TE AO HOU
The New World
the maori affairs department AUTUMN, 1953
but vigilance protects our exotic forest wealth…
Our forests of pines and other exotic conifers are imflammable, but fire prevention and fire precautions can keep the risk of fire loss down to the level of an ordinary, legitimate business risk.
The fire hazards are known and the protection of individual forests from fire has been developed on sound, practical lines by the Forest Service and other forest owners. Aerial patrols and lookouts make for early detection of outbreaks of fire, and well-equipped, highly-trained fire crews can be mobilised immediately. If necessary, the full strength of the national fire-control organisation can be brought to bear.
With forest fires, as with human ills, prevention is better than cure. The Forest Service and other forest owners can deal directly with risks from forest operations such as logging. But by and large, only you can prevent forest fires — farmers, motorists and all who live near or pass by the exotic forests.
TE AO HOU THE NEW WORLD
As this issue goes to press all thoughts are turned towards our New Queen, who was crowned on June 2. Our Queen Elizabeth II already, before her Coronation, stirred the imagination of her subjects to an unusual degree. To the Maori people the Royal Family has traditionally had an especially deep and personal significance, as the Sovereign is respected as the highest and most sacred Chief of Maoridom.
At home, a Bill of the greatest importance to all Maori land owners is now in Committee. A change in the law governing titles to Maori land was not only desirable but inevitable if the land was ever to become capable of being used. As it is now, blocks are owned by hundreds, sometimes thousands of persons, whose shares are often ludicrously small. As the law stands, we can expect that the number of these owners will multiply endlessly from generation to generation. Before the Pakeha came, there was a Maori custom by which the rights of an owner who did not occupy the land ‘grew cold’, so that for the new owners coming into the title in each generation, others would lose their rights. It was the discontinuance of this custom that was largely responsible for the present confusion.
The part of the new Bill which restricts the right to pass on land by inheritance to what are called ‘economic interests’ will prevent a splintering up of the smaller shares, and gradually make the very small shares almost disappear from the Maori Land Court records. (See the article in this issue.)
The Maori people have been as helpful as the Government. From the time the Bill was first presented to the House last year, Maori leaders have discussed it and have made their representations to the Government. These representations have, in the main, concerned the details and the machinery of the Bill, but among all the representations made so far there have been very few disagreeing with the general idea of a drastic change in the law governing Maori titles.
It is regrettable that custom of so many years standing—even though not exactly dating from ancient times—has to pass away, but the necessity to open up the land for farming overides all other considerations. The practical and commonsense tone of the public discussion of the Bill is to be highly commended.
Ehara i te mea he taonga weti-weti te motopahikara—kei te
kaiarahi te he. Ki te pai te arahi he hanga ahuareka te rere i runga i taua taonga, he waka pai a tae mai ana te ihiihi ki te kaiarahi.
Ahakoa ra ka 52 nga tangata kua hemo a rau atu kua aitua i tenei tau i runga i te arahi porohe i te motopahikara. Ina nga makenu o aua kaiarahi:
He tere rawa no te haere–ara he tere rawa no te haere i runga i nga huarahi kino a i te wa ranei kaore e kitea marakeraketia atu a mua.
He porohe no te arahi i te wa e taha ana i tetahi atu waka–ara kaore e ata tupato te taha i tetahi atu waka i runga i te huarahi.
He kore e whakawatea kia taha tetahi atu waka.
Ki te tupato te arahi i te motopahikara ka mutu te waka, a ma reira anake ka ora ai te tangata.
(Inserted by the Transport Department)
HAERE KI O KOUTOU
The death of Queen Mary, in March, brought to a close the long life of a beloved and venerated lady who was the widow of one British king, the mother of two others, and the grandmother of our present Queen Elizabeth. She was aged 85.
Queen Mary's death is mourned by the Maori people, in whose affections she had a special place—after her visit to New Zealand as Duchess of Cornwall and York in 1901, when she was given a great reception at a gathering of the tribes at Rotorua.
MRS RIPEKA WHARAWHARA LOVE, O.B.E.
One of the best-known Maoris in the Wellington district, Mrs Ripeka Wharawhara Love, O.B.E., died at Lower Hutt, aged 70. She was the widow of Mr Wi Hapi Love, O.B.E., who died last August. One of their sons was Lieutenant-Colonel E. T. W. Love, the first commander of the Maori Battalion, who died at El Alamein during World War II.
Mrs Love was born on Kapiti Island, the daughter of Matene Tauwhare, a chief of Te Ati Awa, and Anehaka Tauwhare, who was a daughter of Mr Robert Park, the New Zealand Company's surveyor, and his wife Terenui, a chieftainess of Ngarauru, in Taranaki.
During the First World War she was a worker for Lady Pomare's Maori Soldiers' Committee, and received the O.B.E. for her services. Her husband received a similar decoration in 1949.
Mrs Love was a prominent figure in Church of England affairs, and for many years services for the Maori community were held in her home.
MRS MAMAE MOKE PUMIPI
Mrs Mamae Moke Pumipi, a chieftainess of the Kawhia Maoris, died at Opara, Kawhia, aged 88. A daughter, Mrs Parekuku Manawaiti, died two days before. Both were direct descendants of Hoturoa, captain of the Tainui canoe.
The chieftainess was the only daughter of Te Aomangi and Hone Kaora, chief and chieftainess of the Ngati-hikairo and Ngati-puhiawe. She was a direct descendant of the four principal ancestors of the Waikato Maoris—Rangihoto Whare, Hourua, and Tapaue—and was connected with all the sub-tribes of the Waikato.
Mrs Pumipi had a thorough knowledge of the history of Kawhia, and could recite from memory more than 200 Maori laments and many incantations. More than 20 of these have been recorded by her son, the Rev Percy Moke, of the Wesleyan Church, New Plymouth.
MR CHARLES TAMANUIARANGI TIKAO
The senior member of a leading South Island Maori family, and chairman of the Ngai-Tahu Trust Board, Mr John Charles Tamanuiarangi Tikao, died at Christchurch. He was 62.
Mr Tikao held the rank of captain with the Maoris in the First World War, and during the Second World War he was an instructor with the Royal New Zealand Air Force.
Tikao Bay, on Banks Peninsula, is named after the family which in early days played a prominent part in the history of that district.
MR TE RAUPARAHA WI NEERA
A direct descendant of the famous Ngati-Toa warrior, Te Rauparaha, Mr Te Rauparaha Wi Neera died at Wellington at the age of 58.
MR TANE (DAN) HOPA
A veteran of the First World War, Mr Tane (Dan) Hopa, of Porirua, died at Wellington. He had a fine baritone voice, and was a well-known and popular entertainer in Wellington.
HAERE E KORO MA, E KUI MA, HAERE KI O KOUTOU TUPUNA I TE PO, HAERE KI TE KAINGA TUARUA O TE TANGATA.
FIRTH Steelcrete pumice boilers have no rivals for economy, service or appearance.
They are procurable immediately from your local dealer.
Firth Concrete Ltd.,
Frankton, Rotorua, Stratford, Hastings.
|ARTICLES AND STORIES|
|Obituaries: Haere Ki O Koutou Tipuna||3|
|Crowning of the Queen||8|
|The Changing Pattern of Maori Population by Miss Joan Metge||11|
|How Ngarara Huarau was Killed by Te Whetu||15|
|Maori Musicians by Freddie Gore||22|
|Maui Pomare by J. F. Cody||23|
|Weekend in Whangarei||26|
|Historic Land of Korea||28|
|Let's Have a Meeting by Beatrice Ashton||49|
|Making a Koronae by S. G. Mead||52|
|The Maori Affairs Bill, 1952||54|
|Maori Personalities in Sport by Wallie Ingram||61|
|Famous Maori Carvings||39|
|Notes from a Museum||40|
|The Home Garden||42|
|New Zealand Bird Stories||44|
|News in Brief||45|
|SPECIAL FEATURE IN THIS ISSUE|
|Family Tree of Queen Elizabeth II||6|
Subscriptions to Te Ao Hou at 4/- per annum (4 issues) or 10/- for ten issues at all offices of the Maori Affairs Department, 200 Post Offices in Maori districts and P.O. Box 2390, Wellington, New Zealand.
Printed in June 1953. Registered at the G.P.O., Wellington, for transmission through the post as a magazine.
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Crowning of the Queen
Ancient Custom of Maori Interest is Anointing with Oil at ….
The Queen of England is the only monarch now ruling to be anointed with oil at her Coronation. This means the British monarchy is the only one now left which has a Coronation custom going back in direct line to the days of Saul who, when found by Samuel as he searched for his father's asses, was anointed by him in a city in the land of Zuph.
Centuries ago, so it is told, Kings of England were anointed with oil given to St. Thomas of Canterbury by the Virgin Mary herself. This oil was contained in an ampulla shaped like a golden eagle, just as is the one used to-day.
Why does a priest who wishes to pour the blessing and consecration of God over a King or Queen use oil? This question brings us back to very old days and ideas—ideas which are still very familiar to Maori leaders to-day. It was believed that the anointing oil had a healing power, and that the natural healing power believed to be possessed by Kings and
In the Middle Ages, several British Sovereigns gave a considerable amount of time and energy to the use of their healing powers. They cured by the laying on of hands. There were fixed times for doing it. The number of patients was so great that the strain on the King must have been very exhausting. Obviously, this institution could not have gone on if there had not been a good number of cures. One gland disease called scrofula seemed especially curable by royal power; it used to be known as the King's Evil.
We are far away from London and were not able, most of us, to witness the sacred ceremonial of the Coronation. In England, many people were able to see the ceremony through television; this was allowed after, it seems, some protest by palace authorities who were reluctant to allow the sacred scene to be broadcast all over the world.
In New Zealand, in place of television, films are being shown allowing us all to be present in spirit, at least. In addition, of course, local celebrations were held all over the country.
Maoris were included in the New Zealand contingent attending the Coronation in London.
Certain Maoris were selected specifically to represent their own race at the Coronation: one from K-Force, one from the Air Force, two Army territorials, one Maori ex-serviceman, and
two members of the crew of the cruiser Black Prince.
One of the Maori members, Lieutenant Hiki Kohere, of Rangitukia, is following in the footsteps of his father, the late Lieutenant Henare Kohere, who was a member of the New Zealand party which visited England for the Coronation of King Edward VII, in 1902.
Lieutenant Henare Kohere was then a cadet at Te Aute College. Fourteen years later he was killed, while serving with the Maoris in France, in the First World War.
Lieutenant Hiki Kohere hopes to visit his father's grave on the Somme, and to photograph it during his visit.
One of the youngest members of the Coronation Contingent, 20-year-old Private Selwyn Bennett, is a member of a family which has given outstanding service to the Maori race and to New Zealand.
He is the youngest son of the late Bishop F. A. Bennett, and seven of his brothers served in the New Zealand Forces during the Second World War. Probably the best-known of the brothers is Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Bennett, a former commander of the Maori Battalion, and now of the Department of Maori Affairs in Wellington.
Selwyn Bennett in civilian life is a clerk at Rotorua. He was also chosen as the Contingent's photographer. He has taken a movie camera with him as well as the official “still” camera.
It would be false to believe, however, that the other members of the Contingent are all pakehas. There seem to be quite a number with some Maori blood, and, in particular, it was interesting to meet Warrant Officer Fenton, an engineer from Waitara, who is partly Maori, and was chosen as representative of the 2nd Field Regiment. Not only is he going to Britain with the Contingent, but his brother, Captain Fenton, who was serving in Korea, has been chosen also. This is coincidence enough, but it is odder still that he has another brother, Major Fenton, who was chosen for the Victory Parade in 1946.
“Today, in spite of the so-called ‘drift’ of many Maoris to urban areas and occupations, four out of every five Maoris live in the country.
“Some thirty or more years ago most Maoris lived in pas in which all the houses were within a few hundred yards of the meeting house and of one another. Nowadays most Maoris no longer live in such exclusively Maori settlements.”
These are among the conclusions drawn by Miss Joan Metge, a lecturer in geography at Auckland University College, who has made several years' study of places where Maoris live in the Auckland province. She has given Te Ao Hou the story of her discoveries, and drawn the revealing map shown on the next page. Here is what she has reported:
THE CHANGING PATTERN OF MAORI POPULATION
At present maoris do not live in any numbers in those parts of the province which are mountainous, forested, or otherwise naturally unsuited to farming development. In such areas there are few settlements and villages are widely scattered. Such as there are occur where the land is most favourable for farming, as in the coastal bays of Coromandel and in the Ruatahuna valley in the Urewera, or where forestry work is available, as in the Taupo area, in the Rangitaiki Valley and around Te Whaiti. There are large tracts where neither Maoris nor pakehas live—the Raukumara Range, the Ureweras (except for Ruatahuna and Te Whaiti), parts of the Volcanic Plateau, the dissected hill land of the southern King Country, and interior Coromandel. Maoris are also absent from such districts as those of Maungatapere, Warkworth and Helensville-Kumeu in Northland. A few Maori families are found at the edges of such areas, or are scattered.
Over the rest of the province Maoris are widely though fairly evenly distributed, except for a number of small areas where many live closely together. In the extreme north they are closely settled about the coastal inlets of Whangaroa, Whangape and Herekino, at various points on the Mangonui Peninsula, and in a crescent from Ahipara through Kaitaia to Waipapakauri. Similar concentrations are found on the bayhead plains of the East Coast—Hicks Bay, Te Araroa, Tokomaru, Tolaga and Waipiro Bays—at the southern end of Tauranga Harbour, and around Te Puke and Maketu. Four other places are also notable for their dense Maori population—Mangere (Manukau County), Pukekohe (Franklin), Waahi, near Huntly (Raglan) and Tokaanu (Taupo).
In the country areas, therefore, there is, broadly, the same distribution of Maoris as before the war. This does not mean things have not changed in the country. In those areas of dense Maori settlement where Maoris out-number the pakeha, the Maori population is not growing as fast as it is in most other areas. As a result, the concentration of Maoris in the far north and on the East Coast, north of Tokomaru Bay, though still remarkable, is less pronounced than it was in 1936. This situation is marked in the far north. There are actually fewer Maoris living on the shores of Hokianga and Whangaroa Harbours than there were before the war. Indeed, since 1945 any increase in the Maori rural population in the far north has been confined to the Kaikohe, Moerewa and Kawakawa districts. Today, the Maoris no longer equal the pakeha in numbers in the rural districts of the far north.
This trend is not nearly so apparent on the northern East Coast. The population is still increasing there, and, what is more, is increasing a good deal more rapidly than the pakeha
population, for the ratio of Maoris to pakehas has been steadily rising, until now there are at least three Maoris to every pakeha, and in some districts as many as five. It is only since 1945 that the rate of increase has shown signs of slowing down, but the signs there, nevertheless.
The same tendency can be clearly seen in the eastern Bay of Plenty. In this case the growth of the Maori rural population has been small between Opotiki and Cape Runaway—an area which is still rather isolated and where the population is mainly Maori—and in comparison, little short of phenomenal between Opotiki and Matata, where pakeha settlement is already relatively close.
The Maori population of the Volcanic Plateau has also been growing very rapidly indeed, but pakeha farmers and pakehas working for timber companies or on public works projects have settled in the area at an even faster rate, so that there are more pakehas in relation to Maoris than there were before. Besides the Volcanic Plateau, the areas where the Maori population seems to be growing most rapidly are the Manukau-Franklin area, the Waikato and the southern parts of Northland—all areas where Maoris have not been numerous since the wars of the nineteenth century—and also the East Coast south of Tokomaru Bay, where Maori settlement is much less dense than it is on the northern East Coast. In the Thames Valley, on the other hand, there are fewer Maoris today than there were before the war. This area is the only one, outside the districts in the far north already mentioned, where the Maori population is not increasing at all.
Movement to Cities
It is obvious that the rate of natural increase among the Maoris cannot be declining in these more remote areas, like Hokianga and Waiapu, where the Maoris are more numerous. The natural increase—the number of children born in the average family—is just as great if not greater in the far north, along the Opotiki coast and on the northern East Coast than anywhere else in the Province. The reason why the number of Maoris actually living in these areas has not increased as much as could be expected is that large numbers leave these areas each year to go and live elsewhere. Some Maoris from other parts of the Province also leave their homes in search of work, but not in the same numbers. Not many Maoris move from one rural area to another, except perhaps to the new forest plantations and timber mills of the Volcanic Plateau. Most of those who leave their homes go to live in the towns and cities. Over the last sixteen years there has been a remarkable increase in the number of Maoris living in urban areas.
