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No 3. (Summer 1953)
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The New World

the maori affairs department SUMMER, 1953

Fire Destroys

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our forests …

There are twelve million acres of publicly owned forests in New Zealand, including State forests, National parks and Crown lands, and some four million acres of privately owned forest, much of it on Maori land. The indigenous softwood resources (rimu, matai, totara, etc.) cover a million acres, less than seven per cent of the total forest area, and are estimated to contain in round figures six thousand million board feet of timber. The exotic forests cover 860,000 acres, about half in State Forests, and the rest established by private enterprise or local bodies.

In this country as in other British countries, most people are not forest minded, although the forests play an important role in our national life. To be forest minded means to have a practical, unsentimental appreciation of the role of the forests— in the conservation of water resources, the growth of timber, the prevention of soil erosion, sport, and the enjoyment of natural beauty. Forestry is an art born of necessity, the necessity of making the most of relatively limited forest resources. To derive the greatest benefit from our forests we must all take an interest in them and protect them.

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Prevent Forest Fires
Keep New Zealand Green

new zealand forest service · soil conservation council

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No. 3

This issue lies under the shadow of Princess Te Puea's death.

It is the fate of a quarterly magazine that it is always long behind events. We have described the unequalled tangihanga in her honour. Few people can of recent years have spoken so strongly to the imagination of Maori and Pakeha alike as Princess Te Puea. As further homage to her memory we have printed Mr Pei Jones' story of her famous ancestress Mahinarangi, after whom the Ngaruawahia meeting-house was named.

The strenuousness of the trip Mahinarangi had to make to join her husband in the Waikato is beyond our experience. This weariness and this continuous smell of the bush belong to the past. Yet, such memories, and the stories and songs in which they are contained, should never pass from our minds. They are a treasure of the Maori people, and they contain much that the Pakeha has lost. Nobody could have been at the great tangi for Princess Te Puea without seeing the remarkable wealth still preserved in Maori culture. In publishing well-written histories and legends and old songs, Te Ao Hou can help to keep this past alive.

Does this mean escaping from the present? We do not think so. All peoples use history as a mirror to see who they really are, and draw strength from that. This is the way in which people like Princess Te Puea used to look at the past.


There is a serious shortage of reading matter about the Maori people, especially about their present-day life. Yet Maori boys and girls must have a desire to find out something more about themselves, and the young Pakeha would find it fascinating to get an inside view of another people with whom he lives in the same country. Apart from some legends and details of ancient pa life, there is very little he can go to. For this reason the Education Department has helped us to distribute Te Ao Hou in schools. We have not printed the material for our younger readers separately. We hope that some of our stories, scattered through the issue, will provide what our younger readers are interested to know.

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He putanga na no Te Ao Hou he tupapaku—waihoki ko te Tupapaku nui o tenei putanga ko Te Puea Herangi. Ko te mate ra tenei o te pukapuka penei kotahi putanga i te toru marama puta rawa ake kua mataotao nga korero. Ina ra kua tuhia nga korero mo te tangihanga nui whakaharahara mo Te Puea. He takitahi rawa atu te tangata penei te hounga ki roto o nga whakaaro o te Maori me te Pakeha i a Te Puea. Kua taia hoki te korero a Pei Te Hurinui mo te tipuna o Te Puea mo Mahinarangi e mau mai nei te ingoa kei tona whare i Ngaruawahia.

Ka haere ra a Mahinarangi, piki heke me te hou haere i ro ngahere kia tae ki tana tane i roto o Waikato—no nehera ra enei korero–otira he korero atahua. E kore e tika kia ngaro enei taonga a te Maori ana korero tupuna me ana waiata—ko te Maoritanga tenei e amuamutia nei kei ngaro. Kei nga huihuinga penei i te tangihanga ki a Te Puea ka kitea e, kei te mau tonu ia te Maoritanga. Ko ta Te Ao Hou tenei ko tana mahi, he tuhi i aua korero me aua waiata hei whakaoraora i te ha o nga taonga a nga tupuna kua mene kei te po.

Tera te tangata e whakaaro he hoki tenei ki nga ra o te kaitangata. E, kaore. E penei ana tenei i te wai whakaata he rehu kau engari he oranga ngakau. Ko ia nei ta tenei tu i a Te Puea ma nei tona taanga whakaaro.

Kei Nga Kura o Te Ao Hou

Hamuhamu ana tera te pukapuka he korero mo te Maori, e akoina nga korero mo te Maori o tenei ra. Ka nui te whai o nga tamariki Maori a tamariki Pakeha hoki ki nga korero mo te Maori, a ka mutu ano nga korero ko nga pitopito korero paki waitara na reira kei te awhina te Tari Mo Nga Kura ki te whakarato i Te Ao Hou. Ehara i te mea i tuhia motuhaketia he korero ma te hanga tamariki nei, engari kei te pukapuka nei etahi korero tera e raroto ki te tamariki.

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Tangi for Te Puea

The sacred mourning for Te Puea by the Maori tribes lasted five days and five nights. From Monday, October 13, when Te Puea died, until the burial the following Sunday, Maori people all over the island were on the move. Although the habit of leaving work to visit tangis is dying out, the paying of last respects to Te Puea was felt by the people to be a sacred duty. Employers generally showed great sympathy. Many of the people who paid their respects returned to their farms or occupations, and joined the mourners again at the week-end.

During this week it was impossible to find a bus in the Waikato district in which there were not some ladies dressed in black, whose heads were covered with the green leaves of mourning.

The whole of the Maori people had their thoughts centred on the lady of Ngaruawahia, who now lay in state after burning out all the energy she had in work of great wisdom for her people. All recognised that the deepest homage was due to this rare and splendid lady. Te Puea—or Princess Te Puea: the appellation stuck because it was so appropriate—had shown the Waikato people the way out of a very hard situation. Following the words of her grandfather, King Tawhiao, she had, with a great natural sense of leadership, built Turangawaewae Pa at Ngaruawahia out of, literally, noth-

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ing. Her combination of charm and force was unforgettable, she gave her people a renewed belief in themselves and in the future.

So the mourners arrived, bus load after bus load, and small private parties arrived, too, and joined the larger ones, for the ceremonial greeting of the dead. So many were the groups of mourners that buses often arrived before the tribe in front of them had finished paying its respects. So the new arrivals waited outside until a messenger came out from the marae, inviting them in.

The mourners then passed under the ceremonial gate, hung with willow branches, and slowly made their way through the tree-bordered lane to the large circle of people silently standing round the centre of the marae.

Of the pain and grief that was expressed during these days it would be indelicate to speak. It is a pain from which all who have not experienced it have to be excluded. ‘The tears roll to avenge Death’, says the splendid old chant.

The best way of recalling these days is perhaps to repeat one chant that was sung by Pei Jones just before the funeral:

Listen, oh multitude:
This is the ancestor of death.
Clinging to me,
It grew at Te Reinga;
It grew also in grief,
It is Rongotaharangi,1
Hovering, whirling about.
I fall and lie
Sleeping, with knees drawn up, sleeping hugged together,
Sleeping with down-pressed head.
Like me
Is Mahutonga confused in the cloud;2
I am listless,
A hawk screaming in the eighth month,3
A bittern booming in the marsh.

Many ancient songs like this one were heard on the marae. Old people who hardly ever leave their homes sang them, and to the multitude they were almost, or entirely unknown.

There was no tribe, and hardly a clan that was not represented here. More than ten thousand people paid their respects to the deceased. The women particularly felt the sharpness of their loss. Te Puea had, especially, been their leader. She had shown them what a Maori woman could be; she had been an example to look up to. Particularly those who are active in the Maori Women's Welfare League had been inspired by her work. It seemed natural for the League to come forward and mourn for Te Puea in a body, ignoring tribal differences.

The pakeha was officially represented by the Rt. Hon. S. G. Holland, the Hon. E. B. Corbett and the Hon. Mrs G. H. Ross, and the Rt. Hon. W. Nash. Nearly three hundred telegrams of condolence were received from all over the world. Representatives of the United States, India and Australia,

1A god.

2Southern Cross.

3Season of scarcity.

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and Queen Salote of Tonga travelled to Ngaruawahia to express their sorrow on the marae. In England, the B.B.C. devoted a broadcast to Te Puea's memory, and the British Press published tributes to her.

On the Saturday afternoon, when the local population of Ngaruawahia came on the marae in huge numbers, it was obvious that to the Pakeha, too, Princess Te Puea had been a favourite figure. Most touching of Pakeha tributes was, perhaps, the spruce band of pipers, who marched on to the marae playing time-honoured Scots laments. These pipers, who had particular reason to remember Te Puea's friendship and generosity, although using a pakeha form of lament, managed to speak very well to Maori feeling.

On Sunday morning, after the official party had paid its respects and attended the church service, the body was carried from the marae by eight pall-bearers, representing each one of the ancestral canoes, except Tainui—Te Puea's canoe. A cortege of cars and buses two miles long followed the hearse to the ancestral burial ground, Taupiri, where, without tombstones or any indication where they lie, many famous chiefs and the former Maori kings are buried.

As the cortege approached Taupiri mountain, fierce rain began to fall. All the Maori kings were, it is said, buried in heavy rain, but no rain could have been more violent and powerful than it was on this occasion. It was the heavens weeping. Very many of the mourners who were present on that day, climbed the 300-foot mountain under this weeping sky.

So Te Puea's body was laid in her resting-place.

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At the marae

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Ko te Tangihanga mo
Te Puea Herangi

E rima ra e rima po nga iwi o te Motu e tangi ana ki a Te Puea Herangi; mai i te Mane te 13 o nga ra o Oketopa te ra i mate ai ia a ki te Ratapu. Pau katoa nga mangai o nga iwi o te motu ki Ngaruawahia mahue ake nga mahi me nga raruraru kia takoto ana ko te whakaaro nui o te tangata kia tae a tinana ki te kawe i te aroha. Ko etahi ano ko nga mea patata ka kawei te aroha a ka hoki ki te kaenga no te Ratapu ka hokia mai ano. Hei nga huarahi o nga rohe o Waikato kiki ana i te motoka i te motopahi e ahu ana ki Ngaruawahia.

I tangihia tenei wahine rongonui e te Motu katoa—e te Pakeha e te Maori, ara e te ao kua matatau ki ana mahi nunui mo tona iwi. Nana a Waikato i arahi mai i te pouri ki te maramatanga, mai i te mate ki te ora. Na tona tipuna na Tawhiao te kupu na Te Puea i whakatinana ko Turangawaewae e tu mai nei. E kore tenei wahine rangatira e wareware tata i nga iwi i manaakitia ki tona marae whakapaipai.

Ka whakaeke nga iwi, pahi atu pahi atu, me nga mea ano i haere takitahi mai, ka huihui he ope kotahi ka whakaeke ki te marae ki te kawe i nga tangi ki tenei tupapaku rangatira. Kaore ano i watea te marae i te ope tuatahi, e whakaeke ana nga pahi o muri taipua atu taipua atu nga pahi me te tangata.

Hei te marae ngaro tonu i te rau whiro e whata haere ana i runga i nga whare, i nga taiapa a i te tomokanga atu ki te marae me te tutu haere o nga pae mate nga wahine i taia ki te moko i te roro o Mahinarangi rere ana mai te wehi to te taniwha tona hinganga.

E kore e taea te tatau te pouri me te mamae me te maringi o te roimata i roto o aua ra e takoto ana te tinana o Te Puea i te poho o tona tipuna o Mahinarangi.

Ina noa pea me whakarapopoto ake ki te tangi i tangihia e Pei Te Hurinui i mua o te nehunga i a Te Puea.

Whakarongo e te rau!
Tenei te tupuna o te mate
Ka piri ki ahau;
I tupu i te reinga,
I tupu mai ano i te pouritanga
Ko Rongotaharangi
E huri paroa
Ka hinga au ka takoto
Moe tuturi, moe pepeke,
Moe tupoupou
Ko te rite i ahau
Ko Mahutonga e rau na i te ao
He maero au nei,
He kahu ke i te waru;
Kei te matuku e hu ana i te repo, il”

Tera atu tera atu nga tangi a nga tupuna i waiatatia ki runga i a Te Puea ko etahi katahi ano pea ka kitea ki te aoturoa.

Kore pea he iwi i ngaro i taua tangihanga, tana tekau mano te hunga i tatu ki te marae. Hei te wahine ki te tangi, ko Te Puea hoki te wahine i eke ki te tihi o nga taumata he mahi tona kaupapa. I reira hoki nga mangai o Te Ropu Toko i Te Ora o Nga Wahine Maori o te Motu katoa.

Ko nga mangai o te Kawanatanga ko te Pirimia ko te Rt. Hon. S. G. Holland, ko te Minita Maori ko te Hon. E. B. Corbett, ko te Minita mo nga Wahine me nga Tamariki ko te Hon. Mrs G. H. Ross a me te kaiarahi o te apitihana me te Rt. Hon. W. Nash. I tae mai tana 300 waea a nga iwi o te ao he tangi mai ki a Koroki me ona iwi mo to ratou mate ara mo te aitua o te Motu. I tae hoki nga mangai o Amerika, o Inia me te mangai o Kuini Harote o Tonga ki Ngaruawahia ki te kawe i nga tangi a o ratou whenua. I puta nga tangi a nga iwi o Ingarangi i runga i tona reo irirangi.

Ko te Hatarei o taua wiki tetahi ra nui te whakaeke o te tangata, Maori Pakeha. Ko te mea aroha rawa ia ko te whakaekenga o te pene a nga Kotimana ki te marae me te tangi i tetahi o nga tino waiata tangi a te Kotimana. Ko taua pene he hunga i arohaina i manaakitia e Te Puea.

Uina ake i te Ratapu ka mutu nga manaaki i te ope o te Kawanatanga ko te karakia katahi ka amohia te kawhena e nga mangai o nga waka. Katahi ka mauria te tinana o Te Puea ki te Urupa o ona tipuna i Taupiri—hei te rarangi o te motoka toro atu i Ngaruawahia tata tae ana ki Taupiri. Ka whakatata atu a Te Puea ki tana maunga ka whakatakataka te marangai eke rawa ake ki Taupiri e whakarere ana te marangi ko te ua i a wai mai nei. Ko te korero he penei katoa te tanumanga o nga Kingi Maori i tangihia e te rangi. Mangu tonu te harapaki o Taupiri i te tangata ahakoa te heke a te ua. Moe mai ra e kui i te moenga roa i te taha o Tipuna.

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To-night I join with the Maori people in mourning the loss of the greatest Maori woman of our time—perhaps of all time—Te Puea Herangi, ariki tapairu, of Waikato. Te Puea never liked the title of Princess, and never applied it to herself. On the other hand, she was always insistent that her cousin—and nephew by marriage—Koroki, the fifth Maori King, should be referred to as such.

I speak to-night with the memories of an association of more than 30 years with Te Puea. When I knew her first she was struggling with a band of entertainers, attempting to raise funds for the establishment of the village now known as Turangawaewae on the banks of the Waikato River. To the Pakeha world she was then little known. But in the Maori world her rank as the grand-daughter of King Tawhiao was, of course, acknowledged.

At that period she was a stout, well-built woman, dominating in character, shrewd as always, and wise. With her children, as she called them—they were actually orphans she had mothered following two epidemics—she had worked on the roads, cut gorse and flax. Her ambition was to re-establish the Maori King's home at Ngaruawahia. All tribal land there had been confiscated. But she had her eye on ten acres sacred to all Waikato, because it contained a spring at which her grandfather, King Tawhiao, once drank.

That ambition was realised.

Yet it took many years of planning and hard work before the model settlement, as we know it nowadays, was established. It is curious to recall that, in those days, the Pakehas of Ngaruawahia objected to her presence, and sought to have her ejected by the health authorities. Te Puea showed the earth-floored and bag-walled huts to the inspector. ‘We are poor,’ she said, ‘but we are clean!’ …

Sir Apirana Ngata once gave me the key to her complex character when he said: ‘First, she is a woman. Secondly, she is a Potatau (a member of the kahui ariki, or Maori Royal Family, as all the descendants of the first Maori King, Potatau Te Wherowhero, are known). Thirdly, she is a Maori.’ If a woman, and sometimes subject to the vagaries of her sex, Te Puea seldom let her emotions sway her judgment. In all things she was essentially practical. Nevertheless, there were times when she could make use of her undoubted charm to achieve her objectives. As a dirct descendant of Potatau, she was always conscious, though never foolishly so, of the blood within her veins: her whole life was devoted to the ideals of the Kiingitanga, or Maori King Movement. And, of course, as a Maori, her stand on Maori affairs was always that of a Maori. Indeed, it could not have been otherwise.

Once I heard her upbraid King Koroki early in his reign for not leaving punctually to attend a meeting in his honour. ‘Never keep the people waiting,’ she admonished. ‘Remember, if there were no people there would be no King. We are the servants of the people!’

To Te Puea the Kiingitanga was a sacred trust, one that had been accepted unwillingly perhaps by her great-grandfather, King Potatau, but, nevertheless, an inheritance that must never be departed from. When Te Puea took a prominent part in its affairs in the reign of her uncle, King Mahuta, the Kiingitanga had, historically speaking, reached its lowest ebb. She lived to see it stronger than at any period since Tawhiao's days. That, undoubtedly, was her doing.

