Waikato River, died recently.

Billy lived all his 80-odd years on the banks of the Waikato. He was a kinsman of the late Princess Te Puea, a champion canoeist, an authority on ancient Maori lore, and a keen sportsman. At river regattas he carried off many prizes.

MRS KEITA AUPOURI MILNER, of Reporua, a well-known member of the Ngati Porou tribe, who was believed to be 111 years old, died recently.

Mrs Milner could remember the history of her tribe further back than any other member.

She is survived by six sons and five daughters, of whom all but one daughter are still living on the East Coast.

MR SAM HEI, LL.B., a paramount chief of the Whakatohea tribe, and barrister and solicitor of Gisborne and Opotiki died recently. The following story of his life has been sent to us by Mr Heretaunga Pat Baker.

A leading chief of the Whakatoha Tribe of Opotiki, Bay of Plenty, and New Zealand's first practising Maori lawyer, the late Hamiora Hei died at his residence, ‘Maraehako’, near Te Kaha. He was 84 years of age. He was allied to the ruling line of the Whanau Apanui Tribe of Te Kaha through his paternal ancestry.

His mother, Maria Nikora, a high chieftainess of the Whakatohea, was a direct descendant of the mighty Tu Tamure, who, besides being a great warrior, was descended from the Kings of Rangiatea.

Tu Tamure was also a nephew of Kahungunu, the great chief who founded the peoples of Hawke's Bay. Mr Hei traced his ancestry to both the Nukutere and Mataatua canoes.

During his lifetime Mr Hei made every effort to help the Maori people, and it was due to his efforts that the Te Kaha Dairy factory, which was defunct at the time was reopened, and today is gradually placing the Te Kaha district on a firm financial footing.

He also helped in presenting the Whakatohea land claims to the Government, and the people as a consequence received compensation for land taken in the 1890's.

Mr Hei received his early education at Te Kaha Maori School, and later at Omarumutu Maori School, from which he entered Te Aute College, where he matriculated.

He took his LL.B. degree at Auckland University College, and then returned to Gisborne, where he worked for a firm of solicitors, Messrs Reece, Jones and Blair.

Following some time in practice on his own account he had a Mr Dawson practising with him and when Mr Dawson left the district he took in two young solicitors, Messrs Nugent and O'Malley; the latter is now Judge of the Aotea Maori Land Court.

After practising for a number of years in Gisborne he came to Opotiki, where he practised until his retirement in 1948.

His wife, Katerina Rangiuia, who died some years ago, was a descendant of high chiefs of the Gisborne district.

He is survived by his son Samuel (Te Kaha), Mrs Ben Keefe (Te Kaha), Mrs Kiri Kingi (Te Kaha) and Mrs Agnes McGee (Gisborne).

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Story
Competition

Manuscripts are invited from Maori groups and individuals to compete for the first TE AO HOU LITERARY PRIZES to be awarded on March 1 of next year.

Two prizes of ten guineas each will be awarded for the best stories received at this office by February 1. One of the prizes will be for a story in English, the other for a story in Maori.

The judges will be: Mr W. Parker, Mr E. Nepia and Miss M. Petricevich.

Stories must have a length of about 2,000 to 3,000 words. They may have any subject based on life in a Maori community in country, town or city at the present day, or in the recent past. Persons and places may be either true or fictional.

Apart from the two winning entries, the most suitable stories submitted will be published in Te Ao Hou and paid for at normal rates. Certificates will be issued to the winners of the competition, and also for the best entry from each district council of Maori Women's Welfare Leagues and from adult education groups, in each of the adult education provinces.

It is hoped that the stories will help to increase awareness of what Maori life to-day really it; such awareness will undoubtedly be of the greatest help for the future.

Send manuscripts to: The Editor, Te Ao Hou, P.O. Box 2390, Wellington.

HE WHAKA
TAE TAE TUHITUHI

Hei te 5 o nga ra o te Maehe e tu mai nei ka tukua te paraehe mo te Whakataetae Tuhituhi tuatahi a Te Ao Hou. Na reira e te iwi manaakitia tenei whakaaro o ta tatou pepa.

E rua nga paraehe £10 10s. i te mea kotahi ka tukua ki nga tangata tino marama ta raua na whakatakoto i te tuhi o te korero a kia tae mai aua tuhituhi ki tenei tari a te 1 o nga ra o Pepuere. Kotahi te paraehe mo tetahi tuhituhi reo Maori a kotahi mo te tuhi Pakeha.

Ko nga Tiati mo tenei whakataetae ko Mr W. Parker, ko Mr E. Nepia a ko Miss M. Petricevich.

Kia 2000 ki te 3000 kupu te roa o ia tuhituhi. Ko te kaupapa o te korero me haere i runga i te noho a te Maori i tuawhenua i nga taone ranei a te noho ranei a te Maori i nga ra o na tata ake nei. Kei nga kaituhi te whakaaro me korero purakau noa nga korero me korero tika tonu ranei.

Ko nga korero e whiwhi ki te paraehe ka panuitia ki Te Ao Hou a ka utua nga kaituhi ka whakawhiwhia hoki nga toa o tenei whakataetate ki te tiwhikete honore raua me nga kaituhi o nga ropu penei me to Nga Wahine Maori Toko i te Ora, Ropu whakaakoako mahi mo te hunga pakeke me era atu ropu e raroto a ratou na korero ki nga tiati.

Ko te tumanako ma nga mahi me tenei whakataetae tuhituhi e whakaatu te noho tuturu a te Maori hei matakitaki ma te tangata toena pea tona hua o enei tu mahi.

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Contents

ARTICLES AND STORIES

Page
Another Successful MWWL Conference 6
Te Rangihiroa Now Rests in his Homeland 9
Rev. Mohi Turei, a biography by R. T. Kohere 10
Tuwhakairiora, by Rev. Mohi Turei 12
Epi Shalfoon, Most Popular Musician, by Bert Peterson 19
The Tribes Exchange Opinions 21
First Maori Studfarm Established 23
Orakei Today 27
Italy After Ten Years 28
Kawiu Pa Makes Up For Lost Time 30
Maori Art Studies 34
Queen Victoria School Jubilee, by Mel Taylor 36
Carved Meeting House for Waiwhetu 39
Let's Have a Meeting, Part II, by Beatrice Ashton 44
Government Prepares for Maori Reception of Queen 60
The Maori Affairs Bill 61

REGULAR FEATURES

Page
Obituaries, Hare Ki O Koutou Tipuna 3
Notes from a Museum, by W. J. Phillipps 40
Maori Personalities in Sport, by Paul Potiki 41
Women's World 44
You and Tuberculosis 48
For Younger Readers 51
Maori Poetry 55
News In Brief 56
Crossword Puzzle 63

IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT

The Management Committee of Te Ao Hou regrets to announce that an increase will have to be made in the subscription rate in the near future. From the modest magazine originally planned Te Ao Hou has become a fully illustrated quarterly, that has to have reporting staff and a photographer on the road, and employ the best writers and artists. We felt that nothing but the best is never very cheap. In order to keep the magazine afloat we have to balance our books—although the Maori Purposes Fund has given much initial support—and we must ask everyone who is prepared to help in the progress of Maori culture to continue supporting us at the new rate. Although higher than before, this new rate is in line with the cost of other similar publications in this country.

Therefore, from 15 December onwards, the rates will be:

Yearly subscription 7/6.

3-Yearly subscription, £1.

NOTE CAREFULLY: At present we still accept subscriptions at the lower rate. The rates will not go up until 15 December. Make use of this last opportunity and SUBSCRIBE TODAY. All those who have subscribed before that date will receive Te Ao Hou for the old price until their current subscriptions have expired.

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Another
Successful
MWWL
Conference

Looking back on the annual conference of the Maori Women's Welfare League in Wellington last April, the most remarkable achievement is that the discussions again rose above the smaller day-to-day issues of branches, and were concerned chiefly with the greater general problems of the Maori race. Attendance of delegates and observers was, as in previous years, enthusiastic; it was obvious that the general airing of subjects like housing, health, education, and other social matters satisfied delegates.

The delegates, when at home with their branches, spend most of their time, of course, on the house-craft competitions, money-raising functions, and the cultural activities encouraged by the league. Yet general problems of the people, such as were discussed at the conference—housing, education, health, employment—underlie everything the branches do. In organising a jam-making or taniko-weaving competition, a branch is not merely amusing itself; it is working for a general purpose which may be the raising of housekeeping standards or reviving Maori culture. We may be sure that not so many branches would be active throughout the country at present, if these general aims did not drive them on.

Annual conference is the time to think about these greater objects. It is also the time for making representations to the Government, and by far the greater number of conference remits concerned these. Such airing of popular feeling is extremely desirable, and usually welcome to the Government. To the league delegates it provided a common ground and a community of interest which bound them closer together.

Mrs Whina Cooper, Dominion President, lost no time in firing the first round. In her welcome address to the Minister, she said: ‘We all know that without your help we would never have succeeded to such an extent,’ rapidly

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The Minister of Maori Affairs, the Hon. E. B. Corbett, at the social evening during the conference.

followed by: ‘I hope you will give us this big thing we want.’

The Minister, in his reply, did not lose his chance of returning the compliment: ‘I would not like to disappoint Mrs Cooper,’ he said. ‘I know what she wants. She wants me to give her the opportunity of a kanikani.’ He praised the results achieved by the Maori Women's Welfare League in such a short time. ‘I have no doubt that the foundations have been well and truly laid, that a sound course has been set, and that achievement cannot be denied. Mr Carroll mentioned that such a conference as this should be made available to the Maori men. That will be done. I shall give them all the help I can.

‘I have been agreeably surprised to see more than one mixed school where either the head boy or the head girl has been a Maori. If that standard can be attained at the age of adolescence, it can be claimed in our future life. It is the duty of government to see that the opportunity to reach these high realms is kept open.’

In the Dominion President's report, proud reference was naturally made to the Auckland housing survey, which had resulted in the doubling of the State housing allocation to Maoris in Auckland. ‘I should like to see that work spread throughout New Zealand,’ Mrs Cooper said. Further points she made were:

*

‘Travelling around I noticed a lack of pride in many maraes. I want to stress that marae maintenance can and should be done by the leagues. I have in mind general renovations of meeting-houses, mat-weaving, looking after the kitchen and beautifying the maraes.'

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*

‘Men generally are supporting the leagues. One particularly fine achievement resulting from co-operation between men and women has been the forming of a 2 ½-mile road from Te Huahua to Motukaraka Point in the north. The women hired a bulldozer, and the men cleared the scrub on the route. There are other instances.’

*

‘It is essential for district councils to meet monthly, and it is essential also that they have the monthly reports of all their branches before them at those meetings.’

The main work of the conference was done by four sub-committees—on housing: Chairwoman, Mrs Paki; education, Mrs Logan; general, Mrs Te Tau; and health, child welfare and employment, Mrs Tahiwi. In the discussions of remits in these sub-committees women from all parts of the country were able to meet in the common struggle to improve Maori living conditions. Representations to the government followed the same main lines as those of last year. It would seem that at last year's conference the league had mapped out a comprehensive programme of help to be asked from the Government, and that discussions mainly reaffirmed last year's representations.

In the housing discussion great interest was shown in the Special Housing Fund, and the ways in which it could be used to help in the solution of the housing problem.

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Arts and crafts stand at the conference. Photo: National Publicity Studio.

Other items expressed disappointment on the representation of the Maori race at the Coronation and pressing for a ‘full and proper’ part for the Maori race at the Royal visit.

An interesting discussion was held on establishing a home for the care of orphans in New Plymouth with the help of the Maori Women's Welfare League.

Sensible and healthy also was a recommendation to the Child Welfare Branch to try to place Maori children with relatives wherever possible, and another recommendation to the Vocational Guidance Branch to give some attention to Maori primary school children. The Rarawa-ki-Hokianga District Council asked for an X-ray unit for the Tokerau district.

Here and there the remits showed promising signs of collaboration between the MWWL and other women's organisations. There is no doubt that the MWWL can be a real support to those organisations in issues of national interest. We are thinking of such remits as the one asking for a national standard of heating in schools.

There was also a resolution passed that Te Ao Hou should give a review of scholarships available to Maoris. As it happened, such a review had already appeared in the Spring 1952 issue. For those who want this review a limited number of copies of that issue is still available at 1/6 per copy.

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Some of the remits aimed at strengthening the leagues inwardly. Improvements were made in the constitution. It was decided to print the constitution, together with a guide on conducting meetings and suggestions for useful and progressive programmes for league members.

Other remits were:

*

Maori people should take responsibility for Maori welfare children.

*

The league should begin in a small way with the establishment of mothers' aids; South Hokianga District Council suggested that the best way would be through co-operation with church organisations in finding and training staff.

Special attention was given at this conference to the branches' annual reports. Messrs Charles Bennett and J. M. McEwen were the judges. This accent on reports will probably stimulate branches to take careful stock of what they have done each year, what has been achieved, and what part of the programme is still weak. Heretaunga District Council won the competition with a fine report, which gained 90 out of 100 marks: 60 (out of 65) for drive and scope of activities plus 30 (out of 35) for the form of the report. Heretaunga was praised by the judges for presenting its report under clear headings.

The following officers were elected at the conference for the period 1953–54:

Dominion President: Mrs Whina Cooper (Auckland). Dominion Vice-presidents: Mrs P. Tahiwi (Wellington) and Mrs F. Paki (Huntly). Dominion Secretary, Treasurer and Representative for the Tokerau District: Miss M. Petricevich. Waikato-Maniapoto representative: Mrs N. Swainson. Waiariki representative: Mrs R. Royal. Tairawhiti representative: Mrs M. Tamihana. Aotea representative: Mrs T. Love. Ikaroa representative: Mrs W. Bennett. Te Waipounamu: Mrs J. Moss. Assistant Secretary: Mrs E. Garrett. Government representatives: Miss F. J. Cameron (Health Department) and Mrs R. Wright (Maori Affairs Department).

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TE RANGIHIROA NOW RESTS IN HIS HOMELAND

After waiting for almost two years, the people of Urenui were able, on August 4, to celebrate a tangi over the ashes of one of their greatest sons, the late Sir Peter Te Rangihiroa Buck. Standing in the morning bustle of the Wellington Railway Station they saw the ashes—brought from Honululu by the Minister for Maori Affairs, the Hon. E. B. Corbett—carried out of the Auckland train by four bearers in ceremonial dress: T. T. Ropiha, M. R. Jones, R. Royal and P. P. Tahiwi. Even in the midst of the passers-by and the milling crowd waiting for the express, it was a moving and imposing ceremony, and the procession from the station, preceded by Anania Amohau as challenger, was marked by sincere but dignified grief.

The ceremony in Ngati-Poneke Hall on August 4 was sober and simple. Speakers expressed their gratitude to the Hon. Mr Corbett for bringing home the ashes, and prominent pakeha representatives paid tribute to the late Sir Peter Buck. Memorable among the speeches of the many statesmen, foreign representatives, and scientists present, was the story of Mr T. E. Y. Seddon, a lifelong friend of Peter Buck's, who gave a fine description of a starry night in 1904, when the two of them were travelling from New Plymouth to Auckland on the old ferry. Looking into the darkness, young Peter talked about the big change that had just come into his life: the elders of his tribe had taken him into their confidence, he had been told the traditions of his people and the old songs had been confidede [sic: confided] to him. One can imagine the two young students together: the pakeha, moved at the sight of his friend who has suddenly lost his carefree ways and has assumed the heavy burden of his race; the Maori, thinking of what has been revealed to him.

Mr Seddon was also able to relate some valuable anecdotes, including one describing Peter Buck on the battlefields in France, concentrating on reading French poetry.

As it happened, the unveiling of the Buck Memorial Cairn at Urenui occurred less than two weeks after the arrival of the ashes. The ashes will not be buried, it is said, until next year, in a memorial yet to be built. The unveiling ceremony at Urenui, on 15 August, was attended by a mixed Maori and pakeha gathering of 300–400 people. Canon W. E. W. Hurst consecrated the stone.

The Hon. Mr Corbett, who was present, together with a number of other distinguished

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Ashes of Sir Peter Buck reposing at Te Tao o Te Po meeting house at Petone.
Photo: W. H. Love

official visitors, told the people that while he was in the U.S.A. recently, scientists had told him that the late Sir Peter Buck was, in their view, the greatest New Zealander to come to America since Lord Rutherford.

After the ceremony was over, the guests had lunch in the delightful dining-hall of the Ngati-Mutunga, completed very shortly before this celebration. On the marae, the M.P. for Western Maori, Mrs Iriaka Ratana, thanked the Minister for bringing the ashes. After lunch a number of speeches were made.

Conspicuous among these was one by Dr Roger Duff, partly in fine Maori, which greatly impressed the gathering, and an eloquent plea by Hamiora Raumati—that the people should be inspired by the achievements of the late Te Rangihiroa to build a better future, and that the best memorial to him would be the building of a church at Urenui. Followers of Te Whiti, the people of Urenui, had not had a church since three were burnt down in the Maori Wars.

The function was presided over by Mr A. B. Witten Hannah.

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REV. MOHI TUREI
A BIOGRAPHY

Mohi Turei was a prominent member of the Ngati-Hokopu subtribe or Whanau a Rarewa, as it was called in early times—a section of the Ngati-Porou Tribe. The subtribe was always prominent in tribal affairs, and it produced some notable men, like Kakatarau, who led the expedition against Tokaakuku in 1836 and his brother, Mokena Kohere, who led the loyal Maoris against the Hauhaus and defeated them in 1865. The former signed the Treaty of Waitangi, and the latter was called to the Legislative Council in 1872. He was also presented with a sword by Queen Victoria.

Mohi Turei's father was Omanga of the Ngati-Hokopu subtribe, and his mother was Makere Tangikuku, of the Aitanga a Mate subtribe, Whareponga. He was probably born on Kautuku, the ancestral home of the Ngati-Hokopu. Mohi's first wife was Meri Te Rore, who bore him two daughters and two sons. It may be mentioned here that Rina, Mohi's elder daughter, for falling in love with the chief Paora Haenga, was banished to Te Arai, Poverty Bay, where she died, presumably of a broken heart. Strangely enough, Waiaka, Rina's younger sister, later married Paora Haenga. Mohi Turei was educated at Bishop William Williams' school at Waerenga-a-Hika, Poverty Bay. All the teaching was imparted in Maori; consequently Mohi knew no English, although with his intellectual ability he would have been a great scholar if he had known English. Even so, he was highly cultured in a Maori way.

Mohi Turei was ordained deacon in 1864, the year before Hauhau troubles broke out in the Waiapu Valley. After the brutal murder of the Rev. Carl Volkner at Opotiki, the rebels decided to march to the East Cape district to enlist the co-operation of the Ngati-Porou Tribe. There was some reason for this, for the kingite movement had already been established at Wai-o-matatini, a tribal centre. The first step to meet the Hauhau menace was taken by Mohi Turei. Dressed in some military outfit, he hurried to Popoti, where his people, Aowera, had gathered for some subtribal purpose. When Mohi appeared on the scene his peculiar outfit attracted notice, and he was asked why he wore such strange paraphernalia. He told the warlike Aowera that the murderous Hauhaus had entered the Ngati-Porou territory, and they must be resisted at all costs and driven back. The Aowera at once prepared to meet the intruder. Although ill-armed, the Aowera engaged the Hauhaus at Mangaone in the Tikitiki Valley, and suffered at the hands of the rebels, leaving behind them, amongst others, two of their chiefs—Henare Nihoniho, father of the well-known Ngati-Porou chief, Tuta Nihoniho, and also Mokoare.

Encouraged by their initial success, the rebels occupied Pukemaire, the flat hill above Tikitiki. Mokena Kohere was obliged to retreat to Hatepe. His relative, Hunia Huaki, was caught by the rebels and was killed after being mutilated. Mokena Kohere, with other loyal chiefs, was penned up in Hatepe for several months. Meanwhile, some of the Ngati-Porou subtribes went over to the rebels. Mokena Kohere, with a small garrison, would have been crushed but for the timely arrival of British troops from Napier. The Hauhaus were finally driven out of the Waiapu Valley, and, at Hungahungatoroa in the Karaka-tuwhero Valley, they were routed, about 500 of the Ngati-Porou surrendering while their instigators to rebellion escaped.

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MOHI TUREI PERSECUTED

The disloyal subtribes of the Ngati-Porou were not punished but were freely pardoned by Mokena Kohere. In spite of their good fortune, the Ngaitane subtribe, in 1872, while Mokena Kohere was at Wellington, attending to his Parliamentary duties, burnt down Mohi Turei's house at Te Rapa on Hahau block. Fortunately Mohi and his family suffered no harm.

A Maori committee inquired into the trouble, and found that the incendiaries had no excuse whatever for their malicious deed.