The most striking feature of this movement is the way in which its effect has been confined to the largest centres only. The number of Maoris living in the small rural centres, and in some of the smaller towns such as Matamata and Cambridge, has shown no exceptional increase, and in many cases has actually declined, whereas two-thirds of the Maori urban population are now concentrated in four major centres—Auckland (7106), Rotorua (1440), Gisborne (1096) and Hamilton (687).
Why Maoris Choose Large Centres
Maori workers prefer to remain as close as possible to their homes, hence, wherever possible, they move to towns within the area in which they live. Rotorua has become the economic centre of Maoris living on the Volcanic Plateau; Whakatane (397) and Opotiki (495) absorb many of the landless Maori workers of the Bay of Plenty. Both Te Kuiti (450) and Gisborne, regional centres for the King Country and southern East Coast respectively, have more than doubled their Maori population since before the war. Many Maoris living just outside the borough limits travel daily to work in all these towns. These towns, however, are not all always able to employ even those from their own districts who want work. Many, too, live in areas where there are either no towns or only towns in which industrial development is not far advanced. In all these cases Maori workers must seek work further afield.
For the most part they prefer the major cities of the Province—Auckland, Hamilton and Whangarei (401), all of which lie in areas where the population is predominantly pakeha. They prefer to travel to these cities, sometimes hundreds of miles, because of the greater opportunities for employment there, and also because they are sure of finding there others from their own part of the country. In at least two areas where Maoris are numerous, in proportion both to land areas and to pakeha population, Maoris migrate in a steady stream to these outside towns.
On the northern East Coast this outward movement is mainly to Auckland, and is due to the absence of an urban centre within the area and the overcrowded nature of employment in Gisborne, the nearest centre. The far north has six urban centres, but none is large; they cannot cope with the demand for employment from Maoris from the surrounding rural areas, and these must seek work in Whangarei or Auckland. Hamilton draws its Maori workers mainly
from the Waikato, but also from the King Country. Apart from the regional and industrial centres already mentioned only five other towns have over 250 Maori residents. The bulk of others live on farms or interspersed with pakehas in small rural areas, and on the fringes of the larger towns.
The traditional pa still survives only in areas where farming is not a major activity for the Maoris, and where employment for wages can be readily obtained within easy reach of the settlements. The pa is probably best developed today along the shores of lakes Rotorua and Rotoiti, on the Volcanic Plateau and in the Urewera—at Te Whaiti and Ruatahuna. A few similar settlements are found in areas where most of the land has been occupied by pakehas for many decades, and the Maoris live mainly by working as labourers in primary and secondary industries—as in the Waikato, Matamata and Piako districts, in the vicinity of Opotiki and around Gisborne.
The movement from pas to individual farms, to towns and to cities, and the high rate of increase of those Maoris who live amongst pakehas contribute to bringing Maori and pakeha closer and closer together. This inevitably gives rise to new problems. The most obvious and urgent of these problems arise in the cities. The acute housing shortage has forced the majority of Maoris to congregate in the poorer parts of most towns, where over-crowding and inadequate sanitary arrangements endanger their health and standards of living. During the last few years, Maoris have been constantly moving into the better residential areas in the various centres, and have been entering the trades and professions in ever growing numbers, but their places have been quickly filled by new arrivals from the country. Consequently, the urban Maoris as a whole have as yet been only partially successful in adapting themselves to pakeha conventions of urban life and industry.
These problems are rendered all the more acute by the fact that everything favours the continued growth of the Maori urban population.
Hostel for Maori Girls
Cabinet has approved a subsidy of £5600 for the Methodist hostel for Maori girls at the corner of Ladies' Mile and Remuera Road. The cost of the building, which was previously a rest home, was £11,250. A further £3000 will be spent in alterations and renovations to the building. It is hoped the hostel will be ready for use towards the end of the year.—Auckland Star.
Maori Singer to Tour South Africa
Inia Te Wiata, the Maori bass singer, who went abroad to study some years ago, will be a member of the Covent Garden Opera Company which is to sail from London for South Africa on July 26. The tour will be a brief one, as the company will return to London by the end of August to prepare for appearances during the Coronation season.
Gloriana, the Coronation opera by Benjamin Britten, is to be performed during the South African tour, and for the Maori singer the composer has specially written an aria in the second act. The company began a tour of the British Isles on February 16, and Inia Te Wiata is travelling with it.
In addition, he has made a series of records of Maori songs, including ‘Waiata Poi’, ‘Hine e Hine’, the ‘Nikau Waltz’, and ‘Pokorekare’.
The singer, in a recent letter to friends, says that he is in excellent health, and weights 15st. 51b.
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Te Patunga o
I te ra ka whiti mai a Tainui me etahi atu waka ki tenei motu, ka tae mai ki Manukau. No te taenga mai ki Otahuhu, katahi ka mohio te iwi te ai kino te wahine a Raka. No te taenga o Tainui ki Otahuhu, katahi ka tauparapara, ka rua, ka toru, ka wha, ka rima, ka ono, ka whitu ka waru, ka iwa, ka te kau. Ka he te manawa o nga tohunga mo Tainui kahore e taea. Ko Raka ka tata mai; ko te waka, ko te ihu anake kua noho ki runga i te neke, kaore ano te waka i eke noa ki uta i enei tauparapara ka kotahi te kau nei; no te mea he karakia tonu enei tauparapara; kaore te iwi i matau kei te purutia e Raka mo te aitanga o tana wahine, o te Marama; no te mea ka mau te ringa o Raka ki te kei o te waka. Katahi ka whakahua i tana tauparapara; kore te iwi i te kite ake, no te mea i ma runga mai ia i te waka atua, i rangona ki te reo e whakahua ana i tana tauparapara; koia tenei tana whakahua:
Tapotu ki te moana,
Ma wai e to?
Ma te whakarongo ake.
He tara wainuku,
He tara wairangi,
Puni e! Manoa!
Naumai! Naumai e Tane!
Ka tau taua i te wai,
Kia matakitakina taua
E te tini o te tangata.
Naku koe i tiki atu,
Ki te Wao-nui-a-Tane,
Mingoi! E Tane!
Koakoa! E Tane!
Rangahau! E Tane!
How Ngarara-Huarau Was Killed
In due time Tainui and the other canoes which came over the sea reached Manukau, situated on the West Coast of the North Island of New Zealand. Whilst they were preparing to drag Tainui over the isthmus at Otahuhu, it came to the knowledge of the people that the wife of Raka1 had committed adultery so it was that when the people attempted to drag the canoe she could not be moved. Ten strong and potent invocations the people used, but without much effect, and the minds of the priests were filled with perplexity, because Tainui could not be moved. In the meantime Raka had approached near, and just then only the bow of Tainui had mounted the first skid—the rest of her had not yet reached the dry land, and this in spite of the ten powerful invocations they had uttered, each of which was accompanied by an effort to drag her. All this time the people and the priests were in entire ignorance that Raka was holding the canoe back, because of the sin of his wife Marama. Having caught hold of the stern of the canoe, Raka chanted his incantation. The people heard his voice but did not see his person—for he came in a phantom canoe. Thus chanted Raka:
‘Drag Tainui till she reaches the sea!
But who will drag her there?
Listen to the sound that strikes upon the ear—
‘Tis the sound of a troubled sea!
‘Tis the roar of the heavenly element
Close up (to the gunwale), seize the dragging ropes!
Come, Tane!2 Oh, come!
Let us float upon the sea,
That we two may be admired
By the people in multitude.
It was I that fetched you
From the Great-forest-of-Tane.
Bestir thyself, Oh Tane!
(1) Other authorities say she was the wife of Hoturoa.
(2) Tane is here used for the canoe, he being the god of forests and of all works in wood.
Katahi ka whakaaturia te hara o tana wahine, o Maruanuku, katahi ka whakahua:
Turuturu haere ana te wai,
O te hika o Maruanuku,
E patua ana mai e
te komuri hau,
Na runga ana mai o ihi-ihi.
Panekeneke-koia i tona waka,
Ka to ki whea?
Ka to ki Maungatorohi e!
Katahi ka oho te iwi:
‘Torohi e! torohi e! torohi e!’
Katahi ano te waka nei ka haere; puta atu ki Manukau! haere mai, Kawhia, Mokau, Te Waiiti; ka hoki atu a Tainui ki Kawhia, ka haere mai a Ngaitarapounamu, ka noho ki Mimi. Ka roa, ara, ka maha nga tau e noho ana, ka haere ki te moana ki te huti ika i te moana, he maha nga waka i haere, nuku atu i te wha tekau. Kaore i roa, ka puta tetehi hau nui, ka riro taua iwi i te Puhi-kai-ariki,* po tahi, po rua, po toru, po wha, ka eke ki Rangitoto, ka noho. Kaore i roa, ka haere, noho rawa atu i te tai hauauru o taua motu, o Rangitoto. Te ingoa o te wahi i noho ai, ko Moawhitu. Ka noho tuturu taua iwi ki reira, ka mahi i te kai, i te ika; ka kite hoki i te nui o te kai, katahi ka whakaaro kia tikina nga wahine me nga tamariki. Ka haere mai ano aua waka, katahi ka heke, ka heke ki Rangitoto; ka tae. Katahi ka kitea e te iwi ake o tera motu, no te kitenga, kihai i taea te whakatoi i te nui kino o taua iwi. Katahi ka whakamoea ki te wahine; heoti ano, kua iwi kotahi ki tera motu; ka noho.
Katahi ka whakaaturia nga Tauranga hapuku; katahi ka haere nga waka ki tetehi hapuku. Ko taua wahi, he tapu, kaore e pai kia kainga nga hapuku ki runga i te umu, engari me kohi ki tahaki kai ai, katahi ka tika kia kainga e te tangata. Ka taka ki etahi rangi pai, ka haere nga wahine ki te uru karaka, no te ata, ahi-ahi noa ka tae iho. Tae noa mai kua maoa te kai; akuanei te wareware ai tetahi o aua wahine ki taua whakahaere. Akuanei ko te kaha o te hiakai ka haere tonu ki te taha o te umu; e kohi ana nga wahine. Akuanei kua kite iho taua wahine i te arero o te ika i taka ki runga i te umu. Katahi ka rere iho te ringa o taua wahine ki te tiki iho, tangohia ake, komotia ake ki te waha; kite noa atu nga hoa kua kainga e te wahine ra. Po kau ano, tana putana o te taniwha! Katahi ka taupokina e te moana. E hoa ma, ka mate te iwi nei. He mano te tangata me te wahine me te tamariki i hurihia e te taniwha ki te whenua, e takoto mai na ano i te whenua. Ka mate tena iwi, ko nga tangata i etahi kainga atu o taua iwi, i ora.
Ka noho, roa rawa; ka haere ki te uru karaka, ahiahi noa ka hoki mai. Akuanei ka tika mai
Be lively, Oh Tane!
And move along at a pace.’1
Then, in order that all the people might know that his wife, Maruanuku,2 had committed an offence, he continued thus:
‘Moisture drips from Maruanuku,
Caused by the gentle blowing that issued
From the fount of trembling love.
Move by short stages—his canoe
Whither will he drag her?
To Maungatorohia will he drag her.’
Then the people shouted:
‘Move along at speed, move along! move along!’
Then the canoe moved along, and eventually reached Manukau. From Manukau, Tainui proceeded to Kawhia, and from thence to Mokau and Wai-iti, and then returned to Kawhia, but part of the crew, a tribe named Ngaitarapounamu went on and settled at Mimi.3
After living there many years some went on a fishing excursion in their canoes, which were more than forty in number. While out at sea a fierce storm came on, and this drove the canoes before it. On the fourth day the canoes reached Rangitoto (D'Urville Island) and the people landed. After a short stay in one part of the island, they removed to the western side and permanently established themselves at Greville Harbour. There they engaged themselves in cultivating the soil and fishing, and when they saw the plentiful supply of food to be obtained there they decided to fetch their women and children. They accordingly set out, and in due time they all returned to Rangitoto (the red, or bloody heaven). Then it was that they were seen by the inhabitants of the island, who, being very numerous, could not be either opposed or molested; so wives were given them, and thereafter the two tribes became one and lived together.
The cod-fishing grounds having been made known to the newcomers, the people went out in their canoes to fish. It so happened that the place where they went to fish was tapu. This being so, any fish caught there must be taken out of the oven and removed to a distance before it could be eaten. Early one fine morning the women went out to gather the berries of the Karaka, and did not return home till evening. On their return they found the food
(3) This is one version of the above Tauparapara, or invocation.
(4) Maruanuku appears to be a second name for Marama.
(5) Mimi is a river about twenty-five miles north of New Plymouth; Wai-iti, a stream some four miles further north.
already cooked. One of them, being hungry, went straight to the oven where the other women were gathering up the food and, forgetful of the sacred place from whence the fish was brought, she picked up a fish tongue which she saw lying in the oven and ate it before the other women noticed the action. That very night the monsters of the deep appeared, the sea arose and, Oh! my friends, it overwhelmed these people. Thousands of men, women, and children were overwhelmed and buried in the earth by these monsters—there the people lie even now. Thus perished these people; but those of the members of the two tribes who were at the time living in other settlements did not perish. These, therefore, lived on and when a long time had elapsed they went to gather the berries of the Karaka tree, and returned home in the evening. In returning home one of the women took a direction which brought her directly in front of the cave of ‘Ngarara-Hauarau’ (the monster reptile with the numerous progeny) so that when she looked, lo! the monster himself was there. She did not see the monster's tail, she only saw his head and, being frightened, she started to run—but the monster caught her with his tail and drew her in so that she immediately found herself encircled by the monster reptile. She was then led to the cave, and there the reptile and woman lived, with paua for food.
The way they prepared the shell-fish for food was, first of all to gather a large quantity of it and put it into fresh water. By this means the fish is made palatable. One day the pair went to get a quantity of flax and returned in the fore-part of the day. Then the woman said, ‘Will you let me go to the water alone? I wish to go and prepare my food.’ The monster replied, ‘But you might run away and leave me!’ ‘I will not,’ said she, ‘because I have made up my mind that you shall be my husband.’ He replied, ‘Who can tell!’ Whereupon the woman said, ‘I will give something to assure you of my presence.’ ‘What is it?’ asked the reptile. ‘Let a rope,’ she said, ‘be made of flax and let it be made long enough to reach the water.’ ‘Then!’ said he, ‘let a rope be made.’ They accordingly set to work, and when the rope was finished the woman went to the water. On her return she gave the following directions: ‘When I go to the water I will tie the rope round me; when I get there if you pull the rope I will at once return.’ She then added, ‘Let us experiment.’ She accordingly went to the water, and on reaching it she called out, ‘Pull!’ The rope was pulled and she at once returned. ‘It is well,’ the reptile said, ‘go and prepare your shell-fish.’ Then she said, ‘I shall be detained, and will
te wahine nei i te raina i tika tonu ki te rua o Te Ngarara-huarau. Rokohanga atu e taua wahine, e noho mai ana taua nanakia. Katahi ka haoa ki te hiku; kahore taua wahine i kite i te hiku; ko te kitenga o taua wahine i te upoko, katahi ka oma; no te omanga, katahi ka haoa mai e te hiku; tu ana te wahine nei i waenganui o te nanakia nei. Katahi ka arahina ki te ana o te ngarara; ka noho raua i te ana; te kai he paua.
Ka haere raua ki te mahi, ka pae, ka kawe ki te wai kia reka ai, ka kai. No tetehi rangi, katahi ka haere raua ki te harakeke, ka hoki mai i te ata, katahi te wahine ka ki atu:—‘E kore koe e pai kia haere noa atu au ki te wai, ki te mahi i aku kai?’ Katahi ka ki mai te ngarara:—‘Akuanei au ka mahuetia koe!’ Ka ki mai te wahine:—‘Kahore, no te mea, kua pai tonu au ki a koe, hei tane maku.’ Ka ki atu te ngarara:—‘Ko wai hua ai?’ Katahi ka ki atu te wahine:—‘Tenei ano he tohu maku ki a koe.’ Ka ki atu te ngarara:—‘He aha te tohu?’ Ka ki atu te wahine:—‘Me putikitiki ki te harakeke hei taura, kia tae ki te wai.’ Katahi te ngarara ka ki atu:—‘Tena, mahia!’ Katahi ka mahia, ka oti, ka tae ki te wai, ka hoki mai te wahine. Katahi ka ako atu te wahine:—‘Ka haere au ki te wai, me here ki a au te taura, e tae au ki te wai, mau e kukume, ka hoki mai au. Tena, iana, whakamatauria!’ Ka haere te wahine ra, ka tae ki te awa; katahi te wahine ka karanga:—‘Kumeal’ ka kumea, ka tae atu. Katahi ka ki atu:—‘E pai ana, haere ki atu:—‘E kore au e hohoro mai ko te horoi ki te mahi i o paua.’ Katahi te wahine ra ka au i aku paua, ka ma, ka noho au ki te tuitui, ka oti, ka whakairiiri kia maroke, kia pai ai, kei pirau aku kai. Otira, mau e kumekume; e maro—ei te here tonu i a au; e kaha te maro—kaua e kukume, kei motu. E kore au e hoki wawe mai, ma te mutu ano o aku kai te mahi, katahi au ka hoki mai.’ Ka ki atu te nanakia nei:—‘Ae’.