Let me speak of her for a moment as a Maori:

Though Te Puea had one Pakeha grandfather, it was as a Maori that she lived and died. At times her motives were misunderstood and criticised. When her people were imprisoned during the First World War because conscription was forced upon them, she led a passive resistance movement. If she had but lifted her finger there would have been bloodshed. Instead, she walked among them, a switch in her hand, as the police carried out her cousin, the late Te Rauangaanga, and though the people moaned in their anguish, not a soul stirred.

Maoridom, among the most conservative of the tribes, was her background, her environment, her heritage. Therefore, one must never assess Te Puea otherwise than as a Maori. From phase to phase she developed. When I knew her first she would not allow a Waikato child to go to school—though she was always grateful, and it stood her in good stead, for the little schooling she had had. Later, she became an earnest advocate of education for all Maoris. The prejudice that she had inherited against education was common to all Waikato in her young days. How many times have I heard her say: ‘Why educate our children? So that they may come back and rob us?’ …

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Te Puea was a deeply religious woman.

Often I was with her when, always at 7 in the morning, and again at the same hour in the evening, the folk would gather round her for the simple karakia Hauhau, or service. Men and women, also the boys and girls, would come in from the farm, from the cowyards, and leave their boots or shoes on the mat outside her door. More often than not Te Puea would be too ill to leave her bed. Throughout her busy life those religious observances were never forgotten. Yet she always resisted baptism by any orthodox church. The return of the Hauhau ritual to Waikato (once a stronghold of the Church of England) came about in those days when its people were deep in gloom and sorrow because of the conscription of their youth. As they sat with her in a house at Mangatawhiri, Te Puea looked up suddenly and asked: ‘Is there no one here who can karakia?’ For a time there was silence. Then an old man from Taranaki stood, and with some diffidence began the Hauhau chant. From that day Te Puea and her followers observed that ritual.

For almost 30 years her companion was Tumokai Katipa. He was only a boy when the people arranged their marriage. It was Te Puea's great grief that, though she had mothered more than 40 children, she had no offspring of her own. Over the years he has been her devoted friend, everything that a husband could be, and as the years went by she leaned on him more and more. It was not easy, incidentally, to play Prince Consort to a woman who was his superior in rank, a leader of imperious will.

It was Tumokai who followed Te Puea when she decided in 1928 to throw her weight behind Ngata's communal farming scheme. That move was by no means popular in Waikato, whose people had always been anti-Government. The most unpleasant epithet they could bestow upon her was borne in patience. Te Puea was then known as ‘Mrs Government’. In Maori its significance is far deeper than in English: literally, she was the woman belonging to, or who had given herself to the Government.

Supported by the children, she toiled on a gorse-stricken area at Waiuku, and later at Rotorua, where a small Waikato cell that still exists was established. It was characteristic of Te Puea and her children that before they attempted to turn over the soil they took portions of it in their hands and wept over it.

Te Puea was always grateful to Ngata, who understood the psychological difficulties of Waikato as perhaps no outside leader could have done at that period. Years before he had studied Waikato at first hand. Once, he declared that Waikato from the point of sheer intellect, had no superior among the tribes. The partnership between Te Puea and Ngata enriched many Maori homes. One had to see the poverty that existed in Waikato 25 years ago, before that association, to appreciate the sore plight of those people.

To-day there is fresh hope for the future:

It was due to Te Puea that the Fraser Government's offer to settle the long-standing confiscation issue was accepted. That led to the establishment of the Tainui Trust Board which, for all time, will distribute an annual income for the betterment of the Tainui peoples. That perhaps was her greatest achievement. However, it was because there was a tacit admission of wrong-doing by a Government of former days that she accepted—not because of any possible monetary benefit.

We shall not again in our time see a woman like her—

Waikato, though ever jealous of male prerogatives, obeyed her implicity in all policy matters. Te Puea was the power behind the Maori throne—a born organiser, practical of mind though ever the visionary and mystic: able, shrewd and far-seeing. Also, let me say, Te Puea was an exceedingly generous woman: her benefactions extended into the Pacific, and far beyond the shores of this country.

May we remember her precept: ‘I work, I pray, I sleep, and I work again!’ It was my duty, over the years, to attend to much of her correspondence. Soon after receiving her C.B.E. from the late King George V she was asked by the British ‘Who's Who’ to supply her biography. ‘What does this mean?’ she asked. At first she was tempted to throw the form away. I explained its purport. All went well until we came to a query as to recreations. ‘I have no recreations,’ she answered. ‘Tell them I work, I pray, I sleep, and then I work again!’

The tired old heart that had battled on so bravely is now stilled. Te Puea did not achieve all she set her mind to, but she achieved more than is given to most people. May she join the ancestors in peace.

To Tumokai, to Koroki, to the kahui ariki, to Waikato, to all who mourn the last of the great Maoris of our day and generation, and especially to those who served her so devotedly, I offer my aroha and sympathy …

Haere, e taku tuahine! Haere! Haere, e kui, haere ki te Po, haere ki te iwi! Haere! Haere! Haere!

(This talk was broadcast by Mr Ramsden on October 15, 1952, at 9 p.m.)

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A recent half-hour programme of recorded Maori music broadcast by the Australian Broadcasting Commission in Melbourne was received with such enthusiasm that at one stage the station's switchboard was jammed with calls from listeners. The station reported that the audience reaction was one of the best they had ever received.

The programme included songs, chants and hakas performed by the Ngati-Poneke Maori Club, of Wellington, and was made from recordings already held by the New Zealand Broadcasting Service. It was produced by the Publicity Division of the New Zealand Tourist Department and supplied to the A.B.C. by arrangement with the Ngati-Poneke Club and the Maori Purposes Fund Board, to help publicise New Zealand and attract tourists.

There were six records in the programme. The first record was of the action song ‘Whakarongo mai e nga iwi,’ followed by a traditional welcome. The second was of the haka ‘Whiti whiti e,’ the hymn ‘Tama ngakau marie’ and the action songs ‘E waka e.’ The third was of the well-known ‘Haere mai ra.’

The love-song ‘E hine e aue mapu kau’ and the expressive ‘Ko te nau pararahi’ comprised the fourth record, while the fifth was of the canoe songs ‘Toia mai nga waka’ and ‘Hoea hoea ra.’ Next came the lament ‘E pa te hau,’ the canoe action song ‘Mauria nga waka,’ the posture dances ‘Aue e te iwi e’ and ‘Pakia kia rite’ and the action song ‘Ko tenei te po.’ Suitable recorded background commentary was then given, and the programme ended with the Ngati Poneke signature song and ‘Po atarau.’

Altogether 50 sets of recordings were made. Of these 25 went to the Ngati-Poneke Club, and the remainder were sent to the New Zealand Government representatives in Sydney, London, North America, Paris and Tokyo. Because of the intense interest shown overseas in the Maori people, it was expected that the recordings would get equally enthusiastic hearings when presented in these countries as they received in Melbourne.

A further indication of overseas interest in Maori songs was a recent request fulfilled by the Publicity Division for a recording by the choir of the Queen Victoria Maori Girls' College at Auckland. The recording had been made for Radio New Zealand and was of the popular ‘Po Atarau.’ The request came from the New Zealand Trade Commissioner in the United States, who had been asked to supply the record for use by the travel lecturer, Mr Burton Holmes.

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Situated close by the railway station at Otiria Junction, on the North Auckland railway line, is the Otiria Marae. Here, for some years now work has been going on steadily in the building of meeting-houses for the Ngatihine Tribe of the Bay of Islands. All is done by voluntary Maori labour, from the felling of logs, and the cutting at the saw-mill on the site, to the erection of buildings—all is managed and carried out by Maori tradesmen.

For the initial planning of this undertaking we owe much to the late Mr William Cooper of the Maori Affairs Department, Auckland, who had been Consolidation Officer for the district from 1935 to the time of his death, in 1950.

Pita Kiingi, leader of the Ngatiteara tribe, made a gift of the marae to the people, and also began to work timber from the bush with his team of bullocks, but his ill-health and subsequent death left this work hardly started.

The Keretene brothers, both closely related to the Kiingi family, took up the work, and it can be said that the work really started then.

It was a tremendous undertaking for those unused to such work, and there were many difficulties to be met and overcome, one being

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This home-made mill supplies the timber for Otiria's community buildings.

the shortage of roofing iron during the war years. But Wiremu Keretene, who is a minister of religion, and Paki, a dairy farmer, just carried on, and today the dining-hall is completed —one of the finest of its kind in the land.

The planning and construction of this and the carved meeting-house is in the hands of Whare Hauraki, of Motatau, who has been a carpenter all his life. The people have been very fortunate to have his services.

Work of this nature and importance requires the best experience. In this respect, there could not have been a better choice. Whare Hauraki has built several meeting-houses in the district. One of the more important ones, built some years ago for the Mormon Church at Pipiwai, is the Paraima Hall.

The carving operations now in progress are in the hands of Miha, from the Bay of Plenty district.

A pupil of the old Maori school of carving, Miha does all his casting from memory. Younger generations of carvers are being taught to transfer designs and figures from paper, but, like the artist of old, Miha's only book is his memory. In true Maori spirit, he has come all this way to do this very important and valuable work for no remuneration except the honour of doing it.

This system—we call it “taha Maori”—calls for sacrifice in material and work from those who have made it their self-appointed task to carry out.

One is reminded of the words of Mr Churchill during the battle of Britain, when he said something to the effect that “never have so many owed so much

– 11 –

to so few”. The people of Ngatihine and Ngapuhi generally, owe much to the few who are doing so much to build these meeting-houses for the use of all.

Built to cater for and accommodate our distinguished visitors—Land Court sittings, tribal gatherings, weddings, tangis—these buildings are destined to play their part in the social life of the district. And, as Sir Apirana Ngata said, the “Whare Whakairo”, or carved house, will instill into the young Maori pride of race and self-respect.

The dining-hall after completion was called Tangariki Hall, after the ceremony of opening. This name is taken from an old Maori saying, which is still in use, and which goes to show how closely the eastern district was associated with Hokianga in the west. It tells of two springs, one in Hokianga, one in Otiria: “Te puna i tangariki te rere i Tiria.” There are other interpretations, but the one generally accepted refers to myriads of small eels that come up the rivers and streams in the late spring. These tiny fish, hardly three inches long, veritably climb up the Otiria falls, and continue their way up-stream in spite of all obstacles.

It may be the Maori version of one of Solomon's proverbs in the Scriptures that refers to the industry and determination of the little ant. Who knows?

When the carved meeting-house is completed, then another building will be added to the few of this kind of house in the North—one at Waitangi, and another at Mangamuka.

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Otiria dining hall.

– 12 –


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The boys' head prefect of Opunake District High School is Albert Wharemate (right), whose photo is also reproduced on the cover. He intends to go into the regular army. Heather Smith, the girls' head prefect, is shown on the left.

Before going to Opunake we were told some of its history. We found Opunake was a place with a warlike and eventful past; around the town there were many old and famous Maori entrenchments. It was there that the Taranaki tribes had fought off the Waikato invaders in various grim battles. It would be hard to find all the places; the battlegrounds were overgrown with a luxuriant crop of weeds. No wonder, either, for nobody would use a plough on places like that. Curious investigators always had to be careful not to fall into the many concealed holes. So much for the past.

Like all places with such a wild past, Opunake does look a little disappointing at first sight. One is accustomed to that, No amount of romance seems to prevent a place nowadays from being grazed by farm animals, and Opunake is covered with flat, luxuriant pasture almost everywhere. Walking through the place, one can see it has long been settled by the pakeha; several generations of settlers have left their mark on Opunake. Although the sea is only a street away, the settlers have concentrated mainly on the land, and turned their backs on the sea.

As in so many places, the most impressive building is the school. The recently opened high school, particularly, has a comfortable, modern look. Opposite the school is the most up-to-date tearoom of the locality, very bright and with plenty of seats; that is where the children come to eat their lunches. It was explained to us that so many of the children come from farms, where everyone is busy, that a place where the children can buy lunches is particularly useful here.

The study of the headmaster, Mr Burton, did not look at all formidable, as the rooms of headmasters do in books; perhaps those books all belong to the past, anyway. The light panelling reflected the bright sunlight falling from the large windows, the low, wide bookshelves did not have that forbidding look. I explained my rather vague mission—I came from Te Ao Hou, and would like to meet some of the children.

Mr Burton was most obliging. If I wanted to meet some of his pupils, he would go and collect some, and I could ask them as many questions as I liked. Such a sudden, close meeting with a crowd of school children would be an

– 13 –

entirely new experience to me. It frightened me thoroughly.

‘Would you like to leave it till after lunch, and think it over?’ asked Mr Burton. ‘Oh no,’ I said, ‘thinking won't make any difference.’

Mr Burton collected some of his charges. We met in the library. Everybody sat around two large tables that had been placed together.

I started the ball rolling by telling briefly about Te Ao Hou. Nobody had heard of it. Then a round-table discussion began which really excited the headmaster and myself, and which would, I think, have excited anyone who is interested in New Zealand's racial relations. Here were some of the most intelligent children of a country high school of about 170 pupils, all around sixteen years of age, and ready to go into the great big world. Some 15 per cent of the high school enrolment is Maori, and the Maori element was well represented at the discussion. Like most New Zealand schools, this one is quite free from any racial feeling; pakeha and Maori mix freely. The head prefect, Albert Wharemate, is a Maori. The school has a professional, a commercial and a rural course. There is no suggestion whatever of Maori pupils being more numerous or more proficient at one course than at another.

I was struck by the noble and generous spirit of the discussion. I have had lots of talks to adults on the same subjects, and my experience is they tend to be on a less exalted level.

It was now twelve o'clock. Others needed the library. So we moved to a delightful sunny classroom, where the discussion was continued until lunch, at half-past twelve.

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Self-portrait by Albert Wharemate

‘If Te Ao Hou was to be distributed in schools,’ I asked, ‘what do you think should be in it?’

The answer to that was immediate and unanimous. They all wanted Maori myths and legends. They would also like art, carving, and so forth. Right through the discussion a lead-

– 14 –

ing speaker was Heather Smith, the girls' head prefect. She wants to study political science when she leaves school.

‘To which college will you go?’ I asked.

‘To Victoria College,’ she said, ‘I want to be able to watch Parliament.’

Heather Smith gave me so many useful tips about what should go into Te Ao Hou, that I was on the point of offering her my job. Current news on Maori literature; on interesting films; features on New Zealand history—in short, she said, the things on which Maori culture rests. More feminine interests were shown when she also suggested Maori cooking recipes.

I forget now who asked me for stories on pa life today, and ‘little interesting anecdotes showing sidelights of Maori life.’

It was a great experience.

We had a good deal of discussion on the extent to which Maori culture flourished today. Some suggested that it was all dying, and the language, too. We asked the head prefect, Albert Wharemate, which language seemed to him the most suitable for expressing his deepest and most fundamental utterances, and this boy—whose achievements in the pakeha world so far have certainly left nothing to be desired—answered without hesitation, ‘Maori, definitely.’ Yet the Taranaki community from which he comes contains many successful farmers, and is more modern in outlook than the average.

So this very satisfying discussion ended. As Mr Burton wisely pointed out to me afterwards, if there is a racial problem in New Zealand, it develops mainly after the children leave school. When a child moves into adult society and has to find work, housing and companions, he is exposed to dangers and difficulties not found at school. The most important job now is to see that the Maori child does not lose his sense of security on leaving.

That, Mr Burton thinks, is the root of the problem. At this stage the Maori child has to be helped to find apprenticeships and accommodation. When we left the headmaster in his attractive, spacious school buildings and looked back on the generous, fertile grounds, we realised that the enormous influence which these schools have on the Maori children is mainly due, not to the learning they accumulate there, but to the comfort and security they provide.

– 15 –

Mahinarangi and

Whatihua had again triumphed over his younger brother in the affair of the Aotea lady, Ruaputahanga, and Turongo was disconsolate. He was very much depressed in mind, and to ease the pain in his heart the unhappy Turongo proceeded to pull down his house, on which he had lavished so much care. After he had completely dismantled the building, he dragged the carved pillars to the beaches and threw them into the sea.

Turongo was a tortured soul, and often he was seen on the wind-swept sand dunes gazing wildly out to sea. Now and then he would raise his voice and chant his melancholy song into the teeth of the gale. The people listened in awe to this cry of anguish from their young chieftain. In time the words of the song were memorised, and in order to soothe the great sorrow in Turongo's heart they popularised his song; and parties often got together to sing it in chorus.

This plan worked well, and enabled Turongo to take a grip of himself. He now recalled to mind the stories that he had heard of a noted beauty of the name of Mahinarangi, who lived on the East Coast in the Heretaunga (now Hawke's Bay) District. He made up his mind to leave Kawhia for good, and he discussed his plans with his father. Tawhao was a wise old man, and he told his son that he had decided to divide the tribal domain in two. The lands

– 16 –

Ka raru ano a Turongo i tona tuakana i a Whatihua mo te wahine o Aotea mo Ruaputahanga, a ka pa mai te hinapouri ki a ia. Te kawenga a te hinapouri ka turakina e Turongo te whare i ata hanga ra e ia a ko nga pou whakairo ka totoia ki te moana.