After being molested in Hahau, Mohi Turei shifted his family to the old home at Waikoriri, on Kautaku block, where he put up a comfortable home. After the death of his first wife, Mohi married Kararaina Morimete, who bore him one daughter, Ngarangi (Mrs H. M. Kohere), and four sons, Paraone, Paaka, Teki and Peta. Of the five only one, Teki, survives. For many years Mohi Turei lived happily at Waikoriri until one day, without warning, Wi Tupaea and some women—practically the same people who burnt down his house at Hahau—attacked Mohi Turei. They cut down his fences and generally behaved in a troublesome manner. To their old, fanatic Hauhauism was added religious fervour, for at the time Mormornism had split the Anglican community. The Ngati-Hokopu were ready to fight, but Mohi, true to his profession, intervened by deciding to shift his family to Hatepe, Mokena Kohere's old strong-hold.

A Maori committee under the chairmanship of the Wairoa chief, Raniera Turoa, inquired into the trouble in 1889. Mohi Turei and the Ngati-Hokopu claimed Waikoriri as part of the land of Mataura. The chief Anaru Kohaki, a staunch Mormon, led the opposition. He claimed the land as belonging to Hiihi although he (Kahaki) was not a descendant of Hiihi's. His services were purely gratuitous. He fully admitted Mohi Turei's long occupation of the land, and also that of the forbears of Ngati-Hokopu. He contended, however, that the occupation was without right. The committee accepted Anaru Kahaki's word, so Mohi lost his home. Those who cut down Mohi's fences did not put up a case. Their services were also gratuitous.

In 1913, the Kautuku case came before Judge R. N. Jones and the same thing happened, and Mohi Turei failed to recover his home and cemetery. Last year Parliament was petitioned to have the case re-opened.

A GIFTED MAORI

Mohi Turei was noted for his eloquence. He became a great preacher and often visited other tribes. He was a master of the Maori language, which he used to the best advantage. He was a disciple of the expert Pita Kopiti, of the Tapere-nui-a-Whatonga school. He composed hakas, of which one or two have become classics.

During the fifteen years he was confined to his bed he contributed largely to the Maori journal, Te Pipiwharauroa. His masterpiece is undoubtedly his article on the great Ngati-Porou chief, Tuwhakairiora. He wrote also an excellent account of the Tokaakuku campaign in the Bay of Plenty. I have never forgotten his recital of the tau manu. He led a party, carrying a number of calabashes, full of preserved pigeons while he recited the tau manu. I have never heard the like of it since.

Mohi Turei was also a carver. He helped to carve the two whares, Hinewaiapu and Tuwhakairiora.

Mohi Turei had five children by his second wife, Kararaina, of whom only Teki, a dairy farmer at Cape Runaway, survives. Ngarangi died some years ago. For many years, before her marriage to Lieut. Henare Kohere, she was a schoolteacher. Paaka died recently. He worked most of his life in the Maori Land Court. Paraone, a clergyman, died not long after his ordination. Peta, who took part in the First World War, died some years ago. Ngarangi had three children. Huinga (Mrs George Nepia) followed in her mother's footsteps by becoming a teacher. Her husband looks after her dairy farm at Rangituka. Rina (Mrs Hawea Swan) lives in Gisborne. Hiki, who won his commission in the last war, is a carpenter at Gisborne. Mrs Swan has a large family. Mrs J. Parata, Te Kaha, Bay of Plenty, is a dental nurse, and her brother, Henare, is a teacher at Tokomaru Bay.

It is reckoned Mohi Turei died at the age of 81. He was buried in the Okaroro cemetery, Hahau. His daughter, Waioka, at her last wish, was buried at the tribal cemetery, Taumata Pakihore, on the Kautuku block in 1930, despite the fact that her father failed to recover the cemetery. She wished to be buried alongside her forbears.

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TUWHAKAIRIORA
Na Mohi Turei

This story is a real classic of Maori literature, and the bestknown literary work of Mohi Turei. It is reprinted by the kind permission of the Journal of the Polynesian Society, where it first appeared in 1911, in an issue now extremely rare and valuable. The circumstances leading up to Tu-whakairiora's conquest of the Ngati-Ruanuku, some time in the sixteenth century, are told in Colonel Gudgeon's paper, The Maori Tribes of the East Coast of New Zealand, also to be found in the Journal of the Polynesian Society (Vol. IV). The places mentioned in this story may still be found near the East Cape today.—Editor.

Poroumata and his wife Whaene were well born, being descendants of Porourangi. Their tribe was Ngati Ruanuku. The chief clans of the tribe were Horo, Mana, Te Koreke, Te Moko-whakahoihoi, Te Pananehu, and Pohoumauma.

When the tribe procured food, they brought for Poroumata game, fish, and all other kinds of food. When the tribe made a catch of fish, the attendants of Poroumata's pa went to the landing places to fetch the fish day by day; for some time all went well with the fetching then trouble arose. It had come to be the habit for them to take the fish themselves from the thwarts: the fish that were left they cut off the tails, the belly-fat, and the heads of the hapuku. * His sons had been taking part it this business; for himself, he knew nothing of it; he cherished only kindly feelings for the tribe.

The tribe laid a plot to slay Poroumata. One night he looked at the clouds beyond the crayfish beds, resting close and compact, at the Milky Way and the Magellan Clouds, at the flakes of mist running together and settling in masses on the mountains. He said: ‘It will

*These were the choice portions of the hapuku.

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be settled calm to-morrow, the wind will be a light sea-breeze making gentle ripples on the water; I shall put to sea.’ In the morning he embarked in one of the canoes and reached the fishing ground. A number of canoes made up the fleet. While he was occupied with baiting his hooks, the men in the bow exchanged knowing glances with those in the stern, and those in the stern with those in the bow.

All the men of the canoes exchanged similar glances, indicating that he was to be slain. They slew him and he died. They tore out his entrails and vitals, and threw them into the sea, and they were cast ashore. The place where they were cast ashore came to be called Tawekatanga o te ngakau o Poroumata (the place where the vitals of Poroumata hung entangled). The fishing ground was called Kamokamo (knowing glances). Those names still remain.

So Poroumata died, and who was there to avenge his death? For the tribe was rejoicing, and ate its own food with no one to interfere. His daughters, Te Ataakura, Materoa, and Tawhipare, mourned for their father. Long was the mourning and grieving of these women for their father. Enough of that.

Tumoana-kotore was also a descendent of Porourangi, he as well as Poroumata. Tumoana-kotare married two sisters; Rutanga was the elder, Rongomai-tauarau the younger. They were both of them his wives. The elder had a child, Hinemahuru. The younger had a child, a son, Ngatihau.

When Tumoana-kotare died, the days of his mourning were such as befitted the mourning for a chief. They wrapped him up and took him and suspended him in a puriri near to Waiomatatini. The resting place for the bones, Parororangi, was a little above on the mountain. When a year had passed and the flesh decomposed, they would carry away the bones to that resting place. The men who had suspended him in the tree returned home. They had crossed a small stream when a voice reached them. They stood and listened. The cry was repeated. They said, ‘It is just as if it were the voice of our old man.’ They shouted, and the voice protested from above, ‘I am still alive; let me down.’ His relatives returned, let him down, and undid the wrappings. He looked up to the puriri and went on to say, ‘My eyes were still open, and yet you suspended me alive.’ Many years passed, then he really died. Enough of that.

His son, Ngatihau, took Te Ataakura, the daughter of Poroumata, as his wife. She was still mourning for her father. She conceived and bore a child, a daughter; she mourned

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deeply for her pains, and her hopes that it might have been a son to avenge the death of her father. She gave her the name Te Aomihia (the cloud that was welcomed); that is, the clouds which her father welcomed when he put to sea to his death.

She conceived again while she and her husband were living away at Opotiki. She was still mourning for her father. As she was mourning, the child moved violently in her womb. Then she uttered this saying:

‘Ah, move thou violently within me, a son,
It is for thee to avenge the death of my father.’

The child was born a son. She gave him as a name the name of his grandfather, Tumoanakotare-i-whakairia-oratia (Tumoana-kotare, who was suspended alive). This was shortened, when they called him, to Tuwhakairiora.

She cherished her child, having constantly in mind that the death of her father will be avenged by her child. She performed the ceremony following his birth and the place where she did so was called Te ewe o Tuwhakairiora. The tohungas tended the child with their incantations — Whakanihoniho, Whangawhangai, Ihotaua,* and other incantations. He grew up and came to man's estate, constantly hearing the tohungas who were tending him speaking ever of the saying of his mother.

He had taken part in sportive contests, and had smitten his man. He had taken part further in serious engagements; he had gone into the very heat of the battle; he had gathered in a bundle and turned aside the weapons which beset him on all sides like faggots in a fire. He had won the pitched battle at Paengatoitoi. His fame as a warrior had gone abroad; he had acquired the emblems of bravery in battle whereby the enemy is overcome. At last he bade adieu to the tribe. ‘Farewell! I go in accordance with the saying of my mother, which is still repeated, and which I still hear; it was perhaps because I was moving violently within her that she said:—

“Ah, move thou violently within me, a son,
It is for thee to avenge the death of my father’.”

The tribe knew that the death of his grandfather, Poroumata, was the reason Tuwhakairi-

*The names of incantations intended to produce strength and courage.

These contests beginning in sport ofter ended in bloodshed.

The okooko was a regular form of karo.

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ora was going. The tribe wished that there should be a large force to conduct him to avenge the death of his grandfather, Poroumata. He said, ‘Enough, I alone will go. There will be the tribes connected with him to conduct me.’ Alone he set out.

The tidings of the beauty of the daughters of Te Aotaki, Ruataupare, and Auahikoata, had spread even to Opotiki. When he arrived at the mouth of the Wharekahika River these women were gathering cockles, while the girls who accompanied them were sitting beside the fire, with the clothes lying in a heap. He questioned the children, and they told him it was Ruataupare and Auahikoata. He called to mind the tidings which had reached him of these women. He had taken his seat upon the clothes, and the children expressed their disapproval, the women looking on. The children went and told them and they said, ‘Well, tell him that you must bring us our clothes.’ When the children came he got up at once and gave them up, and sat down again. While the women were putting on their clothes, they gazed intently at him and the emblems of high birth and bravery which he bore with him. He was asking himself why he had not questioned the children as to which was Ruataupare.

The two women clothed themselves, and the children took up the cockles. They made their way to the south end of the bay, to Nukutaharua; the beach there is called Kaiarero. When they were some distance off, he rose up. He was walking, treading in their footsteps, and saying to himself, ‘Are these Ruataupare's, or are those?’ So he walked on, treading in their footsteps. When they turned round he was treading in this way in their footsteps. When he reached the turning he turned also, and continued following them till they reached the pa, Te Rahui. This was the pa of Uenuku-te-Whana, but he knew that the pa of Te Aotaki was above, on the mountain-face. When they had passed this pa he still walked on, following the women. Then Ruataupare and her companions hastened their pace to carry the news quickly to their father, and he walked on slowly.

They described to their father the emblems of high birth and bravery, and how he had persisted in following after them. Te Aotaki drew a long breath* and then sighed deeply. ‘Ah, well, he is perhaps your cousin Tuwhakairiora; it seems so from the emblems you describe.’ ‘Where is he?’ he asked. ‘Here he comes.’ ‘Was he not detained at the pa yonder?’ ‘No!’ Then he uttered this saying, ‘Enough,

*The pumanawa was a process of divination.

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let him come hither to Hikurangi, to the mountain on which rests the snow.’ He said to his daughters, ‘Adorn yourselves, and go to call a welcome to your cousin.’ He had divined it with that deep sigh of his that it was Tuwhakairiora. His daughters stood at the right of the front of the house, in the court, with their mother, Hinemaurea. He (Te Aotaki) was in the space by the window, reclining on the beam in the front of the porch, gazing with an intent look. The tribe with his daughters were waying a welcome. He (Tuwhakairiora) stood in the court and remained standing a long time. The tribe was gazing at the emblems of high birth and bravery, the plumes of white crane, and crest of sparrow-hawk feathers, ranged close together, and stuck into his hair; with the highly ornamented cloak, and dog-skin cape worn over it, and the decorated taiaha in his hand.

The tribe and the daughters were still standing, being in awe of Te Aotaki. He was still reclining and gazing at Tuwhakairiora. Some time passed, then he rose, grasped him by the left shoulder, and took him behind the left wall of the house without, where they descended together to the running stream, and Te Aotaki performed the tohi* rite over Tuwhakairiora. When Te Aotaki had ended his invovations [sic: invocations] he invoked Rangipopo. It was not long before she spoke with the voice of the thunder-clap to the tribes on the west side of Pukeamaru, including the tribes inland from Wharekahika, and the tribes on the sea-coast at Taungaihe and Owhiunga, the multitudes of Ngutuau. Those tribes said, ‘Eh, whoever is this man, that Te Aotaki keeps agitating the thunder-clap?’ They were both still standing when he called again to Rangipopo, ‘Old lady, old lady, old lady, arise, arise, arise; announce thy son; give voice.’ The sound of the thunders turned to the south side of Pukeamaru, over the pas at Puketapu, Kotare, Te Rangihuanoa, Tarapahure, Totaratawhiti, Okauwharetoa, and the other pas. They both remained standing. There spake the voice of the first thunder, Haruru-ki-te-rangi, and the pas were listening. When that ceased, there spake the voice of the second of the thunders, Whetuki-ki-te-rangi, over the same pas again. When that ceased, there spake the voice also of the third, Ueue-ki-te-rangi. Thereupon the chiefs and the tribes in those pas said, ‘What a disturbance Te Aotaki is making, rending asunder his mountain Pukeamaru; to-morrow we shall hear the tidings.’

When all the incantations of Te Aotaki were ended, they returned; when they came, the food

*Tohi was a rite for causing bravery.

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had been arranged on the stands. They ate the food out of doors, and a tohunga was appointed to feed Tuwhakairiora. When that was over they entered the house. Ruataupare's sleeping place was immediately beneath the window, but she betook herself to the inner end of the house to sleep, and left her sleeping place for Tuwhakairiora. As for the old man, he was beside the fire on the narrow side of the house, making his greetings to him. After some time he called Ruataupare, and his daughter arose and sat beside him. After some time, when she had finished her ngunguru incantation, he then said aloud, ‘Go down to your cousin that he may stretch his feet.’ Ruataupare arose and married Tuwhakairiora, then she went outside.

i. e., on the left of the centre passage as one entered.

The Ngunguru was an incantation in connection with marriage.

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OUR COVER PHOTO

The lady shown on this cover is Mrs Heather, granddaughter of Mr Iaki Hira, the well-known Maniapoto leader. Mrs Heather has won considerable fame as a horsewoman in recent years. An article on Mr Hira and his family will appear in the Summer issue.

Ko Poroumata raua ko tona wahine ko Whaene he rangatira, he mokopuna na Porourangi. Ko to raua iwi ko Ngati Ruanuku. Ko nga hapu nunui i roto ko Hore, ko Mana, ko Te Koreke, ko Te Mokowhakahoihoi, ko Te Pananehu, ko Te Pohoumauma.

Ka mahi te iwi i te kai, ka kawe ma Poroumata, i te hinu, i te ika, me era atu kai katoa. Ka hi te iwi i te ika, ka haere nga tumau o to Poroumata pa ki nga awa ki te tiki i nga ika i tena ra, i tena ra; nawai ra i pai te tiki, kua kino. Kua riro ma ratou e tango nga ika i nga taumanu. Ko nga ika i mahue atu ka kotia mai nga tata, nga whatu-aro, nga upoko o nga hapuku. Kua uru hoki nga tama ki taua mahi. Ko ia kaore i te mohio: tana he atawhai tonu i te iwi.

Ka whakatakoto whakaaro te iwi kia patua a Poroumata. I tetahi po ka titiro ia ki te po tu i waho i te Omanga e taruru ana, ki te Ika o te rangi me nga Patari, ki te tae pukohu tataiore e taipua ana i nga maunga. Ka ki ia ‘He marino tua-ukiuki apopo, he kawatawata tata moana te koangiangi; ka haere au ki te moana.’ I te ata ka eke ia ki tetahi o nga waka, ka tae ki te taunga. E kupapa ana te tini o nga waka. Ka wara ia ki te mounu i ana matau. Ka kamo nga whatu o nga tangata o te ihu ki o te ta, me o te ta ki o te ihu. Ka pera katoa nga tangata o nga waka ra, ka kamo katoa, me te tohu mai kia patua. Ka patua, ka mate. Ka pokaia te puku me te ngakau, ka maka ki te moana, ka pae ki uta. Waiho iho nei hei ingoa mo te wahi i pae ai, ko Tawekatanga o te ngakau o Poroumata. Huaina iho ki te taunga ko Kamokamo. E. mau nei ano aua ingoa.

Ka mate ra a Poroumata, ko wai hei ngaki i te mate? Kei te hari ra hoki te iwi, ka kai noa ia i ana kai. Ka tangi nga tamahine ki to ratou papa, a Te Ataakura, a Materoa, a Tawhipare. He roa te tangihanga me te mamaetanga o nga wahine nei ki to ratou papa. —Kati tera.

Ko Tumoana-kotore, hei mokopuna ano ma Porourangi, raua tahi ko Poroumata. Ka moe a Tumoana-kotore i nga wahine tokorua, ko Rutanga te tuakana, ko Rongomai-tauarau te taina. Tokorua moe anake i a ia. Ka puta ta te tuakana, ko Hinemahuru. Ka puta ta te taina, he tama tane, ko Ngatihau.

Ka mate a Tumoana-kotore, ka rite nga ra e tangihia ana ki to te rangatira tangihanga. Ka takaia, ka kawea, ka whakairia ki runga ki te kauere, e tata ana ki Waimatatini. Ko te toma koiwi, ko Parororangi, kei runga tata ake, kei te maunga. Kai taka te tau, kia pirau, ka kawe ai i nga iwi ki taua toma. Ka hoki nga tangata whakairi ki te kainga, ka whiti i te tahi awa iti nei, ka pa te waha. Ka tu, ka whakarongo. Ka karanga ano. Ka ki ratou, ‘Mehemea tonu ko te waha o te koroua nei.’ Ka whakahu ake ratou, ka akiaki iho te waha, ‘Kei te ora tonu au, tukua au ki raro.’ Ka hoki te whanau, ka tukua, ka wetewetekia nga takai. Ka titiro ake ki te kauere ra, ka whai te waha, ‘E titiro tonu ana aku whatu, ka whakairia oratia.’ He maha nga tau, katahi ka tino mate.—Kati tera.

Ka moea e tana tama, e Ngatihau, a Te Ataakura, te tamahine a Poroumata, hei wahine mana. Kei te tangi tonu ki tona papa; ka mamae, ki tana wahara hoki he tane hei ngaki i te mate o tona papa. Ka huaina e ia te ingoa ko Te Aomihia, ko nga ao i mihi ai tona papa, i haere ai ki te moana i mate ai.

Ka hapu ano ia, noho rawa atu raua ko te tane i Opotiki. Kei te tangi tonu ia ki tona papa. I a ia e tangi ana, ka takatakahi te tamaiti i roto i tona puku. Katahi ia ka whakatauki iho:—

“E i, kia takatakahi koe i roto i a au, he tane,
E ea i a koe te mate o toku papa.”

Whanau ake he tane. Ka huaina te ingoa ko te ingoa o tona tipuna, ko Tumoana-kotore-i-whakairia-oratia. Ka whakapotoa ki te karangatia, ko Tuwhakairiora.

Ka atawhai ia ki tana tamaiti, me te mahara tonu ka ea te mate o tona papa i tana tamaiti. Ka tanumia te ewe; kiia iho te wahi i tapukea ai ko Te ewe o Tuwhakairiora. Ka mahia e nga tohunga te tamaiti ki a ratou karakia Whakanihoniho, Whangawhangai, Iho-tau me era atu karakia. Ka tupu, ka pakeke, me te whawarongo tonu ki nga tohunga mahi i a ia e korero tonu ana i te whakatauki a tona koka.

Kua uru ia ki nga whakawai riri, kua pa i a ia te tangata. Kua uru tonu ia ki nga whawhaitanga nui, kua puta tonu ia ki te kainga ahi, kua okooko i nga rakau o te tutakitanga o nga motumotu. Kua hinga te parekura nui, ko Paengatoitoi. Kua haere ona rongo-toa, kua mohio ia ki te tohu toa o te riri e hinga ai te hoa-riri. Katahi ia ka poroaki iho ki te iwi: “Hai konei, ka haere au ki te whakatauki a toku koka, e korerotia nei, e rongo nei au: noku pea e takatakahi ana i roto i a ia, ka ki iho nei:—

“E i, kia takatakahi koe i roto i a au, he tane,
E ea i a koe te mate o toku papa.”