Katahi ka haere te wahine ra, ka tae ki te wai, katahi ka herea te taura ki te rakau, ka mau. Katahi ka haere, ka tae ki te kainga o ona whanaunga, ka tangi; kaore i roa e tangi ana, ka ki atu te wahine ra; ‘Kati te tangi, e hoki ana ano ahau; ko taku tane he ngarara nui, e waru nga peke! I haere mai au ki a koutou kia hanga tetehi whare nui, kia tekau whanganga te roa o te whare; ko te whare me hanga ki te motu; ko nga rakau tu tonu o te motu nga pou o te whare, ka tia ai nga pakitara ki te rarauhe, me manuka a roto. Ka hanga ai hoki i tetahi ara moku, hei rerenga atu moku a te takiwa e tahuna ai te whare. Ko etahi ki te whare, ko etahi ki te tarai ko, hei wero, ko etahi ki te tarai tokotoko, kia oti, ka haere ake tetehi ki te tiki ake i a maua.’
not therefore be back soon, for,’ added she, ‘I must first wash the fish. When that is done, I must sit down and string them together; then I must hang them up to dry so that my food may not get spoilt. You can, however, pull the rope whenever you choose to do so. When you have pulled, and the rope is fully stretched out, you will know that it is still tied to me; but you must not strain too much on the rope lest you break it. I will not be back until I have seen to my food.’ To all this the reptile replied, ‘Yes, go!’
As soon as the woman reached the water, she tied the end of the rope to a tree, and then set out for the home of her people. Her relatives received her with tears and lamentation; but while yet they wept, she said: ‘Let your weeping cease. I must at once return to my husband who is a monster reptile with eight peke (? legs). Do this, however, Let a big house be built; let its length be ten spans (of the arms). This house you must build in among the trees, making use of the trees themselves as pillars and posts for it. The walls of this house you must cover with fern and the inside with manuka. You must also prepare an exit for me by which I may escape when the house is set on fire. Do you therefore set to work. Let some of you see to the building of the house, others to the making of spears, and the rest to the preparation of long poles or sticks. When you have done all these, let one of you come for us.’
It was not long before everything was ready, and a messenger set out for the cave. Meanwhile the woman had gone back, and on reaching her home, coiled up the rope as she approached. When she reached her husband, she addressed him thus: ‘I have seen your father-in-law, he invites us to his home, so that your brothers-in-law, sisters-in-law, father-in-law, and mother-in-law may greet you.’ The reptile asked, ‘When does he want us to come?’ ‘I told them,’ she replied, ‘to build a house so that they might receive their son-in-law and brother-in-law in a fitting manner. Of course, although I have told them to do this, everything depends entirely upon yourself, especially if you do not care to accept the invitation which your new connections have extended to you.’ ‘It is well,’ said the reptile, ‘I am willing to go; therefore let us await the messenger.’ Soon the messenger appeared, then the woman said, ‘Oh, Sir! your brothers-in-law have come to invite us.’ ‘Where are they?’ the husband asked. ‘Lo! yonder stands your brother-in-law,’ but the man was not a brother-in-law—he was a slave brought from Kahuhunu. The man would not approach near when he saw the reptile, but kept off at a distance. He was very
Kihai i roa, kua oti, tena te karere te haere mai. Na, ka hoki te wahine ra, ka tae; katahi ka pokai haere atu i te taura. Ka tae atu ki te tane, katahi ka ki atu te wahine ra ki tana tane:—‘Kua kite au i tou poupou, i ki mai kia haere atu taua kia kite o taokete i a koe me o poupou.’ Katahi ka ki atu: ‘Awhea’? ‘I kiia atu e au, me hanga he whare kia pai ai, he kitenga mo koutou i ta koutou hunaonga, otiia, he kii noa atu naku, kei a koe te ritenga, me he mea kaore koe e aroha ki nga kupu mai a o taokete me o poupou.’ Katahi ka ki atu te ngarara nei:—‘E pai ana, me tatari atu ki te karere, e pai ana au ki te haere.’
Kihai i roa, ka tae mai te karere; katahi ka ki atu te wahine:—‘E Pa! kua tae mai o taokete ki te tiki mai i a taua kia haere atu.’ Ka ui mai te tane:—‘Kei whea?’ Ka ki atu te wahine:—‘E tu mai nei to taokete!’ Ko taua tangata, ehara, he mokai no Kahuhunu. Te kitenga atu o taua tangata i te nanakia nei, kahore i kaha ki te whakatata atu i a ia, engari ko taua tangata he horo ki te oma, na reira ka ngarea ko ia hei karere; mo te whai a te ngarara, e kore e mau. Katahi te ngarara ka ki atu ki te wahine; ‘Kii atu, kaua ratou e karanga mai, “haere mai ra, E Te Ngarara-Haurau,” ko te karanga moku—“haere mai ra, E te Wairangi e i, haere mai ra e te Wairangi e i”.’
Ka hoki te karere i mua ai; katahi raua ka haere, ka puta i te kurae, ka kitea mai e te pa e haere atu ana. Te tirohanga mai o te pa. ‘E! He whakahouhou!’ Katahi ka haere, ka tata, ka pa te tawhiri a te pa:—‘Haere mai ra e te manuhiri tuarangi, na taku potiki koe i tiki atu ki tahapatu o te rangi, kukume mai ai e i!’ Katata, ka karanga ano te iwi:—‘Haere mai ra E Te Ngarara-Huarau e! haere mai ra E Te Ngarara-Huarau e!’ Ka rongo te ngarara i tera karanga, katahi ka ruru te upoku, ka puta te mamaoa ki te riri; ko te mamaoa i rite ki tetehi pu nui, te kaha o te putanga ake; e toru pakutanga. Ka rongo te iwi i te toru pakutanga, katahi ka hoki te karanga:—‘Haere mai ra e te Wairangi e! haere mai e te Wairangi e!’ Katahi ka haere ki te whare ka uru ki roto. Katahi ka hoatu te papa, ka tutakina rawatia, katahi ka titia nga pakitara o te whare, ki te wahie, ki te rarauhe, ki te manuka; ko etehi ki te whakangau i nga kuri. Ka rongo te ngarara i te haruru o te iwi e whiu ra i te wahia ki nga pakitara o te whare, ka oho ake te ngarara, ka ui atu:—‘He aha tenei mahi?’ Ka ki iho te wahine:—‘Ko ou taokete kei te patu kai mau, ma to ratou taokete.’ Ka moe ano te ngarara. Ka rongo iho te wahine nei i te kaha o te ngongoro o te ihu, e tia ano, ko etehi taramutanga kaha, ko te rite o te tangi o te ihu o taua nanakia. Katahi ka karanga mai te wahine:—‘E te iwi e! tahuna! kua kaha te moe.’
fleet of foot and was sent as messenger on that account, so that should the reptile give chase, his fleetness of foot would enable him to escape. The reptile told the woman to tell the messenger that his people must not call out ‘Welcome the reptile-with-the-numerous-progeny!’ but to call out, ‘Welcome, oh demented one! Welcome, oh demented one!’ The messenger then went on in front and the pair followed, and after rounding the point they came in sight of the settlement. When the people looked, lo! they were coming and the sight that met their gaze was most repugnant. Nearer and nearer the reptile came — and then the people burst forth in a chorus of welcome, thus:
‘Welcome, stranger! from beyond the sky,
My last-born-child did seek thee.’
On the distant horizon —
And drew thee hither: Welcome!’
When the guest had approached still nearer, the people again shouted, ‘Welcome the reptile-with-the-numerous-progeny! Welcome the reptile-with-the numerous progeny!’ Upon hearing this the monster shook his head in anger, whereupon steam issued forth accompanied by three loud reports. When the people heard these, they shouted instead, ‘Welcome, Oh Demented One! Welcome, Oh, Demented One!’ The guest then advanced, and entered the house. As soon as he had entered, a board was placed against the opening. The dry wood, fern, and manuka were heaped against the sides of the building. While some were doing this, others were making the dogs yelp and bark, so as to create as much noise as possible. The noise caused by the wood thrown against the sides of the house roused the reptile from sleep, and he asked, ‘What are the people doing?’ The woman replied, ‘They are your brothers-in-law killing food for you.’ On hearing this the reptile relapsed into sleep again. By-and-by he began to snore sonorously, so that the sound resembled that of a great big drum when beaten. Then the woman called out, ‘Oh my people! Set fire to the house! He is asleep!’ The people thereupon took up their lighted torches, such as are generally used by the natives, made from the resinous wood of the Rimu and Kahikatea. The people surrounded the building and, at the word ‘Fire!’ plied their torches to the house, and very soon the whole place was in a blaze. When the reptile felt the warmth of the fire, he began to snore louder than ever, so that the sound produced resembled the roaring of the sea. It was not until burnt bits of wood fell upon him that the reptile woke up, and when he looked lo! fire was all round him. Then the woman shouted ‘Spear him!’ ‘Spear him!’ Then the spears were used and, in this manner, the monster
Katahi ka mau te iwi ki te ahi, he rama, ara, ko a te Maori rama, he ngapara. Katahi ka tahuna, ka ka; katahi ka haere rauna noa te whare, rite rawa nga tangata, katahi ka karanga:—‘Tahuna!’ Katahi ka tungia te rama; tana kainga a te ahi! ka rongo te ngarara i te mahana o te ahi, katahi ka kaha rawa te tangi o te ihu, e tia he haruru tai moana! No te mea ano ka horo te ngarahu o te whare ki runga i te ngarara, katahi ka ohooho noa ake, kua ngau katoa te ahi i taua koringa.
Katahi te wahine ka karanga, ‘Werohia! Werohia!’ Katahi ka werohia; ka mate te ika nei, ka tika te tao ki te hiku, ka motu te hiku; ka rere, noho rawa atu i roto i te roto iti; engari kaore te hiku i whai mahi mana. E hoa ma! ka mate tenei nanakia. I muri, ka hapu te wahine, ka whanau kotahi te tamaiti, kotahi taha ngarara, kotahi, he kiri tangata. Ko nga waewae, he ngarara katoa, me te upoko, me te ihu, me te waha, me nga karu, ko te kiri anake i riro i te tangata.
E hoa ma, ko taua tamaiti i mate, kaore he waha; ko te ahua kau o te waha i hanga, no reira i mate ai. Ka mutu tenei korero patunga ngarara.
reptile was killed. A portion of its tail, which one of the spears severed, flew off and took up its abode in a little lake,1 but the tail could find nothing to do. Thus, my friends, the monster reptile, Ngarara-Huarau was killed.
In due time the woman conceived, and brought forth a child. This child was partly human and partly reptile. The feet and legs were all reptile, so also were the head, nose and eyes; the skin alone was human. Friends, the child above-mentioned died, and this because it had no mouth, although to all appearance it had one. Ended is this story.—Reprinted from the Journal of the Polynesian Society.
(6) A small lagoon near Moawhitu.
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Maori Musicians are Talented
When I toured New Zealand, leading the Civic Winter Gardens Band, I met a good many Maori musicians, and at various times I have played with some of them, such as the Campbell brothers. I discovered that Maori players have a special musical and rhythmic sense of their own which gives them great qualities for a modern dance band.
Among those I met, I still remember Harry Brown's orchestra in Gisborne, which rather impressed me. In Hawke's Bay there are many first-rate Maori musicians, but a particularly fine one is the saxophone player, Tiger Otene. Good, too, is the Larkins group, working around Wanganui and Palmerston North, and playing over the air from Wanganui. Also from that district are the Tawharu Quintet, who sing like the Mills brothers—with a Spanish guitar and four or five voices—and have often performed from 2ZB.
Auckland is full of Maori talent; there are too many first-rate players to mention them all here. It is odd how often Maori talent runs in families. There is, for instance, the Shalfoon family from Opotiki. Epi plays the piano, and after leading a band in the Rotorua district, is now a band leader and organiser in Auckland. His brother, Tony, is a tenor saxophone player who went to study in the United States, but has since come back. A fine trumpet-player was Phil Campbell, who was killed in the last war. He used to be a member of the Kiwi Concert Party. His brother George is an excellent bass-player and a real musician. He worked in Australia for a while, but is now back in Auckland, and has regular contracts with 1YA. Lou, the youngest of the Campbell brothers, became leader of the Kiwi Concert Party, and had unprecedented runs in Australia. He is the only one of the brothers who took a degree in music, and he writes the scores for the whole of the show.
These are only a few of many I met, and they are all professional players. There could be a really great future for Maoris in music; the talent is there in abundance. You see it everywhere. It is sad to see a man with real talent playing by ear, and often unable even to read music. If such people could only get themselves trained—if they cannot find a teacher, there are plenty of good correspondence courses—they could go a long way. In music, as in everything else, a person cannot really achieve anything worth while unless he is trained.
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A correspondent has drawn attention to a statement made in a recent issue of Te Ao How that Mrs Wi Neera was the only Maori who could play the koauau. He says there is another Maori, Mr Henare Toka, who is an expert player.
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Perhaps it was not entirely by chance that Maui Naera Pomare was the first of his race to qualify in medicine—the family name originated through an ancestor who had the unusual pre-pakeha experience of catching a cold and spending a night in coughing. (Po, night; Mare, cough.)
He was born at Pahu Pa, near Urenui, in 1876. His boyhood was passed partly in Taranaki and partly in the Chatham Islands; on his father's death he was sent to board at Christchurch Boys' High School, and later to Te Aute. When he was included in Massey's first Cabinet he was the first Old Boy of Christchurch Boys' High School to attain Ministerial rank.
It was at Te Aute, and in his thirteenth year, that Pomare helped to lay the foundations of a movement which became the Young Maori Party of the early nineteen-hundreds, and which did so much towards the elevation of Maori social life. At that time pupils of Te Aute did not go home for the winter holidays, so, spurred on by John Thornton, headmaster of the College—a man who preached that the regeneration of the dwindling Maori race could come only through its own exertions—three school-boys set out to convert their own elders.
The leader was Rewiti Kohere, of the East Cape; with him Timutimu Tawhai, of the Bay of Plenty; and Maui Pomare, of Taranaki, packed their swags and set out to tell the people that unless they changed their ways of living they must die out and disappear as a race. Their reception was a mixture of incredulity, anger and indifference, for they knew little of the deep-rooted conservatism of the Maori character, and their elders declined to be judged and directed by schoolboys. Nevertheless, they initiated a movement which became first the Association for the Amelioration of the Conditions of the Maori Race, later the Te Aute Students'. Association, and finally the Young Maori Party.
While he was still a student at Te Aute, an acquaintance with some people of the Seventh-day Adventist persuasion led to the suggestion that he should enter the Adventist Missionary College in Michigan, U.S.A., and train in medicine. So we find Maui Pomare becoming for a time probably the only Maori on the American continent. The Battle Creek ‘Moon’, reporting a meeting of the missionary society, wrote: ‘After the usual devotional exercises and a song by the college quartette, the speaker of the evening, Mr Maui Pomare, a young chief of the Te Atiawa tribe of Maoris (pronounced Mowrys) of New Zealand, was introduced and gave a very interesting and instructive talk concerning his people, their religion, manners and customs. Mr Pomare is a sturdily built, sunny-faced young man, a pleasing speaker, bubbling all over with good nature; a lineal descendant of those gentlemen who, in times past, were said to have had an extreme fondness for the missionaries—stewed, fried or toasted.’
Commenting later on the reporter's flippant allusion, Pomare showed the mixture of diplomacy and humour for which he became so well known, by admitting the partial truth of the statement, and ending: ‘But you need not be afraid of me—I am a vegetarian!’
After completing the prescribed course of studies at Battle Creek, Pomare went on to the American Medical Missionary College at Chicago, from whence he graduated M.D. in 1899, returning to New Zealand in 1900.
He returned at an auspicious moment. The Seddon Government, perturbed at the continuing decline in the Maori population, had passed the Public Health and Maori Councils Act, by virtue of which a Native Health Officer was
to be appointed. His duties would consist of investigating health problems, and lecturing on hygiene. The Native Health Officer would normally have been a European, but the advent of a Maori doctor, by birth a chief—one who had the mana of pakeha learning as well as the authority of lineage—was providential. Dr Pomare was twenty-five, and full of enthusiasm. He had need of it.