He hanga aroha a Turongo ki te haere wairangi noa i te akau, a he mea ano ka rongona tona reo e waiata ana ano he whakapu i te taha o te haruru o te tai. Ka noho tona iwi ka mamae o ratou ngakau ki te whakarongo ki te waiata a Turongo. Ka akona atu e ratou nga kupu o taua waiata me kore noa e marie tona pouri ki te rongo mai ki a ratou e waiata ana.

Ina te waiata tangi a Turongo, ko te waiata Nama 197 kei te wahanga II o Nga Moteatea:

Hei kona ra, e whare kikino,
Tu mai ai,
Hei whakaahua ma te tangata
I te hikitanga o te poupou,
Ka hopa i tehi tara,
Ka hira kei runga.
No namata mai ano i ako mai
I te waihanga, ko Ruatahuna,
Ko ta rekoreko, rere mai te pua
Ko te ua-awha,
Ko Moana-nui, ko Moana-tea,
Ko Manini-kura, ko Manini-aro,
Tenei ka tu kei te takutai,
Ko te koha a Turongo.
Opane koanga au,
Ko te wahine nana i hari mai
Te toki pounamu,


on the coast from Kawhia northwards were to be for Whatihua, and the territory on the eastern and inland side of the Pirongia and Hauturu ranges, with the northern boundary on the Puniu River, were to be for Turongo. Then, before bidding his son farewell, Tawhao also spoke to Whatihua. Before Turongo left on his journey his father earnestly enjoined on him that whatever might befall he was to return and claim his inheritance. Turongo expressed his gratitude to his father, and promised that after his travels he would return.


After a long and uneventful journey Turongo eventually arrived at Raukawa (the district around the present site of the Te Aute Maori Boys' College, in Hawke's Bay), and there he called at the village of Kahotea. Kahotea was the home of Mahinarangi, where she lived with her mother and her father, Te Angiangi (also called Te Angi-o-tu) and Tuaka. Turongo found Tuaka, the father of Mahinarangi, busily engaged with his people in the building of a large tribal house. Some members of the tribe were away in the forest ranges snaring birds, whilst others were on the coast, collecting seafoods for the house-builders. Turongo's knowledge of the art of the fowler was unsurpassed, and this knowledge, together with his skill as a house-builder, soon established a reputation for him among the Ngati-Kahungunu tribes of Heretaunga. He was particularly adept in the splitting of timber, and could do twice as much of this work as any other man. Before

– 17 –

Hei taratarai atu i te poupou,
Kia ngangao ai.
Na to matua koe i whangai
Ki te umu o te hotu
Mo te moe-tu, mo te moe-ara.
O kupu kei roto, a mahara i roto
To ngakau ki te mau toki,
He matawaia ki te hanga
E tu mai nei.
He aha koa he kopae tu
Ki waenga te marae,
He kahu makere, he ngongoro i roto
He moe ki raro, e.

Ina noa e marie nei te pouri o Turongo. Ka puta ona whakaaro ki te puhi atahua ra ki a Mahinarangi, o Heretaunga, kei te Tairawhiti. Ka whakaaro ia me haere atu ia i Kawhia, haere oti atu; a ka whakapuaki ia i ona whakaaro ki a Tawhao ki tona matua. Otira he kaumatua aroha a Tawhao ki ana tamariki. Ka korero ia ki a Turongo a ki a Whatihua hoki kei te ata roherohea e ia ona whenua, ko nga whenua ki te takutai mai i Kawhia ka rere whakararo mo Whatihua, a ko nga mea ki te tuawhenua mai i Pirongia ka rere ki te pae maunga o Hauturu a ki te awa o Puniu mo Turongo. Ka haere a Turongo engari i runga ano i te kupu iho ki tona matua tena te wa ka hoki mai ki te wa kainga.


very long his skill was being freely commented upon, and one day Te Angiangi spoke to her daughter, Mahinarangi, and said; ‘Me moe koe i a Turongo hei rangatira mou; he tangata kaha hoki ki te mahi kai.’ (You should marry Turongo and let him be your lord; for he is indeed an industrious food-gatherer.)

The building of the house proceeded, and Turongo's services were in great demand. Meanwhile, the young Tainui chieftain was taking careful note of the behaviour of the Chief's daughter. Mahinarangi was not only beautiful, but she was also skilled in weaving and other womanly arts. She carried herself proudly in the pukana, or posture dances, and in the poi (the famous stringed-ball dance of the Maori). She sang the rousing songs of her people with an alluring sparkle in her eyes; and when she gestured, and her supple young body swayed, and she accompanied each graceful turn of her head with a side-long, haughty stare of her lustrous eyes, Mahinarangi was altogether irresistible.

Turongo was subdued in the face of such a captivating beauty, and he could not forget that she was of the best blood in the land. In the meantime, Mahinarangi had thought over her mother's advice, and she had decided it was good. But how to begin?

Every evening Mahinarangi had taken particular notice of the direction in which Turongo strolled—pre-occupied with many thoughts—on his way home from the assembly house, after the evening talks with the menfolk of the village. Early one evening, before the rising of the moon, Mahinarangi carefully bedecked herself, and put on her finest woven garments. Over her beautiful shoulder feather cloak she carefully sprayed the famous raukawa * perfume. Making some excuse to her companions, she left her father's house and hurried across the village marae, or courtyard; and, as if by chance, she ran breathlessly into the arms of Turongo. The young man was startled out of a deep reverie, and before he could collect his thoughts the young lady had quickly hidden her face against his ear and whispered: ‘Taku aroha e te tau; taku aroha!’ (My love, O beloved; my love!) Turongo was about to speak when she tore herself away and disappeared into the night.

He had no idea who she was; but that fragrant perfume lingered, and assailed his thoughts. Could it be Mahinarangi? With a mind full of fanciful thoughts, Turongo went off to sleep that night with a burning feeling in his breast, and the sweet words of love in his brain.


* Rau-kawa—a perfume made from the leaves of the kawakawa tree.

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o Ngati-Kahungunu ki Heretaunga. E akoina ki te wawahi rakau kaore he tangata hei whawha atu ki a Turongo, e nawai ra kua poipoia tona ingoa e te ngutu tangata. I tetahi rangi ka mea atu a Te Angiangi ki tana tamahine ki a Mahinarangi—‘Me moe koe i a Turongo hei rangatira mou; he tangata kaha hoki ki te mahi kai.’

Ka haere te mahi o te whare o Tuaka me te whakamihi ano a te tangata mo te tohunga o Turongo ki te mahi. Ko Turongo ia pau katoa ona whakaaro ki te tamahine a Tuaka ki a Mahinarangi.

He wahine atahua a he wahine ringa rawe hoki ki a te wahine ki ana mahi a Mahina rangi. Hei te pukana hei te poi a hei te waiata e ka mau te wehi, rere ana te ihiihi ki te tangata.

Ka ahua tamate nga whakaaro o Turongo ki tona whakaarotanga iho e he uri rangatira taua whine. Ko Mahinarangi ia kei te whakaaro mo te korero a tona whaea engari me pehea ra tana whakatata atu ki a Turongo.

I nga tuahiahitanga ko te mahi a Mahinarangi he titiro ki a Turongo e hoki ana ki tona whare i muri mai o nga korero ki te whare-puni—hei te haere ko nga whakaaro kei whea mai nei. Taka rawa ki tetahi ahiahi ka ata whakakahu a Mahinarangi i a ia a ka ruia te hinu kakara o te raukawa ki runga i ona pakihiwi. Ka haere atu ia i te whare o tona matua me tana whakaware ano ka whakawhiti atu i te marae a pena tonu i heipu noa ka tutuki atu ki a Turongo, oho rere ana taua maia hoki rawa ake ona whakaaro ko te reo anake e warowaro ana i roto i ona taringa ‘Taku aroha e te tau; taku aroha.’

Raparapa noa ona whakaaro ko wai ra ko wai ra taua wahine engari ko te kakara o te raukawa mau tonu i roto i ona whakaaro. Ka wawata ano ia ko Mahingarangi pea? Ka takoto a Turongo me tana whakaaro mo taua wahine rokohanga ka rotua e te moe.


Ka noho na he ahiahi ke ano ka mutu ano te tohu ki a Turongo ko te kakara o te raukawa. Mau tonu taua kakara i roto i ona whakaaro katahi ia ka mea me mataara ia kia mau ai taua wahine.

Uina ake i te ata, kei te warea te tangata ki te mahi, ka ahu atu a Turongo ki a Mahinarangi ratou ko ona hoa e whakataruna ana ki te tititorea. Ka haere wairangi noa atu ia ka tu i muri i tena i tena o aua wahine.

Kua whairo ake i a Mahinarangi a Turongo e ahu mai ana a kua noho kino nga whakaaro o taua puhi. Kei te haere te takaro a nga wahine ra ka haere mai a Turongo ka tu mai i tawahi atu o Mahinarangi. Kua puhana ona


Some evenings later the same thing happened, and Turongo again recognised the raukawa perfume he was never to forget; and, there and then, he made up his mind that he would not be caught unawares again.

The following morning, when most of the people of the village were occupied with the every-day life of the tribe, Turongo walked over to where Mahinarangi and a merry group of the young maidens of the pa were engaged in the game of titi-torea (game played with sticks). Assuming as casual an air as possible, Turongo became an interested spectator as he sauntered around the group and stood over each player in in turn.

Mahinarangi had seen Turongo approach, and she found it increasingly difficult to concentrate on their game. Sitting cross-legged or kneeling, the maidens deftly threw the smooth titi-torea sticks around the circle, in time to the tune of a lilting refrain. Turongo came around the circle, and presently stood behind a player on the opposite side of the ring to Mahinarangi. The colour had by now mounted to the young lady's cheeks. But Turongo was not looking at her. He could not, as he was afraid he would betray himself. If Mahinarangi were not the maiden of the raukawa perfume, he would indeed be a very disappointed man. As he moved and paused behind each player in turn, every now and again he thought he had caught the fragrant aroma of that distinctive raukawa perfume of his breathtaking evening encounters with the maiden of his dreams. Stooping low over the nearest player—feigning to be engrossed in the game—Turongo tried to trace the elusive scent to its source.

As Turongo drew near, Mahinarangi became flustered, and her companions were moved to chide her laughingly for dropping the sticks when it was her turn to catch and pass them on around the ring. By the time Turongo had reached a position behind her, Mahinarangi could not control her agitation any longer, and, hurriedly springing to her feet, she announced that she was finished with their game. In rising she brushed against Turongo, and his whole being quivered when, as he caught his breath at her nearness, he recognised that unmistakeable raukawa perfume in the flurry of her garments. One of the players was very observant, and it was she who delighted in telling the story later of how she had been almost blinded by the burning ardency with which Turongo and Mahinarangi exchanged looks, before the chieftain's daughter, with studied blitheness, hurried off.

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paparinga i te whakama ko Turongo ia kei te titoro ke kei titoro atu kua mohiotia mai i haere tonu mai ia ki a Mahinarangi. Mehemea hoki ehara i a Mahinarangi taua wahine ka tau tetahi pouri nui ki a ia. I a ia e tu ana, ano kei te tata tonu mai te kakara o te raukawa, ka tuohu iho ia ki te wahine i mua atu i a ia he whakataruna noaiho me kore e kitea ko wai ra taua wahine. Ka whakatata mai a Turongo ki a Mahinarangi kua noho kino rawa atu nga whakaaro o taua wahine tae rawa mai ki tona taha ka makere te rakau ko tona whakatikatanga me te ki ano kua mutu tana takoro. I tona whakatikatanga ka pa ake ia ki a Turongo ka tae mai te ihiihi ki tera rokohanga ko te kakara o te raukawa i nga kahu o Mahinarangi. Tera tetahi o nga wahine ra kei te titiro korotaha ake ki a Mahinarangi raua ko Turongo a nana te whakatu o te titiro atu a tetahi ki tetahi a taua tokorua i mua o te rere patikotanga o Mahinarangi.


Kaore a Turongo i atatau i tena ra. Ko tona whakaaro nui ka whakaae ano te Ariki nui ra a Tuaka kia moe tana tamahine i te tauhou penei i a ia a ka ahua hau mate ia i tenei whakaaro. Engari ra no te toto rangatira ano ia a Turongo a he oranga ngakau tenei whakaaro.


For the rest of that day Turongo was in a turmoil. Would the great Ariki, or High Chief, Tuaka, consent to his beloved daughter marrying a stranger? With this thought his spirits fell; but he, too, was of ariki line, ran his thoughts, and his spirit rose again.

That night Turongo hurried to their trysting-place. For a long time he waited. Would she never come? Presently the moon rose, and Mahinarangi had not come … Perhaps he was mistaken … It might be someone else. Then, as the full moon lit up the landscape and threw romantic shadows across the marae, a lithesome figure came running up to him. In the moonlight he recognised none other than Mahinarangi, as, with a sob of joy, she threw herself into his arms. In wordless ecstacy Turongo and Mahinarangi clung to each other …

Tuaka was in the tribal whare-puni (assembly house) that night, discussing with the elders the plans for the festivities that had been arranged for the dedication of the new house. The talk had finished when, in the ensuing silence, Mahinarangi entered and made her way to her father's side at the Kopa-iti 1 on the front left-hand corner of the building. Taking a seat


1 Kopa-Iti—the place of honour for the local chief.

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I taua po ka haere ano a Turongo ki te wahi i tutaki ra raua ko Mahinarangi. Ka whanga na ia. E kore rawa ia taua wahine e tae mai. Ka rere mai te marama kaore ano a Mahinarangi. Ka takitaro rawa e oma mai ana taua wahine rere tika tonu mai ki roto i ona ringa takamiri ai. Ka awhi raua te ki te waha te aha.

Ko Tuaka i te whare puni e korerorero ana ratou ko ona pakeke mo te kawanga o to ratou whare hou. Kua paenga nga korero mo taua take ka tomo atu a Mahinarangi tika tonu ki te kopaiti i te taha maui o taua whare, ka noho atu ki te taha o tona matua. Ka mea iho a Tuaka ‘he aha tau’? Ka korero tana tamahine mo tona aroha mo Turongo. Ka whakarongo te matua a ka mea mai ‘Ka ora koe i a Turongo’.

Ko Turongo i te mahau ano o te whare e tu ana, ka poroakitia atu kia tomo mai. Ka tu atu a Tuaka ka hongi ki taua rangatira. Ka noho a Turongo ki te ihonui ki tawahi mai i a Tuaka, ko te wahi tera i wehea mo nga rangatira o taua iwi.

Kei runga ko Tuaka e mihi ana ki a Turongo a katahi ka korero kua whakapuaki a Mahinarangi i tona aroha mo te rangatira o Tainui engari ra ma Turongo ano e korero tana take. Kei runga ko Turongo e whakamarama ana i


next to her father she nestled against him, and presently she let her head slip down on to his lap and she looked up into his tattooed face. ‘He aha ai?’ (What is it?) the father softly asked. Mahinarangi did not need further prompting; in a low but excited voice she poured out her story of love for the handsome Tainui man. Tuaka beamed down on the flushed face of his beloved daughter, and her eyes sparkled with joy when she realised that her choice of a husband found favour with her father. ‘Ka ora koe i a Turongo.’ (Turongo will cherish you) was Tuaka's comment, as he quietly patted Mahinarangi's burning cheeks.

Turongo, who had lingered at the mahau, or porch-way, of the house, was invited to enter. As he came in through the sliding doorway, Tuaka gravely rose from his place and greeted Turongo with the hongi (touching of noses). Turongo then took his place on the right-hand side of the house, at the ihonui, 2 opposite the place of the chief, Tuaka. As this was an important occasion, Turongo had taken the place of honour for visiting chiefs.

Tuaka arose from his place at the Kopa-iti, glanced slowly around the house, and began to


2Iho-nui—the leading chief among the visitors sat here.

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tona tatai ki Tainui waka a ka tono i a Mahinarangi hei wahine mana.

Kei runga ano ko Tuaka ka mea, ‘Me tu koutou ki te korero na koutou hoki tenei tamaiti, mokopuna a Mahinarangi. Ka tu tena ka tu tena kotahi tonu te rangi o te korero he whakaae kia moe a Mahinarangi i a Turongo. Ka paenga nga korero ko nga mahi ngahau awatea atu ana e waiata ana e haka ana. Mutu marika ka marenatia a Mahinarangi raua ko Turongo i runga ano i nga manaaki a te Tohunga.