Kua mohio te iwi ko te mate o tona tipuna, o Poroumata, ka haerea e Tuwhakairiora. Ka mea te iwi kia nui te ope, hei kawe i a ia ki te mate o tona tipuna, o Poroumata. Ka kiia e ia “Kati, ko au anake e haere. Tena ona iwi hai kawe i a au.” Ka haramai ia, ko ia anake.

Tera nga rongo ataahua o nga tamahine a Te Aotaki, o Ruataupare, raua ko Auahikoata, kua hau noa atu ki Opotiki. Ka tae mai ia ki te ngutu-awa o Wharekahika, ko nga wahine ra e kohi pipi ana, me nga tamariki wahine, o raua hoa, e noho ana i te taha o te ahi, me nga kakahu e pukai ana. Ka patai ia ki nga tamariki ra; te kianga mai ko Ruataupare raua ko Auahi-koata. Ka mahara ia ki nga rongo kua puta atu ra o nga wahine nei. Kua eke ia ki runga o nga kakahu noho ai. Kai te riri mai nga tamariki ra, kai te titiro mai nga wahine ra. Ka haere nga tamariki, ka korero atu, ka ki mai raua, ‘Tena koa, ki atu, kia mauria mai e koutou o maua kakahu.’ Te taenga atu o nga tamariki, ka whakatatanga ia, ka riro atu, ka noho ano ia. Kei te kakahu nga wahine ra, kei te titiro whakatau mai ki a ia, ki nga tohu o te rangatira, o te toa, e mau atu ana i runga i a ia. Kei te mea hoki ia ki tona kore i patai ki nga tamariki ra ko tewhea a Ruataupare.

Kakahu ana raua, na nga tamariki i mau nga pipi. Ka ahu mai ki te pito ki te tonga, ki Nukutaharua, ko te ingoa o te one nei ko Kaiarero. Ka mamao mai raua, ka whakatika ia. Kei te takahi haere atu i nga tupuae, kei te penei, ‘Koia nei ranei o Ruataupare, ara ranei ko tera ra?’ Ka takahi haere atu i o raua tapuae. Ka tahuri mai raua, e pera ana te takahi atu i o raua tapuae. Tae noa ki te pekanga, peka tonu hoki ia, whai tonu i muri i a raua, tae noa ki te pa ki Te Rahui. Ko tenei pa no Uenuku-te-whana; kua mohio ke mai ia ko te pa i runga i te aromaunga to Te Oataki. Ka pahure te pa ra, whai haere tonu ia i nga wahine ra. Katahi ka kaha te haere a Ruataupare ma kia wawe to raua papa te rongo, ka ata haere atu hoki ia.

Korero atu ana raua ki to raua papa ki nga tohu o te rangatira, me nga tohu o te toa, me te whai tonu mai ia i muri i a raua. Ka hotu te mauri o Te Aotaki, ka pumanawa, ‘E i, tena pea ia ko to korua tungane, ko Tuwhakairiora, ina te rite o a korua tohu.’ Ka patai ia, ‘Kei wheat?’ ‘Ina tonu e haramai nei.’ ‘Kaore ia i puritia atu i te pa ra ra?’ ‘Kaore!’ Ka whakatauki ia: ‘Kati, tukua mai ki Hikurangi, ki te maunga e tauria e te huka.’ Ka ki ki nga tamahine, ‘Rakai i a korua ka whanatu ki te karanga ki to korua tungane.’ Kua mohio ia, na tona pumanawatanga i whakaatu, ko Tuwhakairiora. Ka tu nga tamahine i te mataihi katau o te marae, me to raua koka, me Hinemaurea. Ko ia ki te takiwa ki te mataaho, e tapapa, ana i runga i te paepae nui o waho, e titiro whakatau atu ana. Kei te pohiri te iwi me nga tamahine. Ka tu ki te marae, ka roa e tu ana. Kei te titiro te iwi ki nga tohu o te rangatira. o te toa, ki te takotuku, ki te pare-karearea, apititia ai, poua ai ki te upoko, me te kakahu paepaeroa, uhia iho te mahiti, me te taiaha-a-kura ki te ringa.

Kei te tu te iwi nga tamahine, kei te wehi i a Te Aotaki. Kei te tapapa tonu ia, kei te titiro tonu atu ki a Tuwhakairiora. Ka roa, katahi ka whakatika atu ka mau ki te pakihiwi maui, ka numia i te pakitara maui o waho o te whare ka heke atu raua ki te wai-rere, ka tohia e Te Aotaki a Tuwhakairiora. Ka mutu nga karakia a Te Aotaki ka kerohia e ia a Rangipopo; kihai i roa ka ki te reo o te whaitiri paorangi ki nga iwi i te taha hauauru o Pukeamaru, puta noa ki nga iwi i roto o Wharekahika, me nga iwi o te taha moana i Taungaihe, i Owhiunga, nga tini o te Ngutuau. Ka ki nga iwi ra, ‘E, ko wai ra tangata nei, ina he akiaki tonu a Te Aotaki i te whaitiri paorangi?’ Kei te tu tonu raua, ka karanga ano ia ki a Rangipopo, ‘E pou, e pou, e pou, whakaaraara, whakaaraara, whakaaraara; whaka aturia to mokopuna; e tangi.” Ka huri te tangi o nga whaitiri ki te taha tonga o Pukeamaru ki runga ki nga pa ki Puketapu, ki Kotare, ki Te Rangihuanoa, ki Tarapahure, ki Totaratawhiti, ki Okauwharetoa, me era atu pa. Kei te tu tonu raua. Ka ki te waha o te whaitiri tuatahi, o Haruru-ke-te-rangi, kei te whakarongo nga pa ra. Ka mutu tera, ka ki ano te waha o te rua o nga whaitiri, o Whetuki-ki-te-rangi, ki runga ano ki nga pa ra. Ka mutu tera, ka ki ano te waha o te tuatoru, o Ueue-ke-te-rangi. Kei tenei ka ki nga rangatira me nga iwi o roto o nga pa ra, ‘Ehara te whakararu e wawahi nei a Te Aotaki i tona maunga, i Pukeamaru; apopo taua te rongo ai i te korero.”

Ka mutu nga karakia katoa a Te Aotaki ka hoki raua; tae atu, kua rite nga kai ki runga i te takotoranga. Kainga i waho, ka whakaritea he tohunga hei whangai mo Tuwhakairiora. Ka mutu, ka tomo ki te whare. Ko te moenga o Ruataupare kei raro iho o te mataaho, ka tau ia ki te tuarongo moe ai, ka waiho te moenga mo Tuwhakairiora. Ko te koroua ra kei te taha o te ahi i te tara iti o te whare e mihimihi atu ana ki a ia. Ka roa, ka karanga atu ia ki a Ruataupare; ka whakatika mai hoki te tamahine, ka noho ki tona taha. Ka roa ka mutu hoki tona ngurunguru, katahi ka ki nui atu, ‘Whanatu ki raro i to tungane na, hei wharorotanga mai mo ona waewae.’ Ko whakatika a Ruataupare, ka moeo e Tuwhakairiora, ka puta ia ki waho. (Kote wahanga whakamutunga kei muri).

– 19 –

EPI SHALFOON
Loss of Popular Musician
by Bert Petersen

The death of Epi Shalfoon last May was certainly a great blow to dance music throughout the country, and especially in Auckland. His funeral saw the largest gathering of musicians I have ever attended.

His life, remarkable in many ways, ended in the midst of the music to which it had been dedicated. He collapsed while dancing with his daughter, Reo.

How did Epi Shalfoon, born in Opotiki in 1904 of a Maori mother and a Syrian father, became the most popular figure in the history of dance music in Auckland?

Epi's full name was Gareeb Stephen Shalfoon. Gareeb was given the Maori pronounciation of Karepi, later abbreviated to Epi. His mother, whose maiden name was Mary Hopa. is still alive in Opotiki to-day.

Epi had his early education at the Opotiki Convent School, and later went on to Auckland Grammar School for three years' secondary education.

He started his first dance band, “The Melody Boys,” in Opotiki, in 1924. The band, in which Epi played the piano, ‘clicked’ immediately with the dancing public.

He later changed to saxophone, and this was to be his principal instrument in the years to follow.

In 1928 he moved to Rotorua, opening a music store there called ‘Melody House’, and it was typical of Epi that instead of advertising that his store was opposite the Post Office, he announced that the Post Office was opposite Melody House.

His band, still the ‘Melody Boys’, was an instantaneous success in Rotorua, being regularly featured at the Majestic Ballroom. The band played at all the biggest functions in the surrounding districts, even travelling as far north as Hamilton and Te Aroha, and in 1930 they received their first Auckland engagement.

Around this time Epi made three movie shorts, accompanying vocalists Ano Hato and Dean Wharetini.

It was with this same band that Epi Shalfoon broke into the musical life of Auckland, where he settled in 1934. Here his band played regularly every Saturday night at the Crystal Palace ballroom to packed houses, until his death earlier this year. Such a nineteen-year term is an all-time record for Auckland.

On his arrival, Epi accepted a post with Atwater's Music House, where he served successfully until, some years later, he joined the Mutual Life and Citizens Insurance Co., where his engaging personality eventually made him a most successful salesman.

In the meantime he expanded his musical activities. His band was featured from IZB, at the ‘Musicians' Ball’; and he made recordings—in fact did everything and played everywhere with what was probably the most popular band in the country.

An innovation that Epi introduced to Auckland was his dance band bureau (eight bands available) providing orchestras for all manner of functions, a service successfully maintained for many years.

He was a great battler for the musicians' union, serving on the executive committee for many years, and being appointed on several occasions as delegate to the national conference.

Epi's daughter Reo sings with his band. His brother Tony, who plays alto-saxophone and

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was associated with Epi in many of his early successes, has for many years led his own band, which has also proved a popular one.

Epi made his friends in the musical world not only with his unequalled personality, but with his generosity and kindness to all, notably to young musicians.

He would permit young players keen to break into the music game to play a number or an extra with his band, and later would come the time when he would say: ‘Do you think you could play through a whole night's programme now?’ The youngster's excited ‘Yes!’ would produce a kindly ‘Okay, young fellow, Saturday night at eight’. Many Auckland players had their first ‘break’ in this way; a list of those who played in Epi's band at one time or another would fill a book.

A more unobtrusive role was Epi's when some musician was ‘up against it’. He would find or make jobs in some such cases, or put his hand in his pocket to help them through.

Another side of his nature is revealed in his loyalty to his players. On one occasion, when an employer and one of his players quarrelled, the employer demanded instant dismissal. It was an important job on regular contract, but Epi replied without hesitation: ‘If he goes, we all go with him’. They stayed.

I find it difficult to say why Epi was so amazingly popular. He had a very pleasing appearance and was a great showman, although not a ‘show-off’. A very modest man, he claimed no special talent or ability. He was extremely amusing company. It was impossible not to enjoy every minute of the time spent with him, although it is hard to say why.

As to the success of his band, this has been explained by one reason or another, but my opinion is that it was all Epi.

Some years ago, a writer in the Auckland ‘Observer’ put it down to the fact that no music was used, the musicians playing by ear, or ‘lugging’, as it is professionally called. He suggested that the players, having no scores to absorb or distract them, were left free to concentrate on the rhythm of the music.

Quite a reasonable theory, but many other bands do the same without comparable success, and as Epi said himself to me: ‘My band is not the best band in town by a long way, but it's the most popular band.’

There I think is the answer. It was a good band, played popular music, and had its supreme asset in Epi's personality.

Some young readers would no doubt like to follow in Epi's footsteps and achieve fame and fortune in the same way.

So would I, and if I knew how to do it, I would try it myself.

MARAE IMPROVEMENTS SUBSIDISED

Subsidies to tribal committees, under the M.S.E.A. Act, totalled £23,861 over the twelve months ended last March, according to the annual report of the Department of Maori Affairs. Among the projects subsidized were: a dining-hall at Waiohau (Mahurehure Tribal Committee, Waiariki, £1,130); rebuilding of a community centre and memorial dining-hall at Otuwhare, erection of a dining-hall at Maraenui and a memorial meeting-house at Omaio (Apanui Mutu Tribal Committee, Waiariki, altogether £2,575); new meeting-house at Waihi Pa, Tokaanu (Turamakina Tribal Committee, Aotea, £3,488); water supply and drainage scheme at Ratana (Ratana Trust Board, Aotea, £1,282); various marae improvements at Kaiwhaiki, Wanganui River (Kaiwhaiki Tribal Committee, Aotea, £1,064); meeting-house at Waiwhetu (Hutt Valley Tribal Committee, Ikaroa, £3,000); the Pare Hauraki meeting-house at Turangawaewae (Turangawaewae Tribal Committee, Waikato-Maniapoto, £1,500); art work in Hukarere chapel (Hikurangi North Tribal Committee, Tairawhiti, £1,595); completion of hall and dining-room at Rangiahua (Rangiahua Tribal Committee, Tokerau, £652). Some other subsidies for amounts under £1,000 were also paid out.

Allocations to the Land Court Districts were: Waiariki, £7,421; Aotea, £6,330; Ikaroa, £4,500; Waikato-Maniapoto, £2,047; Tokerau, £1,968; Tairawhiti, £1,595. Subsidy funds were largely devoted to the improvement of maraes.

MAORI HOUSING

According to the Annual Report of the Maori Affairs Department, Maori housing construction last year was an all-time record, 456 houses being constructed, while loans totalling £1,125,636 were granted. This is the first time the million mark has been exceeded.

Mr J. H. Barber, Director of Maori Housing, when interviewed by Te Ao Hau, said everything was being done to keep up the present rate of construction. He gave a warning, however, that the future of the housing scheme may ultimately depend on people's promptitude in repaying their housing loans. Those lagging behind in their repayments are endangering the chances of others, he said. Let us suppose that arrears for one year should amount to £30,000. This would mean fifteen houses could not be built in that year. Besides, the whole scheme could be endangered by people not honouring their obligations.

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The Tribes Exchange Opinions

The two paramount topics among the Maori people this year are the Maori Affairs Bill and the Royal visit. Te Ao Hou was quickly able to get an understanding of Maori views on the Royal Visit when its correspondent was invited to listen in to a meeting of the Aotea District Welfare Council. Unfortunately, the discussion of the Bill was less precise, as certain reports by experts were not yet to hand, and without these the very businesslike chairman felt that detailed discussions would only waste the time of the meeting.

It is unfortunate that Te Ao Hou cannot attend all District Council meetings. The minutes on departmental files are not enough — lively reports of the meetings for Te Ao Hou are needed, and help in this direction would be warmly appreciated.

It seemed to Te Ao Hou that a district welfare council is a miniature Maori Parliament. It is attended only by the select — you have to be sent by a tribal committee to be able to take part in discussions. At the Wanganui meeting at the end of June attended by Te Ao Hou, English was spoken and business was brisk and efficient. Although some fifty tribal committees were represented, various important motions were passed and all business ended within the scheduled two days. The meeting opened punctually at 9 a.m. Mr Jack Asher, as chairman, kept the speakers to the point right through.

Modern though the atmosphere was, it did not seem un-Maori. When controversial topics came up, where deep tribal feeling was involved, the discussions switched easily into Maori, to return to English when the meeting had passed to a less involved subject.

The meeting was held at Putiki, just out of Wanganui. The hosts certainly had excellent organisation. The speed with which the conference hall was turned into a dining-hall and back again was an outstanding example of this.

The meeting was opened by Judge O'Malley of the Maori Land Court. Welcoming the discussion on the Maori Affairs Bill, which was on the agenda, the Judge said he would be sorry to see the Bill passed without the fullest consultation with the Maori people.

A very detailed discussion followed on the Royal Visit arrangements. Mr P. Hura and Mrs Ratana, who were present, had both taken part in deputations to the Hon. Mr Webb on Royal Tour matters, and they gave the meeting a careful account of proceedings. Of course much has changed in the Royal Tour arrangements since those deputations approached the Minister.

Mr Pei Jones objected to the use of Maori ceremonial at civic receptions during the Royal Tour. He was strongly opposed to hakas in the streets. This would not be fitting, he said. Such ceremonial must have the proper background and atmosphere.

Mr Hare Larkins supported him, stressing the tapu character of such welcomes. At civic receptions they would only be a show.

One delegate had been requested by a local body to put on precisely such a welcome. His people had been inclined to accept the offer, and in fact felt quite pleased to be able to do homage to the Queen in this way. What did the meeting think he should do?

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The chairman suggested that under these circumstances perhaps the people should have their way, and put on their haka.

Most of the delegates, however, were much concerned about the matter. After much discussion, Mr Pei Jones put a motion to the meeting, setting out a code of conduct for all tribal bodies under the Aotea District Welfare Council. The code was:

*

Maoris may take part in civic receptions.

*

They may wear traditional dress at these receptions.

*

They may speak if called upon, or take any other part usual at such receptions.

*

They should not, however, carry out any Maori ceremonial that is appropriate only on the sacred ground of the marae.

This motion was carried unanimously, and was acceptable to the delegate who had asked for the meeting's opinion. He would try to persuade his people, he said.

A sub-committee was appointed to work out plans for the representation of the Aotea people at the Maori reception at Rotorua. A resolution was also passed to appeal to the Government to fit in a short visit by the Queen to Ngaruawahia.

Te Ao Hou records with gratitude that the Aotea Council resolved at this same meeting to support our magazine by encouraging the taking of subscriptions and the sending in of articles and news items.

BOARD OF MAORI AFFAIRS

Mr Mason Durie, of Aorangi, Feilding, and Mr Peaterika Hura, of Taumarunui, were appointed to the Board of Maori Affairs recently. The Board of Maori Affairs meets monthly at Wellington, under the chairmanship of the Minister of Maori Affairs, who is responsible for administering the finance available for Maori land development and housing.

MR MASON DURIE, who belongs to Ngati-Kauwheta and Rangitane, is Chairman of the Raukawa Tribal Executive. An experienced farmer, he has been prominent in many Maori activities; he is also a J.P., and a leading layman of the Anglican Church.

MR PAT HURA, from Ngati-Tuwharetoa, is a cousin of Hepi Te Heuheu, the paramount chief of that tribe. He has had extensive business experience, both in farming and timber milling in the King Country.

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KO TE PAAMU TUATAHI
WHAKATIPUTIPU KAU
A TE MAORI

Ka rua tau e matakitaki puku ana te hunga whai whakaaro ki te timatanga mahi whakatiputipu kau a tetahi Maori, tamatuatahi pea te Maori ki tenei tu mahi. Ko te kaiwhakahaere o taua paamu ko Tutahanga Jones te matamua o nga tamariki a M. R. Jones a kua maha nga puuru kuao kua whakawhiwhiate taua paamu ki etahi o nga Maori o Te Rohe Potae.

Na Anso Bros, te tohunga mo nga mahi whakatiputipu kau kei Te Rohe Potae nga kau tuatahi o taua paamu a Jones — kotahi te puuru tekau nga kau uha. Ko te mahi inaianei he hokohoko i nga kawhe puuru a he whakatiputipu i nga mea uha.

Ehara tenei tu mahi paamu i te mahi poka taka ki te rangatiratanga moni mo te tangata. Ko taua paamu a Tutahanga e tata ana ki te rua rau eka te rahi, e waru maero te mamao atu ki waho o Otorohanga he whenua momona a kua oti katoa te whakapai i mua o te timatanga ki te mahi whakatiputipu kau. I te tau 1937 he paku noa te wahanga o taua whenua kua oti te whakapai a ko te whare o runga he whare perana noa, katahi ka tukua taua whenua ki raro i nga tikanga mahi ahuwhenua a Te Tari Maori, he tikanga hou a he tikanga kiriweti ki nga whenua o Te Rohe Potae. Katahi ka piki mai te whenua nei tae rawa ake ki te tau 1940 kua makere atu i te 10,000 pauna pata e puta ana i te tau.

Ko Tutahanga Jones i ata whakaakona ki nga matauranga mahi ahuwhenua i te kura a

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te Kawanatanga kei Ruakura a riro rawa mai i a ia te whakahaere o taua whenua kua tohunga ia ki te mahi. Mau tonu ona whakaaro ki nga mahi i whakaakona ki a ia i Ruakura a he aha te mea e rere ana ana patai ki taua kura. Nana i wawahi taua whenua kia pakupaku nga rohe i taiapatia he waru ki te tekau eka a me tana ono haere ano he kai ki tena rohe ki tena rohe ia tau ia tau. Ka tae ki te wa whangai o te koroa ka tangohia mai e ia he taiapa hiko hei arai haere i nga kau a kitea ana ka mutu te tino mea pai, me te aha hoki me te toe roa ra o te kai kau a kaore e apu te kau i te koroa ka pupuhi. Ka tae ki nga ngahuru te kai ka whaka whaiti i ana kau ki tetahi koki o te taiapa ka mutu ano te mahi he whakatoro i te taiapa hiko. Ka nanea te waru eka hei whangai i ana kau mo te kotahi wiki neke atu ranei, a tekau meneti ano e mahi ana kau tu te taiapa hiko. He tino taonga te taiapa hiko kaore hoki e puta noa te kararehe.