‘What we should first do,’ he wrote in a Departmental report, ‘is to educate the mothers how to bring up their children…Educate the mothers to recognise the efficiency of the bath-tub, clean warm clothes, plain and wholesome food, and you will regenerate the Maori quicker than by teaching the youths and maidens embroidery, Latin and Euclid, and then sending them back to live in the same groove as their parents.’
Dr Pomare was quick to see the shortcomings of the education system. ‘We educate them up to a point, then leave them to drift just when we ought to hold on to them, and make them into useful members of society,’ he declared.
Undeterred by rebuffs, Dr Pomare threw himself into his work with an enthusiasm equalled only by his lack of material resources, for words alone are poor weapons against inertia and indifference born of ignorance. Every word of advice he gave cut across customs and traditions; horrified remonstrances and threats of personal violence followed his suggestions that old and disused whares should be pulled down, but his answer was to take a fire stick, and within three years burn nearly two thousand such breeding-grounds for rats.
The fiercest and most consistent opposition came from the village quacks, who had usurped the position of the old-time tohunga, who were learned men and versed in the medical knowledge necessary for the treatment of the few ailments of pre-pakeha days. Their degenerate successors coupled witchcraft with charlatanism of the grossest description, to the detriment of Maori health. Pomare wrote:
‘I cannot be emphatic enough in condemning these “tohunga”, for I have seen the result of their work. In one pa alone, seventeen of what might have been the hope and pride of their tribe were, I consider, cruelly murdered by the wanton practices of a “tohunga” in whom many natives have faith. I do not think a single one of the seventeen children who were sacrificed need have died, for they were only ill with measles.’ His cry went unheeded, and he battled on alone.
He battled on alone, but not unsuccessfully, in the general field of sanitation. As a result of his representations, Maori sanitary inspectors were appointed to see that his recommendations were carried out, and the 1906 census disclosed the heartening fact that the Maori population had increased by 4588. The tide had turned, and his work was justifying itself. During these uphill years another young Maori was studying medicine at Otago University, and in 1905 Dr Peter H. Buck (Te Rangi Hiroa) was appointed Assistant Health Officer, and was stationed in the West Coast area, which included the Wanganui and Taupo districts. It is a coincidence that the first two Maori doctors were born within a few miles of each other, in Taranaki, at that time the most backward of the provinces. Dr Pomare's next victory came in 1907 when his continued importunities resulted in the passing of ‘The Tohunga Suppression Act, 1907’. The penalties were substantial, and tohungaism was a dying force from that day.
Maui Pomare was first elected to Parliament in December, 1911. His decision to enter politics resulted from his keen interest in one of the burning questions of the day—the Taranaki land claims. He no doubt felt he could do more to advance the cause of the Maori people of Taranaki as a member of the legislature than in any other capacity.
The seat was, however, in the gift of Waikato, and Waikato was approached with the request that for at least one Parliament the Western Maori seat should be relinquished in favour of a Taranaki nominee. Pomare was offered the nomination and accepted, and in the time-honoured way the request for support was sent in the form of song, by Hapimana Tauke, on behalf of Taranaki:
Tuku mai koia ra
Te tau aroha —
He po kotahi nei
E awhi ai au,
Ka hoki atu ai
Ki te hoa tapua
Na Hapimana Tauke.
I greet you,
O let her, O do let her come,
The one beloved
For but one night
With me in fond embrace:
Then we will return again
To you whom she loves.
From Hapimana Tauke.
Dr Pomare secured sufficient Waikato votes to be elected, and found himself in Massey's first Cabinet, with the post of Member of the Executive Council representing the Maori Race,
Maui Pomare with the then Duke and Duchess of York (later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth) during their visit to New Zealand in 1927.
WEEK-END IN WHANGAREI
The Maori people of Whangarei and surrounding district should soon see the results of the hard work and enthusiasm they are directing towards renovating and extending their community hostel. Already they have in hand £3500 of their target of £4000, which includes a Government subsidy and donations from the Maori Land Boards.
Built on part of a site gifted by the Kaka Porowini family, the hostel is at present the only Maori community building in Whangarei, and is used for the casual travelling public. It has an excellent situation in one of the finest parts of the town. The intention is not only to renovate the hostel itself, but also to provide room for 12 Maori apprentices.
This is just one of several commendable developments in Whangarei towards providing better social and community facilities for use by the Maori people of the district. When the £4000 for the hostel has been fully collected, it is intended to start raising money to build club rooms for the very live Maori Young People's Club. The land for this is already available, right next door to the hostel, on a section also belonging to the Kaka Porowini estate.
In this project, as in the hostel renovation plan, the Tribal Executive and the Maori Women's Welfare League are taking the main responsibility for raising the money, and are keen to help the Young People's Club to obtain its own clubrooms. These clubrooms, although still some years away, will be the crowning achievement of a youth movement which has already, in its two years' existence, proved a great asset to the Maori community of Whangarei.
Te Ao Hou's representative recently visited Whangarei to see for himself something of what the Maori Young People's Club is doing, and also to hear at first hand of the general efforts to further improve social facilities for the Maori residents. He found that a considerable part of the younger Maori people of Whangarei take an interest in the club and this is reflected in the high attendances at its social functions.
In two years the club has made remarkable progress. Today it has a tennis club with its own courts, both indoor and outdoor basketball teams, and a very active entertainment group. Its tennis club this season won the Ngapuhi Challenge Cup in its second bid for the trophy, beating the holders, the Portland Club. Te Ao Hou's visit coincided with the weekend the deciding match was held. The Young People's Clubs team had put in a year's hard training for the event, and there was considerable excitement around the courts.
After the match the Maori Welfare Officer, Mr Jim Pou, invited the victors to his home for
the evening to celebrate the occasion. The club's entertainment group provided a fine musical programme, mainly comprising modern Maori songs to guitar accompaniment. Te Ao Hou learned that these songs had been brought back by the party which attended the memorial meeting held at Tikitiki in honour of the late Sir Apirana Ngata.
The club has also its own haka entertainment party, which has given performances at several district functions. Its leader is Miss Kohu Hau, and several of its male members are from Te Ti, where they learned Maori action dancing from a very early age. This well-trained nucleus has been able to instruct the other members. Rehearsals are held weekly, the group being allowed free use of the Y.M.C.A. hall. One supporter brings some of the members regularly from the Glenbervie State Forest on rehearsal nights. Naturally the group is anxious to obtain its own clubrooms, as are all other members of the club.
The quick progress the Maori Young People's Club has made in Whangarei is an example of what can be achieved in smaller centres of population. The enthusiasm and community spirit are usually easier to develop in such smaller towns, particularly among young Maori people from country districts. Many such young Maoris are finding employment in Whangarei, and the existence of the club is a boon to them in their leisure time.
The haka party of the Maori Young People's Club at Whangarei is in urgent need of a few dozen piu-piu. They have been unable to have them made locally, and are raising funds to buy some. They are also trying to arrange for an expert to go to Whangarei and teach them how to make piu-piu, if such a course is practicable. Meantime, if any reader has some piu-piu he can spare, he is asked to send them to the club's secretary, care of Kaka Porowini Hostel, Whangarei.
Miss Watkins; top lady in the Whangarei Young People's Club tennis team. Her picture is also on the cover.
Photo: John Ashton.
New Zealand soldier tells of
HISTORIC LAND OF
The call for volunteers to serve in Korea met with a remarkably wide response from the Maori people. Of those accepted as volunteers since the war began 15 per cent. have been Maoris.
How did they find Korea? From history books one remembers Korea as the country of learning where the polite form of address is not “mister” but “scholar”—not Mr Han but Scholar Han, even though Han may not know the alphabet; the country which invented the printing press, and taught the Japanese their wonderful arts and crafts, many centuries ago.
With this view Mr Arthur Kahui, who returned to Wellington last year after seventeen months with K-force, does not agree at all. Telling Te Ao Hou some of his experiences, he said Korea to him was first and foremost a land of dust, cold and dirt.
—Did you make friends among the Koreans?
—We got to know quite a number of them.
We found the younger ones much easier to talk to.
—How did you manage to talk to them at all?
—Mostly in Japanese. Many of the Koreans know Japanese through the Japanese occupation.
One feels the ancestors of these young Maori warriors would never have guessed any of their blood would cross the ocean to talk Japanese
to the Koreans. It was, of course, not quite so odd as it sounded. Many of the K-force volunteers had been in the occupation force in Japan just after the war. This had not only given them a taste of Asian lands, but also a knowledge of the Japanese language.
In Japan, Mr Kahui said, shops were more modern than in New Zealand; one department store even kept a zoo to attract children. While mum did the shopping, the little ones would watch the elephant.
But there is nothing like that in Korea. The Koreans are behind in many things, but yet, he said, in others they are far ahead of us. Mr Kahui particularly admired the heating system in the houses. Especially during the first winter, he had often been billeted in Korean homes. The floors are constructed of thin flagstones, resting on flues extending over the entire length of the house. The flues run off from the fire-
1 “My deah! Until you've seen Seoul you know nought about building restrictions.”
Cartoon by Sgt. Roy Ryan.
2 This old grand piano being played by L/Bdr. T. Roa, Te Awamutu, was found in a wrecked condition in a bombed out Seoul building, but with parts of another wrecked piano he went to work and reconditioned it. Although there are one or two notes off key it has been a valuable asset to 161 Battery, particularly when they are camped in the one position for a number of weeks.
3 “Come and get it.” A Korean mess boy, Kim, rings the bell for dinner at Regt. H.Q., 16th N.Z. Field Regt.
place in the kitchen, and end up at the chimney at the far end of the building. There are usually three parallel flues. The heat circulates from the fireplace, through the flues, and heats the rooms through the floors. The flagstones are covered with plastered mud and grass mats for sleeping on. The bigger houses are L-shaped; sometimes there are two heating systems starting at each end of the L.
Mr Kahui told how, the first night when the met with this heating system—a very cold night it was—the men threw some big logs on the fire. Soon the floor was so hot they could not sleep on it. The stove is meant to be fed on little pieces of fuel at a time, to maintain the heat needed. In a Korean home, he said, the women-take turns at feeding the fire with the little pieces during the night.
Army Life in Korea
We did not talk much about the actual fighting. Mr Kahui found the Chinese fanatical, are very similar to the Japanese in their fighting habits. When making a charge, they called out ‘Banzai’, which is a Japanese word. He was struck by the part women took in the Chinese army; one charge, he said, was led by a woman who kept on shouting at the men behind her until she was shot, just before reaching the United Nations lines.
Mr Kahui had very high praise for the Indian ambulance unit, which he said was absolutely spotless, extremely well equipped and wonderfully obliging. He made several friends among the Indian ambulance men. Together with a Canadian unit, the Indians provide the ambulance service for the British Commonwealth Division.
What would be the future of Korea? Mr Kahui did not think the Koreans would altogether the worse off for the war. He thought the war had brought very important road improvements, which would otherwise have taken a very long time to put in. Yet the destruction was of course very great, and Korea to whom he had spoken told him it would take as long as twenty years to repair all the damage.
Korea can look back on a glorious past. Koreans used to be famous for making finely decorated iron caskets, inlaid ware, lacquer work, bowls, vases, wooden money chests and brass ware. One of their most famous article was paper made of the inner bark of the mulberry tree, much sought after in China and Japan.
In war, Koreans were above all inventive. The most famous war in their history was the great fight with Japan at the end of the sixteenth century. The Japanese then invaded Korea with big forces, but were beaten off after a ruinous war. It was then that the Korea developed an explosive shell–the first in the world–which the Japanese were unable imitate. They regarded it as supernatural, and it caused far more havoc through the soldiers.
WHERE KUPE LANDED
Looking out from the jetty at Opononi, over the Hokianga Harbour, one can see the place where the Northland people believe Kupe landed (the bay showing behind the jetty post). Traditional stories of the visit of Kupe say that the sand dunes of Hokianga Harbour were covered with dense kauri forest, and when Kupe departed a fire was left burning as a beacon, to show the navigators where to find Hokianga Harbour again. When the canoe returned, however, the forest had been burned down, and now only the charred remains of a kauri forest can be found among the dunes facing the Harbour.
Attentive members of an adult education class at Fraser Road settlement, near Hawera. The subject for the evening was Rarotonga. The Adult Education Officer, Mr W. Parker, gave a short talk and showed an interesting film.
Photo: John Ashton.
Arnold Wilson, a Maori boy who has completed a course in sculpture at an art school in Auckland. During his stay at the school he took a job to help pay his way. This sculpture of Tangaroa arising from the sea, shows how he has been able to use Maori motifs in his art.
Photo: National Publicity Studios.
Mesdames P. A. P. Waho teach Maori and pakeha girls Maori weaving at Mokau public school.
Photo: Crago Studios, New Plymouth
Miss R. Hohapa by a plaque in Wairaka Park, Whakatane. The plaque commemorates the landing of the Matatau canoe (14th century). members of her tribe, Miss Hohapata is a direct descendar captain of the canoe and of Wairaka, his daughter, after park was named.
Pouakani is for the Maoris. It is a tract of country of great potential wealth now being developed by the Department of Maori Affairs. Maori settlers from Wairarapa, who have proved their ability in training courses, can take up farms by ballot in this block. The farms are in pasture, are fenced, and have road access. Houses and farm buildings are provided, and the land is stocked with first-grade dairy cattle. The top picture shows one of the farms drawn in a ballot held last March. Below is the town of Mangakino on the fringe of the settlement area.
Trains coming from as far away as Auckland carried hundreds of spectators to Ngaruawahia for the annual regatta, which was held in the brilliant sunshine of March this year. The programme was as colourful and as varied as ever, making the outing thoroughly enjoyable. The top picture shows a section of the crowd packing the river bank while a party of Maori entertainers dances a haka on the deck of a barge. Below children use Maori canoes to obtain a close-up view of one of the speed boat races.
Drawings done by children of the Maori school at Ruatoki. Subjects for some of them are taken from Maori legends—in particular, the legend of Hinemoa, who in Ruatoki is called Hinetemoa. Others show modern subjects, but all are drawn with great vigour and feeling for line. Te Ao Hou would welcome more drawings from children for publication. It is to be hoped some of the boys and girls who now show such proficiency in art will be able to carry on their skill in later life.
Photo: National Publicity Studios.
TWO CLOSE RELATIONS
Would you guess these two men are relations? They are even more than that, they are one and the same man. On the left is Lloyd Berrell, young part-Maori actor born in Wellington, who played a prominent supporting part in Warner Brothers' swashbuckling technicolour production “His Majesty O'Keefe”. On the right is Inifels, a Yap Island chief, as played by Lloyd Berrell.
Lloyd Berrell settled in Sydney at an early age, and is one of the best-known actors in Australian radio today. He also broadcasts as a solo singer and pianist in variety programmes, specialising in “boogie-woogie” piano playing, in which style he excels. Just before going to Fiji to act in “His Majesty O'Keefe,” he married well-known Sydney actress Betty Leggo. He has many hobbies: painting, sketching, fishing, riding spirited horses and diving. He and his wife plan to go to the United States in the near future, but first they would both like to visit Wellington, Lloyd's birth-place.
The Pulpit of Tikitiki Maori Church: The church was opened in 1925 as a Maori Soldiers' Memorial for the East Coast District. It was decorated by Arawa carvers from Rotorua, under the direction of Eramiha Kapua, a member of a famous carving family of Ngati Tarawhai hapu. Some local Ngati Porou carvers began their training there, and afterwards continued at Rotorua, when the school of Maori Arts and Crafts was established. The difficulty of obtaining local carvers for the Tikitiki Church as Sir Apirana Ngata wrote afterwards, drew pointed attention to the imminent passing of the carving art. This realisation was the reason behind the establishment of a school of Maori Arts and Crafts at Rotorua. A builder's apprentice on the Tikitiki Church undertaking was Mr R. J. Wills, of Gisborne, who has since built almost every major carved house
Photo: National Publicity Studios
TE HAU KI TURANGA
The slab shown on this page belongs to what is probably the finest carved house in existence—Te Hau Ki Turanga—now in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. This house was carved under the direction of Raharuhi Rukupo of Ngati Kaipoho in 1842–1843. It is said to be the first Maori house carved with steel tools. These tools were mostly made by the Maoris themselves, from such things as hoop iron and spike nails. As a worthy national treasure, the carvings came into possession of the Government in 1867.