Ka tae te rongo o te moenga o Turongo i a Mahinarangi ki Kawhia ka tae mai a Tawhao te matua o Turongo, ki te mau mai i nga manaaki a Tainui. Rokohanga mai a Mahinarangi kua hapu. Ka tono a Tawhao kia hoki a Turongo ki tona iwi kia whanau atu tana tamaiti matamua ki nga rohe o Tainui. I ata korero a Mahinarangi ki a Turongo ko te ki a ona matua wahine he tane tana tamaiti ina hoki te kowatawata o tona kanohi, mehemea hoki i ta pouri i porangorango ranei he wahine, ko ta te Maori enei o mua iho.


speak. First of all he greeted Turongo as a chief of the Tainui people, as was proper on such occasions, and then addressing his people, he announced that his daughter, Mahinarangi, had imparted some important news to him, and that he was expecting Turongo to follow him, and to verify what he had been told by his daughter about their love for each other. When Tuaka had finished, Turongo rose from his place and spoke up manfully. It was now proper for him to give an account of himself; and he gave the history of his Tainui people, and concluded his speech by boldly asking for the hand of Mahinarangi.

Tuaka again rose, anud turning to the tribal elders and his fellow-tribesmen, he said: ‘I invite you all to speak, for Mahinarangi is a daughter of the tribe. She is as much your child as mine.’ Each in his turn, the tribal orators spoke, and it was evident that the union of Turongo and Mahinarangi found favour among the tribe. Through the long night they sang the tribal songs, and joined in the haka, or posture dances. After a lively and joyful poi dance by a troupe of young ladies, Mahinarangi was conducted from her place alongside her father, and with much banter from her high-spirited companions, she was led to a place specially laid out with the best mats of the tribe, alongside the place where Turongo sat. The Tohunga, or priest, then came forward and recited the marriage ritual. And so they were married.


The account of the marriage of Turongo and Mahinarangi in time reached Kawhia, and when Mahinarangi became an expectant mother, Turongo was visited by his father, Tawhao, who had come across the ranges from the West Coast to bless the union. Tawhao asked that his son be allowed to return to his own people, and to make a fitting home for his wife. Plans were accordingly made, and it was arranged that Mahinarangi was to follow soon after the departure of Tawhao and his son, as Turongo was particularly anxious that his first-born should be born on Tainui soil. Mahinarangi had confided in Turongo, and told him that the mothers of the tribe had assured her that the child would be a son, because of her clear complexion. If her face had been blotched or had become freckled the child would be a daughter—so believed, and still believe, the Maori mothers.

Tawhao and Turongo now returned to Kawhia, and on their arrival Tawhao called his two sons together and brought about a reconciliation. In accordance with the arrangement he had previously spoken of to his sons, Tawhao

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Ko te hokinga o Tawhao raua ko Turongo ki Kawhia a i te taenga atu ka poroakitia atu tana tama a Whatihua kia houhoua te rongo ki tona taina. Kua korero ra a Tawhao ko ona whenua ki te tuawhenua mo Turongo na reira ka whakatika taua maia ratou ko etahi o tona iki ka haere ki Manga-o-rongo ka hangaia tona whare a Rangiatea a ka whanga kia tae atu tona hoa rangatira a Mahinarangi.

Ka haere ra a Mahinarangi ratou ko tona iwi, kei te whakatata tana tamaiti, me nga koha, ta te rangatira tana haere. Ka haere hoki i a ia te kuri a Turongo hei hopu kai ki te huarahi a hei kaiarahi hoki mo ratou ana tae ki nga rohe kua taunga ia. I haere a Mahinarangi ma te Wairoa katahi ka piki ma nga pae maunga o Waikaremoana a ki Rotorua. I Rotorua ka haere ma Okaroire. Kua uru ratou kei nga rohe o Tainui a hei te manaki a te tangata kaingakau ana. Ka tae ki Okoroire ka whakamamae a Mahinarangi ko te nohonga iho ki reira whakawhanau ai. He puia i taua wahi. Ka whanau te tamaiti, he tane a ka huaina te puia ko Te Waitakahanga-a-Mahinarangi.

Ka pai ake i tona whanautanga, ko te haerenga o Mahinarangi a ka tae ki te awa o Waikato i raro atu o Te Hautapu a ka whakawhiti ma te kuititanga o taua awa. Kua tae te


directed Turongo to go inland and there set up his home. Accompanied by a number of his people, Turongo then left the ancestral home at Kawhia and went inland, and on the banks of the Manga-o-rongo, a tributary of the Waipa River, he established his new home on a hill, which he called Rangiatea. And there he awaited the coming of Mahinarangi.

Meanwhile, Mahinarangi, her time then being near, set out from her home with a large retinue. She was loaded with tribal gifts, as was befitting the daughter of a high chief. She also took with her Turongo's dog, which he had left with her, as it would be helpful in catching game on the way, and would also be able to guide them when they reached territory it was familiar with. The party first went to Wairoa, and then proceeded inland over the ranges. Skirting the shores of beautiful Waikaremoana, the party continued on, and finally reached Rotorua. Everywhere Mahinarangi was made welcome, and she was an honoured guest at the several villages they called at on their way. From Rotorua the party went on to a place near Okoroire. They were now in Tainui territory, and the journey thus far—owing to the pressing invitations from the people of the villages they had passed through to tarry and partake fully of their hospitality—had taken much more

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kuri a Turongo ki ona takahanga waewae ka mahue iho a Mahinarangi kua motio iho ra kei te whakatata ki Rangiatea. Ka haere te kuri ra ka tae ki a Turongo. Ko te whakatikatanga mai o taua maia me tana ope me te kawenga kai ma Mahinarangi ratou ko tana ope.

Ka tae mai a Turongo ka awhi i tana wahine ka wehe raua ki ta raua tama. Uina ake te haerenga ki Rangiatea a e pae mai ana a


time than had been expected. By the time the party reached Okoroire, Mahinarangi realised that her condition would not permit her to travel any further. Preparations for her comfort were accordingly made, and near the hot springs at that place Mahinarangi gave birth to a son. The warm bathing pool where she bathed herself and her baby son was named Te Waitakahanga-a-Mahinarangi (The Waters-wherein-Mahinarangi-bathed).

Mahinarangi found this spot most restful, and she stayed there until she was quite recovered. From Okoroire the party went on until they reached the Waikato River at what is now called the ‘Narrows’, below the modern town of Cambridge; and here Mahinarangi crossed over. Turongo's dog was now in land familiar to it, and shortly after they crossed the river the dog went off. Mahinarangi knew that they did not have much further to travel, and at the next likely looking place she decided to encamp, and announced to her party that she would there await the coming of Turongo. The dog, in the meantime, following the tracks it knew, went in a southerly direction, and on reaching the Kawhia Track it turned eastwards, and finally came to Rangiatea. Turongo wasted no time, and with a party he set off, with his dog in the lead, in the direction of the Waikato, laden with food for Mahinarangi and her visiting party.

Arrived at the encampment, Turongo had a happy reunion with his beloved Mahinarangi. She was a joyful mother when she saw the look of pride in Turongo's eyes, as he clasped his son to his breast. Early the following morning they broke camp and, headed by the proud young Tainui chief with his wife and son, the party proceeded on to the journey's end at Rangiatea, where Tawhao awaited their coming with a selected body of warriors, to give Mahinarangi and her party a fitting welcome to her future home.

At the sacred tuahu 1 overlooking the Mangaorongo, Tawhao performed the tohi, or baptismal rites, on his grandson. Turongo and Mahinarangi stood by arm in arm, and when the priestly Tawhao pronounced the name they had chosen for their baby son, Turongo pressed Mahinarangi's hand as he whispered into her ear: ‘It could not be any other name but Raukawa.’ Mahinarangi blushed, and with tears of joy in her eyes she looked up into his eyes, and said simply: ‘Raukawa, our Raukawa.’

The great love story of Turongo and Mahinarangi is nearly ended. Turongo and Mahinarangi lived happily at Rangiatea all their days, and in all the annals of the Tainui tribes this


1Tuahu—earth-formed altar.

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Tawhao ratou ko ona iwi ki te manaaki i ta ratou taonga me te mokopuna a Tainui.

Ka tohia e Tawhao tana mokopuna i te tuahu e tiro iho ra ki Mangaorongo ko Raukawa. Ko nga matua ano e tu atu ana a ka whakahuaina te ingoa mo ta raua tamaiti ka mea atu te tane ‘Kaore he ingoa ke atu mo ta taua tamaiti heoi ano ko Raukawa’ ko te wahine ‘Ae ko ta taua Raukawa.’

Ka mutu ra nga korero mo Turongo raua ko Mahinarangi, i to raua hononga ka hono hoki nga tatai nunui o te Tairawhiti ki nga tatai o nga iwi o Tainui.

Ina nga whakapapa:


marriage is spoken of as one of life-long bliss. It was also a golden period in the history of Maoridom. No wars took place to mar the peaceful life of Turongo and his people in those far-off days. From this union sprang the great tribes of Ngati-Raukawa, Ngati-Whakatere, Ngati-Maniapoto, and various other Tainui tribes. Today the blood of Turongo and Mahinarangi flows in the veins of the great ones of the land. By this union, too, were joined the leading lines from four famous canoes; and we end this account by tracing out the descent of the Maori Kings through Turongo and Mahinarangi:

Hoturoa Tamatea
Hotuope Kahungunu
Hotumatapu Kahukuranui
Motai Rakeihikuroa
Ue Tupurupuru
Raka Te Rangituehu
Kakati Tuaka
Turongo = Mahinarangi
Te Kawairirangi I
Te Kawairirangi II
Te Kanawa
Te Kahurangi
Te Rauangaanga
Tiahuia Mahuta
Te Puea Te Rata

Evidence of a revival of Maori crafts in the Horowhenua district was the exhibition held last November at a Progress Day of Raukawa District Council of the Maori Women's Welfare League. Tuwhara, kits and taniko, as well as European knitting and embroidery were displayed. The exhibition was the result of a decision taken earlier by the District Council to start classes in craft work for the women in the leagues under its control. Quite a number of the exhibits were first attempts made during these classes. Mr T. T. Ropiha, Under-Secretary of Maori Affairs, opening the Progress Day, expressed pleasure at the display of work, and said he felt it was the forerunner of greater things to come.

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The Pallbearers. left: Turi Tipoki, Takitimu, Hemana Pohika, Te Arawa. right: W. T. Ngata, Horouta. Other canoes represented were Aotea, Tokomaru, Nga Toki Matawhaarua Kurahaupo, and Matatua.

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left to right: Revs. G. Lawson, Ngapaka Kukutai, E, Te Tuhi, M. Kapa and Wi Huata.

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The cortege on its way to Taupiri burial ground.

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This small collection includes just a few of the objects, many of them priceless, that are kept at Mahinarangi.
1. Kiwi cloak, brought to Ngaruawahia on the occasion of the tangi for Rima Wakaiua, Taranaki
2 Kahu kura which belonged to Potatau 1.
3 Originally a Kaitaka, belonging to Rewi Maniapoto: very old, but with thrums of dogs' hair added at a later date

4 Top: Piece of lava rock sent by the people of Rai'atea, at the opening of Mahinarangi. This piece of rock comes from Taputapuaitea, the most sacred of maraes. Left: Piece of lava rock of same nature as above; from the first altar erected by Hoturoa at Maketa (Kawhia). Below: Carving mallet found recently in a swamp.
5 Remains from a house Te Rauparaha built near Mokau. Just below that: The oldest taiaha at Ngaruawahia, called Te Pipiwharauroa. It has a long and illustrious history, and was presented to Waikato by Ngapuhi on the occasion of the peace between Ngapuhi and Waikato in the eighteen-twenties. The ceremonial adze lying over it was given to King Koroki by the last wish of Mita Taupopoki, the famous orator and a leader of Te Arawa.

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One Land - Two Peoples

Some people think of Fiji as the place where sugar comes from, others as the last stop by plane, 1,140 miles out from Auckland—a place where there is an attractive airport on the route to North America; some think of Fiji as an important military link in the war strategy of the Pacific area, as a communications centre served by five air lines; some middle-aged people will think of Suva as the first port of call for trans-Pacific steamers from New Zealand; others, older than middle-aged, may think of Fiji as the islands where indentured labourers from India were brought to work: the younger men among us may think of the Fijian football team; the Government administrator thinks of Fiji as a place where New Zealand nurses may do a tour of duty; where New Zealanders sometimes teach school; perhaps as a far out-post of the New Zealand Education Department's Correspondence School, or even as the regional centre for the South Pacific Health Service, where men and women are trained for health work on other Pacific islands; some people think of Fiji as the place where there is a leprosy hospital (at Makogai); others merely think vaguely of it as a British colony, known a century ago as the Cannibal Isles of Fiji.

These impressions of Fiji are all correct—and they are all important to an understanding of Fiji. And they suggest, but do not stress, the most important point—that the Fijians are people—a people with well-established traditions and an organisation of society well adapted to life in the South Seas, but having to live in a world which has different customs and strange ways.

There is a story from Fiji which, to me, illustrates this problem and, at the same time, makes me feel very uncomfortable. It is the story of a Fijian boy who was awarded the Victoria Cross in the 1939–45 war—Corporal Sukanaivalu. He had rescued several wounded men while under intense fire from the Japanese, and was eventually severely wounded himself. Because he could not walk, he called out to his men not to try to rescue him—it was too dangerous. When they said they would come out and get him, he exposed himself to Japanese fire and was, of course, instantly killed. His name, Sukanaivalu, means ‘finished with war’. His father gave that name to the son born to him after he had returned from fighting in France in the 1914–18 war. In Suva, the Governor of Fiji presented Sukanaivalu's Victoria Cross to his grey-haired father and mother as they sat on the ground, Fiji fashion, in front of a great parade of people.

The story of Fiji is similar to that of other places in the Pacific. The group covers over 300 islands, the total area being about twice the size of Taranaki. The islands were discovered by the West when Abel Tasman visited them in 1643. Captain Cook also touched there, as did Captain Bligh of the ‘Bounty’.


In the early part of last century, the Fiji Islands were visited by traders looking for sandalwood. They were an undesirable type, and sold rum and fire-arms to the Fijians to help them in their tribal wars. Aided by the white man's muskets and the warriors of King George the First of Tonga, one chief, Thakombau, became the most powerful, and in 1845, accepted Christianity and gave up cannibalism. Later, Thakombau had some difficulties with the United

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Matayalevu in the Yasawas. Breadfruit trees have been planted throughout the village. Besides giving protection from the hot sun, these give an added supply of food.

States Consular Agent, who presented him with a bill for $43,000. The presence of a United States warship made Thakombau promise to pay. To get the money, he offered to cede Fiji to Great Britain, and to give 200,000 acres to the British Government in return for the money he wanted.

At this time, the British Government had the Maori Wars on its hands, and Thakombau was opposed by other chiefs, so the British rejected the offer. Thakombau then offered Fiji to the U.S.A., who were themselves occupied with a civil war, and they did not even send a reply to the offer. Finally, after a good deal of negotiation, Thakombau ceded Fiji to Queen Victoria in 1874.


The British Government promised that the Fijian's rights of ownership over their land would be preserved. The first duty of the British Administration was, and is, the interests of the Fijians. This was the responsibility of the British Colonial Office, but there was another Government Department called the India Office. It was negotiating with India to recruit labourers for work on the Fijian sugar plantations. In 1875, a new disease called measles had wiped out one-third of the Fijian population. At the same time, the settlers and traders wanted labourers. The Governor of Fiji refused to demand money taxes from the Fijians, so that they did not have to work for wages. The taxes were in produce. In this way, the Fijians were confirmed in the ownership and occupancy of their land.


But it did not give the European settlers any labourers. That is why the India Office, in 1875, was trying to get indentured labourers for Fiji. The labourers were bound to work on the plantations for ten years and were, after the period of ten years, guaranteed a return passage to India. The India Office (that is, the British Government) promised that those who decided to stay in Fiji after they had finished their indenture, should have rights ‘in no whit inferior to those of any other race’—that is, it seems that the Indians were promised as much right to have land as anybody else.

By 1916, when the indentured labour system was ended, 64,000 Indians had been brought by the ship-load to work in the sugar plantations of the Colonial Sugar Refining Company; 24,000 of these had been taken back to India, and

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those of the remainder who had not died, stayed to become the parents of the present Fijian-born Indians.


This is the picture today: Fiji produces most of its own food, such as rice, vegetables, milk, meat, fruit. Its export crops are sugar cane, coconuts, bananas and pineapples, with some peanuts, ginger and tropical fruits. The other important activity is gold-mining.

When the indentured labour system ended, the Colonial Sugar Refining Company, which owns and leases large tracts of land, rented out a few acres each to the Indians, who thus became tenant farmers. Though the Fijians grow a little sugar cane, most of the production is in the hands of the Indians, half of whom have land bought or leased from the Fijian tribes, and half of whom are tenants of the Colonial Sugar Refining Company.


The major part of the copra from coconuts is produced by the Fijians on land owned in common. The remainder of the copra comes mainly from large estates worked by Indians and Fijian wage labour. The banana industry is run by the Fijians, on land held in common.

Fiji thus has two systems of production. One is traditional in Fiji, where the land is owned by the tribe or group, and not by the person, and cannot be sold. Production is for the group. The second system is where there is ownership of land by one person or company, hiring workers for wages. Most of the people, in fact, do not work for wages, but of those who do more than half are Indians, the rest being Fijians, other Pacific Islanders, Chinese and Europeans. In Suva and the townships, Indians largely do the shopkeeping, drive the taxis and run the laundries.