Kei te mahi a Tutahanga ki te wawahi i ana taiapa kia pakupaku ke atu, ko tona whakaaro ka nui noa atu te toru ki te wha eka mo nga wa kaore i te kaha te tipu a te kai kaore noa iho he tikanga i whakatu taiapa hiko ai.

Ko tetahi mahi a Tutahanga ka pau nga kai o tena taiapa rakaraka rawa i nga maniua ka pa ai i taua taiapa.

He tohunga te mahi a tenei tangata. He mea nui ki a ia te mahi kai ma ana kararehe. He kai kaingakau na te kau te karaehe toroi ara te ensilage a e wha nga rua penei a Tui. He taiapa hei hoki tana. Ko tona whakaaro no nehera rano te mahi tapuke i te ensilage a rui rawa hoki ki te raima. Ko tana mahi he takati

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i te rua ensilage ma tana tractor ka waiho atu i kona ma te ra e whiti ka maro a runga o taua putu.

Ehara a Tui i te tangata mataku ki te whakamatau i nga mahi hou. I kitea e ia ki roto i etahi pukapuka e mau ana nga korero kaore noa iho he tikanga i kutete a rangatia ai te kau i muri mai o te mihini. Ka whakaaro ia ka mutu te mahi pai ka mahia peratia e ia tana mahi miraka kau a tumeke ana ia i te kitenga iho kua heke te kirini o ana kau. I te tau tonu i muri mai ka tae mau tetahi tohunga no Amerika a Professor Peterson ki Niu Tireni nei haere ai a ko etahi o ana kauhau he tautoko i tenei ahuatanga hou mo te mahi miraka kau a koa ana te ngakau o Tui. Ka tutaki raua ko taua tohunga ka pataitai atu a Tui ko te whakamarama mai no nga kau te he—he mahi tauhou tera ki a ratou na reira i heke ai te kiriimi engari timata ana te miraka o te kau tamariki ka mahi pera kei te pai; ka whaka matauria e Tui tika tonu. Ko tetahi mahi a taua tohunga i mau i a Tui ko te whakamaroke o te kau—i runga tonu o te kaha rere o te miraka ka whakamaroke pai noa iho.

Ka ono tau a Tui ki roto i te ropu whakamatautau kau o tona rohe a rokohanga ko

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tana mahi whakatiputipu kau ka pai rawa atu kia kitea ai te totikatanga o nga uha whanau mai ai ana kawhe mo te hokohoko.

No te tau 1951 ka whakaaro a Tui me timata ia ki te whakatiputipu kau totika ka tono ia ki a Mr O'Connor te kaitirotiro o Te Tari Maori mo tona rohe mehemea ka whiwhi awhina ano ia i nga tahua a Te Poari mo nga mea Maori hei hoko kau totika mana. He puuru tika ano tana engari ko tona hiahia he tango kau uha mai kia tekau mo te ono tekau kini i te mea kotahi. Ka whakaaro te Tari Maori he tangata tohunga a Tui mo te mahi kau, a he mahi hou hoki tenei ma te Maori whakaaetia ana tetahi awhina ki a ia. Kei te pai rawa atu te mahi a Tui kei te kaha te piki o te nui o te kiriimi o ana kau kei te 18,000 pauna i te tau e haere ana—ehara i te piki o te nui o ana kau i penei ai kaore na tona whiwhi momo kau totika. Ko tana tino mahi he kape haere i ana kau he. Ko tona hiahia kia orite tonu te totika o ana kau ara kia 400 pauna pata e puta i te mea kotahi i te tau.

Ko tetahi mea pea i penei rawa ai te pai o te mahi a Tui ko te mea kei te taha tonu tona whenua i te awa o Waipa i te raumati he nui tonu te wai inu mo nga kau. Tetahi he tangata tohunga a whai hoki i nga tohutohu a nga tangata matauranga. Kei te puare nga huarahi o te matauranga ki te katoa ko nga mea ka kaingakau ka konohi ki nga matapuna.

FIRST MAORI STUD FARM
ESTABLISHED

For two years now, those in the know have watched with interest the progress of what is probably the first Maori stud farm. Managed by Tutahanga Jones, son of Mr M. R. Jones, the farm has already supplied bull calves to a number of Maori farmers in the King Country.

Pedigree stock has been supplied by Anso Bros., a King Country stud breeding specially for top production. One bull and ten heifers purchased from this stud farm formed the basis of Mr Jones' pedigree herd. At present all bull calves from the pedigree stock are sold, and all heifers kept.

Starting a stud farm is not just a quick way to get rich. The Jones' farm, which has an area of 187 acres and lies on a fertile river flat eight mile out of Otorohanga, had reached a high level of development before any pedigree stock was bought in. In 1937 only a small part of the property was in good pasture; the only housing was a small cabin. The property was then placed under the Maori Land Development Scheme—at that time a revolutionary thing to do in that part of the King Country. The farm improved rapidly, and in 1940 produced over 10,000 lb. of butterfat.

Tui Jones had the good fortune of getting a first-rate farming education. For two years he attended the Ruakura State Farm School, and when he took charge of the property he was well versed in modern methods of farming. He continued to keep in touch with Ruakura, and retained an interest in research and experiment. He introduced rotational grazing, and reduced most of his paddocks to areas of eight to ten acres. When ‘break feeding’ became fashionable he installed an electric fence, and found that this made his pasture go much farther, and also eliminated bloat. In the months of the year when pasture is abundant, he confines his herd with the electric fence within one-half to one acre at a time. An eight-acre paddock might last him seven to eight days. It takes him only about ten minutes to put up an electric fence. One of the great advantages of the electric fence is that it stops the cattle from trampling over the good pasture before it is eaten.

Tui is now cutting up his paddocks smaller still. He thinks three to four acres is the best size for a paddock for the months when the growth of grass is not particularly fast, and the smaller paddocks can be used without the need for an electric fence. This saves him time and batteries at such times of the year.

After a paddock is grazed he harrows it and shuts it up. This ensures the best use of the animal droppings.

Tui is very keen on ensilage pits. He has four of them. He also keeps one big hay paddock. He considers the method of covering ensilage pits with earth and lime old-fashioned. Instead, he runs over them with his tractor a number of times until the grass on the top is wet and mushy. He then leaves the rest to the sun, which will bake this grass into a hard, rain-proof crust.

Tui's delight in experimenting once caused him a nasty shock, although he had been right all the time. He had read that, with machine-milking, there was no need to finish off by hand-stripping. A machine was just as efficient as the hand, according to the books, as long as the machine was switched off as soon as the milk stopped coming. Tui tried this, and to his horror found his butterfat production dropping, so he went back to stripping by hand. The next year, an American scientist, Professor Peterson, toured New Zealand, advocating precisely this modern method of machine-milking. Tui took the opportunity to ask a few questions, and it turned out that it was not the new

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General view of the farm.

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Development of Maori land in the King Country
Photo
: J. Ashton

method but the cows that were at fault. Being accustomed to hand-stripping, they resented the change. Since talking to Professor Peterson, Tui has tried the new system on heifers coming into milk for the first time, and it proved entirely successful. Another idea taught him at Professor Peterson's lecture was to dry off cows without preparation. It is possible to do this even while the cows are still milking well, without harming them.

About six years ago Tui joined the local herd-testing group, which helped him considerably in improving his stock. At present, while he has stud stock, it is of course obligatory to do this, to prove his sires.

In 1951 he asked the Department's farm supervisor, Mr O'Connor, whether the Board of Maori Affairs would finance his buying some pedigree stock. He already had a pedigree bull, and wanted ten heifers which would cost sixty guineas each. The Department's opinion was that Tui ‘appeared to know where he was going’. A stud farm, they said, would ‘certainly be a new departure in Maori farming, but it will lift Maori farming morale’. The loan was approved. Since the pedigree stock was bought, production on the Jones farm

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Cowshed of Tui Jones

increased from 14,000 to 18,000 lb. butterfat, although the number of cows milked remained about the same. Tui believes in heavy culling. He wants to have a full pedigree herd as soon as possible, although he usually keeps heifer calves from those of his grade cows that produce over 400 lb, of fat. Part of his succes is undoubtedly due to the Waipa river, which in the summer gives him an excellent watersupply; the paddocks are laid out in such a way that every one of them borders on the river. Yet he could never have advanced so much without carefully following the best and most modern farming practice in every respect. He takes every opportunity to visit places like Ruakura, and has even organised parties of Maori farmers to go there. His experience is that all the country's demonstration farms and research stations stand wide open for any Maori farmers, groups or individuals, who are interested enough to pay them a visit.

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Tui Jones's son and pet calf

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ORAKEI TODAY

A large group of new State houses has been erected for the Maori people of Orakei over the past few years. The new houses were followed by a new spirit of progress.

RIGHT ABOVE: Mr Brownie Puriri with the Youth Club which he is leading. He is showing them the plan of the new marae soon to be built on a two acre vacant site at Orakei (left). The Young People's Club has formed an active haka entertainment party (below), and is studying Maori culture as taught to them by the old people of Orakei.

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Photos: J. Ashton.

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ITALY
After Ten Years

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Siena

It is ten years ago now since the New Zealand Division landed at Taranto. The campaign which followed was an unforgettable experience. It was mostly fighting, but the memory usually fastens on the less painful happenings ….

To the men of the Maori Battalion, the Italian campaign meant a return to a warm social life, to which Italy lent itself admirably. As one veteran, Mr Edward Nepia, who kept the Maori Battalion's official records, put it, when interviewed by Te Ao Hou recently, the desert was — a desert. During the desert campaign the Maori Battalion naturally made the most of life, holding concerts, competing in action songs and hakas, and learning popular Arabic songs on the way. But Italy was different: there was leave in the towns and villages, there were dance floors and cafes, and the Maori soldiers were always welcome in Italian homes. The Italians were, in the opinion of many, not unlike the Maori; always friendly and cheerful, they entertained to the fullest extent and spared nothing.

There was, of course, another side to this friendship: there were instances where Maori troops saved rations out of their own mouths for the starving. They learned the popular Italian songs, Mama mia, Tornerai, etc. — and even sang them at concerts they held in Italian villages. When the men had to take leave of their Italian hosts, tears were sometimes shed. One wonders, said Mr Nepia, why there should be a need for war if understanding between two so different races in such difficult circumstances could be as warm and simple as it was.

In South Italy, where they landed, New Zealanders met a more backward type of Italian, still living the life of his ancestors; the walls around the South Italian towns are still walls —shutting the outside world out, and keeping those within isolated from the rest of the world. The peasants still had their wooden ploughs

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Houses being built for the new owners in the province of Foggia (Summer 1952).

and yokes. They did not believe in fertilisers apart from animal droppings, which they carefully collected and spread over the ground. They often knew little of villages two or three miles away; the dialect differences were enormous.

The troops later, however, had an opportunity to visit the great, highly civilised cities like Rome. The education officers briefed the men and issued pamphlets, telling them what to expect in the cities about to be visited. In this way an impression was left of older and more established cultures than the New Zealanders had seen before. As Mr Nepia said, when you take a man to St. Peter's Cathedral in Rome, and encourage him to look at it not only as a church, but also as a work of art, then you have done something for that man.

What else did the war and the Italian campaign in particular do for the men of the Maori Battalion? First, it generally broadened people's views. Then, it enabled influential

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New machinery is brought on to the farms in accordance with the Twelve Year Plan for the development of Italian Agriculture (Mantua — 15 January 1953).

Maoris of different tribes to come together and express opinions. Although the battalion was organized in tribal units, and therefore no complete breakdown of tribal barriers would occur, the war did undoubtedly promote mutual understanding of tribal points of view. The tribal representatives became more tolerant of each other. In the beginning there may still have been some distrust deep in their hearts, although perhaps not obviously so. At the end of the war little of this distrust remained. Undoubtedly present-day Maori leadership owes much to this change.

In the ten years since Taranto the Italians, too, have had some very profound experiences. First, the destruction of their country; statistics show that one-third of Italy's national wealth was destroyed during the war. Then reconstruction: by 1950, five years after the end of the war, most of the obvious traces of destruction had vanished. Houses, roads, bridges, aqueducts, railways had been rebuilt, olive groves and vineyards replanted. Most important of all: the new Italian Republic is gradually taking measures to lift the primitive peasant of the backward south of Italy to a higher standard of living. This great movement, Italy's twelve-year plan for the south, may perhaps be of some interest to Te Ao Hou's readers, especially those who have learnt to understand these

(Continued on page 64)

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Through the kind co-operation of the Kawiu branch of the Maori Women's Welfare League, Te Ao Hou presents in the following pages an illustrated story on making Maori mats. Many readers found our photographs showing the weaving of baskets interesting. This story is similar. But first we should like to introduce our readers to the people who make the mats ….

KAWIU PA makes up for lost time

On the shores of Lake Horowhenua, near Levin, lie two settlements of the Muaupoko tribe. In numbers they are small, totalling only about 150 to 200 people. Until recently community activity here had been rather quiet, livening up only during the late summer when the lake is visited by a rare and particularly fine type of eel. Experts say this eel has a remarkable life-cycle, and that although it is caught and eaten here, it is spawned on the other side of the Iron Curtain, that is, along the shores of Siberia. Mr Tau Ranginui, who now lives in Wellington but comes from Kawiu, told Te Ao Hou that he doubts these scientific theories, as he has seen eels of this specie no longer than two inches among the mysterious arrivals. That two inches of eel could swim all the way from Siberia he refuses to believe.

In recent times Kawiu Pa, of the Ngati-Hine (subtribe of the Muaupoko) began to buzz with life. A dining-hall was built and opened about two years ago, following the strenuous

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efforts of the local elder, Mr Jim Hurinui. At the date of Te Ao Hou's visit the frame of a new meeting-house was also standing on the marae site; the iron roofing for this building was already stacked in the dining-hall. It appears this meeting-house is due to be opened in March. If the people can find an instructor to teach them carving, it will be a carved meeting-house, too. The community also has an active young people's club, led by Mr Tukupuau. This club meets three times a week, learning haka, action songs and the Maori language. Each pa has its own girls' basketball team.

The women, about the same time as the dining-hall was built, formed a branch of the Maori Women's Welfare League; it was the first one of the Muaupoko tribe. Later, other branches started and there is now a Muaupoko District Council, with three branches. It is an active organisation, and held an attractive crafts exhibition last January at the Agricultural and Pastoral Show at Levin. The Kawiu branch has a full programme: they have Mrs Taueki, who teaches the younger people the Maori language; all meetings are held in that language, and the secretary, Mrs McMillan, told Te Ao Hou she always writes the minutes in Maori, in which she is now quite experienced. They also have an arrangement with other branches to help each other with the entertainment of visitors.

These women have a keen enthusiasm for the Maori crafts. They must be spending most of their time thinking about the moment they can get back to that dining-hall with some flax.

This enthusiasm is partly, no doubt, due to the force of the Welfare League movement, but at least as much to the wonderful inspiration of Polly. Polly, or to give her real name, Parekohatu Tihi, is a direct descendant of Major Kemp. She is a real artist, whose hands are never happy unless they are making something beautiful. Now she has reached a fine old age, and does little other than weaving. Her great aim is to weave the mats for the new meeting-house. The other ladies collect and prepare the flax for her, and with no care for her weariness, she works at them all day. One large mat takes her a fortnight, which would be quick work for a much younger woman, and her patterns are always, flawless, regular and harmonious.

Yet Polly believes in the forty-hour week. She starts work every morning immediately after breakfast. At five o'clock she says: ‘It is time to knock off now.’

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At the beginning of this year Polly began to show the younger generation — the league members — the secrets of her craft. Her desire to preserve the knowledge and craft of her ancestors was as strong as the desire of the younger ones to learn. Two days of each week are set aside for Polly to teach the others; the women arrive after breakfast and continue until ten in the evening. Those who are already skilled workers cook meals for the families.

Polly teaches all the flax crafts. Since January, the ladies have not only learnt how to make mats and baskets, but also piupiu and korowai, and they have held a taniko competition. They have already mastered the simpler parts of these crafts, but when complicated patterns have to be woven in mats, they still sometimes need Polly.

In the accompanying photographs Polly herself demonstrates the making of a simple mat.

MAKING MATS

No better description of mat-making could be given than that by Te Rangihiroa, published in the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute in 1923. We present below brief notes on each of the photographs printed in this issue. In these notes we quote extensively from the late Sir Peter Buck's work.

1.The leaf is split into strips: ‘The margins and midrib of the leaf are first split off with the thumb-nail. The two half-blades freed by the removal of the midrib are held together with the left hand while the right thumb-nail splits them into even widths, As the thumb-nail worked across the blade from right to left, forefinger and middle finger followed through the openings made. Holding the butt end of the blade with the left hand, the right fingers are simply drawn along the blade to the tip, and completely separate all the divisions. Holding the mid-part of the blade with the freed hand (as in the picture), the fingers of the left hand were slipped between the divisions, and ran them down to the butt junction.’

2.The Beginning: Polly follows a common method of beginning, in using unsplit butt portions. The butts have not the full width of the leaf; most of them have four strips attached.

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Mrs Parekohatu Tihi weaving a mat

3. Weaving: This is similar to the weaving process in baskets, described in the Summer issue of Te Ao Hou. ‘When the butt ends of the strips (whenu) have been fixed in a straight line, the strips lie parallel to one another. The strips are now crossed diagonally over each other so that alternate strips lie in the same direction. Those leaning towards the right are called “dextral” strips and those towards the left “sinistral”. The plaiting of the strips is not done singly, but in a series. Two dextral strips at a time are lifted up with the left hand (see picture) and the right hand picks up and slips the appropriate sinistral strip along the space between the dextral strips that are held up and those that are lying flat. The dextral strips that were lifted up are now dropped and those that were lying flat are picked up in their turn. The next sinistral strip is now passed between.” The action is then repeated.

4. Note the position of the left foot which steadies the work. The pattern of the mat is now clearly visible. It is a ‘twilled two’ (rangarua), resulting from two dextral strips being used to one sinistral.

5. Before moving from one part of the work to another, a loop is made to hold the working edge.

6. Finishing off (tapiki): ‘The mat is turned over so that the finish may not be seen on the upper surface. When the mat is in its normal position, the dextral strips form the upper layer and the sinistrals the lower. On turning the mat, the sinistrals form the upper layer, but they now lean towards the right, while the lower layer of dextrals lean towards the left. To avoid confusion it is now better to call the upper layer the dextral and the lower sinistral.’

Let us describe now how to turn the sinistral S1 and the Dextral D1 (shown in figure) back into the body of the mat. ‘It will be noted that D1 passes under S1. It is then twisted over at right angles to its own course, and laid along the course of S1. D1 is now fixed down by dropping D2 across it in its normal course. The turning operation is completed by doubling back S1 over D2 to lie over the turned-back portion of D1, and along its own course.’

7. The mat is then turned the right way up to show the finish.

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The hand of the artist. Photos: John Ashton

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Maui Snaring the Sun

MAORI ART STUDIES

Have Pakeha artists ever made serious attempts to study Maori art, and learn from the Maori artistic tradition? Have enough serious attempts been made to make adequate illustrations of Maori myths and stories? It is only natural that a great number of drawings and illustrations are being made in this country with Maori themes, but do the artists know enough about them?

This subject has worried the Association of New Zealand Art Societies. Last year they decided to award a two-year scholarship to Mr E. Mervyn Taylor to make a study of Polynesian art from the viewpoint of the practical artist who is looking for models to follow in his own work.

Mr Mervyn Taylor, a well-known artist, born in Wellington in 1906, whose work has appeared in Te Ao Hou, first became interested in Maori designs when he was art editor of School Publications (1944–6), and did several illustrations for a series of Maori legends which appeared in the School Journal. He has continued in his research ever since. The woodcut printed at the top of this page was done in 1949. Since Mr Taylor received the scholarship he has paid a visit to Te Kaha, where he studied the meeting-house and other works of art. He has increased his knowledge of Maori motifs and Maori subjects generally. His sketches of children of the Te Kaha school are reproduced on these pages.

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Old Girls' Conference at the Jubilee Reunion, June, 1953. Photo: Sparrow

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In the laboratory; Toi Te Rito (at microscope) and the head girl, Grace Henare, of Makatau. Both are Form VI students. Photo: J. Ashton

Queen Victoria
School Jubilee

The Queen Victoria Maori Girls' School Golden Jubilee celebrations attracted the most interest, from a national point of view, of any Maori gathering held in Auckland so far this year.

Guests and old girls from most parts of the North Island and some from the South came to honour the 50-year-old school.

