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No. 1 (Winter 1952)
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NO. 1

Te Ao Hou is intended as a magazine for the Maori people. Pakehas will, we hope, find much in it that may interest them and broaden their knowledge of the Maori, but this publication is planned mainly to provide interesting and informative reading for Maori homes. Te Ao Hou should become like a ‘marae’ on paper, where all questions of interest to the Maori can be discussed. Of course the size of the paper does not permit private and personal questions being brought up, but any subject that affects the general good can be discussed here.

For the first issue, the Editor has had to write a good deal himself to start the ball rolling, but in future he hopes to be able to rely on contributions, especially from Maoris, articles, poems, drawings, photos, or anything else of interest. There will be no objection to rough drafts of contributions by writers who may not have time to give them final shape. When contributions are accepted, they will be paid for.

In the last few years Tribal Organizations and others have stimulated many Maori activities, sports, haka competitions, marae improvements, arts and crafts. In this way a true Maori world is slowly shaping itself to stand beside the Pakeha world. The Maori, in general, earns his living in the same way as the Pakeha. Life on the marae, sports, haka, arts and crafts therefore have to wait until times of leisure and relaxation. Yet, if these recreational and artistic interests are developed, they will make life in a predominantly Pakeha world more satisfying. They can, in fact, be the basis of a Maori culture in which his identity will be preserved.

Te Ao Hou will give considerable attention to such activities, and also to social progress among the Maori people generally. It will try to give a faithful record of Maori life in all its aspects and clarify questions of Maori administration.

The Maori Purposes Fund Board has made money available to allow the magazine to start, but of course Te Ao Hou, like all others in this world, has to pay for itself as soon as it can walk properly. Everybody is earnestly asked to subscribe, to give subscriptions to friends, and to induce others to subscribe. Just send the form on page 5758 to the Editor, Box. 2390, Wellington or pay your subscription at the nearest Maori Affairs office. Many post offices sell Te Ao Hou, too. You will see the posters, or else ask the postmaster.

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Ko Te Ao Hou he pukapuka ma te iwi Maori. KO te tumanako kia raroto hoki tenei pukapuka ki te Pakeha, a tera pea e kitea e ratou etahi mea hei whakamahorahora i o ratou whakaaro ki nga tikanga Maori, otira e kiia ake ra ko te kaupapa nui o tenei pukapuka hei kawe korero ki nga kainga Maori ki te iwi Maori. Ano te ahua o tenei pukapuka he ‘Marae’ hei whakawhaititanga i nga whakaaro Maori. Otira i te mea tera e paku noa te Pukapuka nei kaore e taea te panui nga take pakupaku me waiho ko nga take whanui mo tenei wa.

Mo te putanga tuatahi o te pukapuka nei na te Etita te nuinga o nga korero i whakawhaiti, engari mo nga putanga e tu mai nei ko te tumanako kia riro te nuinga o nga korero ma te hunga rawaho e tuhi otira ma nga Maori. Kaore he whakahe mehemea ka haere mokamoka noa mai aua korero hei te Tari whakatikatika ai. Ka utua nga Kaituhi o nga korero e taia.

I roto o enei tau tata ka nui te rongo o nga mahi a nga ropu a nga iwi ki te whakaohooho i nga mahi Maori a ma enei mahi e ora tonu ai e kaha ai te tipu a te Maori i roto i te ao Pakeha. He tika ra me mahi te Maori penei ano me te Pakeha kia ora ai; engari he mea pai tonu te mahi i nga mahi haka, i nga mahi whakairo i nga wa watea hei whakataruna a hei whakaahuru i to te Maori i tona kawa. Ka manaakitia enei mahi a te Maori e Te Ao Hou, a i nga wa ka taea mana e whakamarama nga mahi a Te Kawanatanga mo te iwi Maori.

Na Te Tahua Moni Mo Nga Take Maori i punga a Te Ao Hou a tena te wa ka whai huruhuru mona ake. Ko te inoi atu ki a koutou kia manaakitia mai ta tatou taonga. Kei te wharangi 2 nga whakamarama me tuku mai ki te Etita, Box 2390, Poneke me tuku ranei ki te Tari Maori e tata ana ki tou kainga. Ma nga Poutapeta hoki e hoko a Te Ao Hou ki te tangata.

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Te Rangihiroa's Rich Life,
Rich Distinctions, Rich Legacy

Aotearoa had no better known ambassador-at-large, the Maori people no greater champion than one of their own sons, the distinguished, wise, human, learned but modest, Te Rangihiroa. As Sir Peter Buck, K.C.M.G., D.S.O., M.A., Litt.D., D.Sc., M.D., Ch.B., doctor, politician and soldier, he was the last of New Zealand's Maori knights.

His accomplishments in ethnology and anthropology—particularly when he was Director of Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu—spread far beyond the Pacific seas over which the ancestors of his people steered their sturdy canoes centuries and centuries ago in search of land and a home.

He died in office at Honolulu on December 3, 1951, in his seventy-second year. Countless people knew him simply as ‘Peter’. The well-deserved honours bestowed on him made him none the less approachable nor warped the strains of modesty and friendliness uppermost in his many-sided character. His greatest asset, of which he was most proud, was the Maori blood he inherited from his mother. This was complemented by the Irish strain of his father.

In point of fact his father's name was William Henry Neal, better known in the Taranaki, Whanganui and Wairarapa districts as ‘Buck’ Neal, and his wife as Mrs ‘Buck’. It was from this nickname that Peter gained his European surname, and from his mother's only brother he took, when he had reached his ‘teens, the name Te Rangihiroa, or more correctly, Te Rangi Ihiroa. It was through the death of this same uncle that he received his very first name of Materori— ‘death on the road’. The uncle became ill while travelling to his home and collapsed and died on the roadside.