In Fiji, there are about 130,000 Fijians, and about 140,000 Indians. Despite the European diseases of measles and influenza, which reduced the Fijian population from about 200,000 in 1874 to 83,000 in 1919, the Fijians, like the Maoris, have made adjustments with the European world and are a vigorous people, increasing in numbers. But the Indians, who for some years have been in the majority, are increasing still faster. They have more women of child-bearing age, they have children earlier in life, and fewer of their children die. That means that at the present time the rate of increase of the Indians is greater than that of the Fijians.

The Fijians are not interested in individual money savings. They have the community—not the individual—philosophy. They are not interested in commerce. They are co-operators, holding land in common and working for the group. There is no inter-marriage between Indians and Fijians.


The Indians have been brought to Fiji and promised equal rights, but find it most difficult to buy land. The Indians are thrifty, hard-working: and fine cultivators, and have strong family attachments. The home country of the India is India, but his family home is increasingly in Fiji, for he was born there. Of the countries outside Fiji, India is where his sympathies lie. Some of the Fijian Indians feel, in

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The ‘Emperor’ mine in Fiji. Gold mining only started seriously some fifteen years ago, but production now is some £7,000,000 per year.

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Viti Lavu. The sugar industry is the most important industry in Fiji. The Colonial Sugar Refining Company of Australia operates five mills with a total capacity of 171,000 lbs. per season.

fact, that India should have been asked to govern Fiji, for are not the Indians the working colonisers! The Fijians, on the other hand, asked Queen Victoria to protect them, and though half a cenutry ago they wanted to federate with New Zealand, today they probably prefer to await self-government under a British Governor, with the New Zealanders taking a friendly interest on the side.

Fiji has its two peoples and its two traditions side by side. They each have their values, and the problem is how to preserve the Fijian ways while giving greater political freedom to all, and preserving justice for all.

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Indian children going to school.

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Indians have become the largest racial group in the Colony. Almost all tailors, laundrymen and boot-makers are Indians, some of whose women and children are shown in the photo. The first Indians were brought to Fiji as indentured labour in the 1880's.

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The Fijians precede any event of importance with the traditional offering of Yaqona (kava) and a magiti (feast). Spokesman is making presentation of yaqona root, cooked food and whole roasted pigs.

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Tukutuku work at Hukarere chapel

ONE OF NEW ZEALAND'S FINEST CHAPELS was consecrated at Napier on November 1. It was the chapel of Hukarere Girls' College, an institution whose outstanding and inspiring influence on Maori home life over the last three generations has become justly famous. Decorated by the finest carving, panelling and scroll-work, the building has little in New Zealand church architecture to equal it. It is fitting that it should have been erected here, to develop and inspire Hukarere's pupils during a very impressionable period in their lives, as these girls will have so great a part to play in the Maori world of tomorrow.

The guiding spirit of the chapel's design was the late Sir Apirana Ngata. He, so it is said, made the first sketch for it on the back of an envelope, after pacing out the distances on the site. Sir Apirana plauned the chapel with a pakeha exterior and a Maori interior. The exterior is simple and sedate, and resembles the average chapel. The inside shows the finest and richest work of which Maori artists and craftsmen are capable.

Dedicated by Bishop Lesser, of Waiapu, to St. Michael and the Angels, the chapel is a grift from ex-pupils of the school. Funds grew over the years, until four years ago enough had accumulated to start the work.

The decoration of the Chapel has been a rare opportunity for Maori craftsmen and for the schoolgirls, who spent many long hours helping Lady Ngata and Mrs R. Paenga with the tukutuku panels. Most of the carving was done in Gisborne, by John Taiapa, with the help of other East Coast men-Derek Mortis, Riki Smith and Bill Paddy. It was then sent to Napier by coastal steamer, and set up in the Chapel. But the kowhaiwhai work, for which Jack Kingi is responsible, was done when the boards were in place. Mr Kingi describes his work as a ‘modern modification’ of traditional designs.

The various tribes to which the girls belong are represented in the designs of the kowhaiwhai and in the tukutuku panels. The kowhaiwhai design on the centre ridge board was taken from the meeting-house at Waiomatatini in honour of Sir Apirana Ngata, and part of the kowhaiwhai in the sanctuary is in memory of Bishop Bennett. A fund has been started to set a stained-glass window in the west wall, as a memorial to these men, who were such good friends to Hukarere.

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This beautiful chapel is the work of many hands. The art work has been made possible by the generosity of various Maori groups, and a Government subdidy: most of the money for the furnishings came from the Te Aute Trust Board; and several generations of Hukarere girls have raised the money for the building itself.

Some weeks ago, just before the dedication ceremony, I took an opportunity of visiting the school, to see how it is faring, and to meet the girls.

High-perched Hukarere has a magnificent view of Napier and the blue, surrounding bays. Looking from the front like a very large private

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Action Song

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The chapel

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1 The outside of the chapel (front) is austere and does not suggest the richness of the interior. The school building is in the background.
2 Sewing class—Standing: Nellie Karkeek, and sitting, from left to right: Amiria Tearoatua, Whaterau Baker, Ani August, and Nina Lambert.
4 From left to right: Elizabeth Chase, Annie Wallace (upside down), Eleanor Pairama, Hinga Nepia.
5 Girls singing, from left to right: Horowai Ngarimu (Head Prefect), Tilly Mocke, Sue Keelan and Waitai Ferris.

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3 The dining Hall.

home, complete with flower-beds and kitchen garden, the school inside is homely and informal, and quite unlike the strict institution one might expect for one hundred and twenty girls.

The morning I arrived a comforting smell of fresh baking drifted out of the kitchen windows, and the sound of a sewing-machine came from somewhere over my head.


This homelike atmosphere is part of the Hukarere tradition. Miss Hunter, who has been Headmistress since 1948, told me: ‘The basis of everything we do here is to teach the girls to run their own homes.’

Wherever we went this practical approach was obvious. In the kitchen we interrupted the cooks-for-the-day, Hilda Otene, of Omahu, and Waiwai Ferris, of Ruatoria, as they were serving the vegetables for the mid-day meal. Neither Hilda, who wants to be a drill teacher, nor Waiwai, who wants to work in an office, thought it a waste of time to be learning to cook.

This training for home life is not haphazard. It is carefully organised to fit in with the ordinary school programme. Miss Hunter explained that the girls change jobs every fortnight, that the turns are arranged with scrupulous care, and that the work gets progressively more difficult as the girls become more responsible.

‘The Third Formers begin with sweeping the paths; then they graduate to washing the dishes and laying the tables, and so on to the laundry and the kitchen.’

After an excellent meal in an astonishingly quiet dining-room a large team of girls cleared the tables and washed the dishes with the best good humour. I asked Horowai Ngarimu, who has reached the supervisory status of the Sixth Form, how the girls like these jobs. She laughed, ‘The Third Formers think it's a hard life, but they soon get used to it.’

Many of the aspects of homecraft taught at Hukarere are not domestic chores at all. During the day I saw several forms practising their bandages for a Red Cross examination. I watched the embroidery classes doing very involved work on tapestry stool-covers and fire-screens, and just missed seeing a large and beautiful baby doll getting her morning bath at the hands of the Mothercraft Class.

Dressmaking is very popular. Form Five Lower was particularly busy, with their work in every stage from cutting to fitting. Some of these girls modelled their finished work for us, and others eagerly showed us what the rest of the school had done. Between the Third Form, where they make their own cotton gym-dresses, and the Fifth Form, where they learn to draft their own patterns, the girls make a man-tailored shirt to wear under their winter tunics: a baby's layette; dresses and shirts for their small brothers and sisters; and all kinds of clothes for themselves—from a petticoat to a tweed costume. Perhaps most important of all, they are taught to make an old garment over into something useful and attractive.


I asked Miss Hunter what becomes of the majority of her girls after they leave school.

‘They marry very early, most of them before they are twenty-five, so you can see how important it is for us to concentrate on homecraft.

(Continued on page 53)

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Last October, two males were bold enough to surprise a party of ladies of the Maori Women's Welfare League at Te Kuiti on the pretext of wanting to know something about weaving. One of the males, for obvious reasons, has to remain anonymous, but the other was Mr John Ashton, a photographer working for Te Ao Hou.

Mrs Tumohe, the lady of the house, received them kindly and most hospitably, and the pictures on these pages are a record of the methods used by Mrs Rangi Hetet, one of New Zealand's champion weavers, in making a simple basket. At least, she called it simple. The ladies also showed us their real masterpieces (photographed a little further on). In comparison to these, the demonstration basket was, of course, very modest. Still, one has to begin somewhere.

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While Mrs Hetet was making her basket, the other ladies were busy on various projects. Mrs Tira Tumohe started off a whariki and Mrs Te Koi Moera produced a little food basket (kono).

Meanwhile we were told many trade secrets. We were also rather struck by a story of a lady whose life was saved by a kono. Her husband, the chief Tapana, had been told she had been unfaithful to him and would have killed her, had not Tapana's other wife, who knew she was innocent, told her that her life was in danger and saved her by a remarkable trick. She threw all the kono of the village into the Waikato River, pretending they were dirty. When the river was covered with the little green baskets, she swam across, her head covered by another kono, so that nobody could see her.

The description of basket making that follows here is based partly on what the ladies told us and partly on the account in Te Rangi Hiroa's The Coming of the Maori.



When cutting flax for weaving never cut the complete bush. Leave at least the two inner leaves of each bush standing. Not only are these less suitable for the general run of jobs, but leaving them promotes growth. Mrs Tumohe had her flax bushes growing in the garden in a neat row. Although she does a great deal of weaving, the plants still grow abundantly and the home supply of flax never gets exhausted.


The leaves are split in halves. Notice the water drops on the picture. Flax should never be wetter than this when cut for weaving. It may split the hands if picked just after rain. Intense sun is no better: it dries the flax too much. Frost makes it too brittle. The weather should be just right.


Stripping is done with the thumb nail. For this basket, the strips are used as they are now. The finer and more ornamental type of basket goes through the processes of boiling and dressing. By dressing is meant the scraping of each boiled strip with a shell to make it pliable and prevent curling.


The end of each strip is scraped with a paua shell to clear a tuft of fibre.


The tufts are braided into a three-ply braid called whiri by means of strips added alternately on each side.


The braid is secured by an overhand knot at the end.

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– 39 –

Work begins in earnest. Looking ahead to picture 9 we see the strips run in two directions. Sir Peter Buck called those pointing towards the right ‘dextals’ and those pointing towards the left ‘sinistrals’. For lack of a simpler recognised term we shall have to use these complicated words in what follows. The ‘dextrals’ are separated into two sets. Every second strip is lifted up and the other kept down. The ‘sinistral’ is picked up by the right hand and placed between the top and bottom set of dextrals.


The sinistral is covered over by top set of dextrals and the bottom set is raised by the left hand. This secures the sinistral and we are now ready for the next one.


One side is finished. As you see, just after the beginning a loop has been made to hold the work together. When both sides are like this, they are brought together and the free strips plaited together to close the gaps at each end to an even depth with the sides.


The free ends are plaited in a three-ply braid to form a finished rim.

The title photo shows the finishing of the basket. Note the well-shaped base with a sharp

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Maori weavers; left to right: Mrs Tumohe, Mrs Te Koi Moera, Mrs Hetet.

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Display of crafts work by ladies of Te Kuiti.

edge at each end (koutu). These sharp edges are attended to just after starting to close the gap at each end. Beginning from the end of the whiri an equal number of strips are counted on each side and one strip on each side bent upwards at right angles. That is all. It is simple, once you know it.

– 40 –


Papawai is one of the few Maori villages yet remaining in New Zealand with any semblance of the old-time stockades. Pa posts, with carved human figures executed late last century, remind us of the old carved pa posts known as Tukumaru, or Tukuwaru, which in defiant attitudes sent forth their message of mute contempt to any enemy who dared assail their ramparts.

On each side of the gateway of Papawai pa is a carved post or pillar, both being more or less identical. These are said to be the work of East Coast carvers. One post, however, is unique in having the shoulder spiral of one of the figures carved with no fewer than six plain volutes. This is most unusual, and as far as we know is the only Maori spiral of its kind. A more typical class of spiral is seen on the shoulders and hips of the figure. These carvings are said to date from the 1880-1890's, and to be the work of two East Coast carvers, but no further details appear to be available.

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A remarkable monument at Papawai pa was erected in 1911, to the memory of Hamuera Tamahau Mahupuku, a distinguished chief of Ngati-Kahungunu. This was the work of the sculptor. Mr Nelson Illingworth. The monument is 18ft. high, with a 10ft. base, the outer portion being composed of white marble. Four panels on the sides commemorate great men—Maori and pakeha—who worked for the good of both peoples in the difficult years at the beginning of the present century. One panel,

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– 41 –

illustrated here, represents a scene from the signing of the Treaty of Lake Wairarapa, in 1889.



Gateway pillar of Papawai pa, Greytown. J. T. Salmon photo.


Treaty of Lake Wairarapa, 1889—Monument at Papawai pa. Photo W. J. Phillipps.


Carved pa posts, Papawai, Wairarapa. Photos W. J. Phillipps.


Spiral on gateway pillar, Papawai pa, Greytown. Miss L. L. D. Baswell del (after W. R. McKay).

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In 1852, the Treaty of Waitangi was about as far away as the start of World War II is today. The Maori world was changing rapidly through the flood of incoming Europeans, the undreamed of number of their white-winged whaka, and their commercial economy.

Perhaps the following incident will make the Maori bewilderment clear; a ferryman charged the Hon. Arthur Petre £1 for taking him over a river, and answered his objection to the charge thus: ‘I go to Arekana, and I see blankets and tomahawks in the shops. Do the shopmen give them to me without payment? I see the dealings of the pakeha among themselves. Are there any gifts? No. All is buying and selling.’

Among the older chiefs there was a dread of degradation in submission to the demands of the Government, but the majority of the younger leaders relied on the Treaty, and held that the words meant what they said and could not be broken. But they could not explain why the Government bought land for a few pence an acre, and sold it for a far greater price. Tamihana Te Rauparaha thought he had found the answer to the Maori problem when he went to England and saw a system operating whereby all power was derived from the Crown. Before his return he was presented at Court to Queen Victoria, by Sir John Pakington, Secretary for the Colonies, and saw the splendour of the English Monarchy. He returned to New Zealand in the Slains Castle and arrived at Dunedin early in November, 1852, with his solution to the problem—the creation of a Maori kingdom under the mana of Queen Victoria. November, 1852, is therefore the starting point of a movement that led to the formation of the Land League at Manawapou and the election of Potatau Te Wherowhero as the first Maori King.


The winner of the H. L. Harker Scholarship for Te Aute College is 14-year-old Richard Hohipa, of the Te Reinga Maori School, Wairoa. Richard, a son of the late Mr Rongo and Mrs Hohipa, is the fifth member of the family to win this award. He has two brothers already at Te Aute, and also two brothers at Hato Paoro Agricultural College, Feilding.

– 42 –

He Waka Harakeke

In the old world of the Maori, the young boys, in their seasonal games, always played with toy flax canoes. They took great pains in the construction of them, keeping in mind two main essentials—balance and speed.

After selecting an area of calm water in a lagoon, mud pool or river, the boys would line their toy craft at a pre-arranged starting point, and at a given signal the canoes were released. The breeze would catch the sails. Tiny ripples would appear behind the flax craft. Away they would go, sailing as gracefully as a China Clipper, or precariously wending their courses to the winning line. How anxious and excited the boys would be, we can all well imagine!

And how would you boys of Te Ao Hou manage to build one! You can manage very easily, and I am sure you can display the same keenness and skill that your fathers, grand-fathers and great grand-fathers displayed in their days. You can be equally proud of your achievements. There is a joy for all human beings who build or create something, and, more so, when the creation works!

Let us then begin.

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Get two complete blades of flax, one a young shoot called a RITO, and the other a more mature blade. Cut the rito to the shape shown in Figure 1, using the butt end for the back or stern of the canoe. The whole piece when cut should be about 10 inches long. The front end, or bow, should be rounded, as illustrated. You now have a piece with the stern closed and the bow opened.


As illustrated in Figure 2, press the two sides of the bow end together, and then cut grooves at regular intervals of ¼in. The cut should be no more than ¼in. deep. The last cut should be at the bottom, where the midrib naturally joins the two sides together.


Strip off a very thin strip (⅛in.) from another blade, and with this sew the bow ends together with a running stitch as shown in Figure 2. The loose ends can be folded around the next stitch and then cut off.

– 43 –

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FIG. 3


make three pairs of catches (Figure 3) by lifting the top layer of the flax with the end of a pocket knife. Be sure not to pierce the flax right through, as this will make the canoe leak. Each catch can be from ½in. to ¾in. long.


Now get the older blade of flax, and cut out the seats (Figure 3). Length depends on width of canoe, but a good width for the seat is ½in. Fix the seats in as shown in the diagram.