Though the week-end programme was mainly social, the old girls had got together primarily to revive their association. To them this was serious business, and they met twice to discuss it. The result is that the Old Girls' Association is functioning again.

But, apart from the Old Girls' Association revival conferences, there was little conference-style business done during the celebrations, though there were many serious and thoughtful speeches and many informal discussions.

More than 150 old girls gathered in Auckland to mark the Jubilee, celebrations of which carried through from Friday, June 12, to Sunday, June 14. The old girls present represented every decade in the history of the school, through which 1,156 pupils have passed.

On Friday night the celebrations got under way with an informal reception for old girls. The following morning the Bishop of Aotearoa, the Rt. Rev. W. N. Panapa, was the preacher at a Service of Thanksgiving and Commemoration of Founders.

After this there was an official welcome, at which the speakers were the Bishop of Auckland, the Rt. Rev. W. J. Simkin, the Mayor of Auckland, Sir John Allum, the Secretary for Maori Affairs, Mr T. T. Ropiha, the Chairman of the General Trust Board of the Diocese of Auckland, Mr A. N. Seaman, the Senior Inspector of Maori Schools, Mr W. Parsonage; the Headmistress, Miss A. R. Berridge: Mrs B. Taua, President of the Old Girls' Jubilee Reunion Organising Committee: the Rev. Mutu Kapa, who spoke for the tangata whenua: and

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Mrs H. D. Bennett, who spoke on behalf of the old girls. Several of the speakers told of the good influence which the school had had on the Maori people.

Mr Ropiha stated that schools such as Queen Victoria had an advantage over State schools in that they taught the 4th R—Religion. He said that in the dual society in which Maoris lived, religion was most important.

He said, too, that schools like Queen Victoria, played a big part in helping Maori and pakeha to go together, hand in hand.

The first Old Girls' Conference followed the welcome speeches. It was at this Conference, and at a later special one called for the same purpose, that the question of reviving the Old Girls' Association was thrashed out. This was the main business of the week-end. An Old Girls' Association Committee was elected to supersede the hard-working Committee which had organised the Jubilee. Prior to the Jubilee Committee the Association had not functioned since before the war.

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A happy photograph of Miss Brereton during the Jubilee celebrations. Photo: Sparrow

The revived Association's aims include plans to help the School by raising funds for a permanent chapel and scholarships. Old girls made it plain at their conference that they wanted more reunions.

On Saturday afternoon, the scheduled physical education display by present pupils, and the basketball match between present and past pupils, had to be abandoned because of heavy rain. The old girls, however, were not cowed by the weather. They gathered indoors at the school, and in light-hearted mood ‘let go’ in an afternoon of songs, haka and general good fun.

In the evening, 200 guests attended the Jubilee dinner, afterwards making their way to the Jubilee concert and dance. For their singing at the concert and throughout the weekend, the pupils won high praise. They are trained by Mrs P. Raudon. As well as a selected group, the whole school sang some numbers at the concert. Hymns which the girls sang during the week-end included ‘Kei Riri Tonu Mai’ and the 23rd Psalm, to Brother James' air. The present pupils gave a folk-dancing display at the Saturday night concert as well as singing and poi items.

The whole school's singing of ‘Kei Riri Tonu Mai’ at the Sunday morning service at St. Mary's Cathedral created a most hallowed atmosphere. The Bishop of Auckland was the preacher at this service, which was attended by old girls as well as present pupils.

At the concluding event of the celebrations, Sunday luncheon, there occurred one of those spontaneous and rather moving episodes which, though unplanned, seem to develop at most huis. It concerned the school jubilee birthday cake. Every girl in the school had been invited to give a stir in the mixing of the cake. Its 50 candles had been lighted the previous evening at the dinner by early scholars, and had been blown out by the head girl, Grace Henare, and the senior prefect, Polly Hopa. But as most of the present pupils had not seen the ceremony it was repeated at Sunday lunch.

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A class at Queen Victoria Girls' College. Photo: J. Ashton

And it was then that the memorable incident occurred.

Mrs Taua, as President of the organising committee, and Mrs Hoeft, one of the early scholars, took the platform and explained that they wished sections of the cake to be taken back to the various districts from which the old girls had come, so that other girls from those districts who had not attended the celebrations could gather round the cake and be told of the Jubilee weekend in Auckland.

The bottom section of the cake was cut into four sections, one each for north, south, east and west, and four delegates accepted the sections to take them to those areas.

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Dorothy Flavell (Kaeo) at work in the dressmaking room. Photo: J. Ashton

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Four Third Formers of Queen Victoria Girls' College wearing the new summer uniforms designed, cut and sewn at the School by the senior students. Left to right: Judith Harawene (Bay of Islands), Beverly Everett (Devonport), Constance Herewini (Awanui), Tina Haig (Tokomaru Bay). Photo: J. Ashton

On receiving the cake each delegate sang a pao appropriate to the occasion, and spoke enthusiastically in promising to gather other old girls from their home districts round the cake. The Headmistress, Miss Berridge, received a section of the cake on behalf of the Trustees, and called upon a group of ‘my old girls’ to sing a suitable action song. Then prefects received the top tier of the cake on behalf of the school, the school singing in return.

One of the most popular people who attended the Jubilee was the veteran former Headmistress, Miss M. Brereton. The only living former headmistress, Miss Brereton was at the school from 1920 to 1934, and again for a year in 1942. Miss Brereton received a thunderous ovation from the old girls. During her two terms over 400 girls passed through the school.

In nostalgic mood on the rainy Saturday afternoon during the Jubilee, Miss Brereton fondly recalled that Queen Victoria was always a very happy place. ‘It's still the same, I think,’ she said, ‘It's the Maori nature.’

(Continued on page 58)

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CARVED MEETING HOUSE FOR WAIWHETU

Early last century, a large group of people from Te Atiawa, North Taranaki, left their homes and migrated south to occupy some of the lands which were unoccupied as a result of Te Rauparaha's conquests in the Wellington and Horowhenua districts. Some of the Te Atiawa people settled at Waikanae and Plimmerton. Others occupied the Hutt Valley, which was then deserted as was the area around the whole of Wellington harbour, even though it had been settled for about four centuries previously.

The original tribe of the district was the Ngai Tara, the descendants of Tara-nohu, a son of Whatonga of the Kurahaupo canoe. These people named the harbour Te Whanganui a Tara, which is still the correct Maori name, Poneke being simply a corruption of ‘Port Nick’ or Port Nicholson.

The Ngai-Tara were succeeded by the Ngati-Ira, a tribe of mixed ancestry, principally Kahungunu and Ngai-Tara. They were heavily defeated by Te Rauparaha, and the survivors took refuge in the Wairarapa.

When the pakeha arrived to settle in Wellington in 1840, they were welcomed by the Atiawa folk of Pitoone (Petone) and Waiwhetu under the leadership of Te Wharepouri, Te Puni, Porutu and others. These chiefs proved very staunch friends, and it is largely due to their help and protection that the settlement was able to become firmly established.

The friendship between Te Atiawa and the people of Wellington has continued to the present day, and it is this mutual respect that is prompting a number of prominent pakeha to lend their support to an interesting and important Maori undertaking.

It may be a hundred years now since a carved meeting-house was built in the Wellington district, and although the Maori residents are served by the Ngati-Poneke hall and Te Tatau o te Po meeting-house at Petone, it has long been felt that the time has arrived when a fully carved house should be built. The Maori population of the district is increasing rapidly, and will no doubt continue to do so.

For some time the Maori people of Waiwhetu, under the energetic leadership of Ihaia Puketapu, have been raising funds, and a wide public appeal is about to be made to the citizens of Wellington and the Hutt Valley to help in the erection of a first-class carved house and a dining-hall at Waiwhetu.

An architect's drawing of the hall is published above. To comply with the building regulations there are modern features in the building, but the interior will be in the best traditions of Maori decoration. Most of the carving and tukutuku will come from the fine house built for the Centennial Exhibition in Wellington in 1940.

A feature of the marae will be a series of carved figures standing round the fence, each of which will represent one of the principal canoes of the migration from Hawaiki. This is to show that all tribes are now represented amongst the Wellington Maoris, and that every tribe in New Zealand will have an honoured place in this house.

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TORCH OR RAMA
used in mutton-birding

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A Maori Torch, Poutama Island. Drawing by Margaret A. Morison

The torch or rama was an important item of old Maori days. It appears now to have disappeared from use among all Maori communities. Fortunately we were recently able to have a specimen made by Mrs K. A. Cross, of Bluff. This is an example of the type formerly used on mutton-bird islands off Stewart Island. Mutton-birds are taken in the burrows, and later in the rama or torching period, which commences on April 20. It is then that the young leave their burrows and come out at night to exercise their wings and shed their down.

Mrs Cross was taught the art of making torches by her mother when she was about eight years old, and had already started visiting mutton-bird islands for seasonal work, which she still undertakes. To make the torch, strips of flax about five inches apart are laid on the ground. Long pieces of totara bark, each about 2 ft. 6 ins., are laid across the flax strips, and inside these the body of the torch is rolled and tied.

It was necessary to secure the bark by using a rod termed koo, cut at one end into a chisel-shaped edge, the dry totara bark being levered away from the tree from below upwards. The bark is said to be fairly loose for a period of six weeks each year, about the end of February. The dry bark is called amoka. Inside the cigar-shaped torch, a quantity of dried grass (titaki), together with broken bark, is held in position by vertical bark rods, the whole being saturated with piro or kato, fats from inside the body of the baby mutton-bird.

It was the custom for a party of mutton-birders to carry two torches, and for groups to keep close to the torch-bearers. This precaution may have assisted operations and have prevented too much bunching of workers. In use the torch is held in the hand at the narrow end. If it tends to burn too quickly, green kelp is used to stop the rate of burning. Green kelp is also used to protect the hand from the heat of the torch. If slow to burn, the torch is whirled around the head. A single torch should burn up to three or four hours.

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Maori Personalities in Sport

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Keith Davis

RUGBY

1953 has been a boom year for Rugby generally, and Maori players have made their contribution to the success of the season both in provincial matches and in the All Black trials.

Three Maoris or part-Maoris, Keith Davis (Auckland), Doug Hemi (Waikato) and Vince Bevan (Wellington) have been chosen to tour Great Britain, France and the U.S.A., and to them we extend very hearty congratulations and good wishes for a successful tour.

It is interesting to note that all three play for major unions—in fact, unions which have held the Ranfurly Shield in the last two years—but nevertheless the series of trials was most exhaustive, and selection scrupulously fair. As it was, several other Maoris must have gone very close to selection, notably Tommy Goldsmith, of Wanganui, and Brownie Cherrington, of Northland.

Goldsmith won a tremendous reputation throughout the trials for his resolute defence. He had the difficult task of marking Ron Jarden on several occasions, and many tributes have been paid to the manner in which he did so.

Cherrington, as usual, proved to be a tough proposition for whoever had to mark him, and when one remembers the success of Jim Sherratt in England with the Kiwis, one has the feeling that an aggressive winger like Cherrington could possibly have the same success on this tour.

No mention of Rugby for 1953 would be complete without reference to the East Coast Ranfurly Shield challenge at Wellington. With three exceptions the team was wholly Maori, and this was their first challenge for the Shield. Although they lost by a large margin they were by no means disgraced, and, in fact, their forwards more than held their own. In the backs they were outclassed by superior speed, experience and combination, but they should take consolation from the fact that so were Auckland and Taranaki. Also, Wellington have provided six backs for the All Blacks, and two of these could find places only as emergencies against East Coast.

One must also pay a tribute to the Taranaki Captain, Lance Hohaia, for his splendid contribution to Rugby in 1953. This big man led his province with great skill, and played some splendid football himself. When one considers that he is by no means in the first flush of youth, his performance is all the more meritorious.

Another pleasing feature of the season has been the encouragement given to Maori Rugby by the provincial Unions. Wellington, Wairarapa, Horowhenua and Wanganui all sponsored special Maori representative matches, and in these games a very high standard was set.

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Doug Hemi and Vince Bevan

The Wellington-Wanganui Maori game was played as a curtain-raiser to the final Shield match, and a vast crowd of about 40,000 was treated to—and fully appreciated—a feast of thrilling football. Sol Heperi and Tommy Goldsmith, both Maori All Blacks, were the respective captains, but the players who really took the eye were Hugh Kawaru, Kara Puketapu

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and Maihi. These youngsters will go a long way.

The Prince of Wales Cup challenge between Tai-Tokerau and Tairawhiti was played this year at Whakatane, on the same day that Wellington met Waikato for the Shield, and it says something for the attention paid to Maori Rugby that the chairman of the N.Z. Selection panel, Mr Tom Morrison, chose to see the Whakatane game in preference to the Shield match at Hamilton.

The game itself was played with the verve, dash and touch of unorthodoxy usually associated with Maori football, and we understand that Mr Morrison took away a favourable impression of the talent latent in our players. One experienced observer has said, however, that several promising players failed to show to advantage in some of the fundamentals of the game, without which no player can hope for high honours.

He said that several backs, for instance, marred splendid football—and also their chances of an All Black trial—because they could kick with only one foot. This applied particularly to J. Marks, of Tairawhiti, who in all other respects played magnificently.

Tairawhiti won the match, and for them J. Marks, A. Douglas, L. Raureti, W. Carrington, T. Murray and H. Potae played well. In the Tai-Tokerau team, Cherrington, Beasley, Ngawati and Ngakuru went well. Unfortunately, the ‘Master’, J. B. Smith, had an off day.

Those who were present say that the game was one of the best for years, and many tributes have been paid to the Ngatiawa people for the manner in which they handled the welcome and other social arrangements at Wairaka Pa.

In closing our notes on Rugby it is only fitting that we refer to the passing of an outstanding Rugby personality, Mr ‘Dolph’ Kitto, who was associated with Maori Rugby for many years. Dolph was a member of the Executive of the N.Z. Rugby Union for a long time, and took an active interest in the promotion of the game among our people. It is perhaps fitting that among the pall-bearers at his funeral there were two Maoris. Ben Parkinson, the president of the Wellington Referees' Association, and myself.

GOLF

The annual golf tournament sponsored by the Maori Golf Association was held this year at Taumarunui. Play extended from Monday, August 31, to Friday, September 4, and representatives from most districts took part.

The general standard in the men's championship was not so high as it had been in past years, but this was probably because some of the best Maori golfers were not present. The tournament, however, was a most successful one, and if for nothing else it was notable for the eclipse of Tori Jones on his home course. He was beaten by the ultimate winner, K. August, in the semi-final, the score being 3 up and 2 to play. August went on to play steady golf, and won by the same margin from G. Tareha in the final.

Tori Jones and his late brother, Wally, had dominated the tournament since the War, and although this year's result came as a surprise to some people, it must be conceded that the tournament will gain in interest through the major honour going to another district.

In the women's final Mrs Ruiha Sage, of Hamilton, was successful this year after having been in the finals several times previously.

We understand that next season the tournament will be held at Hamilton.

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WOMEN'S SPORT

Maori women may have been slower than their pakeha sisters to take advantage of the independence and scope for initiative which followed the introduction of universal suffrage, but in recent years they have made up much of the leeway.

It is in the sporting world that this trend is most noticeable, and if one discounts Rugby football it would be fair to say that our women have been considerably more successful than the men.

One of the country's best all-round women athletes for 1953 was a young Maori girl from Auckland, Miss Janie Maxwell.

We are told that in the National Hockey Tournament this year she displayed outstanding ability. We are told also, from a most authoritative source that if the New Zealand team which is at present in England, had been chosen this year instead of at the end of last season, she would have had every chance of being included. Miss Maxwell played for North Island in the Inter-Island fixture at the end of the tournament.

Her ability, however, does not end with hockey, as the following week saw her at Palmerston North with the Auckland Indoor Basketball representatives, who beat the favoured Wellington side to win the New Zealand title.

Janie was selected for the North Island team to play South Island, and also won a place in the New Zealand team which played the Rest. This was a very great honour for a young player, and we wish her every success for the future.

Incidentally, the Wellington team which won the North Island Tournament and was runner-up in the New Zealand Tournament, included two Maori girls. They were Rangi Wallace, an exceedingly mobile roving guard, and Mahi Potiki, who is now reaching the veteran stage, as she first represented Wellington in 1942. Another veteran at the tournament was Mrs Smith, of the winning Auckland team, who was chosen for the Rest against New Zealand, and who must be one of the few New Zealand women to have perfected the difficult hookshot.

In the swimming world, Maoris are looking for great things from the brilliant young back-stroke exponent, Moana Manley. She showed excellent promise last season, and we hope that this development will continue this season.

TENNIS

The 1953 Tennis Tournament was held at Rotorua during Easter week, but unfortunately it was abandoned at the semi-final stage owing to rain. The only event completed was the ladies' singles, which went to Miss M. Dewes, of Auckland.

We understand that the remaining events are to be completed on the first day of the 1954 Tournament, which has been set down for Easter, at Gisborne.

DEPARTMENTAL SPORT

In the sporting field the staff of the Maori Affairs Department has not been idle. In Wellington the men, most of whom were Maoris, won the Public Service Rugby Tournament without having their line crossed. They beat the Post Office in an exciting final, 3 - 0, at Athletic Park.

In winning the Public Service Basketball Tournament for the second consecutive year the girls completed a notable double for the Department. Their team, also, was composed mainly of Maoris.

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KO TE WHAKAHAERE HUI

Tera ano nga takiwa e kore ai e taea te whakhaere Maori noa nga hui whai take, he ao hou tenei me ona ahuatanga. He pai tonu nga whakahaere hui a te Maori engari he kume roa kei ta te Pakeha te ringa poto.

I tera putanga O Te Ao Hou ka haere nga whakamarama mo te ata whakararangi i nga take mo te hui kia rarangi tonu ai te haere a te korero. Na me ata whakamarama ake ano me pehea te whakahaere o te hui.

Kei te Tiamana te totikatanga o te hui—ka pai te whakahaere a te Tiamana ka whai take te hui—ka poauau te Tiamana ka pera ano hoki nga take o te hui. Ko te whakaaro o te tangata mo te tane anake tenei tunga te Tiamana, otira i enei ra kei te piki mai te tokomaha o te wahine kua tu kei tenei tunga.

E toru nga mea kia mau ki roto ki nga whakaaro o te wahine ka tu hei tiamana mo tetahi hui.

Tuatahi me marama taua wahine ki nga take mo te hui. Me ata whakarongo hoki ia ki te aronga o nga korero o te hui.

Tuarua kia pai tana whakahaere i taua hui me haere tonu hoki nga korero a nga kaikorero i runga i te aronga o nga take kei te aroaro o te hui. Kaua tetahi tangata e poka noa ki te tu ki te korero me matua whakaae ranoa te

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tiamana. Ki te whakapuaki taua tiamana i ona whakaaro kaua e numinumi te whakatakoto o te korero kia hangai ki runga i te aronga o nga take o taua hui. Me tuku ia kia tu te tangata ki te korero engari kaua e auau te tu a kaua hoki a kotiti ke nga korero a kaua e tapatahi tona ngakau.

Tuatoru—a ko ia nei te tino mea—me marama taua tiamana ki nga ture mo te whakahaere hui. E rua enei momo ture. Tuatahi ko nga ture kei te kaupapa a tona ropu e mau ana, a e tika ana kia tino marama ia ki enei, a ko nga ture hoki e pa ana ki nga whakahaere hui. Ina e whai ake nei he tauira.

KO TE KAUPAPA O NGA TAKE MO TE HUI

1. Ka whakapuare Te Tiamana i te hui me te whakarongo ki nga mihi mo te ngaro ke.

Ko Te Tiamana: Kua puare ra tenei hui a tenei peka o Te Ropu Wahine Maori Toko i Te Ora.

Ko Mrs P.: I tuku mai a Mrs N i ana mihi ki tenei hui me tona pouri e kore ia e tae mai i te mate o ana tamariki.

Ko Te Tiamana: Kia ora koe Mrs P.

Ka tuhi te Hekerettari i te mihi a Mrs N me tana whakamarama mo tona ngaro ke ki te pukapuka o nga meneti.

2. Ko Te Whakatau i Nga Meneti o Te Hui O Mua Atu.

Ko Te Tiamana: Tena e Mrs W. panuitia nga meneti o te hui o mua ake nei.

Ko Te Hekeretari: E Te Tiamana, … Ina ka panuitia nga meneti o te hui a marama a te peka o o te Ropu Wahine Maori Toko i Te Oro i tu ki i te Wenerei te 6 o nga ra a Mei 1953 i te 2 o nga haora o te ahiahi. Tekau ma wha nga wahine i taua hui a i tae mai nga mihi me nga whakamarama a Mrs W raua ko Mrs T mo to raua ngaro ke. Ko te Perehitene ko Mrs P te Tiamana.