The then Minister of Native Affairs, Mr J. C. Richmond, while riding to a large meeting of Poverty Bay Maoris, noticed a great heap of dried rushes which turned out to be a carved house, even then regarded as being of exceptional merit. The roof was in ruins, and the danger of fire seemed imminent. During the meeting Mr Richmond asked if the Maoris would sell the meeting-house to the Government. This sale was agreed to by all but one of the 600 Maoris present.
The house was shortly afterwards re-erected in Wellington, and was long used as a meeting place of the Wellington Philosophical Society. It is now in the Dominion Museum.
AN UNUSUAL GREENSTONE PENDANT
A remarkable pendant, made of a pale greenstone, was purchased by the Dominion Museum from Mr K. E. Williamson, Ministry of Works, Wellington. It is a bird type of ornament, with a convoluted body and humanised characteristics. The type of body belongs to North Auckland and western districts of the North Island as far south as Taranaki. This object is 2 and 7–16 inches long and ½ inches wide at the bottom. Above, a crest appears, and below it is the suspension hole. A well-formed beak bends downwards to meet the breast. The eye appears incomplete. The body is U-shaped, humanised below after the manner of a Maori tiki, with feet in apposition. An arm, strongly made, emerges below the shoulder and bends downwards in typical fashion, to grasp the body below with a large, three-fingered hand.
On its reverse side the pendant illustrates the manner in which it has been made by the slow process of hand grinding. This object has been through fire, and still has part of the back blackened.
NGA TITOTITO A TE MAORI
HE WAIATA MO TE RANGATIRA
E hika ma e huia mai tatou,
Katahi nei te mamae ka ata rangona iho
E nanawe ake ana ki te tira kahurangi
Ka horo ra i te whetu, te marama;
Na te aha koe i rutu?
Ko te tapatu e toka i te rangi
Ehara i te ariki, he huia rere hou,
No runga i nga puke;
Kei hea hoki koe,
Kia whakawai mai i te pae o te rangi?
Ka haere o rongo hei homai te aroha,
Ki te whare, hei hurihuri atu i re rahi o te mate,
Haere nui atu ra ki raro o nga muri,
Kia hikoia mai e te maru wahine
Ka pakupaku koa te tai ki te akau,
Ka Maunu ra ia te taniwha i te rua
Ma wai e takiri o rongo i muri nei?
Ma o mana ra, ma te rangi ka tukua ki raro ra e.
Ko taku waiata tino pirangi tenei; he tau nga kupu, he tau hoki te rangi. E marama ana he tangi mo te rangatira inahoki enei kupu, ‘Ka horo ra ia te whetu, te marama,’ ‘Ka maunu ra ia te taniwha i te rua’, ko tetahi take i tuhia ai e au te tangi nei, kia whakaaturia mai na wai tenei waiata a he tangi mo wai. I ki mai a Mangaone Pewhairangi no Hauraki te waiata nei.
Ee Hika ma e
Kei te he te kupu hika, no Ngati-Porou tenei reo ehara i Hauraki.
He huia rere hou
Kaore e marama enei kupu, ko te ahua he korero pakiwaitara.
LAMENT FOR A DEAD CHIEF
Oh, my loved ones, let's come together,
For now the sting of pain is racking,
Tugging at the heart strings of the select,
The stars and the moon have fallen,
What has brought you down so low,
If not a storm that raged in heaven?
Not the Lord, but a huia of recent flight,
Seen flying over the hills
Why have you not risen above the horizon?
Your fame has gone forth to evoke love at home,
And to assuage poignant sorrow,
Go in your greatness to the nether world,
There to be greeted by a band of women select
The tide is well out to sea,
And the taniwha has left its lair;
Who will lead your hands now you are gone?
Your mana and heaven itself will descend.
The song is my favourite and its tune is dignified as the words are. It is clear it was composed as a lament for a great chief, for taniwha is only applied to a great chief. Maori tunes have been described as monotonous and yet they express fittingly the feelings of one in sorrow. Shelley, a great English poet said, ‘Our sweetest songs are those that tell of saddest thought’.
THE HOME GARDEN
Good cultivation is essential for success in vegetable production; weeds should not be permitted to seed, or compete with the growing crops.
At this time of the year, onion transplants will be set out, allowing about 18 inches between the rows, and 3 to 4 inches between plants. Bonedust, superphosphate and a little potash is a suitable manure, sown two or three weeks before planting. After heavy rains stir the surface of the soil between plants with a push hoe, being careful not to disturb the new roots which will be forming. Cultivation should continue right through till harvesting takes place during next January. Onions are one of the few crops that can be grown successfully on the same ground for several years in succession.
In the home garden potatoes for early planting should first be set to sprout in a light, frost free airy position. Well-sprouted tubers can be planted shallowly in a warm position, but must be earthed up after the shoots appear, and continued earthing-up must be done while danger of frosts is present. Early varieties are: Epicure, Robin Adair, Cliffs Kidney and Arran Banner. Main crops for late planting include, Arran Chief, Iron Duke, Inverness Favourite, Dakota and Auckland Tall Top.
Plantings of cabbage can now be made, preferably on ridges, especially if the soil is inclined to be cold and hold excessive moisture. Plants should be set out 24 inches between the rows, and about 18 inches apart in the rows. About two weeks before planting the area should be given a good dressing of a complete garden manure well worked into the soil. Varieties suitable for planting are: Enfield Market, Earlibald and Golden Acre.
As plantings at this time of the year are risky, and only warm, sheltered districts are favourable, it is advisable for those people whose homes are in colder and frosty areas to wait for a month or so before attempting to plant. The time can be profitably spent in preparing the land; for instance, deep digging of the garden can be done when weather permits. If a cover crop has been sown during the autumn, now is the time to dig under. A good plan is to scythe the area first, and allow to wilt for several days before incorporating with the soil. This work should be done several-weeks before planting takes place, especially for seedlings, as the decomposing of the cover crop causes gases to form which are not beneficial to the plants.
With the home orchard, pruning will be the chief work for the month, but an endeavour should be made to get the work done as soon as possible. Be sure to remove branches that cross or crowd others; whatever type of fruit tree, it should present an open appearance when bare of leaves. Crowded trees are very difficult to spray, and winter spraying is most important if curly leaf and other fungoid diseases are to be prevented from infecting the trees later in the spring.
TREE AND SHRUB PLANTING:
Fruit tree and shrub planting should be completed as soon as possible, as in the warmer districts it will not be long before the sap will begin to rise, and early varieties will be once again blossoming. Choose dry weather for this job. Plant shallow, not more than one inch deeper than the tree was before in its nursery row. Dig the land first, then dig the hole, not too deep so as to disturb too much subsoil, as often, especially in heavy clay soils, water will lie and become a menace to young roots. Spread the roots very carefully out, evenly around the tree; cover with well crumbled earth, firming well, and then secure with a good stake.
PREPARATION OF SPRAYS:
Bordeax Mixture.—To make: 4 gals powdered bluestone may be dissolved readily in 2 pints of hot water in an earthenware or wooden vessel. Bluestone crystals may be tied in sacking, and suspended just touching the hot water. Mix the hydrated lime to a thin paste with 2 pints of water. When bluestone is dissolved, add 3/2 gals of water, and then thoroughly mix the 2 pints of hydrated lime with the bluestone solution, stirring rapidly for a few minutes.
Containers for spraying and mixing sprays should be of copper, brass, wood or earthenware. Bordeaux must be used within 8 hours after mixing.
All quantities given in the spray programme below are for 4 gallons of spray.
|Time of Application||Treatment||Pest of Disease|
|Early green tip (September)||Bordeaux Mixture: Bluestone 6ozs, Hydrated Lime 5ozs, Water 4 gals.||Blackspot|
|Open cluster to pink||Lime Sulphur 1/3 pint, Water 4 gals.||Black Spot Powdery Mildew|
|Petal Fall Thereafter, every 18 to 21 days, until picking commences||Arsenate of Lead 1ozs, Hydrated Lime 3ozs, Water 4 gals.||Codlin Moth|
|Blossom, bud movements usually early to mid-August for most varieties. (Important: This is the only spray for control of leaf curl. Buds must be swelling prior to breaking.)||Bordeaux Mixture: Bluestone 6ozs, Hydrated Lime 5ozs, Water 4 gals.||Leaf Curl Shot-hole Fungus Bladder Plum|
|Late pink, petal fall Repeat every 3 or 4 weeks, until two weeks before picking||Lime Sulphur 1/3 pint, Water 4 gals.||Brown Rot Leaf Rust|
…with the WEEDONE
range of weedkillers !
Volatile or Non-Volatile—For low-volume spraying of pasture weeds—harmless to grass, stock, or Ryegrass crops.
WEEDONE SPECIAL 2,4,5-T
Volatile or Non-Volatile—For Blackberry, Gorse, Briar, Broom and other woody weeds. Use Non-Volatile for safer spraying near valuable crops.
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For Younger Readers
NEW ZEALAND BIRD STORIES
Why the Pukeko Lives Near Swamps
Many years ago the pukeko used to live in the hills. One day, however, one beautiful pukeko, dressed in his lovely blue plumage and proudly showing his crimson legs and beak, was walking along and flicking his tail at nearly every step he took, when he came across some Maori children playing near a geyser, not far from their pa. The pukeko patiently watched the happy children playing. When their mother called them away to have some food, the pukeko went to see what toys they had been playing with. He noticed, among other things, a handsome greenstone tiki. Very pleased at finding such a curious object, he decided to show it to the other pukekos. So, taking the tiki in his beak, he hurried home as fast as he could go.
As he was crossing some swampy land, a hungry eel bit his leg. Startled, the pukeko opened his beak, let out a squeak–and so lost the tiki in the swamp.
The poor pukeko felt very sad, for he wanted to return the tiki after he had shown it to his friends. When he told them his unhappy story, they said, ‘Don't worry, we shall all help you to find the greenstone tiki. We shall not live in the hills any more, but near the swamps.’
The pukekos have been looking for the tiki ever since, in the swamps. I hope they find it—don't you?
Why the Red-billed Seagulls Are Quarrelsome
When you come across some red-billed seagulls near the seashore or in our parks, you will be sure to find some noisy, bad-tempered ones among them, who chase the others. This is the story of how it all came about.
Many years ago the nicely-marked, banded dotterel and funny-looking, long-legged pied stilt used to live together, all the year round, in the South Island. They both disliked the winter months because of the cold and snow, but did not know of a warmer place.
One day the pied stilt overheard some red-billed seagulls talking about the better winter climate in the North Island. ‘We shall never tell the stilt and the dotterel and the others about the North Island,’ agreed the selfish seagulls, ‘otherwise they will all go there in winter-time.’
The pied stilt told his friend the dotterel what he had heard the seagulls say, and they decided to visit the North Island when winter came. Sure enough, when the cold weather began they flew away to the North, and liked it so much they decided to come every year.
The seagulls were very cross to see this happen, and began to ask each other who had told the pied stilt, the banded dotterel and other sea-birds their secret about the North Island climate. The seagulls quarrelled among themselves, pecked at each other, and became bad tempered, and even to-day chase one another around with noisy, angry shrieks.
Did you know?
200 Post Offices in centres of Maori population take subscriptions to Te Ao Hou. Posters are shown at counters Order from your Post Office, your Maori Affairs office, or: P.O. Box 2390 Wellington.
NEWS IN BRIEF
At the last New Zealand Brass Bands' Championship contest, held at Wanganui, R. Matenga, of the Gisborne Silver Band, became the first Maori to win a solo event for two years in succession at a national championship. He plays the tenor horn.
* * * *
A feature of the first national re-union of New Zealand ex-prisoners-of-war, to be held at Rotorua from June 25 to 28, will be a great haangi.
Maori ex-prisoners-of-war who will be attending the re-union will provide wild pigs for the feast, from the hills round Rotorua.
* * * *
Ten Maoris are serving in the New Zealand naval frigate Kaniere, which sailed for Korean waters in March. They are: H. H. Harris, of Pungarehu, Taranaki; N. Apatu, Hastings; T. Haami, Gisborne; J. B. Karipa, Hastings; T. Pongia, Whangarei; Te Reweti, Raetihi; T. A. Ruru, Gisborne; L. Hauraki, Dannevirke; R. King, Christchurch; and R. Timu, Hastings.
* * * *
Two Maori soldiers serving with K-force have lost their lives in the Korean war, both as a result of accidents. Boyce Whangapirito, of Ruatoria, was drowned in Korea in June, 1952; and Dickson Ngatai, of Tauranga, died in January, 1953, from injuries received in an accident in Korea. Ka nui te moteatea mo enei tama toa kua wehe atu nei.
A few other Maoris serving with K-force have been wounded.
* * * *
A teacher at the Whakarewarewa Maori School, Mr F. Heketoro Leonard, of Rotorua, is accompanying, as guest artist, the New Zealand Brass Band which is now making a tour of Britain. He was taken with the band to train and lead the bandsmen in Maori items, including hakas, and to sing Maori songs with band accompaniment.
Mr Leonard, who is aged 25, is a descendant of chiefs of the Arawa tribe of Rotorua, and of the Rangitane and Raukawa tribes, of Manawatu and Otaki.
* * * *
The Rev. Manu Bennett, who has been in charge of the Wellington Maori pastorate for the past 18 months, has been granted leave to take a temporary post in the diocese in Honolulu, in Hawaii. With his wife he will leave by air from Auckland on June 30, and will be away from New Zealand for about a year.
Mr Bennett is a son of the first Bishop of Aotearoa, the late Bishop F. A. Bennett. He was educated at Te Aute College and St. John's College, Auckland, and for the last two years of the Second World War was a chaplain with the Maori Battalion.
He hopes to further his studies at the University of Hawaii.
* * * *
Mr R. T. Ropiha, of Porangahau, Hawke's Bay, has gone to Australia on a bursary, to take the four-year veterinary course at Sydney University.
Mr Ropiha is an old boy of Te Aute College. He has studied for four years at the University of Otago.
The veterinary degree of Sydney University was completed last year by the well-known Maori Rugby halfback, Ranfurly Jacob, who has since been practising at Shannon, in the Manawatu.
* * * *
A long poi has been preserved for posterity by Mrs I. L. G. Sutherland, of Christchurch, wife of the late Professor Sutherland, who was a keen student of Maori life.
Visiting D'Urville Island some years ago, Mrs Sutherland came upon an old Maori woman who remembered words so ancient that they cannot be translated. She memorised the chant, and also the 14 complicated figures in the movement.
Now girls of Te Wai Pounamu College, in Canterbury, have learned the poi, and are taking it back to their people in all parts of New Zealand.
* * * *
The Deputy-Mayor of Rotorua, Mr Claude Anaru, has indicated that he will contest the Mayoralty of Rotorua at the next local body elections in October.
There has been much support for Mr Anaru to stand for the Mayoralty, in view of the coming Royal tour.
Mr Anaru, who is 51, was born on the East Coast, and went to Rotorua in 1919. Besides being the Deputy-Mayor of Rotorua, he is the secretary of the Arawa Trust Board.
MAUI POMARE (Continued from page 24)
and Minister in Charge of the Cook Islands.
The 1914–18 War put an end to all plans for the advancement of Maori health for the time being, and, as Chairman of the Maori Regimental Committee, Pomare worked day and night for the war effort.
As a result of his insistence the provisions of the Military Service Act, 1916, were widened to include the Maori race. For him to advocate Maori conscription was to court hostility in a large part of his electorate, but to sponsor the project and then to invoke the penal clauses against recalcitrant tribes was to commit political suicide. He knew the consequences and was prepared to accept them. He ended a speech in the House thus:
‘Sir, I do not care if the introduction of conscription were to mean the end of my political career. I say “Let it end!” What matters as long as the British flag continues to fly over these islands, for then I know my people are safe.’
August, 1918, saw the end of one tragedy and the beginning of another, for the influenza plague which had already ravaged Europe struck in New Zealand, and caused more deaths than four years of war. Dr Pomare devoted himself to fighting the epidemic, and for months the Cabinet room saw little of him—politics were not important when his people were dying in hundreds. Twice he was laid low himself, but as soon as he could stand he continued travelling from kainga to kainga setting up temporary hospitals and organising preventative measures. The worst was over by December, but over a thousand Maoris had perished, and the doctor had undermined his own constitution to such an extent that the foundations were laid for the disease that carried him off at a comparatively early age.
Sir Maui Pomare—he was knighted after the war—was returned with an added majority in the 1919 elections. There followed three years of administrating the Cook Island portfolio and successfully fighting monopoly interests in the fruit trade.
Pomare was made Minister of Health in 1923, and did some of his best work in the field of public health, for both pakeha and Maori.