Using the old blade again, fold this over and cut out the sail to the shape shown in Figure 4.


Cut out a spar the same shape as a seat, and fix this into the sail in the same manner as for the seats (Figure 5). This bar is to hold the sail open.


Fix sail into position as shown in Figure 6.


To keep the sail in an upright position get a very thin strip of flax, tie one end around the spar of the sail, and secure the other end to the middle seat or to the back one.


The toy canoe is now completed, but in order to balance the canoe properly, i.e., to make the stern slightly heavier than the bow, place a lump of mud at the stern end. Your canoe is ready to be launched.

(A picture of the completed canoe, with instructions for sailing, are given on the next page.)

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FIG. 4

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FIG. 5

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FIG. 6

– 44 –



Do not leave the canoe in the sun—it will buckle and crack.


The sail should be about midway between the bow and centre seat. In Figure 3 the front seat is actually too close to the bow end.


If balanced correctly, the bow of the canoe will not touch the water.


Use the rito for the body of the canoe, as it is more flexible, and not likely to crack when handled.


If you study the diagrams you will find that the centre seat should be slightly longer than the other two.


You may streamline the cuts and shape of your canoe as much as possible, as this all assists with its speed.

S. M. Mead


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The ice cream of former times which, as its name indicated, was made of cream, is very old. The Chinese made it 600 years ago. But the modern ice, made from custard, was invented by accident by Sadie Johnson, Negro cook at the White House, during the Presidency of James Madison, and her reward was a night in gaol on charge of poisoning her master's guests.

When a party was cancelled, she placed some custards in an ice-box to cool, and forgot about them until the next function, two days later.

She did not know she was serving ice cream, and the first guest who tasted it did not know either. ‘Poison’, he shrieked, and the terrified Negress was immediately arrested. The party ended in turmoil. The President's wife, curious, had a cautious taste of the custards when the visitors had gone. She was thrilled by their delicious flavour.

Sadie Johnson was now released from gaol and given a rise of five dollars a month. The frozen custards were soon all the rage in the White House. Before long every embassy was serving them, and the new delicacy was on sale in cafes and shops.—The Standard.

– 45 –

Ehara i te mea he taonga weti-
weti te motopahikara-kei te

kaiarahi te he. Ki te pai te arahi he hanga ahuareka te rere i runga i taua taonga, he waka pai a tae mai ana te ihiihi ki te kaiarahi.

Ahakoa ra ka 52 nga tangata kua hemo a rau atu kua aitua i tenei tau i runga i te arahi porohe i te motopahikara. Ina nga makenu o aua kaiarahi:


He tere rawa no te haere–ara he tere rawa no te haere i runga i nga huarahi kino a i te wa ranei kaore e kitea marakeraketia atu a mua.


He porohe no te arahi i te wa e taha ana i tetahi atu waka–ara kaore e ata tupato te taha i tetahi atu waka i runga i te huarahi.


He kore e whakawatea kia taha tetahi atu waka.

Ki te tupato te arahi i te motopahikara ka mutu te waka, a ma reira anake ka ora ai te tangata.


(Inserted by the Transport Department)

– 46 –


Many people shook their heads when Mrs R. Beazley announced her intention of farming a hundred and fifty-two acres of scrub country at Kaiaua. In 1936 she took advantage of the Maori Land Development Scheme, and although the early years were hard, the property gradually began to look like a dairy farm.

Mrs Beazley has just been awarded the 1952 Ahuwhenua Trophy for efficient Maori farming. Mr R. C. Taylor, the extension officer of the Department of Agriculture at Rotorua, who judged the competition, gave Mrs Beazley full marks for her farm records. According to the New Zealand Herald, ‘He considers the fencing adequate for a dairy farm; the water supply and farm shelter good: the milking-shed, yards and equipment, house and surroundings to be of an exceptionally high standard, and the general neatness and cleanliness to be excellent.’

During these busy years Mrs Beazley has found time to be both President and Secretary of the Kaiaua Women's Institute, of which she is the only Maori member.


Every year the Waikato branches of the Maori Women's Welfare League enter a court for competition at the Waikato Winter Show. This year the challenge shield was won by the Maniapoto District Council. The president, Mrs Te Ra Joseph, received the shield from Mr R. J. Church, the president of the show association, in a ceremony on the marae at Tokonganuianoho, Te Kuiti.

Among the guests was the Hon. Mrs Hilda Ross, Minister of Social Welfare, who congratulated the Maniapoto women, and referred to the valuable work being done by the Welfare League.

A letter was received from the Hon. E. B. Corbett, saying:

As Minister of Maori Affairs, I wish to extend to you my good wishes and congratulations on the success of your work. The achievement of the Maori Women's Welfare League organisation in the struggle for the betterment of their people is one of which they can justifiably be proud.

The display of handwork and home craft at the Waikato Winter Show would have been a credit to any body of European women. I was especially pleased to see so much typically Maori among the exhibits. It helps to preserve the “Maoritanga” without which you, as the people, would be the poorer. The better world we seek must come from the home. Therefore, I wish you good luck and God's blessing on your endeavour, both at conference and in the days ahead.’

– 47 –


Centre of the Latest development to improve Maori conditions in Pukekohe will be the new school opened earlier in the year. The school itself is one of the most modern of its type, and is well equipped to deal with the special problems of Maori children living in Pukekohe's market gardens.

It was a commendable decision of the Education Department to drop its principle of not building Maori and general schools just for once, for one cannot think of any better atmosphere for the children of Pukekohe to grow up in than this neat building, where their gentle and undisturbed preparation for their future life is possible.

Staffed by a European headmaster, his wife, and two Maori teachers, this school, like other Maori schools, aims at teaching hygiene, housecraft, and so forth, as well as Maori culture-in addition to the usual curriculum.

The education authorities have gone out of their way to make this school a Maori centre for adults also. The School Committee is manned by almost the same people as the local Tribal Committee. This committee has, with the help of the local Rotary movement, provided playing fields and basketball courts for the school. The school has gifted a quarter-acre of its grounds to the Tribal Committee for the building of a Maori community centre, which is almost as badly needed in Pukekohe as the school was. Another rather unusual facility which the school offered its committee was a quarter-acre set aside for cropping. The committee hopes to earn some money each year by cropping this area with free labour, and this should help in paying for the community centre and other projects.

When a Maori community starts seriously to save for a centre, that is generally an indication that its spirit is reviving. So it was here. The tribal committee has for the last year or so been a really active body. It was already a striking and unusual “Drink less and clean up” campaign to its credit, and the organising of sanitary facilities for the Maori population at the local hostel. Its chairman is Hiko Toa, and the secretary D. Pene.

– 48 –


The health of a nation depends to no small extent on the foods its people eat, and the traditional foods of the Maori played an important part in building a strong and healthy race. Unfortunately, few of these foods are available today, and so they have had to be almost entirely replaced by pakeha foods. It is obviously important that the foods now eaten should be as good as the old Maori foods, but this is not always the case. White bread, sugar and biscuits are poor substitutes for such foods as eel flesh, puha and kumera.

A survey of Maori diets published in 1945 stated that ‘too little milk, cheese, eggs, fruit and vegetables, and whole cereals’ were eaten. All these are ‘protective foods’, so called because they help to protect the body against disease; and, with meat and fish, these are the only pakeha foods which can take the place of the true Maori foods. They are essential for the health of the adult, and they are very, very important foods for growing children.


Milk and cheese are the only foods which give enough of the bone and teeth building materials which children need. All children should have several cups of milk to drink a day, as well as milk on porridge and in puddings. Adults, too, should have some milk every day, and expectant and nursing mothers need as much as the children. When fresh milk is not obtainable dried milk, rather than sweetened condensed milk, should be used. Cheese should be eaten frequently, and it is much better than jam as a sandwich filling for school lunches.

Eggs, like the organ-meats–such as liver and kidneys–provide materials which build good healthy blood. Women and children have the greatest need for these foods, for it is they who are most likely to suffer from anaemia, a disease which can often be prevented by giving these good blood-building foods.


Fruit and vegetables are necessary for healthy skins and gums. Sores and cuts heal more quickly when fruit and vegetables are eaten every day. Puha, kumera and watercress are among the most valuable of vegetables, and should be eaten as often as possible. When these are not available, use potatoes and another vegetable–such as cabbage, pumpkin, etc. Everyone should have some raw fruit every day, but if you cannot get this, use some extra vegetable. Tomatoes can be used in place of fruit, and it is wise to bottle tomatoes when they are cheap, for use in the winter and spring, when fruit is scarce.

Some whole cereal, such as brown bread and oatmeal, should be eaten every day. Oatmeal is a valuable food, and served with milk it makes a very good breakfast. Everyone needs breakfast. Oatmeal porridge and milk make a much better start to the day than tea and bread.

Iodised salt should always be used, both for cooking and on the table at meal times.


Today we have such a wide choice of foods, some so much more valuable than others, that it is necessary to know how to choose wisely if we are to get the best value for our money, and the right foods for health.

– 49 –


Ka neke atu i te 20 tau inaianei mai o te whakataunga i te ture matua e pa ana ki nga Whenua Maori me era atu take Maori—ara Te Ture Whenua Maori, 1931. Ko taua Ture te whakarapopototanga o nga ture katoa a taua wa e pa ana ki nga whenua Maori me nga take Mori me Te Ture Whenua Maori hoki o 1909.

Mai i 1931 kua maha nga whakatikatikatanga I taua Ture a kiki ana tana rua tekau ki te toru tekau o nga pukapuka ture i aua whakatikatikatanga.

Ka hia nei tau o te timatanga o te whakarapopoto i taua ture ki te Pire kotahi engari ka roa e mahi ana ka kitea iho kaore e kapi nga ahuatanga katoa o taua ture. Ko etahi wahanga o te ture nei ka 40 tau pea te tawhito, a ko etahi wahanga ano ahakoa kua whakatikatikaina kaore he rereke rawatanga atu i roto o te rua tekau tau. Me whakatikatika ra te Ture Whenua Maori he Ao Hou ke ano hoki tenei. Haunga te pikinga o te tokomaha o te Maori ki aua noa atu engari kua piki te matauranga me te koingo takitahi o te Maori mo nga koha o te Ao Hou nei e kiia ake ra he Ao Hou ke ano tenei.

I te timatanga o 1952 ka karangatia e te Minita Maori nga mema Maori me etahi o nga kaihautu o te iwi kia hui mai ki Poneke nei kia korerorero ngatahi ratou mo nga wahi o te Ture nei e tika ana me whakatikatika. I orite te whakaaro o taua huihuinga me whakatikatika taua ture a he nui nga whakaaro i whakapuakina tera e whakarapopototia ki te ture nei a tona wa.

Kua takoto i te Minita ki te aroaro o te Paremata tetahi Pire i huaina ko Te Pire Mo Nga Mea Maori hei whakarapopoto hei whakatikatika i te ture e mohio nei tatou a na nga tohunga i whakairo taua Pire. He wahanga nui o taua Pire ko te ture tawhito ano engari ko nga wahi hou me ata matakitaki e te iwi Maori.

Na te whakaurunga o nga ahuatanga hou ki taua Pire ka whakaarotia me waiho mo te tuunga o te Paremata a tera tau ka whakatau ai hei ture engari me ata whiriwhiri aua ahuatanga hou i roto o enei ra. Mehemea tera etahi mea kaore i te raroto ki nga whakaaro ka taea te whakarereke ana tatu mai ano taua Pire ki te aroaro o te Paremata.

Ina e whai ake nei te aronga o etahi o nga ahuatanga hou kei roto i taua Pire, ko te tumanako tera e taea te ata whakamarama e Te Ao Hou a muri ake nei.



It is now over 20 years since the principal Act dealing with Maori land and other Maori matters—the Maori Land Act, 1931—was passed. That Act was compiled by gathering together all the statute law then in force on these subjects, and a large part of it is mostly a repetition of the Maori Land Act, 1909.

Since 1931 there have been many amendments of the law, now spread over twenty or thirty volumes of the Statute Book.

Work began several years ago on consolidating this law into one Bill, but it soon became apparent that a mere gathering together of the existing law was not enough. Some of the existing law goes back more than forty years, and other parts, although amended, have not been substantially changed for twenty years. Circumstances have changed greatly in this time. Not only have the Maori people increased rapidly in number, but they have taken considerable steps forward in self-reliance and general education, and their position in the community is very different now from what it was a few decades ago.

In some fields the disabilities imposed by the law appear to be no longer justifiable; in other fields the increasing rate of growth, and the diminishing area of Maori land available have created weighty administrative problems. Further problems are also created by the increasingly large number of owners of Maori land who are not legally Maoris; that is, those who are of less than half Maori blood.

Early in 1952, the Minister of Maori Affairs, Mr Corbett, arranged a meeting with the Maori members of Parliament and several other Maori leaders to discuss some of the problems in the existing law, and to consider proposals which had been framed to meet them. General agreement was reached that amendment of the law was necessary, and most of the suggestions made were also approved.

The Minister has now introduced a Bill under the name of the Maori Affairs Bill, consolidating and amending the present law, and in which the suggestions adopted at his meeting with the Maori members have been worked out in detail. There is much in the Bill which is merely a repetition of the present law, but some provisions are entirely new and of the greatest importance to the Maori people.

Because of the important changes it was not intended to pass the Bill into law during the recent session of Parliament, but rather to leave it open to discussion and comment until 1953.

– 50 –
Ko Te Tango Tamariki Whangai:

Ko ta te Ture i whakarite ai inaianei e ahei ana te Maori ki te tango tamariki Maori anake hei tamariki whangai. Ko ta te Pire mo nga Mea Maori e whakaaetia ana kia tango te Maori i nga tamariki a ona whanaunga o nga moutere hei tamariki whangai, penei i nga tamariki a nga Hamoa a nga Rarotonga me nga iwi o Kuki Airena me nga iwi hoki o nga moutere o Tokelau.

E penei ana ano tetahi ota tango tamaiti whangai i raro i te Pire i ta te Ture Mo Nga Tamariki i whakarite ai ara ko nga tamariki whangai e ahei ana ki te kairiiwhi ki nga whenua o ratou matua whangai penei ano koiara tonu o ratou matua ake.

Ko nga Wira:

Ko ta te Ture inaianei e kore nga Maori kei raro i te 21 tau te pakeke e ahei ki te hanga wira. Ko ta te Pire ia e ahei ana te hunga kei raro iho i te 21 tau te pakeke penei ano me te Pakeha mehemea kua marena kei te pae ranei o te pakanga, ki te hanga wira.

Tetahi e whakamana ana taua Pire i te Kooti Whenua Maori kia whakaroatia atu ano te wa mo te whakamana i te wira a tetahi tupapaku. Inaianei mehemea kaore he tono kia whakamana te wira a taua tupapaku i roto o te rua tau o tona matenga kua kore e whai take taua wira.

Ko Nga Mana Kairiiwhi o nga Pauaru Tane:
O nga Pouaru Wahine:

Ko ta te Ture inaianei ki te mate tetahi tane tetahi wahine ranei kaore he mana motuhake o tana wahine o tana tane ranei ki ana rawa. Ko ta te Pire ia e whai mana motuhake ana te pouaru ki nga rawa a tana tane a tana wahine ranei penei ano me te Pakeha haunga ia nga Whenua Maori, ina ra e whai mana ana taua pouaru ki te wahanga e tika ana o nga rawa mana.

Ko Nga Uri Maori kei raro iho i te hawhe toto

Ko nga ture Maori mo te Kairiiwhi paanga whenua mo nga Maori anake i eke ki ta Te Ture i whakarite ai ara he hawhe toto Maori neke atu ranei. Ko ta te Pire e whakarite ana kia uru nga uri Maori he whenua Maori o ratou ki nga whakaritenga o te Ture haunga ia te hawhe kaehetanga te aha ranei.

Ko Nga Moni Hoko Whenua riihi ranei:

Ko ta Te Ture i whakarite ai e ahei ana te Kooti ana whakataua tetahi hoko tetahi riihi ranei ki te tohutohu kia utua nga moni ki te Kaitieki Maori (i mua ake nei ko nga Poari Whenua Maori) ma reira e tieki kia kainga paitia ai. Ko ta te Pire ia ko nga moni anake e


Any modifications which arise out of discussion in the meantime can be considered for incorporation in the Bill when it is reintroduced in the next session of Parliament.

In the remainder of this article are set out, in a very general way, some of the more important changes proposed in the Bill. It is hoped that some of these changes will be stated in more detail in succeeding issues of Te Ao Hou.


At present, Maoris can adopt only Maoris or the descendants of Maoris. The Bill allows Maoris to adopt children of certain other Polynesian races, namely, Samoans, Tokelau Islanders and Raratongans.

An adoption order under the Bill would have the same effect as an adoption order made under the Infants' Act. This means that, for purposes of succession, an adopted child ceases to be a child of his natural parents, and is deemed to be the child of the adopting parents, as if he had been born to them.


Maori minors are at present completely unable to make a will. The Bill would allow them to make a valid will in the circumstances in which European minors can do so, for example, when married, or on active military service.

The Bill would empower the Court to extend the period within which application for probate of a Maori will can be made. At present a will becomes null and void if no application is made within two years from the death of the testator.