I puta nga manaaki a Mrs P ki nga wahine tokotoru he manuhiri no te peka o

o te Ropu Toko i Te Ora. Ko te kaikorero mo taua ahiahi ko Mrs K. I panuitia nga meneti o te hui o mua atu a whakataua ana e te Tiamana. Kaore he take i hua mai o aua meneti. I panuitia a te Hekeretari tetahi reta na te Ropu Wahine Institute o

e pohiri mai ana kia tukua atu kia tokotoru nga wahine o taua peka o te Ropu Toko i te Ora hei hoa mo ratou ki tetahi komiti hei whakariterite mo nga ahuatanga e pa ana ki nga mahi whakamatakitaki tunu kai mo eketopa. Ka whiriwhiritia taua take a whakataua ana ko Mrs P ko Mrs W a ko Mrs O e haere hei mangai mo taua peka. Na Mrs M te motini na Mrs T i tautoko pahitia ana.

– 46 –

Na te Perihitene i whakamohio a Mrs M a ko te kaupapa o tana korero ‘Ko nga huarahi hei arai i nga aitua ki te kainga.’

Na Mrs C nga mihi ki a Mrs M mo ana korero ki taua peka o Te Ropu.

Ka whakamahara te Perehitene hei te Wenerei te 3 o nga ra o Hune ka tu ano he hui a ko te mutunga tera o taua hui.

Ka mutu te hui ko te kapu ti.

Ko Te Tiamana: Kia Ora Mrs W. Tena ma tetahi o koutou te motini kia whakataua enei meneti ne?

Ko Mrs K.: ‘Maku te motini.’

Ko Mrs O.: ‘Maku te tautoko.’

Ko Te Tiamana: ‘Na Mrs K te motini na Mrs O i tautoko kia whakataua nga meneti. Ko nga mea e whakaae ana me ki ae ko nga mea kaore e whakaae kei te tika nga korero i tuhia ki enei meneti me ki kaore. Kua pahitia.

Ka tuhia e te Hekeretari tenei motini ki nga meneti.

3. Ko Nga Take E Ara Mai I Nga Meneti.

Ko Te Tiamana: ‘He take ano ka hua mai i enei meneti?

Ko Mrs O.: E Te Tiamana e hiahia ana au ki te ripoata mo to matou taenga ki te hui topu a te Ropu Wahine o te Institute mo te mahi whakakitekite i nga mahi taka kai. Ko te ra kua whakataua e to matou komiti ko te 7 o nga ra o Oketopa ko te ra hokohoko tera. Ko te whakataunga hei te hawhe o te tekau i te ata ka timata taua mahi hokohoko a ki te wha o nga haora i te ahiahi. Hei te tekau ma tahi o nga haora i te ata nga mahi paraoa a hei te tahi hoki o nga haora. Ko te utu i whakahuatia mo te tomo ki taua mahi me rua hereni kei roto te kapu ti i tenei. Ko te motini kia tokotoru o tatou kia eke pumau ki taua komiti.

Ko Te Tiamana: Kia ora Mrs O. Tena ma koutou e whakaingoa etahi wahine mo te komiti nei.

Ko Mrs T.: Maku e motini ko nga wahine mo tenei komiti ko Mrs P., ko Mrs W., a ko Mrs O motemea kua taunga ratou ki tenei mahi.

Ko Mrs N.: Maku tena e tautoko.

Ko Te Tiamana: Na Mrs T te motini na Mrs N i tautoko ko Mrs P, ko Mrs W, a ko Mrs O hei mangai mo tatou ki taua komiti—he korero ano kei a koutou?

Ko Mrs T.: E te Tiamana ko toku whakaaro he tata rawa tenei whakamatakitaki ki te ra putiputi a e motini ana au me ata whiriwhiri ano taua ra.

Ko Te Tiamana: Me whakamahara atu ano pea au e Mrs T he motini kei te aroaro o te hui. Kaore he wahine e pirangi ana ki te whakahe i taua motini? Mehemea kaore tena me whakatakoto e au te motini.

– 47 –

Na Mrs T te motini a na Mrs N i tautoko ko Mrs P, ko Mrs W a ko Mrs O hei mangai mo tatou ki tenei komiti topu—ko nga mea e whakaae ana me ki ‘ae’ a ko mea e whakahe ana me ki ‘kaore’—kua pahitia.

Ka tuhia tenei motini e te Hekeretari.

Ko Te Tiamana: Tena Mrs T mehemea he whakaaro tou me neke te ra tena me motini pera koe.

Ko Mrs T.: E te Tiamana e hiahia ana au ki te motini ki o tatau mangai kia nekehia te ra mo tetahi ra i Oketopa.

Ko Te Tiamana: Tena ma wai e tautoko tenei motini. Kua hinga te motini i te kore tangata hei tautoko.

4. Ko Nga Reta:

(E tika ana me ata titiro te tiamana ki nga reta i mua o te hui).

Ko Te Tiamana: Tena e te Hekeretari panuitia mai nga reta.

Ka panui te Hekeretari i nga reta. Ka mutu ano te reta hei whakahokitanga ko ta Mrs E e rihaina ana i te peka o i te mea e haere ana ia he wahi ke.

Ko Te Tiamana: Tena ma tetahi o koutou te motini me whakaae enei reta.

Ko Mrs O.: Maku te motini.

Ko Mrs K.: Maku e tautoko.

Ko Te Tiamana: Kua tautokotia te motini me whakaae enei reta—ko nga mea e whakaae ana me ki ‘ae’ a ko nga mea e whakahe ana me ki kaore—kua pahi.

Ka tuhia e te hekeretari te motini.

5. Ko Nga Take I Hua Mai I Nga Reta:

Ko Te Tiamana: Ka nui toku pouri ka mahue tatou i a Mrs E engari kei te mohio iho au ka manaakitia ia e to tatou ropu hou kei te rohe e haere nei ia. Ko toku hiahia kia tuhi te Hekeretari ki a ia ki te whakapuaki atu i a tatou mihi me nga tumanako mo nga ra e tu mai nei.

Ko Te Tiamana: Kua rongo koutou i te motini ko nga mea e whakaae ana me ki ae a ko nga mea e whakahe ana me ki kaore. Kua pahi tena.

Ka tuhia e te hekeretari tenei ki nga meneti.

Kua whakamaramatia enei kaupapa korero e rima mo mo tera putanga o Te Ao Hou ka whakataki ai i nga korero mo enei wahanga e whai ake nei.

6. Ko nga kaupapa korero mo te Hui.

7. Ko nga take noa.

8. Ko te ra mo te hui o muri atu.

9. Ko te whakakopi i te hui.

Mo era putanga o Te Ao Hou ka whakahaere ai i nga korero mo Te Pooti mema, mo nga motini, mo nga Menemana, mo te whaka-

(Continued at foot of page 54.)

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Women's
World

Women's
World
LET'S HAVE A MEETING

(Continued from our last number)

Why is it, under some circumstances, unwise to hold a meeting today in the same way as the Maori used to do a hundred years ago? The reason is of course that there is far more happening — life is moving much faster. Although there is still, of course, a place for the traditional Maori meeting, the modern way of holding one may sometimes save much time and help to get through a big programme of work comfortably.

In the last issue of Te Ao Hou we explained the importance of preparing an agenda for each meeting so that everyone knows what is to be discussed and — most important — in what order. We shall now explain the modern way of holding a meeting in some detail.

In making a success of a meeting everything depends on the ‘chairwoman’. Not long ago people felt that a person presiding over a meeting should be a man, a chairman. Nowadays, however, ‘Madam Chairman’ may be heard on public platforms all over the world with the same respect as Mr Chairman.

A good chairwoman must know three principal things:

First, she must know the business of the meeting thoroughly. She must follow the discussion closely and grasp everything that is being said.

Secondly, she must know how to control the people in front of her. Nobody may speak without her consent, she must be definite in her rulings and always in control. She must give everyone an opportunity to speak, but allow nobody to speak too much or too often. She must confine every speaker to the subject that is supposed to be discussed. While guiding the meeting, she must herself remain strictly impartial.

Thirdly—and this is most important—she must know the rules of holding a meeting. These rules are of two kinds. There are the rules laid down in the constitution of her organization. She has to know these throughly of course and they may often guide her in her rulings during meetings. Then there are also the general rules that apply to any meeting at all. Such are the rules set out below.

WORKING THROUGH THE AGENDA

1. The Chairman opens the meeting and takes any apologies.

Chairman: ‘I declare this meeting of the …. branch of the Welfare League open. Are there any apologies?

Mrs P.: ‘Mrs N. asked me to apologise for her absence today on account of her children's sickness.’

Chairman: ‘Thank you, Mrs P.’

The Secretary records the apology in the minutes.

2. Confirmation of the Minutes of the last meeting.

Chairman: ‘Would the Secretary, Mrs W., please read the minutes.’

Secretary: ‘Madam Chairman—The Minutes of the monthly meeting of the …. branch of the Welfare League held in the …. on Wednesday, May 6, at 2 p.m. Fourteen members were present, apologies being received from Mrs W. and Mrs T. The president, Mrs P., was in the chair.’

Mrs P. welcomed three visitors from the …. branch of the League, and the speaker for the afternoon, Mrs K. The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. There was no business arising out of the Minutes. The Secretary read a letter from the Women's Institute in …. inviting the League to send three members to a joint Sub-Committee to discuss the combined cooking display planned for October. After some discussion it was resolved that Mrs P., Mrs W., and Mrs O. represent the League at that meeting. Moved Mrs M. Seconded Mrs T. Carried.

The President introduced Mrs M., who spoke on ‘The Prevention of Accidents in the Home’.

Mrs C. thanked Mrs M. for coming to speak to the League.

The President reminded members that the date for the next meeting was Wednesday, June 3, and the meeting closed.

Afternoon tea was then served.

Chairman: ‘Thank you, Mrs W. Would someone please move that these Minutes be confirmed?’

Mrs K.: ‘I move that the Minutes be confirmed.’

Mrs O.: ‘I second that motion.’

Chairman: ‘It has been moved by Mrs K., seconded by Mrs O. that the Minutes be confirmed. All those who were present at that meeting and agree that these minutes are a true record please say “Aye.” Those against? …. The Motion is carried.’

The Secretary records this Motion in the Minutes.

3. Business arising out of the Minutes.

Chairman: ‘Is there any business arising out of these minutes?’

Mrs O.: ‘Madam Chairman, I should like to report that we met the Women's Institute at the Joint Committee on the Combined Cooking Display. The date we agreed on is October 7, which is Sale-Day. It was decided that the display should be open from 10.30 until 4 p.m. There will be a demonstration of bread making at 11 a.m. and again at 1 p.m. The suggested charge for admission is 2/-, which would include afternoon tea. We have been asked to appoint three of our members to act permanently on the Joint Sub-Committee.’

Chairman: ‘Thank you Mrs O. Would anyone care to suggest some names for the Sub-Committee?

Mrs T.: ‘Madam Chairman, I move that the Sub-Committee members be Mrs P., Mrs W., and Mrs O. since they have already represented us so successfully at the first meeting with the Institute.’

Mrs N.: ‘I second that.’

Chairman: ‘It has been moved by Mrs T. and seconded by Mrs N. that Mesdames P., W., and O. be our representatives on the Joint Sub-Committee. Is there any discussion?’

Mrs T.: ‘Madam Chairman, I think the display is far too close to the Flower Show and move that the date be re-considered.’

Chairman: ‘May I remind you Mrs T. that there is already a Motion before the meeting. Does anyone else wish to speak to the Motion? If not, I shall put the motion.’

‘It has been moved by Mrs T. and seconded by Mrs N. that Mesdames P., W., and O. be our representatives on the Joint Sub-Committee. All those in favour please say “Aye” …. those against? Carried.

The Secretary records this Motion in the Minutes.

Chairman: ‘Now Mrs T if you wish to make a recomendation to the Sub-Committee about changing the date, would you move in that direction?

Mrs T.: Madam Chairman, if I may I should like to move that our representatives ask that the date be changed to a Sale-Day later in October, etc., etc., etc.’

Chairman: ‘Is there a seconder for that Motion?’ ….

The Motion lapses for want of a Seconder.

4. Correspondence.

(The Chairman should look through any correspondence before the meeting opens.)

Chairman: ‘Would the Secretary please read the correspondence?’

The Secretary reads the correspondence aloud. None of the letters require an answer except one from Mrs E. resigning from the .…. Branch since she is leaving the district.

Chairman: ‘Would someone please move that the correspondence be received.’

Mrs O.: ‘I move that the correspondence be received.’

Mrs K.: ‘I second that.’

Chairman: ‘It has been moved and seconded that the correspondence be received. All those in favour please say “Aye” … those against? Carried.

The Secretary enters the motion in the minutes.

5. Business arising from the Correspondence.

Chairman: ‘I am so sorry that Mrs E. is leaving us, but I know that she will be very welcome in the branch of the Welfare League where she is going. I should like to move that the Secretary write to her, regretting that she is leaving us, thanking her for her work for this branch and wishing her every success in ….’

Mrs K.: ‘I second that.’

Chairman: ‘You have heard the terms of the motion. All those in favour, etc.’

The Secretary enters this in the minutes.

We have now worked through the first five items on the AGENDA. The next items will be dealt with in the next article.

6. Business of the day arranged in a suitable order.

7. General.

8. Arranging the date of the next meeting.

9. The closing of the meeting.

We shall deal in detail with Election of

(Continued at foot of page 54.)

– 48 –

The mwwl, at their last annual conference, passed a remit asking the Minister of Health for more health education for the Maori people. The Health Department has offered this article to Te Ao Hou as the first of a series designed to give basic information on health matters to our readers. Te Ao Hou will be glad to answer any questions on health which readers may wish to ask.

KO TE MATE KOHI

Ko Te Neehi Mo Tou Tohe:

E 475 nga turoro hou o te Mate Kohi i te tau 1951, e 476 i 1949 a e 412 i 1947.

E tata ana ki te toru mano o te iwi Maori kei te pangia e te Mate Kohi a kaore i te heke taua tokomaha.

O tera tau 129 nga Maori i hemo he Kohi te mate, a tera ano e pera i tenei tau.

Me pehea ra e taea ai e koutou ko te Neehi mo to koutou na rohe te arai te Mate Kohi e patu nei i te iwi Maori.

TUATAHI: Ko o koutou kainga. Kia noho ma tonu o koutou kainga i nga wa katoa a me whakapuare nga wini i te po i te ao. He haraki no te ngarara o te Mate Kohi te hau ora me te ra a ka tere tonu te matemate. Mehemea no te hunga kei runga i te waimarie e noho ana ara he whare hou o koutou he hanga noaiho taku i ki ake ra me waiho nga wini kia puare ana—otira tera ano etahi noho pa tonu ai o ratou na wini. A mehemea ranei he whare tawhito o koutou tera ano nga whakarawe e noho ma ai o koutou whare—me tahi te papa ahakoa kei te papa oneone tonu—me whariki nga kapata ki te pukapuka ma, a me waiho nga tatau me nga wini kia puare ana i nga rangi atahua.

Mehemea he papa rakau noa to o koutou whare me ruirui taua papa ki te wai rau ti ka tahitahi ai ara ia i muri mai o te haerenga o au manuhiri kia kore ai e tutu te puehu. Kia mau mahara hoki he puiaki no te Mate te puehu me te paru. He mea pai hoki me mau nga moenga me nga kakahu moe ki waho kia whitikia e te ra kia puhipuhia e te hau.

– 49 –

Ko te mea tuarua ko a koutou kai. He whare mo te Mate Kohi te tinana hiroki na reira me kai i nga kai e pakari ai te tinana i te riwai, i te miiti, i te puha a i nga kai moana hoki kaua nga kai pakeha penei i te pai miiti i te waireka i te aha noa a te tamariki ana kai kaingakau.

KO TE MIRAKA: Ko ianei tetahi o nga tino kai mo te whakapakari i te tinana o te tangata. E inu miraka ana a koutou tamariki i nga kura kaua e mutu mai i reira engari me whangai ano ki te miraka i te kainga. Ko te miraka hou tonu o te kau te mea pai, ki te kore hoki e whiwhi ki tenei me inu ko te miraka tiini, miraka maroke ranei. Ko te kiriimi me te miraka maroke kei te noho toitu tonu ona painga.

KO NGA KAKAHU: Hei te kakahu wuru kakahu mahana i te makariri a hei te kakahu mama mo te raumati. Kaua e penei me taipua nga kakahu mama kia mahana ai. He mahana ke atu te hate wuuru kotahi i te taipua kia toru rawa nga hate mama.

KO TE MOE: He tino mea te pai me te reka o te moe i te po engari kaua e tokomaha

– 50 –

rawa ki te moenga kotahi. Ki te taea me moenga mo te tangata kotahi kia kore ai e hemanawa i te tokomaha rewa ki roto i te moenga kotahi.

Kia 7 ki te 8 haora moe ma te pakeke i ia po a kia neke atu ma te tamariki. Ko nga tamariki tekau tau te pakeke me moe mo te tekau ma tahi haora a ko nga tamariki e ono tau te pakeke me 14 haora e moe ana ia ra. E whakamahia ana te tinana o te tangata i te wa e oho ana, a kia moe ka whakanga.

Ka mutu ra mo tenei wa kia mau ki enei tohutohu.

YOU AND TUBERCULOSIS

In 1951 there were 475 new cases of tuberculosis of the chest, in 1949 there were 476 new cases, in 1947 there were 412.

These are all new cases, and altogether we have nearly three thousand Maori people with ‘Tb. chests’ at the present time. From year to year the number has not altered very much.

Last year 129 Maoris died from Tb. of the chest. This year it will probably be about the same number.

How can you and your district health nurse help to stop Tb. amongst the Maori people?

First—your home: Keep it clean and tidy, and have the windows open day and night. The germ that causes Tb. does not like fresh air and sunlight, and quickly dies when exposed to them. If you are lucky and have a nice new home this should be easy, although it is surprising how many new houses do not have their windows open very much. If you still have an old-fashioned whare, even if the floor is mud, you can still keep it clean and the mud floor firm and hard and covered with clean mats, with your boxes, shelves and cupboards lined with clean newspaper, and the door and window open whenever it is fine.

If your floor is wood it is a good idea to sprinkle it with damp tea-leaves before sweeping it — especially after you have had a lot of visitors, and it has got pretty dirty and dusty — so that the dust will not fly around while you are sweeping.

Remember, Tb. germs like dust and dirt. You are all very good at putting your beds out in the sun — it helps a lot, so keep it up.

Now your food: Tb. germs are more likely to live in a weak body than in a strong, healthy one. So make your bodies strong and resistant to Tb. by eating good meals, with old-fashioned foods such as potatoes, kumeras, puha and vegetables, meat, eggs, fish, shellfish and sea-foods, and bread, instead of pies and fish and chips, biscuits and fizzy drinks. Keep these last ones for huis and parties, but the first-named foods should be your everyday diet.

MILK: Don't forget it is one of the best body and bone building foods we have. Your children all get some at school, but you should give them some at home, too. Fresh cow's milk if you can get it, and if you live a long way from a fresh milk supply, then you should buy it in a tin. Dried full-cream milk or evaporated milk are best. Condensed milk is, I know, a favourite with you, but keep it for special occasions—it has so much sweetening in it that it is not so good as the other forms, which are pure milk with some or all of the water taken out.

CLOTHING: In winter, warm woollen clothes; in summer, light cotton garments, NOT lots of light cotton ones put together to make more for the winter. That is really not a very warm way of clothing. One woollen shirt is much warmer than two or three cotton ones together.

SLEEP: You need a good long sleep every night in a comfortable bed, and with not too many sharing a bed. A bed for each member of the house is best if you can manage it. This allows everyone to get as much fresh air as they need, without having to use up each other's air as it is breathed out.

Grown-ups need at least 7 to 8 hours' sleep every night, and children more. A child of 10 needs about 11 hours, and one of 6 needs 14 hours every day. The whole time people are awake their bodies are working hard. They are seeing, hearing, thinking and doing things, but while they are asleep their bodies get a chance to pick up. There is no thinking, seeing, doing and hearing going on. The whole body can relax and re-fuel, ready for work the next day.

Those are all the things you yourselves can do so that you and your children will have strong, healthy bodies that can fight off Tb.

You have already heard about these things before, at school and over the radio, and you have, I am sure, read about them—it is up to you to do them.

– 51 –

FOR YOUNGER READERS
SAMI

Ko Hami te ingoa o tetahi Koara Pea e mohio ana au.

He autaia tonu tona rahi, penei pea i te kuri nei. Hei ana mahi ata mahi noa ai ki toku whakaaro e kore ia e taea te akiaki—ahakoa tumataina ki te ahi.