Mental hospitals were his special care. He was not satisfied with the condition of the buildings, the comfort of the patients, or the system of treatment whereby all types of mental illnesses were housed in the same institution. The staffing, also, was beyond credence — for instance, in the Auckland Mental Hospital he found that two medical officers were expected to care for nearly one thousand patients. The staffing of other like institutions was almost as bad, and he advised Cabinet that nothing less than a complete reorganisation of the Mental Hospital Department would give the unfortunate inmates the care that they were entitled to. Cabinet agreed, and Sir Maui went ahead with reforms in treatment and accommodation until the death of the Prime Minister, Mr Massey, threw the Reform leadership into the melting-pot. He was the sole Ministerial survivor of Massey's first Cabinet, and there was some support for his nomination as Premier. He, however, offered his support to Coates. In the new Cabinet he was Minister in Charge of Cook Islands.
Although no longer Minister of Health, Sir Maui was to complete a project he had been working on ever since he had called attention, over twenty-five years before, to the indifference displayed by the State towards those afflicted by leprosy. Year after year he had referred in his annual Departmental reports to the fact that there was no provision for segregation of lepers, and that they could move at will throughout the country. It was not until his term as Minister of Health that the Government had come to an arrangement with the authorities of Fiji, and Makogai became a haven for lepers from New Zealand, the Cook group, Samoa and Tonga. Sir Maui was insistent that the lepers should be sent to Makogai at the earliest possible moment; after months of delay the Hinemoa was fitted as a temporary leper hospital, and left on April 30, 1926, to collect the unfortunates and transfer them to Makogai. In the course of the round trip the Hinemoa called at Raratonga, Mangaia, Mauke, Atia and Aitutaki, in the Lower Cook group, Palmerston, Penrhyn, Makahanga, Manihiki and Pukapuka, in the northern group; Apia, in Western Samoa; and Suva. Dr Pomare, of course, was in charge, but the expedition could have been a total failure, for there was no authority to remove the patients against their will. The mere thought of removal to a distant part of the Pacific, and separation from friends and relatives, was almost as horrifying as the certainty of death if they stayed at home. But so great was their trust in Pomare, that they willingly left their homes for the far-away island of Makogai. His interest in the lepers did not end when he handed them over to the good Sisters of the Roman Catholic Mission, whose lives were devoted to the care of lepers, for when he went out of office his one and only request was granted. He asked that he retain in his charge the care of the New Zealand lepers at Makogai.
Sir Maui Pomare died on a health trip to America four years later.
HISTORIC KOREA—Continued from page 30
fear of it than the actual casualties. Equally famous was a large round battleship, known as the Giant Tortoise. This wonderful weapon, which won two naval battles, was covered all over with iron plates and spikes, to prevent boarding. Its prow, shaped like a turtle's beak, was most sinister and fearsome; not only was it used as a ram, but it also emitted fiery arrows, fired by bowmen within.
The Koreans, however, had more taste for scholarship than war. They invented moveable metal type, that is, modern printing, before anyone else in the world. Popular education was particularly well developed. Higher schooling was in six ‘liberal arts’, which consisted of: ceremonial, music, archery, charioteering, literature and arithmetic.
Although Korea repelled the Japanese in 1599, she never recovered from the destruction of that war, and many of her skilled tradesmen were taken as prisoners to Japan, transferring Korea's traditional craftsmanship to that country. In the nineteenth century, when Western powers started to become interested in Korea, decline had already set in. The Koreans refused to come to any terms with the West, and did not even allow European ships to land. They wished to keep foreign greed far from their shores. Japan, however, was able to intrigue her way slowly into Korea, by pretending to
protect the Koreans from Chinese imperialism. She obtained commercial privileges, became Korea's financier, took sides in Korean internal disputes; its “paramount political, military and economic interests in Korea” were recognised by the European nations, and in 1910 Japan annexed Korea.
Japan modernised the country, put up fine buildings and such railways, roads and harbours as there were when the present Korean war began. Land was developed, rice production was raised enormously. But the Koreans do not seem to have benefited a great deal from this development. The Japanese permitted no higher education in Korea; the more skilled and responsible work was done by Japanese, who flooded the country in great numbers.
So the Second World War came, and finally the liberation of Korea from the Japanese. Following the sudden attack in June, 1950, by North Korean Communist forces on the Republic of Korea, United Nations forces were sent to defend South Korea. After two and a half years there is no sign yet of a satisfactory solution being found for the Korean problem, and the time has not yet come to think about the future of the Korean people.
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LET'S HAVE A MEETING
It is a miserable winter morning, too wet for the small children to play outside. Two women are trying to talk while their children tumble over each other on the kitchen floor.
‘Why don't we have a kindergarten for the little ones?’
‘I don't know … we never have …’
‘Then why not. It would be much better for them to have a proper place to play. Let's have a meeting about it …’
Women nowadays have many public responsibilities, and many of them began in just this way in someone's kitchen or backyard. One woman has a good idea, and in no time several women are meeting together to carry it out. Someone thinks the local school needs a piano; someone else wants to start a branch of the Maori Women's Welfare League; an energetic mother would like to persuade other mothers to join her in making a hot drink for the school children in the cold weather. Whatever it is, the best way to start something new—the best way to get anything done—is to have a meeting.
Busy wives and mothers often find it difficult to get to meetings. When they make the effort they expect the meeting to be a good one.
WHAT MAKES A MEETING GOOD?
A good meeting depends on its Chairman and Secretary, and on how well they stick to the rules. Imagine a game of basketball in which the team gets out of hand because the referee is not firm enough. The game breaks up and everyone is dissatisfied. A bad meeting is very like that. If the referee or CHAIRMAN is not firm about the rules; and if the team-manager or SECRETARY has not prepared for the meeting properly, it is not worth going to, because nothing gets done.
GETTING READY FOR A MEETING
Long before the meeting begins a good Secretary has been extremely busy.
The SECRETARY calls the meeting together (by letter or by telephone); brings all the letters she has received, to read at the meeting (even such a small thing as a leaflet advertising Te Ao Hou); arrives with the minutes of the last meeting carefully entered in the minute-book; prepares the AGENDA with the Chairman.
The agenda is one of those terrifying things that convince many women that running a
meeting is very hard indeed. The agenda is simply the programme for the meeting; the order in which the business is to be taken. It always begins in the same way with the Chairman's opening words and the apologies. It carries on through the reading of the minutes; works through the correspondence and on to the really important business. Then what time is left is given to small matters that the people at the meeting may wish to discuss, and these are tucked away, like after-dinner conversation under that comfortable heading—General.
The agenda is very useful. Everyone at the meeting can run her eye down and see exactly what is coming, and when it is coming. The Chairman can tell by looking at it, just how long to let the discussion on support for the Saturday dance ramble on, when there are some important financial matters still to be discussed. And besides if Mrs T. insists on wanting to discuss things out of turn, the Chairman can always point out to her that what she is interested in is included further down the agenda.
The best way to arrange an agenda is for the Secretary and the Chairman to get together beforehand and to sort the business out in order of importance, and set it down under Item 6. Then, if possible, at a committee meeting or an annual meeting, each person present should have a copy of the Agenda in front of her.
Chairman opens meeting and takes any apologies.
Minutes of the last meeting read by the Secretary, confirmed by the meeting and signed by the Chairman.
Business arising out of the Minutes.
Secretary reads the correspondence.
Business arising out of the correspondence.
Business of the day, arranged in a suitable order.
Arrange the date of the next meeting.
Chairman closes the meeting.
This is the first article on running a meeting. Next time we shall work through the agenda, and set down some of the things a good Chairman must say and do to make the meeting a success.
How to Wash Winter Woollies
Winter woollies have the most wonderful way of looking so fresh and feeling so soft when we buy them. But in a very little while, unless we take great care, they are hard and matted and uncomfortable.
If you knit the baby's litle jackets and the children's sweaters it is so disappointing when they shrink and lose their colour after just a few wash-days. Here are some DO's and DON'T's for washing socks and sweaters and cardigans so that they will last as long as possible.
DO use soap flakes, in soft lukewarm water, and work up a good lather before you begin.
DO wash each woollen garment separately, beginning with the pale colours and ending up with the darker colours that are inclined to run.
DO squeeze them very gently in the suds without lifting them out of the water. Wool stretches so easily with the weight of the water and this helps to pull a good cardigan out of shape.
DO rinse the soap out thoroughly in lukewarm water.
DO roll each sweater or baby jacket in a towel to get rid of as much water as possible.
DO lay all woollens out flat to dry. Put them out in the sun on the grass if the weather is good enough. When there is a very bad spell of weather try drying them between sheets of newspaper in front of the fire, when everyone has gone to bed.
DO use a very cool iron if they seem to need pressing, and use it on the wrong side.
DON'T boil them, DON'T soak them, DON'T rub them and DON'T twist them.
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RECIPES from our READERS
We are delighted that so many of our readers are sending us recipes. Our difficulty is to find enough space to print them all. This time we have chosen two ways of cooking kahawai that should, we think, interest many Moari house-wives. They have been sent to Te Ao Hou by E. M. Tapere, of Maketu.
During the summer months many common varieties of fish are caught on our shores and at the mouths of our rivers. The kahawai, which is usually caught on a handline from the riverbank or off the beach, is perhaps the commonest of all. Keen fishermen, both pakeha and Maori, are very excited when they land several large fish, weighing from 4 to 6 pounds, in quick succession. Kahawai often come into the harbour or river mouth for fresh water on the turn of the tide—sometimes whole shoals of them. In the whitebait season they follow the herrings, which in turn prey on the whitebait as they come in from the sea. Compared with trevalli, schnapper or butterfish, kahawai have very little fat content, but with a little care they make very good eating.
Sliced onions (1 to each person).
Salt and pepper.
Butter or other cooking fat.
Without removing the backbone, cut the kahawai into ROUND FILLETS. Use a large enough pan for the fish to lie flat on the bottom.
Fry the onions gently, add the fillets and season liberally with salt and pepper. Add a small quantity of warm water and cover firmly.
Steam for 20–30 minutes on a medium heat.
To vary this recipe, place small green baby kumi-kumi on TOP of the fish. Do not peel or seed the kumi-kumi. Add curry powder to the seasoning and dab with butter.
Salt and pepper.
Butter or other cooking fat.
Remove the head and fins, and then wrap the whole fish completely in butter paper, or brown paper.
Put some of the fat into a baking dish. Add the wrapped fish and dab with the rest of the fat.
Bake for 45 minutes in a medium oven.
Use milk instead of cooking fat.
Stuff the fish with any bread and onion stuffing before wrapping it.
A medium sized kahawai baked in this way makes a meal for 4–5 people.
To serve, remove from the baking dish and unwrap the fish. As the paper comes away the outside skin will come off easily.
‘BEST MAORI DISH’
We have received from Mr R. T. Kohere the following recipe for what he describes as “the daintiest or the best Maori dish”:—
Boil ½ doz. chops of fat wild pork;
When pork is about cooked, put in enough potatoes;
When potatoes are nearly cooked, put in puha;
Don't overcook the puha by boiling it too long.
Also, for goodness' sake, don't throw away the soup.
The essence of the pork, potatoes and puha
Is, of course, in the soup, or wai kohua;
Of course, don't forget to put in salt,
And if you like, throw in some pepper.
‘The above is the Maori's champion dish.’
KINA AND KUMARA
Mr Kohere also refers to another favourite Maori dish. Kinas, or sea-eggs, taken with mealy kumara, he considers, is hard to beat. White kinas in season, after being steeped in fresh water for two days, is the nicest thing there is. Certainly its looks are by no means appetising. From the days of Adam and Eve down to the present day, looks are not a reliable guide. Kinas are in season in January.
MAKING A KORONAE
Before the introduction of wire-netting into this country the koronae was invariably used to enclose a hangi (earth oven) and hold the food together over the hot stones. The koronae was clean, and could be very quickly made out of a few strands of rough flax. It was used only once.
It has become the practice in some villages to use wire-netting in place of the flax koronae. Now, wire-netting was never intended for cooking purposes. Something put around a fowl house is hardly suitable to put around food which hundreds of people must eat. Because of the lead which is used for joining the wires together, and the zinc paint covering them, to say nothing of the rust, it is a wonder no one has died of food poisoning. Add to this, the further dangerous practice of using the same wire-netting over and over again, and leaving it to the elements when not in use.
One rather amusing incident comes to my mind here. This might happen to your household.
The family went to a big gathering at the local marae. As usual everyone enjoyed the food from the hangi. ‘How lovely!’ all our pakeha visitors exclaimed, ‘that pork was just right.’ Arrived home, the man of the house immediately complained of stomach disorders and was soon in bed. Two hours later the lady of the house suffered from the same trouble. By nightfall the third victim fell, leaving only one. At midnight, ‘the last of the Mohicans’ ran swiftly out of his room! Each one blamed the wire-netting of the hangi.
Maori communities with flax bushes near by will be well advised to resort again to the old custom of using the time-proven koronae. The flax also acts like a spice, and gives the food a peculiar flavour which cannot be described. It does, however, improve the taste of the food. This is especially noticeable with hangi-cooked eels wrapped around with flax.
Method of Making Koronae
Doubled flax blades are required, and any number of these can be used, depending on the width required.
For this sample we shall use three doubled blades:
Open these out and cut off any extra butt.
Plait these as shown in the diagram for beginning.
Fold No. 1 in direction of arrow, and plait as far as possible to the left.
Likewise plait No. 2 in the same direction.
Fold (b) in direction of arrow, and plait to the right as far as possible.
Plait (a) in the same way.
Now repeat the whole process again, plaiting two from the right side to the left, and two from the left to the right, and so on until the koronae is completed.
As each strand becomes too short, add another single strand by overlapping. The normal width of each strand will be from ½ inches to 2 inches, gradually tapering off to the end. Therefore, to keep a uniform width, add the fresh strand before the other tapers off.
Four double strands have been used in the diagram showing a section of a koronae without any joins. A study of this illustration will reveal the fact that you still plait two from the right followed by two from the left. A koronae is really very simple to make. When you have plaited the length of the circumference of the hangi, join the two ends together to form a cylinder. This can be accomplished by merely tying the two ends of the koronae together, or, to make a neater finish, plait the ends into the first section.
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The Maori Affairs Bill, 1952
KO TE PIRE MO NGA MEA TAKE
I tera putanga o Te Ao Hou ka whakamaramatia te aronga o nga ahuatanga hou e pa ana ki te iwi Maori me o ratou whenua kua whakakaupapatia ki Te Pire Mo Nga Take Maori, 1952, ka takoto ano i te Kawanatanga ki te aroaro o Te Paremata i tenei tau.
Mo nga mokamoka whenua Maori, ka peheatia?
Kei tenei tuhituhinga nga ata whakamarama. Ki ta Te Pire e kore ai e haere tonu te wawahi i runga i nga ture Kairiiwhi paanga whenua tupapaku.
Ko ta Te Pire i whakarite ai inaianei ki te mate tetahi Maori kaore ana wira ka tuku ona whenua me ana taonga ki ana tamariki ki ona whanaunga tata ranei i a te Maori i ana tikanga. Penei na mehemea tokorima nga tamariki a taua tupapaku ka wawahia ona paanga whenua me ana taonga kia orite tonu ki aua tamariki. Ina ra mehemea kotahi ruuri ano te paanga whenua o taua tupapaku ka whakaratotia ki aua tamariki tokorima. He takitahi rawa atu nga Moari e hanga wira ana ka tuku i o ratou paanga whenua he tangata ke. Kei te marama te mutunga mai o enei ahuatanga. E hia nei mano nga paanga whenua Maori takitahi kua kore noaiho he wariu ara ia kei raro iho pea i te kotahi kapa. Ko etahi ano o aua paanga takitahi kei raro iho i te rima paati rau atu rau atu, a ko te rahi ano o etahi he uaua te ora o te tangata kotahi kei roto ano i nga rau tona nui.
He mea hemanawa rawa atu tenei nga mokamoka whenua Maori, haunga ia ki te hunga no ratou aua whenua engari ki te hunga kei a ratou nga mahi whakahaere penei me Te Kooti me Te Tari Maori. He nui nga mahi he whakatikatika i nga taitara he whakarato i nga moni reti a he whakatikatika i nga riihi. Kaore he amuamu mo te nui o te mahi engari ia ko te kaha pakupaku o nga mokamoka whenua nei e pau ana te 5/- a Te Kawanatanga hei utu i nga raruraru mo te utu i te whakaratotanga i te 2/6 o nga reti, a ko etahi ano ma te 50 tau katahi ano ka eke ki te kotahi kapa te moni reti.