At present the widow or widower of a deceased Maori has no claim as of right to any part of the deceased's estate. The Bill provides that, in respect of estate other than Maori land, a surviving wife or husband will have the same rights as in the case of a European; that is, that he or she will be entitled to a proportion of the estate.

The special rules of Maori custom as to succession in Maori land apply only to Maoris as defined in the old Act; that is, to persons of half or more Maori blood. The Bill provides for the extension of these rules to owners of Maori land who, although of Maori descent, have less than half Maori blood.


Under the present Act the Court, on confirming an alienation, can direct that any purchase money or rent be held by the Maori Trustee (formerly the Maori Land Boards) and retained for the owners' benefit. Under the Bill, the Court could direct the retention only of sums in excess of £50 for individual owners,

– 51 –

neke atu i te £50 e taea e Te Kooti te tohutohu kia puritia hei painga mo nga tangata takitahi ara mo tetahi take tika tonu penei me te hanga whare.

Ko te wawahi i nga paanga whenua Maori:

Ko tetahi mea porearea ko te paku o nga paanga whenua o etahi Maori. Raha tonu nga whakaaro o nga tari Maori me era atu kaiwhakahaere me pehea ra aua paanga pakupaku he mahi nui ki te whakatikatika haere i nga taitara me te whakarato i nga moni reti i nga hua ranei o nga mahi Ahuwhenua. Rokohanga ka mate nga pakeke ka whakauruuru ko nga tamariki ko nga mokopuna ki aua paanga whenua, nona hoki te paku hei te wawahanga ka paku rawa atu a kei te kaha te piki o te tokomaha o te iwi Maori.

Ko ta te Pire ia me wehe tetahi tahua moni ki raro i te ringa o te Kaitieki Maori, o nga tahua moni kei te Tari Maori na te Kaitieki Maori me nga Poari Whenua Maori kua whakakorea ake nei hei tango i aua paanga pakupaku.

Me whakamarama ake ra tenei. Ka mate tetahi Maori ka tukua ona paanga whenua ki te Kaitieki Maori ko ia ra te Kaiwhakahaere mo nga whenua Maori penei. Ka wariutia nga paanga whenua a mehemea kei raro iho i tetahi wariu meake nei ka panuitia e kore e wawahia aua paanga ki te hunga e tika ana engari ka tangohia e te Kaitieki Maori a ko te wariu moni e whakaputaina ki taua hunga. Ko aua whenua ka whakatoputia kia totopu ka hokona ki te Maori ki te Karauna ranei hei mahi ahuwhenua hei tuunga whare ranei mo etahi Maori a ko nga moni ka kawea ki te tahua moni a te Kaitieki Maori hei tango whenua ano.

Ko nga hoko whenua Maori a tetahi tangata
whai paanga ki tetahi tangata whai paanga ano:

Ka hanga noaiho te hoko a tetahi tangata i ona paanga i tetahi whenua Maori ki tetahi tangata whai paanga ano i taua whenua, i runga i nga whakaritenga a te Pire kaore e penei i ta te Ture nei he whakauene roa, ka mutu ano ma te Kooti e whakatau.

Ko nga Koha:

I runga i ta te Ture i whakarite ai mehemea ka tukua e tetahi Maori ona paanga whenua hei koha ki tetahi Maori ke, ki te mate kore uri taua tangata kore wira hoki a ki te mate penei ranei ana uri ka hoki aua paanga whenua ki te tangata nana te koha ki ana uri ranei. Ka whakakorea tenei ahuatanga e te Pire mo nga ra e tu mai nei haunga ia nga whenua i tukua hei tuunga whare ka hoki rano te mana o ta te Pire ki te wa i timata ai te tuku whenua hei tuunga whare ara e kore nga tuunga whare e hoki ki te hunga no ratou mai aua whenua.


and for a specific purpose, such as the building of a house.


One of the gravest problems of Maori administration is the smallness of the shares in which much Maori land is held. This impedes effective use of the land, and also creates a great amount of administrative work, in keeping title records and distributing rents or profits. This problem arises out of the splitting up of interests on succession, and—by reason of the high reproduction rate of the Maori—is rapidly becoming worse.

The Bill would set up, under the management of the Maori Trustee, a fund, known as the Conversion Fund, from the accumulated profits of the Maori Trustee and Maori Land Boards. From this fund the Maori Trustee would have power to buy small interests in Maori land from the Maori owners, and the Court may also direct the sale to him of small interests on partition and consolidation.

On the death of a Maori his interests in Maori land would vest in the Maori Trustee as Maori Land Administrator. The interests would be valued, and unless the share to which a successor is entitled is above a certain value, it would be retained by the Maori Trustee for the Conversion Fund, and the successor would be paid its value.

The interests acquired from the Conversion Fund, by voluntary purchase and on succession, are to be accumulated, and sold—in economic areas—to Maoris or their descendants, or to the Crown for Maori Land Development or Maori Housing. Any moneys arising from the land would go back into the Conversion Fund for further purchases.

The essence of the scheme is that small interests are not to be handed on or split up, but purchased by the Maori Trustee, and used exclusively for Maoris or Maori purposes.


The Bill would enable the transfer of the interest of one owner in a piece of Maori land to any other owner by means of an order of the Court, thus avoiding the trouble and expense involved in an ordinary transfer.


Under the present law if a gift of Maori land is made from one Maori to another, and the person to whom it is given, or any successor of his dies without issue and without a will, the land given goes back to the donor or his family. The Bill would abolish this rule for future gifts generally, and would exclude its operation as regards land vested by the Court for house sites, whenever this took place.

– 52 –


In the Harata Tangikuku lament of Harata Tangikuku, published on page 44 of the Spring Issue, a line was unfortunately omitted. The whole poem is therefore reprinted here:

1.Te Timu ra koe, e te tai nei,
Rere omaki ana ki waho ra;
Hei runga nei au tiro iho ai,
Nga roro whare ki Mihi-marino
Naku iana koe i kakekake,
Nga rangi ra ka huri nei.
2.E tangi ra koe, e te kihikihi,
Tenei koe ka rite mai hi a au;
Me huroto au hei ro repo,
Me kaka e whakaraoa ana.
3.Tera koia me to Tawera,
Whakakau ana mai ki uta ra;
Hohoro mai koia hei hoa moe ake,
Moku ra e tiu nei;
Me porangi au e keha ana,
Me haurangi kai waipiro,
Me tahuna rere i te amo hau,
Me perehia rere ki tawhiti.
4.Tiro iho nei au ki ahau,
Rinoi ra e te uaua,
I te koha kore o te kai ki ahau,
Heke ra waho ana i te kiri ora;
Waiho au kia poaha ana;
He rimu puka kei te akau.

– 53 –

What Taxes Must We Pay?

The Government has now made clear what taxes it expects the Maori farming organisations to pay. Towards the end of 1951 an impression existed that these organisations had evaded their taxes, and a Royal Commission was called for to investigate these alleged evasions.

The Commission made it quite clear that no wilful tax evasion had occurred, and that the Maori people of the East Coast ‘really believed that they were enjoying taxation immunity with Ministerial knowledge and approval, and with the apparent acceptance of that position by the Commissioner of Taxes.’

Although reputation was saved, this belief in immunity was definitely shattered. At the same time the Commission made it clear that the 1939 Statute under which tax had been payable was quite unworkable. The clerical work expected of the Maori organisations under that Statute was beyond what could reasonably be expected.

Accordingly, the commission made three recommendations. A new Act should be passed by which taxation would be assessed in a simpler and more reasonable way, suited to Maori organisations, with their enormous number of small owners. Taxes in respect of income earned before March 31, 1950, should be treated as irrecoverable. Taxes in respect of income earned between that date and March 31, 1952, should be recovered, but no penalties charged for past failure to pay such taxes.

Legislation was passed during the last session, following the publication of this report. This legislation, in the main, followed the Commission's recommendations.

It defined all Maori Incorporations and other organizations farming Maori land in trust for the owners (such as the Board of Maori Affairs, for instance) as Maori authorities. These Maori authorities are expected to pay tax in future on a basis too complicated to set out here in full. Where the number of beneficiaries of a Maori authority is twenty or less, each owner's share of the taxable profit forms part of his personal income, irrespective of how much is distributed. Where the number of owners is more than 20, there are two forms of taxation. The owner is assessed in his own name on amounts distributed to him. If there is also undistributed income—that is, if the authority makes profits which for some reason it does not distribute, these profits are taxable, too. For 1952 the rate is 2s. 6d. in the pound, plus 5 per cent.

Social Security Charge on taxable profits is paid by the Authority, irrespective of owners.


(Continued from page 35)

But the girls who take School Certificate and those who go on into the Sixth Form to get their University Entrance, generally leave school to become nurses or teachers. They want very much to go back to work among their own people.’

As I talked to the girls themselves I found how widely scattered their homes are. Some of them belong to districts where the old arts are very strong, and the Maori language familiar; others to places where Maori is scarcely spoken at all.

‘One of the things we try to do,’ Miss Hunter said, ‘is to encourage Maori crafts, and to teach them all to be fluent in Maori. It is a set subject for School Certificate, and we share our Maori language teacher with Te Aute College.’

To encourage Maori arts and crafts in a school staffed almost exclusively with pakehas would seem rather difficult to an outside observer. I had met the staff, an English-woman, a Viennese who teaches needlework, a games mistress from Dublin, a number of New Zealanders. Each of them seemed particularly happy in her work at Hukarere, but not one of them had said a word about teaching taniko or tukutuku, or action songs. But when Horowai Ngarimu, the leader of the Maori Club, called her girls together for a lunch-hour practice, I saw for myself that all Miss Hunter needs to do to encourage Maori art is to give this club enough time, and the girls will teach each other. As they moved from one action song to another, I could see that at Hukarere everyone teaches what she knows in the old traditional way. Just before the afternoon work began the Sixth Formers sang the ancient chant Popo! for us, and the rest of the school stood quietly listening and learning.

When they finished the chant I talked to Horowai and the other Sixth Formers. All four

– 54 –

of them intend to become teachers. Tilly Moeke, of Ruatoria, who is the grand-daughter of an old Hukarere girl, will go to Ardmore next year, with Ruth Paerata, of Taupo. Angenina Hamm, of Tuwharetoa, Taupo, has other plans.

‘I'm going to have a year's teaching first. I think I'll get more experience that way. Then I'll go on to Training College.’ Horowai Ngarimu, of Ruatoria, who was elected Head Prefect this year, is going to Wellington, to Training College and the University. She was very philosophical about her work with the Maori Club.

‘When they first come to school here lots of the girls have no idea how to do taniko or how to make pois. But they soon learn, even if some of them never learn to twirl their pois.’

I left the Sixth Form settling down to a history lesson, and went to see the recently-acquired laboratory and the new dormitories. Hukarere has a full programme. But the fact that it is a boarding-school helps, and so does the rather unusual division of the school year into two long terms.

‘Some of our girls live three days' journey from Napier,’ Miss Hunter told me as we examined the new bathrooms,’ and this two-term arrangement saves a lot of extra travelling time. Besides, we get through the year's work with less pressure. And we all enjoy a holiday in the winter, especially the girls whose homes are in the far north, where the weather is more reasonable in July than it is in Napier.’


Hukarere is an old-established institution in the city of Napier, and the school has always had some very good friends there, right from the beginning. The school began seventy-seven years ago, soon after Te Aute College was established. It has many links with Te Aute still, and is maintained by the Te Aute Trust Board. But the strongest link of all is with the founder of both schools, Bishop William Williams, who bought a property for a girls' school on Hukarere Hill, right opposite his own home. In 1875 Hukarere opened in a very small and informal way, with a staff of two, and the assistance of Miss Maria Williams, who kept the accounts, and her sisters, Kate and Mary Ann, who gave some lessons.

Twice in seventy years Hukarere has been violently uprooted and twice rebuilt—first from the ashes of a disastrous fire in 1910, and again from the rubble of the 1931 earthquake. After the fire the Trustees moved the school to where it now stands. The alterations after the earthquake, the additional dormitories, and the new laboratory and classrooms, which have just been built, have changed the face of Hukarere. But none of this created quite the same excitement among the girls, or quite the same interest outside the school as the building and decoration of the new Chapel.


‘Napier has suddenly discovered Hukarere,’ Miss Hunter said, ‘and we have acquired a lot of new friends.’

‘Is there much coming and going between Hukarere and the town?’

‘Not really. We're very self-contained here. The girls play basketball down on the Parade, and the school is open to the public on some occasions. We did go down to town to see “Broken Barrier”—the girls had a lot of fun identifying their friends. Both Katie Ngarimu and Lily Te Mahu were at school here a year or two ago, and some of the present girls were in the film too. But generally we see films up here, about twelve times a year. The Maori clergy come up to take services in the Chapel.’

A good deal of the school's life is centred round the Chapel, although the girls are not by any means all members of the Church of England. When the several generations of women who regard Hukarere with affection wanted to make a gift to their old school, they quite naturally chose to build a new Chapel for the girls to worship in.

Time will mellow the bright kowhaiwhai. The building of the Chapel, the long months when the craftsmen occupied the school sickroom, the patient hours the girls themselves spent on the tukutuku panels will become a legend at Hukarere. And, because of this Chapel, many generations of girls will cultivate the arts and crafts of their people with greater understanding.

I left Hukarere School convinced that, in its particular approach to the education of Maori women, it is extraordinarily successful. Many of the girls I saw will go on to train themselves to serve their own communities in a particular way. But, most important of all, each one of them will leave school knowing how to make a happy home.

– 55 –

He Ngahau
Tino Pai

Ta te Maori tino ngahau, he huihuinga tangata, he korero, he hoihoi, kia Rore Francis Bacon, tumuaki o nga kai-whawawa o Ingarangi i te tau 1561 ki te tau 1626, ko te tino ngahau he ngaki kaari kai pakupaku, ata kapiti, kareparaoe, pi, piini, lettuce, aniani, tonapi me era tu ki; he ngaki putiputi puawai, haunga ia nga kai nunui, pera me te witi me te kaanga. E ki ana ko Pekana, “Gardening is the purest pleasure”.

He tokoruarua nga Maori e mohio ana ki tenei ngahau engari he tino ngahau ki te pakeha. Ko tenei te ngahau a nga toru pakeha o Te Araroa. Mutu ana a ratou mahi kei a ratou kaari e ngaki ana, tena ko te Maori mutu ana a ratou mahi tika tonu ta ratou haere ki te whare hoko waipiro, ki reira inuinu ai, korero ai, Ko te pai o te ngahau ngaki kai ka whai wahi nga wahine me nga tamariki tena ko te ngahau inuinu waipiro kahore kau he painga ki nga wahine ki nga tamariki, ko nga moni hei hoko kai, hoko kakahu, pau atu i era atu tangata. He mate nui tenei.

I noho tetahi wahine ki taku kainga mo te wiki, i kai ai ia i te pi ia ra ia ra. I miharo ia i ki kotahi ano tona kainga i te pi, hei te Krihimete anake. I whakaakona tenei wahine ki Hukarere, he wahine whakapono, a i marena ki te pakeha otira kahore ia i mohio he kai tino pai te pi ma te tamaraki mo nga wa katoa.

I te tau 1950 ko tae mai a Te Hepara, hekeretari o te Tari Maori ratou ko ona hoa ki taku kainga. I matakitaki ia ki ta maua kaari kai ko taku hoa wahine, a i whakamihi ia, nui atu tana whakamihi. Ko tana tino whakamihi ia mo te kai nei ano te pi, e toru nga whakatupuranga pi. Kua pakari etahi kua rite mo te kai, kua tata etahi te puawai, ko etahi katahi ano ka tanumia atu ki te oneone. I ki a Te Hepara, ‘Mrs Kohere, e whakamihi ana ki o kai e tupu nei. Kahore i whakatupuria e koe hei matakitaki ma matou engari hei oranga mo tau whanau. Pai rawa mea i penei te nuinga o te Iwi Maori.’

Kei te momauria e te Maori tenei taonga nui te taima. Ko te take i haere ai te Maori ki te whare waipiro he rapu ngahau, kahore hoki he ngahau o o ratou kainga.


‘Ki te aitua tetahi tangata i tana mahi me utu he moni kapenehaihana ki a ia e te rangatira o taua mahi a ko te whakahau a te ture me inihua nga rangatira o nga mahi mo te heipu o te aitua. (Tirohia Te Ture Whakatikatika i Te Ture Kapenehaihana Mo Nga Kaimahi, 1950, Tekiona 8.) Ahakoa kotahi ano ra i te tau e mahi ana tetahi tangata mau ki te kore koe e tango i tetahi inihua mona e takahi ana koe i te ture. Kia kore ai au maharahara me haere koe ki te tangata hoko inihua tata mana nga whakamarama ki a koe. E 45 nga kamupene inihua kei te motu hei awhina i a kou tou.’

– 56 –


Na Wiremu Maihi Te Rangikaheke i tuhia nga whakamarama i te tau 1850.