Ana karangatia atu ka ata huri noa mai ka ata heke iho ki raro i te rakau. I a ia e heke iho ana kei te nguha puku haere penei na ‘Ata! Te Tangata he ite tonu te kaika! Kei te pai kei te haere atu au, kati te akiaki i au.’

Ko nga wuuru o taua pea he papango ina te roroa me te matoturu he mahana rawa ona kakahu mo te whenua pera me Ahitereiria. Ko ona whatu momoe ana, a ano te ahua he whatu paua, hei te titiro mai ki te tangata pena tonu te ahua he tumekemeke tana mahi. Ko tona ihu tetahi mea rereke. He penei i te pihuka nei te ahua, he puwhero porangoranga te kara a hei ona taringa kei nga tapa anake nga huruhuru he penei i te hina nei. Ko etahi o nga tuakana me nga taina o Hami he hama o ratou na kara, a ko tetahi na tuahine tata pango tonu engari ko Hami anake ia he papango.

Kaore ona waero i pau pea i te hireretanga i runga rakau.

Hei ona maikuku ina tonu te roroa penei i o te makimaki nei to te kararehe iki rakau tona ahau. He kararehe rata kaingakau hoki ki te tangata kaore ana ngau.

Ko te kai a Hami he rau purukamu. Ata tango marika ai ia i te rau o te purukamu ka ata hongihongi ki te kore e pai ki a ia ka makaia ki raro ka tango he rau ke ano. I etahi wa tango ai a Hami i aua rau ka miti ki te kore e reka ka kikimo ona whatu me te whakakawa ano. Ka kitea e ia te mea e reka ka ata kai ngau atu, ngau atu a i runga tonu i te kai ka moe me te kai e tautau ana ki waho o tona waha.

– 52 –

He Korero Pakiwaitara

Janet Lives at Ruatoki and attends the Maori School at Tawera. She is aged 13. Although she understands English quite well and of course does all her school work in that language there is no doubt whatever that Maori is still the language in which Janet and her companions feel most at home. Unfortunately, no one had ever asked her to write anything in Maori, nor taught her the simple spelling scheme of her native tongue. She was, therefore, quite embarrassed when I asked her to write me a story in Maori and her first attempt was only passable. You see she had to teach herself a system of spelling as she wrote and that probably prevented her ideas from flowing freely. Teach herself she did, and her third attempt was the little masterpiece of Tuhoe dialect that is printed below. She based her story on a fairy tale she had read in English some months before. She wrote the whole story at one sitting, then read it over to me just as it is printed here, in the musical dialect of Ngaituhoe.

Ka noho tera wahine raua ko ana tamariki e rua. Ao ake i tetahi rani(1) ka mea atu te wahine ra ki a Hoani kia haere ki te mahi. Ka haere a Hoani ki te mahi ka heria e ia etahi paraoa mana hai(2) kai. Tae mai a ia(3) ki tetahi rakau ano, ka kite atu a ia ki te mapu(4) naro e rere mai ana ki a ia. Ka porowhiua atu e ia etahi paroa(5) ma na naro nei, ka rere mai ratau(6) ki te kai. Te mututana o te kai a na naro ka mea atu ki te tamaiti ra pena he rarurau ra tona me haere atu ra ki a ratau, ma ratau kia mahi. Whakaae atu te tamaiti ra, ka haere. Tae mai ana ki te whiro(7) ka ka kite atu i tetahi kuia ano, ka haere atu ka mea atu kia haere mai raua ki te kai. Ka mea atu te kuia ra, “Kai te pai. Kaina o paraoa mo to haeretana ki tetahi wahi, ana, kai te toe to paraoa.” Ka mea atu te kuia ra, “Pena he raruraru tohou(8), me haere mai koe ki ahau.”

Ka haere te tamaiti ra ka tae mai ki he taha o tea moana ka rere mai he torea ka porowhiunia atu e te tamaiti ra tetahi paraoa, ma te manu ra. Ka mea atu te torea ra, “Me haere mai koe ki ahau pena he raruraru tohou.”

Ka haere te tamaiti ra ka tae mai ki te taha o te wai ka kite atu i te ika e kaukau haere ana mai, ka mea atu, “Kai te hiakai koe?” Kare(9) he ika e mea mai. Ka hoatunia e te tamaiti ra he paraoa. Ka mea atu te ika, “Pena he raruraru tohou me haere mai koe ki ahau.” Ka whakaae atu te tamaiti ra, ka haere. Tae atu te tamaiti ra ki tetahi rori(10) ano ka kite atu ia i tetahi hiwi teitei ano. Ka haere atu ia, ka piki i te hiwi ra. Tae atu ana ia ki runga o te hiwi ka kite atu a ia ki te whare o te kingi ka haere atu a ia ki reira. Tae atu ana ia ka mea atu te kingi he aha tana pirani. Ka mea atu te tamaiti ra i haere mai a ia ki te mahi. Ka heria e te kingi ra ka mea atu me poro e ia na paina(11) katoa, ka kore, ka pora e ia te kaki o te tamaiti ra. Te hokitana o te kingi ki tana whare ka tati(12) te tamaiti ra ki te ue. I aue a ia ka puta atu te kuia ra ka mea atu he aha tana raruraru. Ka mea atu te tamaiti ra e mea atu te kingi me poro katoa e ia nga paina ra, ka kore ka poroa tana kaki. I tera tonu ka mea atu te kuia ra, “Me hoki koe ki te moe, maku hai poro.”

Te hokitana o te tamaiti ra ki te moa ka tati te kuia ra ki te whakakoi i tana toki. Mutu ana tana poro i na paina ra ka haere a ia ki te whakaoho i te tamaiti ra. Kare noa iho i roa te hokitanga atu o te kuia ra ka awatea. Ka kite atu te tamaiti ra i te kingi e haere mai ana. Tae atu ana te kingi ra ka mea atu te tamaiti ra he aha he mahi mana. Ka mea atu te kingi ra mana e rui nga peke(13) paraoa e rima mano katoa. I te kore e oti i a ia nà paraoa te kohi i te po ka poroa e ia te mahuna o te tamaiti ra. Ka haere te kingi ra. Ka mea te tamaiti ra me aha a ia. Ka mahara ake a ia ki na naro ra, ka karakia a ia kia haere mai na naro. I a ia e karakia ana ka puta atu na naro ka mea atu, “He aha to raruraru?” Ka mea atu te tamaiti ra, i mea atu te kingi ki a ia me oti a ia nga paraoa ra te kohi, ka kore, ka poroa e ia tana mahuna. Ka haere na naro ra ki te kohi i nga puehu paraoa ka haere atu te tamaiti ra ki te herehere i nga peke paraoa. Te mututana ka hoki na naro ra, ka hoki te tamaiti ra ki te moe.

Tae atu ana a ia ka kite atu a ia i te kingi e haere mai ana. Ka mea atu te kingi ra ki te tamaiti ra pena i oti katoa a ia te kohi. Ka whakaae atu te tamaiti ra, ka haere te kingi te titiro. Tae atu ana a ia kare ke it kitea

– 53 –

e ia he paraoa i runga o te oneone. Ka mea atu te kingi ra mana e tiki etahi wai kia rua te kau na pakete(14). Ka haere te kingi ra ki te tiki. Tae ana mai a ia ka mea atu te kingi me putu e ia na wai o roto, ka kore, ka poroa tana kaki. Ka haere te kingi ka piki te tamaiti ra ki runga o te rakau tangi ai. Ka rere mai te torea ka tau mai ki runga o te rakau ra ka mea atu, “he aha to raruraru?” Ka mea atu te tamaiti ra, “I mea mai te kingi me putu e ‘hau na wai o roto no na pakete na, ka kore, ka poroa e ia taku kaki.” Ka mea atu te torea ra, “Me haere koe ki te moe. Makuhai mahi.”

Ka haere te tamaiti ra. No tana titirotana atu kua kore ke te manu ra. Ka haere a ia ki te tiro kua pau katoa na wai o roto i na pakete. Tae mai te kingi ra, ka haere ki te titiro. Ka hoki te kingi ra ki te tiki i te ringi(15) ka porowhiua ki roto i te wai. Ka haere te kingi ra. Ka noho te tamaiti ra i runga o te paepae aue ai. Ka piki ake te ika ka mea atu, “He aha to raruraru, ka mea atu, “Kare e kitea atu e ‘hau te ringi i porowhiunia atu e te kingi.”

Ka piki ake te ika ka whiuatunia e ia te ringi. Ka hoki te tamaiti ra ki te here i te ringi ki te kingi. Tana taehana atu ka mea atu ki te kingi, “Anei te ringi.” Ka tikina atu e te kingi. Te rirotana atu i a ia o te ringi ka riri te kingi nei ki te tamaiti ra, ka heria e te kingi te tamaiti ki roto i tetahi kohatu rauna(16) ano i raro ra ano. Ka mea atu te kingi, i te kore a ia e hemo kua riro a ia e hemo kua riro a ia tana tamaiti. Ka whakatakatia e te kingi ra tetahi piki(17) kohatu ano. Kare i tika i te tamaiti ra na te mea i hiripi(18) te kohatu ma te taha. Te pikitana ake o te tamaiti ra ka heria e te kingi ra ki tana tamaiti ka moe raua. Ka noho raua i to raua whare. Ka haere mai katoa na tanata ki te titiro i to ratou kingi hou, ko tana inoa ko Hoani.

(1) Rani. Some speakers of the Tuhoe-Ngatiawa dialect do not use the ‘ng’ sound (velar nasal), at all; they replace it with ‘n’ (palatal nasal). Others use the velar in the middle of words but not initially, that is they say naro (fly), but rangi (day). Others, including some of the elders, use the velar ‘ng’ in both positions as is done in the other dialects. Janet belongs, together with most of her school friends, in the first category. (She uses ‘ng’ however in the loan words kingi and ringi.)

(2) Hai. The tribes of the Bay of Plenty, of the East Coast, together with Tuhoe, replace e by a in several words including hei and kei.

(3) Tae mai a ia. Grammar books do not generally recognise the use of the particle a before ia standing as the subject of a sentence, but it is so used in several districts in spite of them and has been for at least a century.

(4) Mapu. Janet and her friends use fewer English loan words than do the children of most other districts, but quite a few may be heard, puzzling the student who relies solely on his Williams's dictionary. Mob is one of these loan words.

(5) paraoa. Bread — from flour.

(6) ratau. au instead of ou in tatou, matou, and ratou is widely heard even in such far spaced tribal areas as those of Ngatiporou and Upper Wanganui River.

(7) whiro. Willow.

(8) tohou. Also mohou, for tou and mou. A fairly widespread variation.

(9) Kare. Kaore.

(10) rori. Road.

(11) paina. Pines.

(12) tati. Started.

(13) peke. Bags.

(14) pakete. Buckets.

(15) ringi. Ring.

(16) rauna. Round.

(17) piki. Big.

(18) hiripi. Slipped.

– 54 –

NEW ZEALAND BIRD STORIES

HOW THE SILVER-EYE CAME TO
NEW ZEALAND

One day a friendly little fantail was hunting for insects in a puriri tree. Suddenly the sun went under a cloud. The fantail ceased searching for insects, hunched his feathers and looked sad.

‘Why do you look so sad’, said the wind to the fantail, ‘when my friend the sun goes under a cloud for a few minutes?’

‘Because I like the warm sun to shine,’ answered the fantail. ‘I can catch more insects then.’

‘You are a very hard-working little bird,’ said the wind. ‘Why don't you take things easy?’

‘Oh, dear me! I could not do that,’ replied the fantail, ‘the forest is full of harmful insects and they must be caught.’

‘I go everywhere and see everything that goes on in the land,’ said the wind, ‘and while there are such good insect-hunters as the grey warbler, rifleman, tom-tit, yellowhead and others, there is no need at all for you to work so hard.’

‘That may be so,’ chirped the friendly fantail, ‘but I would very much like more help.’

The wind shook the puriri tree and said, ‘I am strong and shall bring you a bird from a far country. I shall carry it with me across the sea, and you will know it when you see it, for it has white around the eyes. It is a great insect-hunter, and will be a great help to you.’

Strange to relate, a great wind got up in the year 1856 and brought the silver-eye (or, as some call it, wax-eye or white-eye) to New Zealand from Australia. When the Maori people saw the silver-eye they called it Tauhou, which means ‘stranger’. The fantail is not disappointed with the bird that the wind promised it would bring over, for the silver-eye is very industrious and seeks insects all day like the fantail himself.

HOW THE LITTLE BLUE PENGUIN
AND GANNET BECAME FRIENDS

Ages ago when the world was young, the little blue penguin used to live on land and eat worms like the kiwi. One day, as a penguin was waddling along near the shore to get some sea air, she found a gannet who was in distress. ‘What brings you over here away from your friends?’ asked the cheerful penguin. ‘I have hurt my wing and cannot fly back to my friends,’ replied the gannet, ‘and to make matters worse I have an egg, but my wing hurts me so much that I cannot sit on it.’ ‘Let me sit on the egg for you,’ said the little blue penguin. And she did. After she had stayed there for many days, a little gannet hatched out. The mother gannet's wing became better, and she swam around in the sea and brought fish for the youngster to eat. The penguin was invited to taste the fish that the gannet caught every day, but the penguin, who had never tasted such a thing before, would not eat it at first. After a time she was persuaded to eat a little, and, as she liked it so much, decided to eat as much as the gannet would bring her. One day, the gannet said, ‘I am going back to live with my friends on those big rocks in the ocean over there, and shall take my young one with me, for as you can see, it can fly now. But, before I go, I will teach you how to swim and catch fish.’ The penguin liked her new way of living so much that she no longer spends her time on the land looking for worms, but swims happily in the sea and searches for fish. The gannet will never forget the good turn that the penguin did her, and they will always be close friends.

 

LET'S HAVE A MEETING (continued from page 47)

kopi i te hui, a mo nga mea kia tupato kei takahia. Ko nga mea e hiahia ana kia ata whakamaramatia ano etahi wahanga o nga whakahaere hui a he patai ranei a ratou mo nga ahuatanga kua tuhia nei ki Te Ao Hou me tuhi mai ki Te Etita, Te Ao Hou, Box 2390, Wellington.

 

LET'S HAVE A MEETING (continued from page 47)

Officers, Motions, Amendments, The Closure, and Points of Order in later issues of Te Ao Hou. Anyone who has any particular questions to ask about the conduct of meetings, or who may wish to dispute any points of procedure so far outlined should write to The Editor, Te Ao Hou, P.O. Box 2390, Wellington.

– 55 –

He Titotito na te Maori te Waiata
a te Rangipaia
Na R. T. KOHERE I TUHITUHI

Kainga iho ana e au nga kai, e,
Tutoko tonu ake e aku tini mahara;
He mea koraukore i te wa e ora ana,
Taria nei kia mate, ka hao au te mahora.
Kai wawewawe ra e te mate i au,
Kia wawe te wairua te tae ki Taupo,
Kei noho i te ao kairangi atu ai,
Ki te ao o te tonga e koheri mai ra,
Ra runga ana mai te hiwi ki Tikirua,
Kei tua ake mea ota ora i ahau.

Nga Whakaramara

Te Rangipaia. He tino waiata tenei na Ngati-Porou, na Te Rangipaia, he wahine rangatira.

I te whakapaenga a Pomare i Te Whetumatarau i te tau 1825, i roto o te pa a Te Rangipaia raua ko Te Rangitokomauri. I te teitei o te pa, kahore i taea e Ngapuhi engari he nui te mate kai a Ngati-Porou a kai atu hoki i te tangata. I puta te whakaaro i a Pomare me nukarau e ia nga tangata a te pa kia puta ki waho, kia tatu iho ki te raorao. I mua atu o te maanutanga o nga waka o Ngapuhi, I noho a Pomare i te taumata, ka korero ake ki a Te Rangitokomauri i roto o te pa:—

‘Te Rangitokomaru, moe mai ra koe i a Te Rangipaia i tenei po, a te po a apopo hei au hoki ta taua wahine.’

E kiia ana i tenei ra, ko te wahi i noho ai a Pomare ‘Ko te taumata o Pomare.’

I matakitaki iho o Ngati-Porou i roto o te pa ki nga waka o Ngapuhi e whakaputa ana ki te moana, i pohehe e hoki ana ki te kainga. Huri i te torouka i te Whai-a-Pawa, hei Te Whakatir (Lottin Ponit) ka u ki uta. No te po ka hokia mai, rokohanga mai a Ngati-Porou kua tatu iho ki te raorao, ki te ropu kai. Ka patua e Ngapuhi, ko te nuinga i mauria ki Ngapuhi hei whakarau. I haere a Te Rangipaia i roto i nga herehere, i moea hoki e Pomare. I noho raua ki Taumarere. Ka taka te wa, ka huri a Pomare ki te whakapono, ka puta hoki te whakaaro i a ia kia whakahokia e ia a Te Rangipaia ki tona iwi ki a Nati-Porou. I te unga atu o nga waka o Ngapuhi ki Te Kawakawa ara ki Te Araroa, ka piki a Ngati-Porou ki o ratou pa piri ai, ka wehi i a Ngapuhi. I unga e Pomare a Te Rangipaia kia haere ki roto o Waiapu, ko Pomare i noho tonu ki Te Kawakawa, otira kahore a Te Rangipaia i noho, i hoki tonu raua ko Pomare ki Taumarere. I kiia te hohourongo a Pomare e Ngati-Porou, ‘Ko te Pai a Pomare.’

Ka taka ano te wa ka haere te taua a Pomare ki te whawhai ki Waikato, ka mate ia ki reira. Ka pouaru a Te Rangipaia ka moea e Te Kariri o Waikato. Kotahi ta raua tamaiti engari i mate. I tae rawa mai a Te Rangipaia raua ko Te Kariri ki a Ngati-Porou, a i mate a Te Rangipaia ki Wharekahika.

Taupo. Kei tawhiti noa atu a Taupo i East Cape engari hoki kei te tonga. I runga i nga tikanga pokanoa a te Maori ki te whaka-whitiwhiti i nga kupu o nga waiata, kua kapea te kupu Taupo, kua whakaurua ko te kupu ‘reinga’. Tena pea i rapu nga mahara o Te Rangipaia ki a Te Heuheu to Taupo tangata.

Tikirau. Ko te hiwi i Whangaparaoa, kua kiia nei e te pakeha ko Cape Runaway. I te rerenga mai o nga waka i Hawaiki i whakahangaitia mai nga ihu o nga waka ki Tikirau.

MAORI POETRY TRANSLATION

As oft as I partake of food,
So oft my myriad thoughts stifle me;
I appreciated you not when alive,
And now when beyond recall, I long for you.
O, sorrow, quickly eat into my being,
The sooner then would my spirit be at Taupo
Instead of being in the world, greeting in vain,
Southerly clouds that pass scattering
O'er Tikirau peak.
Beyond which live my dear ones who consume me alive.

– 56 –

NEWS IN BRIEF

Four of the six Maoris who commanded the Maori Battalion in the Second World War are now engaged in Maori welfare work.

The first Maori to command the battalion, Lieutenant-Colonel E. T. W. Love, was killed in action in July, 1942, only a few weeks after he had assumed command. He was succeeded by Lieutenant-Colonel F. Baker, D.S.O., who has, since 1943, been Director of Rehabilitation.

Next commander of the battalion was Lieutenant-Colonel C. M. Bennett, D.S.O., who is now Assistant Controller of the Welfare Division, Department of Maori Affairs.

Lieutenant-Colonel K. A. Keiha, M.C. and Bar, is District Welfare Officer at Gisborne; Lieutenant-Colonel A. Awatere, D.S.O., M.C., is District Welfare Officer at Wanganui; and Lieutenant-Colonel J. C. Henare, who was the 11th and last commander of the Maori Battalion, is now District Welfare Officer at Auckland.

At the last conference of the Maori Women's Welfare League, at Wellington, a delegate from New Zealand's most southerly port of Bluff, Mrs Norman Bradshaw, set an example among the younger generation of Maori women with her knowledge of the Maori language and her fluent diction.

It was not generally known at the conference, however, that as Ngawara, a young Rotorua girl, Mrs Bradshaw was the heroine of a film, ‘Hei-tiki’, much of which was filmed around Lake Taupo in 1930. The American producer, after a lengthy search, pronounced Ngawara to be the perfect Maori type.

* * * *

A Maori of high standing in the community on the Chatham Islands, Mr Arthur Lockett, was chosen as one of the first official speakers when the new radio-telephone link between New Zealand and the Chathams was opened recently.

People in the Chathams are very pleased to have the new service, which brings them into much closer touch with New Zealand, and, for that matter, with any part of the world.

* * * *

A recording was made of a special Coronation address by the well-known Maori orator, Mr Kepa Ehau, of Rotorua. It was broadcast over the New Zealand national stations the evening after the Coronation.

Mr Ehau gave a notable oration, also, on the death last year of King George VI.