Ko ianei ra nga ahuatanga a e tika ana kia hangaia he ture hei whakatikatika. Ki te kore hoki he raruraru tona mutunga.
Kua puta nga korero mo nga rongoa hei whakatikatika i enei mate ara mo nga mahi whakatopu paanga, mo te whakawhaiti i nga
In the last issue of Te Ao Hou a general sketch was given of the new laws affecting Maoris and Maori land proposed in the Maori Affairs Bill, which the Government intends to place before Parliament again this year.
In this article, special detailed consideration is given to the question of the many very small interests in Maori land, and to the methods proposed by the Bill for dealing with those interests, and for preventing their further cutting up, or “fragmentation”.
At present, when a Maori dies without a will, his interests in Maori land go according to Maori custom. If he has five children, each child gets a fifth of each interest of the deceased, and so on. If the deceased person has a share of, say, one rood in a block, then that rood will be split among his children. Very few Maoris leave wills devising their lands to persons other than those who would in any case inherit by Maori custom. The result is plain to see for anyone who has anything to do with Maori land. Thousands of land interests exist which are literally worth nothing—less than one penny. Many more interests would amount to areas of less than five perches. Small blocks of land, which at the best would support one person, have hundreds of owners.
This means not only that owners find difficulties in the way of using the land, but that in some cases the trouble and expense of even leasing it to others are too great to make this course worthwhile. As well as these drawbacks, there is a tremendous strain thrown upon the Court and the Department organisation in keeping title records up to date, and in distributing rents among owners. The work involved in distributing rents is often out of all proportion to the actual money concerned. It is costing in some cases (in clerical wages, etc.) 5/- to distribute 2/6. Many owners have shares so small that they are entitled to rents of less than a penny a year; cases are known where it would take over 50 years before some very small shares would be entitled to a penny rent!
This is the position, and it is no longer a question of whether any change should or can be made, but how soon something can be done to improve matters. As things are now, there is even a danger of the Maori Affairs administration collapsing with the rapidly growing number of interests.
Various suggestions have been made for improving this position. Some people have pointed to the consolidation schemes as providing
paanga ki te tangata kotahi kia totopu ai, me whakakore atu ranei nga whenua Maori me hoko e Te Karuna, a me whakakaporeihana ranei.
Tera e taea nga mahi whakatopu paanga me nga whakakaporeihana, engari e kore te Kawanatanga e whakaaro ki te tango i nga whenua o te Maori ki te tango pokanoa ranei i nga paanga whenua o tetahi Maori ka hoatu he tangata ke.
Ko te whakatopu paanga te taanga manawa i nga ra ka taha; engari ki te ata tirohia ano ahakoa pehea te nui o te mahi kua whakapaua ki nga mahi whakatopu paanga ina noa ake te wahi o nga whenua mo tenei mahi kua rakuhia. Ko te whakatopu paanga he mahi nui he mahi roa a ma nga tangata tohunga kua whawha ki tera tu mahi e ata takatau. Ahakoara he taanga manawa noa iho te mahi whakatopu paanga ka matemate nga matua ka whakauruurua nga tamariki hei kairiiwhi a nawai ra ka hoki ano nga taitara ki nga ahua wheru o mua atu. Tetahi ahakoa pehea te pai o te mahi i nga mahi whakatopu paanga ka toe tonu etahi mokamoka hei whakaanini i nga apiha mahi i tenei mahi. I te timatatanga o nga mahi whakatopu paanga kawea ai nga paanga mokamoka ki nga wahi whakarihariha, ka wehea hei rori hei rahui ranei.
Na he pai tonu te whakaaro me whakakaporeihana nga whenua Maori ara me tuku aua whenua ma tetahi komiti e whakahaere e riihi ranei. He nui nga whenua Maori kei te peneitia a ka nui te ora o te hunga no ratou aua whenua. Engari ia tera ano ona makenu—ahakoa ano hoki kei raro nga whenua i te kaporeihana ka haere tonu nga mahi kairiiwhi ki nga paanga o te hunga kua tupapakutia kia whai rarangi ingoa ai hoki mo te karawarawa i nga moni hua o aua whenua. E tika ana hoki me ata mahi nga kaute o nga kaporeihana ahakoa kore hua hei karawarawa, engari kia noho tika ai nga kaute hei maunga ringa mo te Tari Taake. Ka piki haere te tokomaha o te hunga kei runga i te rarangi ingoa o aua whenua ka taumaha nga mahi ma nga tangata mahi i nga kaute a kua timata tonu te hemanawa haere o taua hunga inaianei, e ako a ko ake nei e kore e kitea te aroaro whenua. Ko te whakakaporeihana me te tuku i nga whenua ki te ringa o te Kaitieki ehara i te rongoa pumau mo nga hemanawatanga o nga mokamoka whenua Maori.
Ina tetahi mea hei ata whakaarotanga. He tokomaha o te hunga no ratou nga mokamoka paanga whenua Maori e whakaae ana ki te hoko i o ratou paanga mehemea ka whiwhi ratou i tetahi utu tika. Ko te nuinga o taua hunga kua whati ki nga taone mahi ai, a ko o ratou mokamoka whenua kua kore noaiho he
the answer. Others suggest that the Court should be given power to award an interest to one successor only, if it thinks the interest too small to be split up. Another view is that the whole root of the trouble should be eradicated by doing away with Maori land altogether—with the Crown gradually buying it up. Yet another suggestion is that the solution lies in making more use of incorporations, or something of the sort.
Of these suggestions, consolidation and incorporation appear the most promising. The Government is not prepared to consider any course which would deprive Maoris generally of their land, nor any course which would result in arbitrarily benefiting one successor at the expense of others.
As for consolidation, great hopes have been pinned to this in the past, but it is painfully clear that the immense amount of work so far put into this operation has not produced proportionate results. Consolidation is a slow and difficult process, requiring the services of highly trained officers. It would not be practicable to undertake consolidation in more than a comparatively limited way. Apart from this, consolidation does not provide any final answer. Even if a consolidation scheme results in the holding of land in worthwhile areas, the same old trouble of splitting interests goes on, as owners die and are succeeded. Then, too, there is the point that no matter how well a consolidation scheme is carried out, there are always a number of small interests the location of which is a headache. One solution in the past has been to cut off a block of the roughest part of the land for these small owners. Sometimes this land is put into roads or reserves. Consolidation, by itself, does not even for the time being dispose of all the small interests.
The incorporation suggestion is interesting, and has some obvious advantages. It means putting the land into the hands of trustees or committees of management to work or lease. Many incorporations have been working successfully for years. This is all very well, but it does not do away with the main evil. Even when interests are incorporated, succession still goes on, lists of owners must be kept, and profits distributed to those owners. The incorporation must keep fairly detailed accounts, even if only for taxation purposes, and for all except the biggest blocks the cost of keeping proper records and accounts is, with the growing numbers of owners, becoming a serious burden. Incorporation and vesting in trustees does not really avoid the difficulties arising from numerous interests.
There is another side of the whole matter. Many owners with comparatively small interests
take ki a ratou. Otira i te kaha paku o etahi o aua paanga ma te pane kuini noa me nga raruraru o te ture ka pau te moni hoko a kaore noa iho he take i hokona ai e tetahi tangata whai paanga ki tetahi atu tangata whai paanga.
Ko ta Te Pire he wehe i tetahi putea moni ki te ringa o te Kaitiaki Maori no nga hua ra o ana tahua taua putea (a me nga hua hoki o nga tahua a nga Poari Whenua Maori kua whakakorea ake nei) hei tango i aua mokamoka. Ka ata wehea aua paanga e tangohia penei, ka hokona ana totopu ki tetahi Maori hei tuunga whare hei mahi ahuwhenua ranei. Ka utua te moni tika ki te hunga no ratou aua whenua a ka noho tonu ki te Maori mo ona whakaaro. Tetahi ma konei ka taea e tetahi tangata whai paanga te tango mai nga paanga o etahi atu kia totopu ai te wahanga ki a ia.
KO TE TAHUA MONI HEI HOKO WHENUA:
Ko ta te Wahanga XIII o Te Pire i whakarite ai me wehe tetahi tahua moni ki te ringa o te Kaitieki Maori me hua ko Te Tahua Moni Hei Hoko Whenua, no nga moni hua o nga tahua a te Kaitiaki Maori me nga Poari Whenua Maori kua whakakorea ake nei. Ma te Tahua nei e tango mai nga hea pakupaku me te utu o nga raruraru. Ana totopu aua paanga e ahei ana te Kaitiaki Maori ki te hoko ki tetahi Maori ki te uri ranei o te Maori; ki tetahi Maori ki te uri ranei o te Maori; ki tetahi kaporeihana ranei; ki te Karauna ranei hei tuunga whare Maori hei whenua ahuwhenua Maori ranei; engari kaua ki tetahi tangata ke atu ara ki te Pakeha. Ko nga whenua ka hokona ki te Pakeha. Ko nga whenua ka hokona ki te Maori ki nga kaporeihana ranei ka noho whenua Maori tonu. Ko nga moni o nga hoko nei me era atu moni hua o aua whenua ka whakahokia ki te putea moni hei hoko whenua ano. Ko nga whenua kei te ringa o te Kaitieki Maori e whanga ana ki te hoko ka tukua ki te riihi.
Ina me whakamarama penei ka totopu nga paanga kua hokona mai i tetahi poraka ka wehea ka hokona.
E ahei ana Te Tahua ki te hoko mai i nga paanga o tetahi tangata mehemea ka whakaae taua tangata a i runga ranei i nga ahuatanga e whai ake nei:—
KO TE HOKO O NGA WHENUA TUPAPAKU:
Ki te mate tetahi Maori tetahi uri ranei o te Maori, he paanga whenua Maori ona, ka tuku ona whenua ki te Kaitiaki Maori i tona tuunga ‘Kaiwhakahaere Mo Nga Whenua Maori’. Ma te Kooti Whenua Maori e whakatau ko wai ma hei kairiiwhi mo aua
would be just as well pleased to be quit of them if they could get a reasonable price. Families have moved from their home districts to cities or industrial areas, and their small, scattered interests of land are no good to them—in fact a nuisance. Legal costs and stamp duty often make a sale not worth while, even as between owners.
What the Bill proposes, then, is to set up, under the management of the Maori Trustee, a fund, drawn from the accumulated profits of the Maori Trustee (including those of the former Maori Land Boards) to buy up small interests, for the use of Maoris generally. The interests bought will be earmarked, and cannot be disposed of except to Maoris or persons of Maori blood, or for Maori purposes such as housing or development. A fair price is to be paid for the interests, and the land is not lost to the Maori people. At the same time a simple and inexpensive means is provided for the sale of interests as between owners, thus allowing an owner to build up, by degrees, a worthwhile interest in a block by buying from owners who wish to give up their interests.
Part XIII of the Bill establishes, under the management of the Maori Trustee, a fund known as the Conversion Fund, drawn from the accumulated profits of the Maori Trustee and of the former Maori Land Boards. The fund will finance the acquisition of small interests in Maori land, and the costs of administering these interests. The interests may be sold by the Maori Trustee to any Maori or to the descendant of any Maori; to a body corporate of owners; or to the Crown, for the purposes of Maori housing or Maori land development, but not to any other person. All land sold to a Maori or to a body corporate continues to be Maori land. Money derived from the sale of any land as above returns to the fund, as do all revenues received from such land while it is held as an asset of the fund. Land held in the fund can be leased while it is awaiting sale.
The idea is that, when the Maori Trustee has accumulated in the fund enough interests in a block of land to make up an area which can be economically used, he shall have the area partitioned out and offered for sale.
Purchases may be made by agreement with any owner, or under the following provisions:—
PURCHASES ON SUCCESSION:
On the death of an owner of Maori land, being a Maori or a descendant of a Maori, his interests are temporarily vested in the Maori Trustee in the capacity of ‘Maori Land Administrator’. The Court determines, in the
paanga whenua a ko ta te Kaitiaki Maori he whakarite i te wariu o aua paanga, ko te wariu a te Kawanatanga. Mehemea kei raro iho i te £50 te wariu o te katoa o aua paanga whenua o te hea takitahi ranei o nga kairiiwhi ka hokona e te Kaitiaki Maori ki nga moni o te Tahua kua whakaingoatia ake nei, a ko nga moni ka whakaputaina ki nga kairiiwhi, mehemea hoki kei runga ake i te £50 ke heke ki nga kairiiwhi penei ano i ta ture i whakarite ai. Ki te whakaae tetahi whanau me tuku o ratou paanga whenua pakupaku ki te mea kotahi kei te pai tena, engari kaua e heke iho te wariu o te katoa o aua paanga whenua i te £50 ko ia nei te tino mea.
Otira mehemea he wira ta te tupapaku ka wariutia ano ona paanga whenua a mehemea kei raro iho i te £50 te wariu o te wahanga i tukua ki tetahi tangata ka tangohia taua paanga ki te puteo kuo whakahuatia ake nei. Mehemea hoki i eke ki te £50 makere atu te wariu o aua paanga whenua i tukua i te wira a taua tupapaku e pai ana tena. Kaore he aruaru a te Pire i te hanga wira a te Maori.
Ki te taupatupatu nga whakaaro mo nga wariu me tono kia ata wariutia ano e te Kawanatanga engari me utu nga raruraru o taua wariutanga, a ki te wariu peneitia te whenua e kore e whakaaetia tetahi atu wariu mo te toru tau.
E ahei ana te Kaitieki Maori ki te whakatoitoi ki te hoko i etahi paanga whenua. Ko tenei ritenga mo nga whenua tu ngahere he uaua ki te wariu a mo nga whenua ranei kei te noho taumaha i te mokete.
KO TE HOKO O NGA PAANGA WHENUA KUA WEHEA E TE KOOTI:
Kei te Wahanga XVI o Te Pire e mau ana nga korero mo nga mahi wehewehe paanga whenua. E ahei ana Te Kooti ki te whakatau ko nga paanga whenua o tetahi Maori ana wehea, ahakoa tapiria ki etahi atu o onga paanga, e kore e whai kiko ki taua Maori me hoko ki te Kaitiaki Maori mo te utu ma te Kooti e whakatau. Ki te whakae te Kaitiaki Maori ki taua whakatau ka tangohia aua paanga whenua ka whakaputaina ko te moni ki te Maori.
usual manner, the persons who are entitled to the interests of the deceased, and the Maori Trustee then has the duty of ascertaining the value of those interests. Generally speaking, values are ascertained from the current Valuation Roll. When the interest, which in the ordinary course would pass to any successor, is of a value less than £50, it shall be purchased by the Maori Trustee for the Conversion Fund, and the value thereof paid to the successor. If an interest is of a value of more than £50, it shall be passed on to the successor in the usual way. Provision is made for the making of any family arrangement among successors, but the great principle is that no person shall receive any interest which, by itself or together with any shares he may already possess in the same land, will entitle him to a value of less than £50.
Where the deceased Maori left a will, the interests are valued in the same way, and if the interest left under the will to any person is less than £50, it is bought for the conversion fund, and the person to whom it was left gets the money instead. If, on the other hand, the interest is worth £50 or more, it goes to the person named in the will. The Bill in no way interferes with the right of a Maori to make a will.
Where any disagreement exists as to value, a special Government valuation may be obtained, upon the deposit by any interested party of the cost of such a valuation, but where a special valuation has been made of any land, no further special valuation shall be made within a period of three years.
The Maori Trustee is given power to refuse to purchase any interests. This provision is meant to meet cases where there would be undue difficulty in valuation, as in the case of timber lands, or where the position is complicated by reason of some existing mortgage.
PURCHASE ON PARTITION:
In Part XVI of the Bill, dealing with partitions, the Court is given power, when making any partition, to recommend that any interest—which, by itself or in conjunction with any other interest to which any owner is entitled, could not, on partition, in the opinion of the Court, be used with advantage to the owner as a separate holding—be acquired by the Maori Trustee for the Conversion Fund at a price to be fixed by the Court. If the Maori Trustee accepts the recommendation, the interest shall be bought by the Conversion Fund, and the price paid to the owner.
KO NGA HOKO WHENUA I RUNGA I NGA MAHI WHAKATOPU PAANGA:
Ko ta te Wahanga XVIII o Te Pire he whakamana i te Kooti Whenua Maori i runga i nga mahi whakatopu paanga ki te tango i nga mokamoka whenua pera ano i runga i nga whakaritenga mo nga paanga kua wehea e Te Kooti.