Te take o tenei oriori he oriori kanga mo nga hapu nana te hiahia kohuru i a Ngapuhi ki Motutawa, i Rotokakahi, i te tau 1822. Ko nga iwi nana tenei ngakau kohuru, ko Ngati-Raukawa, ko Ngati-Toa, ko Ngati-Maru, ko Ngati-Tamatera, ko Ngai-Te-Rangi. Kei Tauranga te patua, ka tukua. Kei Rotorua te patua, ka tukua ki Rotokakahi. Katahi ka kohurutia, ka mate.

Rewa ana te taua ngaki mate a Hongi Hika. Ka horo te motu nei, a Mokoia, ka mate i reira nga mano o Rotorua, i te ngaunga a te pu. Mate iho ano tenei iwi, houhou ake e tetahi rangatira nui o Ngapuhi, ko Te Wera Hauraki (Kai-teke) te ingoa, ka mau te rongo. Ka mau tenei rangatira, a Te Rangikaheke i te houhanga o te rongo. Ka waihotia i tenei motu, i Mokoia, te tini o te pononga. Ka hokona e ia tana wahine, ana tamariki. No te rironga mai ki a ia ka tupu ake te whakatakariri ki roto i a ia, ki nga hapu nana nei te ngakau kohuru i ngaro ai a Rotorua, i mau ai ia i te pononga, me tana wahine, me ana tamariki. Katahi ka tito i tenei waiata whakaoriori, me ana kanga mo aua hapu e rima nei.

I te taenga mai o Ngapuhi ka whakahoa a Ngai-Te-Rangi ki a ratou, kei te whawhai ki a Rotorua. Ka horo te motu nei, a Mokoia, ka hinga a Ngati-Whakaue i a Ngapuhi, i a Ngai-Te-Rangi. Te Take o tenei pakanga he pahoro i Hauraki, ko Te Totara, i te tau 1821. Ka mate ko te Puhi, rangatira o Ngati-Maru, o Ngati-Tamatera i reira. Ko Wheturoa tetahi o nga rangatira i mate i Te Totara. Ko te take tenei i whai ngakau ai nga iwi nei kia kohurutia a Ngapuhi.

Muri iho nei kua haere a Ngati-Toa, a Ngati-Raukawa ki Kapiti; Kua rere a Ngati-Paoa, a Ngati-Maru, a Ngati-Tamatera ki Waikato; Ko Te Arawa anake i waiho i te mate. Koia i tito ai tenei rangatira i tana oriori kanga mo enei iwi.

Ko taku potiki,
Ko Te Auhikai,1
Ko te manawa puha ki Te Pariwhaiti.2
Ko taku potiki, kai kutu, kai riha, kai roro, kai takataka,3
O nga iwi kupukupu4 nana te ki, nana te kohuru.
He tangi kai tou?
Kahore ra he iwi i ora nei.
Tena ka riro i te hurihanga nui ki te motu, e5
Hoki mai, hoki mai ra ki a au, kia whakamau atu taua
Ki nga hapu tata ki te uru. Unumia atu te wai ki Rangataua.6
Tou uanga, kei te matarae i Whakaneke,
Ko Kaiawa to kai.
Ko te iti rawa hoki o te poho
Hei whaonga mo te hokowhitu i a Tamaroto ko Tukairangi, e tama e.7
Mano tini ki Maunganui kihai i toro te ringa;8
Ma wai hoki koa e kimi rawa ki tawhiti, ki Rakaumangamanga9 ki aua noa atu?
Kua rite tahi ano koa, i te whakamara i Maketu,10 e tama e.
Mau e ki mai, te mate o te Atua
I rahua reretia i te takere o te kete na Ngapuhi
Ko Kaipo ka ea te mate ra.
Na Tahupo i tahu te pure hei kukume mai mo Ngapuhi ki uta.11

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Matakite mana, mata kiore.
Ko te tiketike o nga maunga, hei whakawahanga mo te koiwi i tapu ai Rotorua.12
I kohukia ai te ngakau o Turikina, o Huriwaka,13
E pa ma, pupuri whenua, whakaupa riri e.
Kai iho ra, i te angaanga o Ngapuhi, o Te Ngare,14
I tupu ai nga mauku o te paripari, ko nga makawe o Utamate.15
Whatitiri16 poaka puihi ki te parae.
Te mahara koe mo Te Puhi, mo te ringirngitanga o to papa i Waipapa.
Hamuti, kainga e te kiore ki te parae.17
Te purutia i Hauraki,
Rere ke mai ki Waikato,
Ki te kainga o Huatahi, o te tama a Rangiwewehi e.18


1-2 Ko te ingoa o taua tamaiti nei ko Te Auhikai a ona tuakana, a ona tuahine, ara ko te whakahaunga ki te kai i te panga mai o te hemo kai ki te kopu. Ko te kainga i noho ai tenei hemonga i te kai, ko Te Pariwhaiti kei Pongakawa awa. Tapa iho nei e to ratou papa hei ingoa mo tana potiki mo Te Auhikai.

3 He kanga mo nga rangatira i mea kia kohurutia a Ngapuhi ki Rotokakahi. I mate ai a Ngapuhi, i tahuri mai ai, ka mate a Te Arawa ki Mokoia. Ka riro ana tamariki, ka noho pani a ia, a Te Rangikaheke. Otira i hokona ano e ia te wahine me nga tamariki tokorua.

4 He pangapanga whakaaro kino, he kawekawe korero kino.

5 Te tahuritanga o te motu nei, o Mokoia, i te tau 1823.

6 Ehara i te wai, erangi kia patua a Rangataua. Kei te pito o te uru ki Rotorua a Tauranga. Ko Ngai-Te-Rangi ka whakahoa ki a Ngapuhi, kei te whawhai ki a Rotorua.

7 Ko Ngai-Tukairangi he hapu no Ngai-Te-Rangi.

8 Kihai i matau tenei iwi, a Ngai-Te-Rangi ki ona pahoro e rua, ki Maketu, ki Maunganui; whakauru ana ia ki a Ngapuhi i te patunga i a Rotorua.

9 Kei Ngapuhi tenei wahi.

10 I haehae, i whakamara nga tangata i hinga.

11 He tohunga atua Maori tenei kuia, a Tahupo, me te tini atu o nga tohunga; whakaritea iho nei to ratou mohiotanga, mana ake i tetahi wa, kore ake i tetahi wa, koia i rite ai ki te kiore. Na te tohe a aua tohunga nana i whakawai, i kohurutia ai a Ngapuhi ki Rotokakahi, nana hoki i whakawai nga rangatira i whai kaha ai ki te tono riri.

12 He mea tiki e aua tohunga nga wheua o nga tupapaku ariki rangi o mua, kua takoto ke ake ki roto ki nga ana kowhatu; pikaua mai, ka whiti kei te motu i te wai i hoea ai nga waka o te ope ki taua motu. Ka tango nga tohunga ki nga wheua tupapaku ariki, kei te whakaruku ki te wai, kia puta mai ai nga uira, nga whatitiri, nga ua, nga pokaka, ki te moana kia horomia ai a Ngapuhi e te taniwha Maori. Nowhea i whaimana aua mahinga o aua tohunga matakiore nei. Maumau whakatapu kau i te wai o Rotorua, kaore i pono.

13 He tohunga a Turakina raua ko Huriwaka.

14 Ko Te Ngareohueto te ingoa o tetahi o nga hapu o Ngai-Te-Rangi.

15 Ko Te Rangi Utamate tetahi o nga rangatira o Ngai-Te-Rangi i uru nei ki nga rangatira o Ngapuhi.

16-17 Ko Te Puhi raua ko Iwikatea i mate ki te whawhai nui i Te Totara ki Hauraki i te tau 1821. Ko te tama a Iwikatea ko Rangiwhatitiri, no Ngati-Maru ia. Kaore ia i mahara mo tona papa, mo Te Puhi ranei me kaua e uru ki a Ngapuhi, engari me uru tahi ki a Rotorua hei whawhai ki a Ngapuhi.

18 Mo te omanga o nga morehu o Te Totara ki Waikato i te wehi o Ngapuhi. Oma haere ana i te koraha, kainga haeretia ana te tutae e te kiore, titi haere ana te heru i te matenga, te noho hoki i Hauraki, noho rawa atu i Waikato, i te kainga o Huatahi te tama a Rangiwewehi no Rotorua.

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Mokoia Island, Lake Rotorua

– 58 –



The annual field day for Maori farmers and their wives, which is held under the auspices of the Department of Maori Affairs, was this year held at Ruakura Animal Research Station.

The party was conducted over all sections of the station. At No. 1 Dairy the importance of shutting up paddocks for autumn-saved pasture was stressed. This section of 125 acres, which has an annual dressing of 2 cwt. of serpentine super an acre, is carrying 110 dairy cows and 34 replacement stock. The production figures were in the vicinity of 350 lbs. of butterfat an acre.

At No. 2 Dairy the party was shown the newly completed cowshed, and also a pit of ensilage. This unit is divided into two sections of equal merit. One section is run in what the Director, Dr McMeekin, described as typical ‘cow-cocky’ style, where the farm is run under the set stock system of eight paddocks, day paddock, hay paddock and a calf paddock. The other section is divided into small paddocks, and is rotationally grazed, with calves preceding the cows. The difference between the two sets of calves was very striking, the rotationally-grazed calves being well ahead of the setstocked males in health, vigour and body weight. The difference between the two lots of butterfat returns was also very marked, the rotationally-grazed cows showing an average difference of 40 lb a head above the set-stock cows.

In the afternoon, the party moved on to the animal nutrition section—No. 4 Dairy, where the experimental work on identical twin calves is conducted. Next, to the piggeries—where the importance of feeding meal from very early in the pig's life was stressed.

Thence on to the AI Centre, and finally a tour through the stock and cattle section, where the party was told of the experimental work being carried out on the many problems of the sheep farm.

Mr Jones, on behalf of the party, thanked Dr McMeekin for the very informative and instructive day, and said he hoped it would be the forerunner to many more such occasions.


An awakening of interest in their pasture problems among the Maori farmers of the East Coast led to the arranging of a series of talks by Mr T. A. Sellwood, instructor in agriculture for the East Coast district, who has undertaken to address the tribal committees at Ruatoria, Waiomatatini, Tikitiki, Te Araroa and Hicks Bay.

The first meeting was well attended. The address was entitled ‘The Improvement of Hill-country Pastures’, and other matters of interest to the gathering were discussed informally—Gisborne Herald.


The writing of the Official War History of 28 (Maori) Battalion has been commissioned. Mr J. F. Cody, who is doing the work, has recently compiled 21 Battalion official history. He mentioned that the history would be more realistic if ex-members of the Battalion made any diaries, letters or photos they may possess available to him. Anybody interested in helping to make the 28 (Maori) Battalion History a volume worthy of the deeds it portrays should write to him at 33 Burma Road, Khandallah, Wellington.


Experiments at the Moutoa flax plantations near Shannon have demonstrated that, with proper cultivation, flax can yield up to 60 tons an acre, the usual figure being 35-40 tons. Even this compares remarkably well with the output from natural, uncultivated stands, which varies from 10 to 15 tons.

Haulage gear and handling facilities have been mechanised successfully at Moutoa, and machines are being developed for flax cutting. At present it is possible for one man to harvest up to 60 acres a day, and with the aid of mechanical harvesters this might be increased to 80.

These discoveries have made many formerly useless swamp lands an economic proposition. Part of the change has been achieved through the use of stock. Sheep have been grazed, almost to the maximum carrying capacity, on the pasture between flax plants.—Straight Furrow.

– 59 –
– 60 –

No. 3

Te Ao Hou offers the usual prize of one guinea for a correct solution to this crossword. If more than one correct solution is received, the winner will be determined by lot. Only solutions received by March 31 are considered.

The prize for the crossword puzzle in last issue, of which the correct solution is given here, was won by Brother Valerian, St. Peter's Maori College, Northcote.

CLUES (all answers are Maori words)

1 A Tree
6 Embrace
9 Bail a canoe
10 Heart of a tree
11 Four
12 Ease pain (used with prefix
13 Learn
14 Burn
16 Again
19 Blue heron
20 Asked
21 Different
22 Bait
24 Near
26 That is to say
27 Come to anchor
28 Well
29 Attained
30 Obstinate

2 Exclamation of wonder
3 Compete
4 Current
5 A legendary home
of the kumara
6 Alas!
7 Ponder over
8 Paddled
15 Outrigger
16 My
17 Run
18 Dried kumara
21 Laugh
23 Screen
25 Herring
28 Mutton bird

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Some of the participants at the Maori Golf Tournament in Rotorua, November, 1952.

Talking about Sports

It is interesting to look at the advances made by Maoris in sports in the last generation. It has been particularly noticeable that whereas Maoris once concentrated mainly on Rugby football they are now taking prominent places in the other sports.

This is probably a direct result of the much discussed ‘drift’ to the cities and larger country towns. Rugby is played in all districts. Even the smallest rural area has its football club, but not all have the facilities to be able to cater for other sports.

Although it is not for me to argue the pros and cons of whether or not the Maori should become a city dweller, I do think that active and successful participation in all forms of recreation will do a lot towards fostering greater racial amity. The Maori is likely to remain a racial minority group for a long time, but I see no reason why, in the long run, they should not become as thoroughly accepted as are many of the present groups of minority interest. For example the farmer, the R.S.A., the various religious denominations and the varying political interests, are all minority groups, even pressure groups, but all contain a fairly representative cross section of the general community.

The recently concluded Maori golf championship, the annual tennis championships, the very successful athletic tournament and the popular hockey and basketball tournaments are all indications of the widening interest shown

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by Maoris in sport. Not only is interest widening, but also the standard of proficiency is improving.

To-day golf is played, and played well, by many hundreds of Maoris. Tori Jones and his late brother, Walley, were regular and popular figures at New Zealand National tournaments. The Greys and Winterburns from Otaki Lane also played top class golf. Tori Jones had the distinction of leading the field at the end of the second round in the 1952 open at Belmont recently, and if his putting were in the same class as his long game he could possibly have been the ultimate winner. Lui Paewai, notable as a member of the 1924 ‘Invincibles’, is now making a reputation as a golfer also.

Dick Pelham, another football star of the past, has found considerable success at surf swimming and competitive life saving. Dick has represented New Zealand in these sports and is now a valued administrator.

John and Peter Smith, the North Auckland football idols, have won reputations as tennis players and cricketers of above average ability.

Not many Maoris have shown interest or ability at cricket, but since the war the number playing has noticeably increased. My knowledge is confined mainly to Wellington, but I can recall only Jimmy Ell as a first class cricketer. It is of note also that Jimmy still holds the Wellington record for highest score. Last year the Auckland Plunket Shield team included a highly promising Maori colt in Doug Hemi, and it is most significant that there are at least two Maori girls playing representative women's cricket.

Among the women, Rangi Corbett won the distinction of representing the North Island at outdoor basketball this year. She is, I think, the first Maori to earn selection since Meg Matangi captained New Zealand nearly 20 years ago.

Pat Anglem, of Bluff, has won fame on an international level at our newest sport—archery. She won the 1951 sea-fab International Mail Contest against the outstanding archers of the world; she contested the event again this year and I understand was placed second.

Moana Manley is showing exceptional promise as a junior swimmer and could become our first Maori Olympic candidate.

The women's sporting commentator at Wellington radio station, 2ZB, is a Maori who has

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represented her province at indoor basketball and women's cricket.

These are just some of the people who are making careers in sport, and the success they are achieving is reflecting credit on the Maori race as a whole.

Let us hope that the progress will be maintained and that before long we shall find Maoris figuring in all representative teams to the same extent as they do in Rugby.


Easter is the time set for the big annual tournament of the Maori Lawn Tennis Association. It will be held at Rotorua, and arrangements are in the hands of the Arawa Lawn Tennis Association.

The women's championship is at present held by Miss Dadu Morrison (Arawa), and the men's championship by W. Keys (Rohe Potae).

Other results at last year's championships were: Men's Doubles, B. Penny and C. McLaughlin (Matatua); Women's Doubles, Miss P. Davis and Miss T. Royal (Arawa); Combined Doubles, D. Webby and Miss Dadu Morrison (Arawa); Boys' Singles, M. Harvey (Horouta); Girls' Singles, Miss K. Hamiora (Arawa).

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GREYS is great

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In 1953 Queen Victoria School will have existed for fifty years. Celebrations to commemorate this will be held at the school on June 12, 13 and 14. Past pupils throughout New Zealand are asked to send their names and addresses to the school as soon as possible, so they may be advised of the arrangements.


In June this year, St. Peter's Maori College, Northcote, will be celebrating the 25th anniversary of its foundation as a School of Catechists. It is planned to commemorate this occasion with a Silver Jubilee Celebration, which would have as its main feature a re-union of all old boys of the college, since its commencement, in 1928, until the present time. Old boys wishing to attend and not yet invited should send their names and addresses to the college.

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The development of 2757 acres of Maori land at Ngaiotonga (Northland) has been approved by Cabinet. Tentatively, it is thought the land will carry eleven dairy farms and two sheep farms. Cost of development to the settlement stage is estimated to be £44 per acre.

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