* * * *

A Maori member of K-force, Driver Ben Api, of Pakotai, near Whangarei, who has been a member of the United Nations guard of honour in Korea, was present at the signing of the armistice at Panmunjom.

Driver Api was proud of his position as New Zealand's representative in what he called ‘a miniature United Nations’.

* * * *

Captain W. Whaitiri, master of the coastal ship Zephyr, is one of New Zealand's two Maori master mariners.

During the war he sailed in North Atlantic convoys. The Zephyr, his first command, trades from Auckland to Gisborne, Wellington, Wanganui, Lyttelton and Timaru

– 57 –

Since 1940 the Maori quota of student teachers entering Training Colleges has increased from four to 60.

One out of every three teachers in Maori schools is now a Maori, and more Maoris are applying for teaching posts at non-Maori schools.

* * * *

The first Maori to be awarded an overseas scholarship, Maharaia Winiata, has had his term as holder of a Nuffield Fellowship extended by a year.

On leave of absence from his Maori Adult Education post at Auckland, Mr Winiata is at Edinburgh University studying race relations.

* * * *

Private Ben Katene, of Okaiawa, South Taranaki, was leader of the Maori haka team in the New Zealand Coronation Contingent. He organised several performances both in England and on the voyage.

* * * *

The first three representative Rugby teams to challenge Waikato for the Ranfurly Shield in the 1953 season were captained by well-known Maori Rugby players.

Bay of Plenty were led by A. Douglas; North Auckland by J. B. Smith; and Taranaki by L. Hohaia.

* * * *

‘One of the most significant events since Christianity was introduced to the Maori’ is how the New Zealand Free Lance described the first meeting of the new Presbyterian Maori Synod at Ohope Beach, near Whakatane, last July. Presbyterian Maori mission work is to be completely reorganised, with a gradual transfer of powers to the Maori Synod, and using Whakatane as a training centre for Maori ministers. The Rt. Rev. James Baird, dedicating the synod, said the Maori must be free to express the Gospel in accordance with his natural genius and cultural characteristics.

* * * *

When Mr Wiremu Ngata started his Adult Education class in the Maori language in Wellington recently he found sixty people waiting at the first lecture, and had to shift this unexpectedly large number from the classroom to the Y.W.C.A. hall.

Sporting Events

Although we are in fairly close touch with sports and sportsmen generally it is not possible for any one person to keep abreast of all events and developments, especially in some of the more remote districts.

As many of our people live in these districts, and because their sporting activities often have significance in the wider sphere of Maoridom, we should be pleased to hear at any time of inter-tribal or inter-district events.

Maori Women's Welfare League members in Te Kuiti planted twenty-four young totara trees in the pa grounds to commemorate the Coronation.

* * * *

Four young Maoris looking forward to a busy period in British show business are Joe Ward Holmes, aged 27, of Lower Hutt; Pat Rawiri, 24, of Ruatahuna; Mac Hata, 23, of Opotiki; and Henry Gilbert, 27, of Waikaremoana. The first three sing, and Henry Gilbert accompanies them on the guitar, as ‘The New Zealanders' Maori Quartet’. They landed in London last July, and are already appearing in B.B.C. Commonwealth of Song programmes, on the stage, and in television. Their repertoire includes not only Maori songs in harmony, and dances and haka in costumes, but also Samoan, Fijian and Hawaiian numbers. The quartet was formed in Wellington in 1950.

* * * *

The Whakatohea Tribal Executive, wanting to contribute to the well-being of local schools, has decided to form a tribal education committee.

* * * *

Mr Whitu Pitama, still in his thirties, has been chosen as upokorunanga of the Ngai-Tahu tribe, North Canterbury.

* * * *

A sporting record which it would be hard to excel in New Zealand was held this year by Te Aute College. Of the 150 boys attending the college, 140 played in competition Rugby. The college had eight teams in the Hastings competition.

– 58 –

QUEEN VICTORIA SCHOOL JUBILEE

(Continued from page 38)

Miss Brereton recalled that when she first knew the school it had no electric light and no fire alarm. The gaslight was so bad that the girls could not do their prep. by it.

As time progressed, Miss Brereton remembered, the new pupils used to arrive with better and better education. There was a tremendous advance in the standard of education, she said. Perhaps the advance was too great considering the little time that had passed since the Maori met civilization, she said.

Miss Brereton is now living in retirement at Nelson.

Foundation members present at the Jubilee weekend included Mrs H. D. Bennett (formerly Wikitoria Park), Mrs Farrell (Rangi Tamihana), Mrs Maraea Carr (Colenso), Mrs Eliza Brown (Te Raina), Mrs Daisy McGruther (Ormsby), Mrs Pare Poihipi (Franks), Mrs Ema Ryan (Waitoa).

One of the 1904 scholars present was Mrs F. A. Bennett, wife of the late Bishop of Aotearoa, the Rt. Rev. F. A. Bennett. Mrs Bennett's maiden name was Hemana. Also from 1904 was Mrs Makuini Paora (Hei).

Mrs A. Aubrey, of Lepperton, whose daughter and granddaughters also went to the school, was another old-timer present. Mrs Aubrey, formerly Alice Franks, was at school in 1905–06. Her daughter, Mrs K. Rangi, Taranaki Welfare Officer, was at school in 1921–27. Mrs Rangi was present for the weekend but her daughters, also old girls, were too preoccupied with their young families to attend.

Miss Mira Petricevich, a graduate of the University of New Zealand, was also present for the Jubilee. Miss Petricevich spent her first three years of secondary schooling at Queen Victoria, starting in 1936.

The school was built as a permanent memorial to Queen Victoria in the hope that it would carry out an object always dear to her heart, namely, the benefiting of the women of the native races over which she ruled.

A history of the school, published for the Jubilee, points out that when Queen Victoria School came into being there were no institutions for educating Maori girls except Hukarere and a Roman Catholic Girls' College, both in Napier. This caused great difficulty because educated Maori boys could find few women of similar interests whom they could marry. The remedy lay in founding more girls' schools where the girls could be educated to fit them for their duties as wives of educated men. Thus, says the history, when the school came into being the emphasis was on the cultural rather than on the academic side. The wisdom of that policy, it states, has been borne out by the great contribution which the Maori women have made to the social progress of their people.

Queen Victoria's foundation stone was laid by the Duke of York (later King George V) on June 12, 1901. The school was dedicated on May 23, 1903, though apparently it began to operate in 1902. The dedication service was conducted by Bishop Neligan.

It has been the aim of the school to provide one general course which will achieve both individual and racial development. Academically, it provides a good all-round education up to the endorsed school certificate standard and University Entrance. The Maori language is an examination subject. Maori history and traditions are also studied. In the practical, everyday community life which is practised outside the classrooms the school aims to develop as fully as possible: (1) A personal sense of responsibility; (2) a willing team spirit; (3) capacities for leadership.

Queen Victoria aims to serve the Maori race. Miss Berridge believes that racial survival, with true partnership and co-operation is more desirable than assimilation. She believes that it is the school's function to present the best elements from the two racial heritages. Miss Berridge says that the best results come from pupils who, with some comprehension of the aims and spirit of the school, elect it in preference to other alternatives. Unfortunately, she says, attendance involves considerable cost and effort, and increased opportunities are needed for those whose economic circumstances make it impossible for them to elect to attend the school.

The present scholastic record compares very favourably, she says, with the average State secondary school. The scholastic record has been improving over the last few years, largely because Maori parents have been persuaded to leave their daughters at school for longer periods.

Maori schools, including Queen Victoria, are progressing according to the needs of the people, says Miss Berridge. Where formerly the accent was on training, so that the girls would be good wives and mothers, nowadays the scholastic achievements have grown in accordance with the general demand for increased education. Nowadays, too, there are more avenues open to Maori girls than formerly. One of the reasons why, till ten years ago, so many old girls became nurses or teachers was that

– 59 –

Picture icon

Oldest Living Pupils — Classes 1903. Left to right, Mrs F. A. Bennett, Mrs H. D. Bennett, Mrs J. McGruther. —Photo: J. Ashton

these avenues then offered most to them. Now they are entering other professions as well.

One matter which has been causing concern lately is the financial position of the school. The report of the Trust Board for 1952 showed that the expense of running the schools, Queen Victoria and St. Stephen's, was increasing in greater ratio than income, and it was apparent that drastic action was needed. The report said that the Trust was considering several alternatives, ‘but it is not improbable that sheer lack of finance will force the closing of at least one of the schools.’

This year the drastic action came. Fees were markedly and suddenly increased. In 1942, the education of a girl cost £35; in 1952, £70; and today, the cost is £120. This is more than many Maori parents can afford. The need for scholarships is greater than ever.

This year's increase in fees was so that existing standards could be maintained, and, says Miss Berridge, it shows faith on the part of parents that they have been willing to meet the expense. Despite the financial hurdle the school year started with a roll of 78, only two short of its maximum 80.

And despite the financial barriers the demand for higher education goes on. Whereas, in 1942, the senior pupils comprised the smallest group, in 1952, pupils in the third year upwards made up half the school. And nine of the 11 successful School Certificate candidates in 1951 returned the next year to do Sixth Form work. During the last decade, 56 girls have obtained School Certificate, practically half of them returning to leave with Endorsed School Certificate, several with University Entrance.

The variety of vocations which the girls take up is shown by the fact that of the girls who attended the school in that decade, 32 went to Teachers' Training Colleges, 20 trained as nurses, 14 went into clerical work, three became school dental nurses, two hospital laboratory receptionists, three telephone exchange operators, two took up tailoring, and one became a librarian trainee. Others were dressmakers, uncertificated teachers and nursing aids.

But Queen Victoria's reputation does not rest alone on schoolroom work.

The School excels in basketball. It has produced the champion school senior A team in Auckland for eight years, and was the first school to get into the Auckland Basketball Association Tournament Senior A grade.

First aid and home nursing, too, find a place in the school. Last year a Queen Victoria team as the Auckland representative team won the Dominion St. John Nursing Cadet Team championship at the annual competitions held in Wellington, and this year the school was selected to represent Auckland in Dunedin during the August holidays.

And in the field of singing the school's welltrained recorded voices have been used in a B.B.C. Commonwealth programme, and also in a lecture tour publicising New Zealand in the U.S.A. as well as by Radio New Zealand.

– 60 –

Government Prepares for
MAORI RECEPTION OF QUEEN

Every sizeable Maori settlement from Lake Taupo to the East Coast will send a haka team of seventy together with supporters to greet the Queen in Rotorua next January, said Mr John Te Herekiekie Grace, organiser of the Maori royal reception, to Te Ao Hou recently. Of the two thousand official guests of the Government to Rotorua a large percentage would be the actual haka performers, he said.

Although arrangements for the Maori receptions at Rotorua and Waitangi were by no means finalised, Mr Grace was prepared to describe the arrangements that had been made so far (August 18). Responsibility for the Maori side of the tour lies with a central committee in Wellington, consisting of the Minister of Maori Affairs (chairman), the four Maori members of Parliament, Mr A. G. Harper, Director of the Royal Tour and Secretary of Internal Affairs, Mr T. T. Ropiha, Secretary of Maori Affairs, and Messrs Mason Durie and Pateriki Hura. Executive officer of this central committee and organizer of the Maori receptions is Mr John Grace himself.

From the Queen's point of view, Rotorua was the best spot for the major Maori reception, partly because her father, the late King George VI and the Queen Mother met the Maori people there in 1926 as Duke and Duchess of York; partly also because she is to stay near Rotorua for a few days to relax after her strenuous programme further North.

At the time of the interview, Mr Grace had formed a reception committee in Rotorua containing representatives of Te Arawa, Ngai Te Rangi, Ngatiawa, Whakatohea, Whanaua Apanui, Tuhoe and Ngati Tuwharetoa. From this large committee a smaller core was chosen as a working committee. In addition there are subcommittees to deal with the various aspects of the reception: a catering subcommittee (presided over by Mr Addie Mitchell), an accommodation subcommittee (Mr Ruhi Pene), a finance subcommittee (Mr R. Alley), a works subcommittee (Mr A. J. Downes), a transport subcommittee (Mr D. N. Perry) and a ceremonial subcommittee under Mr Rei Vercoe.

The Government's plan is, according to Mr Grace, for the local people (those represented on the reception committee) to provide the ceremonial. To make the gathering representative of the whole of the Maori people, the Government's intention is to invite two hundred chiefs from other tribes to be present.

Having decided to have 2,000 representatives of the local tribes and the chiefs from the other tribes, the Government approached the Arawa people with a request to provide accommodation in nine maraes near Rotorua. The Arawa people agreed, and the Government is now making itself responsible for the costs of receiving these guests. The Government has made it known to the people, said Mr Grace, that others than those invited may, of course, go to Rotorua, but they go there on the understanding that they make their own arrangements for accommodation and transport. Emergency provisions may possibly be made for some additional guests.

Quotas of visitors for the different tribes within the Rotorua, Urewera and Taupo districts, have already been fixed and tribes have to keep within these. They provide mainly for haka teams and their supporters. The general purpose of these restrictions is not to place too heavy a burden on the Arawa who are to be the hosts, and who themselves have to be free to participate to the full in the reception, said Mr Grace.

Arrangements in the North are that the Queen will spend one hour at Waitangi on her way to Whangarei from Kaikohe. Half this time will be given to afternoon tea; the rest of the time will be shared between Maori and naval ceremonial. The character of the Waitangi ceremonial will not be exclusively Maori; it is for both races and will be attended by pakehas as well as Maoris.

In addition to these two Maori receptions Maori leaders will participate in civic receptions all over the country.

– 61 –

MAORI AFFAIRS BILL
(NO. 2), 1953

The Maori Affairs Bill recently introduced to Parliament is the third version to be prepared.

In 1952, the first Bill was printed and allowed to lapse, with the idea of giving an opportunity for comment and discussion by the Maori people and by lawyers and others interested. Several hundred copies of the Bill, with explanatory leaflets were circulated throughout the country, to reach all Tribal Executives and other Maori groups and leaders. Radio talks were given, articles printed in Te Ao Hou, and other steps taken to publicise the contents of the Bill.

In April, 1953, another version of the Bill was introduced, incorporating the result of many comments and suggestions received on the 1952 Bill. It was clear at this stage, that many people had not yet prepared their detailed views on the new proposals and the Minister stated that, if necessary, he would bring down a further Bill later in the year, thus allowing time for further representations to be considered. Explanatory leaflets on this Bill were also circulated.

Disposal of Interests on Death:

The new Bill again contains important changes, chiefly concerning succession and disposal of interests of a deceased owner of Maori land. The new provisions give a greater degree of responsibility and discretion to the Maori Land Court. The proposals are, briefly, as follows:

1

The interests in Maori land of a deceased owner do not vest in the Maori Trustee or any other person until orders are made by the Court.

2

On application to the Court by any person interested or by the Registrar or Maori Trustee the Court determines as at present, the persons entitled to succeed.

3

The Court then goes on to dispose of the interests and may, without application, make exchanges, or give effect to agreements among successors or use any of its general powers. Interests not affected by arrangements or exchanges, etc., go to the successors.

4

The Court in disposing of the interests as above, is not to vest in any person an interest which together with his other interests in the same land is not in the Court's opinion of a value greater than £50 unless

(a)

the interest has been specifically left to that person in the will of the deceased; or

(b)

the interest, together with other interests of that person could, in the Court's view, be partitioned out to provide a worthwhile section for building or other purposes and is likely to be used in this way within a reasonable time.

5

If an interest cannot otherwise be disposed of as above, because of its value or because no arrangement is possible, the Court is to vest it in the Maori Trustee for the Conversion Fund, at a price fixed by the Court, but the Maori Trustee is not bound to accept such an interest. If he does not, it goes to the successors or as may be agreed by them.

Incorporations:

The other main subject on which changes are proposed in the Bill is that of incorporation. Here provision is made for more frequent election of committees of management; voting powers of owners to be in accordance with the value of their interests; the keeping of accounts and so on.

Some copies of the Bill are held by District Offices of the Department of Maori Affairs for study by any person interested.

– 62 –
– 63 –

CROSSWORD PUZZLE
No. 5

Unfortunately, no correct solution to the last Crossword Puzzle was received by the Editor, and no prize can be awarded. We should like to encourage all those who solve the puzzles—and there appear to be quite a number—to send them in. Unless a good number of solutions is received, we shall have to discontinue awarding a prize. For this puzzle, however, a prize of one guinea for a correct solution will still be given. If more than one correct solution is received, the winner will be determined by lot.

CLOSING DATE: 10 JANUARY, 1954.

CLUES (all answers are Maori words)

Across

1 Wooden image
10 Afraid
11 Guide
13 Lightning
14 Liver
15 God
16 Each
17 Muttonbird
18 Rain
20 Touch
21 Ponder over
26 Fish
27 Asked
28 Bark
29 Gum, sap
32 Enter
33 Road
36 Alight
37 Resist
38 Glow
39 Led
41 Sphinx moth
43 Glow
44 Yes
45 World
46 Horizon

Down

1 Water
2 Seal (mod.)
3 Trevally
4 Say
5 Supernatural being
6 Burn
7 Curse
8 Enough
9 Working bee
10 Secretly
12 Sinew
19 Helped
20 Swing
22 How many
23 Current
24 Verbal particle
25 Leaf
30 Numerous
31 Land
34 Gently
35 Tribal prefix
39 Firm
40 Upwards
42 Wrong

– 64 –
 

ITALY (continued from page 29)

peasant people and their problems. The method of effecting land development and closer settlement in Italy has some resemblances to our own Maori land development.

The Italian plan provides for the general development of 6,800,000 acres in Southern Italy and the islands. After spending about £60 million on this area in twelve years, the Italian Government expects to have fully developed it, and provided full employment for an additional million people. Most of the money is to be spent on land development — swamp reclamation, irrigation, drainage services and so on.

At the same time a law was passed, very hotly contested but quite inevitable, to expropriate many of the large estates of Italy, often more or less idle, and capable of feeding many of the unemployed peasants who were in a worse state than ever after the war. These large estates have existed in Italy ever since the beginning of Christianity, and even earlier. In fact, the ancient Romans knew them by exactly the same name as is still in use today: latifundia.

Almost 1 ½ million acres of this land was bought from the owners, mostly in South Italy and Sardinia. The government was careful to take most land from the worst managed estates. In 1952, 374,000 acres of this area was distributed to 34,977 peasant families. Thousands of similar allotments took place in Sicily. It is expected that the whole of the expropriated area will be distributed by the end of the year. As may be seen, the scheme allows each family about ten acres on the average. Where the land is suitable for olive groves and vineyards even smaller areas are quite economic by Italian standards. Land is given to settlers in a semi-improved state. The settler must complete development, with the technical, financial and social help of the government. After two years he obtains title if he is satisfactory. The debt has to be repaid in 30 years. A few hundred of these properties already contain State-built homes; many thousands are yet to be erected. In some places the government is building entire villages. Of the money so far spent more than half was on implements, that is, tractors and other modern machinery, much of which has been distributed to settlers. This machinery has already greatly improved yields of crops.

It is gratifying that the Italian Government has been helped in this great work by American and British finance, and that our victory has brought progress to these charming people, victims of an age-old poverty.

– 65 –
– 66 –

Pehea ra Tan moe?

Ko te wahanga toru o nga haora e 24 e pau ana ki te moe. E tika ana me waru haora te moe a ia tangata pakeke.

Ko ta te tamariki kia neke atuko nga tamariki kei raro iho i te 5 tau te pakeke kia 12 haora te moe; ko nga mea kei waenganui i te 6 ki te 11 tau kia 11 haora; ko nga mea kei waenganui i te 12 ki te 14 tau kia 10 haora; a ko nga mea kei waenganui i te 15 ki te 17 tau kia 9 haora.

Ko te kore e ngata i te moe te putake nui o te heke o te tipu o te tamariki. Ka hirokiroki te tamariki a he matemate te mutunga.

KO NGA TOHUTOHU MO TE MOE:

Kia kotahi te haora haere ki te moe ia ra ia ra.

Kia pouri, kia kore he turituri a kia hauangi te ruma moe.

Kia mama nga kakahu o te moenga.

Kia tatakimori te kai i mua o te haerenga ki te moe.

Ki te kore koe e riro i te moe, me whakangawari te tinana me nga whakaaro. Etahi mea pai hei whakangawari i te moe he haere ki te haereere i mua o te haerenga ki te moe, he inu miraka wera koko ranei, he kaukau mahana.

Ma te u o te moe ka whakanga te manawa me nga pukapuka a ka taea te whakaora nga wahi he o te tinana.

Picture icon

Ka whakamoe i tau tamaiti kia tupato kei te toro tika te ringa ki raro kaore i te tamia e te tinana.

Ma te whai take tika marika ka kai rongoa whakamoe ki te kore kaua rawa e kainga.

issued by the new zealand department of health