KO NGA HOKO ANA WHAKARAPOPOTOTIA NGA RARANGI INGOA O TE HUNGA WHAI PAANGA:
Ko ta Wharangi 424 o Te Pire he whakawhiwhi i te Kooti ki tetahi mana hou e taea ai te Whakatikatika te Whakarapopoto nga rarangi ingoa o te hunga whai paanga ki nga whenu Maori. Ina te whakamarama o tenei. He nui nga whenua ka mutu ano tona taitara riiwhi ki nga paanga o te hunga kua tupapakutia he ota wehe me te tino noa atu o nga ota kai riiwhi, a he mahi nui te whakawhaiti i te toputanga o nga paanga o tena o tena o taua hunga. Eahei ana te Kooti ki te whakawhaiti i aua paanga ki te hunga e tika ana a a te otinga o tenei mahi ka whakamana ai i runga i a te Ture i ana whakaritenga. Ko nga mokamoka paanga e ahei ana te Kooti ki te whakatau kia tangohia e te Tahua moni pera me ta te Pire i whakarite ai.
KO TE WHAKARAPOPOTOTANGA:
Ko nga paanga whenua Maori e ahei ki te hokona i raro i nga ahua o te wehe paanga, o te whakatopu paanga o nga whakarapopototnga rarangi ingoa ranei ko nga paanga i whakataua e Te Kooti Whenua Maori e kore e whai kiko ki te hunga no ratou aua paanga whenua. I runga i nga tikanga kairiiwhi whenua tupapaku ka hokona nga whenua kei raro iho i te £50 te wariu. Otira e ahei ana te Kaitieki Maori ki te hoko paanga whenua Maori kia putu ki tana putea mehemea he hiahia hoko to tetahi Maori.
KO TE HOKO A TETAHI TANGATA WHAI PAANGA KI TETAHI ATU TANGATA WHAI PAANGA
Ko ta Wahanga XIX o Te Pire he whakatangatanga i nga ahuatanga e taea i tetahi Maori whai paanga te hoko te tango mai ranei nga paanga o tetahi atu Maori whai paanga mehemea ra ki te whakatau a Te Kooti kei raro iho i te £200 te wariu o aua paanga.
Kaore he tono kia whakamana te hoko e Te Kooti engari me tono kia whakataua nga hea o te kaihoko ki tetahi o raua.
HE KUPU WHAKAMUTUNGA:
Kei te mohio iho ra te hunga na ratou i whakakaupapa tenei Pire tena ano ona makenu. He uaua rawa atu te whakatau i nga wariu o nga whenua, a ko tetahi whai kia kaua e tangohia nga paanga whenua Maori kei nga papakainga,
PURCHASE DURING CONSOLIDATION SCHEMES:
In Part XVIII of the Bill, the Court is given during the course of any Consolidation Scheme a similar power of recommendation to that existing on partition, i.e., the Court may recommend the sale of uneconomic interests to the Conversion Fund, and the Maori Trustee may accept the recommendation and carry out the transaction.
PURCHASE ON MAKING A CONSOLIDATED ORDER:
Clause 424 of the Bill confers upon the Court a new jurisdiction—to bring up to date any existing title order. This means that where the title to any piece of Maori land consists of, say, a partition order with a very large number of succession orders, so that there is difficulty in determining anybody's interest without a great amount of work, the Court may compile from the existing orders a consolidated list of owners and shares which, after some formalities, will be given legal effect. In making such an order the Court is given power to recommend the sale of uneconomic interests to the Conversion Fund, as in the case of partitions.
The interests which can be sold under partition, consolidation and on the making of a consolidated order, are those which, in the Court's opinion, are not of sufficient size to make a worthwhile usable holding of land for any purpose. On succession, the interests to be sold are those of a value less than £50. The Maori Trustee may, however, at any time, by agreement, buy any interest at all for the Conversion Fund, at prices agreed upon with the owners.
TRANSFERS OF LAND BETWEEN OWNERS:
Part XIX of the Bill makes provision for a cheap and simple method of transfer of interests among owners in the same land, where the interest is, in the opinion of the Court, of a value not exceeding £200.
Instead of proceeding by way of formal transfer, parties apply to the Court for the making of a vesting order, vesting the interest to be transferred in the new owner.
It is realised by those responsible for the working out of these new proposals that the
kei nga urupa me nga rahui penei. Kua korerotia ake nei e tika ana me waihanga etahi kaupapa hou a ko enei kua whakaaritia atu nei i roto i Te Pire e whakaarotia ana tera e pai noatu hei rongoa mo nga ahuatanga e pa ana ki nga mokamoka whenua Maori i raro i nga ture kiriiwhi paanga tupapaku.
Kia marama ehara i te mea ko te tino whakaaro he tango i nga whenua Maori e te putea kua kiia ake nei, kaore mehemea ka whakaae tetahi whanau ki te whakawhaiti i nga whenua o ratou matua kua tupapakutia ki te mea kotahi, tokorua ranei kia totopu ai e pai ana, kei te whakaae te Pire ki tenei ahuatanga. Mehemea he paanga whenua Maori totopu o tetahi tangata ka taea e ia te karo te ngau o nga rei o te Pire ki aua paanga whenua Maori ona ana mate ia, me hanga he wira ka tuku i aua paanga ki ana tamariki, ki ona whanaunga ranei a ki tetahi tangata ranei engari i runga ano i nga wariu kaua e heke iho i te £50 te wariu o te paanga ki te tangata kotahi. Ko te tino whakahe ki nga ahuatanga o te Ture kaore he painga o te wawahi haere tonu i nga paanga whenua Maori kua kore noaiho nei he take i te kaha paku.
have drawbacks. The matter of values provides difficulties, and it will be necessary to ensure that owners are not deprived of their interests in places of special tribal or family importance, or in Maori reservations. As has been said before, however, some change is urgently necessary, and the proposals here set out were worked out in the Bill as seeming to offer the fairest, most practical and effective means of tackling the problem of splitting interests.
It is emphasised that the object is not to buy up for the Conversion Fund as much land as possible. If successors can agree among themselves to an arrangement which will not result in an interest being split up too far, there is ample power to allow this to be done. Again, if a person has interests in Maori land of a reasonable size and value, he can avoid entirely the operation of the scheme by making a will which leaves the interests among his family in such a way that no one person receives a share of less than £50 value. The whole idea underlying the proposals is that it is worse than useless to go on cutting up shares which are already too small for any purpose whatsoever.
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More solutions than ever before were received to our crossword of the last issue. Several were correct, and the Rev. Father G. Haring, of Kaihu, won the guinea prize by ballot.
We are again offering a guinea for a correct solution to the puzzle below, sent in before the closing date of Wednesday, 29th July, 1953.
CLUES (all answers are Maori words)
|12||Company of slaves|
|16||End slab of house|
|3||That is so|
|8||Pour out drop by drop|
Maori Personalities in Sport
When walking through the bush or along a track it is wise occasionally to look back, to see where you have been as well as see where you are going. Nowadays, the future of the Maori in sport seems assured, with concentration on tennis and golf noticeable in recent years and, of course, Rugby football owing much of its success to the feats of Maoris. Yes, the road ahead for the Maori in sport seems clear, but it is worthwhile to look back — to see where the Maori has been.
This year the New Zealand Rugby Union will be sending a team of footballers to Great Britain and Ireland and hopes are held that Maori players will again be among the stars, just as they were in 1924, when two of the best players in Cliff Porter's “Unbeatables” were Maoris—George Nepia and Jimmy Mill.
But Maoris and Rugby football went together long before Cliff Porter took his men on that great football journey. The very history of football in New Zealand is bound up with great Maori players, a fact known and appreciated by those in control of the sport.
The first international Rugby team to tour Great Britain was the New Zealand Maori team of 1888–89, captained by Joe Warbrick. There were five Warbricks in the team and three Wynyards—two sets of brothers supplying eight players!
It was my privilege, about 15 years ago, to meet and talk to Dick Taiaroa, a survivor of that great band of 26 players—a band which played 107 matches, on a tour lasting from June 23, 1888, to August 24, 1889!
Of the 26 players to make that crusading tour of Great Britain and Ireland, with Australia and New Zealand thrown in for good measure, only four pakehas were included, and it is a tribute to the Maori of nearly 70 years ago that such a high standard of play was shown overseas.
The Daily Mail (London) in ‘52 Years of Sport,’ paid this tribute to Joe Warbrick's men:
‘… It may be recalled as proof of their toughness that in the course of their visit (to the U.K.) they played no fewer than 74 matches, winning 49, losing 20, and drawing five. In international matches they defeated Ireland, at Dublin, by four goals and one try to one goal and one try, but were beaten by Wales, at Swansea—one goal and two tries to nil—and by England, at Blackheath—one goal and four tries to nil. The England three-quarter line included those two notably versatile athletes, A. E. Stoddart, the famous cricketer, and J. W. Sutcliffe, who, in addition to representing his country under Rugby rules, was England's Association football goal-keeper in five international matches.’
Much of the glory of Maori football has been seen in Hawke's Bay, but as a young fellow in Gisborne I have happy recollections of seeing outstanding Maori footballers in Poverty Bay. One such man was A. P. Kaipara—in the opinion of S. S. Dean, noted Rugby administrator—one of the greatest five-eighths New Zealand has produced. He lost his life on Gallipoli, but for three successive years he had been in the North Island team. Then there were Dr Wi Repa and Jimmy Mill. Over a period of nearly thirty years New Zealand has yet to produce a half-back to equal the ability shown by Jimmy Mill, who wore the All Black jersey in 33 matches. Jimmy Mill, the master of blind-side movements, was a ‘great’ among great players, and his death on March 29, 1950, robbed New Zealand of a wonderful footballer—a Maori star.
Jimmy Mill was one of the three Maori players in the 1924 All Blacks, the others being George Nepia and Lui Paewai, uncle of ‘Doc’ Paewai. ‘Doc’ has been acclaimed as the greatest half-back New Zealand has ever produced not to wear an All Black jersey! Yes, Dr M. N. Paewai is so known — a player who deserved to be first choice as New Zealand half-back, but who missed out all along the way. A grand little sportsman, too.
But a little about the legendary George Nepia. George Nepia, the world's greatest full-back, in the opinion of Englishmen and New Zealanders, was originally a five-eighth, and it was a stroke of genius on the part of Tom Parata and Norman McKenzie that saw Nepia transferred to the full-back position in one of the trial matches in 1924.
Thus came about, almost accidentally, the start of an amazing career. George Nepia, at 19 years, played in all of the 30 matches on the 1924–25 tour, scoring 70 points. New Zealand took only one full-back on that tour—a full-back who had not played more than the odd game in that position, but long after the tour, Denzil Batchelor, an English journalist, was moved to write a grand story about that 19-year-old player in his book, Days Without Sunset. I'd like every young New Zealander — Maori and pakeha alike—to read that chapter. It's a sporting classic.
Might I quote just a few sentences?
The chapter is titled ‘The Unfading Fern’.
‘… Alone among the whole side he (Nepia) played in all thirty. If Mark Nicholls failed, there were others to improvise fresh attacks—if Nepia failed, the castle was taken, the side was beaten.
‘How had the boy Nepia the finely tempered nerves to stand the strain of appearing as a target for the day in match after match; of beating off, single-handed, the ravening packs and the three-quarter lines in full cry, with his own single pair of whipcord arms? He was between short and tall, and his thighs were like young trunks. His head was fit for the prow of a Viking Longship, with its passionless, sculped bronze features and the plume of blue-black hair.
‘Behind the game he slunk from side to side like a panther on the prowl; but not like the panther behind bars—like a lord of the jungle
on the prowl for a kill. That was his concept of his function. When the ball came to him, rollicking first this way then that, a few yards ahead of a bunched pack of blood-thirsty forwards, he rejoiced in the challenge.
‘A lesser man might win applause by a flykick, or even by going down like the Boy on the Burning Deck, whelmed by destiny in disaster and immortality. Not so George Nepia. He leapt at the ball like an art critic snatching at a fault of technique by his best friend. He went to work backwards, a fury of shoulders, elbows and thighs, storming through the massed ranks of the opposing pack.
‘Eight to one against were the odds that exactly suited him. His tackling, which resembled a woodman felling a Californian pine, had a mere heartless efficiency. But bullocking through a pack with its blood up and no-one between himself and the line — that was enough to bring a flicker of a smile to the Maori war-mask of his face.
‘His long, low-angled kicking, especially of a heavy ball, was a miracle of accuracy and length. His punts raked the touch lines. A third of the length of the field was the average he liked to maintain, and if the ball dropped more than a yard or two over the touchline, his eyelids would narrow in scornful self-criticism.
‘I suppose from time to time he proved that he was not superhuman by failing to find touch, but who can cross his heart and swear to recalling such an occasion?
‘…It is not with me a question of whether Nepia was the best full-back in history. It is a question as to which of the others is fit to loose the laces of his Cotton Oxford boots.’
That brief extract from Days Without Sunset was not written by a parochial New Zealand sports writer; it was written by a cold-blooded, analytical English writer, and written nearly 25 years after George Nepia had made football history in England. His memory was still fresh, his fame just as enduring after a quarter-century.
Yes, it may be said with truth, that the record of the Maori in football has been outstanding.
I wish I could say the same about the record of the Maori in track and field athletics. Just why there has not been a greater share of success—due, perhaps, to the lack of numbers competing—might be overcome one of these days, because I am honest in my conviction that New Zealand's first male field-event champion at an Olympic festival could be a Maori—if he concentrated on the hop-step-and-jump.
Here is an event in which rhythm and timing play a most important part, two essentials which Maori sportsmen and dancers seem to inherit. Years ago, right up the East Coast of the North Island, I saw a Maori in bare feet equal the New Zealand record at the hop-step-and-jump, but he was far from an amateur club, and regular competition, and nothing more was heard of him.
Surely there must be a few of the younger brigade, eager to represent New Zealand at the Olympic Games in Melbourne in 1956, who could be persuaded to take on field events? I'm sure they would get all the help they needed—by correspondence, due to locality—from that excellent coach Jim Bellwood, coach to our woman Olympic champion, Yvette Williams.
Years ago—back in 1896—New Zealand's best pole vaulters were two Maori athletes, Jimmy Te Paa and Hori Eruera. They held the New Zealand title between them for three years, Hori winning the Australasian championship in 1897, and Jimmy taking it two years later.
In swimming, Bill Whareaitu represented New Zealand at the British Empire Games held in London in 1934. He was New Zealand's best at the back-stroke, and a year or two later young Nawi Kira, of the Bay of Plenty, was New Zealand's best girl swimmer.
Ike Robin, giant among big wrestlers, was New Zealand wrestling champion — and a worthy representative of the Maori race, too—before the ancient sport introduced a touch of vaudeville, or showmanship. He wrestled world champion Stanislaus Zbysko to a draw in a match at Auckland about 30 years ago. But, before Robin's time, another Maori, Moana Paratene, who also played a good game of football, was New Zealand's best wrestler.
At boxing—and I'm pleased at this—only one Maori has earned international fame. His name was Herbert Slade, and he went to America 70 years ago to fight the great John L. Sullivan, world champion.
Boxing is one sport the Maori athlete might well afford to leave alone. It has a punishing effect on the mentality, and the more finely-balanced the intellect the greater the risk of permanent mental damage. Unusual words from a sportswriter? Yes, but written honestly by one who has long admired the Maori athlete, and who wants to see him steer clear of unnecessary dangers associated with sport.
My ambition is to see a Maori Olympic champion, a true representative of New Zealand, crowned at the Olympic Games in Melbourne. Time is short—but this can be done!
Kia Whaka Ngawari Au Ia Hau!
Attention to the existence of officially established agencies which can help Maoris to find suitable employment has been drawn by the Employment Office of the Maori Affairs Department following an enquiry to Te Ao Hou by a correspondent in Masterton. The correspondent wrote saying it seemed it would be of great benefit to the Maori people to have some sort of employment agency set up in each community.
When the correspondent's enquiry was referred to the Employment Officer of the Maori Affairs Department, he said such agencies already existed.
‘It is the special sphere of the Labour and Employment Department to find work for any person, whether pakeha or Maori, who is out of work or wanting certain positions,’ he said. ‘There are branch Offices of the Department in all the main centres. There is one in Masterton Any person can call and discuss his or her problem.
‘Under the Maori Social and Economic Advancement Act, 1945, Maori Welfare Officer have been appointed to act, when required, as a liaison between members of the Maori race and the Labour and Employment Department any other Government Departments, and with the general public in all matters of employment.
‘A special employment section has been created in the Department of Maori Affair for the purpose of directing the youth of the Maori race into useful and worthwhile avenue of employment, and in the establishment of hostels to accommodate Maori boys and girl coming into the main cenres for employmen training and further studies.’
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