‘It must always be borne in mind that I had the good fortune to have a Maori mother,’ he said speaking in Ngati Poneke Hall, Wellington, during his last visit to New Zealand and his people. His mother, a Ngati Mutunga chieftainess, Ngarongokitua (‘Tidings that Reach Afar’), taught him to read and write in the Maori tongue. She died when he was but a youth and his grandmother, Kapuakore (‘Cloudless’) cared for

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Photo: S. P. Andrew
Sir Peter Buck (1949)

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him until his early teens. She lived to be 102 years old and she was, he recalled, ‘more tattooed than any woman I have ever seen or heard of among my people.’

Discussing his mixed blood Peter has said, ‘I would not change for a total of either.’ And again, ‘To my despondent fellow halfcaste I can truly say that any success I might have achieved has been largely due to may good fortune in being a mongrel.’ It would take a man with terrific pride in his ancestry and race to say that.

Peter was never more sincere than in these utterances, and in them can be found the key which so often turned his thoughts toward the future of the Maori race. He expressed his feelings plainly more than once during his visit to New Zealand, thus: ‘It is impossible for us to maintain our isolation as a pure Maori people. The process of mixing has been going on for generations and it will continue. We cannot make any law about it, and it is not desirable to make a law about it.

‘We must have freedom. They talk of freedom of thought, the freedom of worship. In this country there is the freedom to mate with those you live. And under these conditions this process of mixing … is a law which has come about out of a human law and I think it is one which will bring about a greater unity and fellow feeling and cooperation between the two races in this country.’

Peter saw in the fusion of Maori and European blood the rising of future generations in which there would be no difference between Maori and Pakeha. ‘We are all New Zealanders,’ he said, ‘and should go forward together … I see in the future the development of a fine race of New Zealanders composed of Pakeha and Maori.’

Peter Buck Becomes a Medical Officer

‘Peter, my boy, you come to school tomorrow,’ said the man who was to be his first schoolmaster at Urenui. He obeyed and was the only Maori boy in a roll of 17 pupils. He resolved that he would succeed in his work as well as the best of the others, and did so.

When he left Urenui primary school he accompanied his father to the Wairarapa and worked on Ica station, near Masterton, for 10s. a week. His thirst for learning was quickly noticed. He was always asking for books, and a pedlar and a parson helped him with his learning.

The parson was Rev. J. C. Andrew, a former Vice-Chancellor of the University of New Zealand, Mainly because of his influence Peter was enrolled at Te Aute College (1896-1898). While he was there two medical scholarships were offered. Peter worked hard to obtain one, and was successful, but not until he had compressed a tremendous amount of study into a very short period. In less than a year he absorbed sufficient of the Greek language required for a pass in the medical preliminary examination—a feat which has never been equalled by any other New Zealand scholar. In athletics, too, he shone.

He graduated in medicine at Otago Medical School (M.B. and Ch.B. 1904; M.D. 1910), later joined the Department of Health and became chief medical officer for the Maori people (1905–1908).

As chief Maori medical officer he travelled widely in the North Island and gradually acquired an extensive knowledge of Maori metaphor and simile, and an almost complete education in Maori classics and traditions. He saw, too, the necessity for sweeping health reforms among his people if the race was to increase, progress and prosper.

In his time he saw the Maori population increase from 45,000—its lowest ebb—to 50,000, and thought that advance a minor miracles In later years he was to confess his amazement and astonishment that the race could have doubled to 110,000 and his great pleasure at the non-fulfilment of dire predictions that the Maori race would die out.

Brief Adventure Into Politics

After the death of Hone Heke in 1908 Peter the following year made his first excursion into politics. He ‘married’ the Northern Maori ‘widow’ and won his byelection without making a single speech. The mother of the dead statesman regarded the seat in Parliament as the ‘widow’ of her son and to show her appreciation of the fact that Hone Heke's body had been brought back to the north by chiefs of the south, she and her people made an unprecedented gesture by asking that someone outside Ngapuhi tribe carry Hone's mantle. Peter was chosen.

He wanted to resign before the next general election, but he was persuaded to fight for the seat, and he won. In his electioneering campaign he experienced an incident which brought home to him the truth in the old adage, ‘Cast your bread upon the waters and it will return unto you a thousand-fold.’

At Pawarenga a big 20-stone Maori suffered a deep cut right down the middle of

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his head when he was tipped from his ‘four-wheeler’ while collecting kauri gum. Peter was called on to attend him and eventually sewed up the wound with a darning needle and some silk thread. A few days later he examined the wound and found that it had healed perfectly despite his ‘bush’ surgery. The stitches were removed and he forgot all about the matter.

Some time later he arrived at Sweetwater to advance his election cause and was greeted by a man he thought he had met, but wasn't sure. However, he was evidently the leader there and called the people together to listen to the visitor's political speech.

After the speeches the man, addressing Peter, said they had already been visited by ten other candidates for the seat. ‘I have given these other ten the same reply: ‘My vote is for the man who sewed up my head.’ Then he removed his battered old grey hat and revealed the scar—.

Subsequently Peter found himself in the short-lived Mackenzie Cabinet and for three brief months was Minister representing the Native race with the rank of Hon. Dr. Pita Te Rangihiroa. He was also Minister in Charge of Cook Islands, the Public Trust and the Government Life Insurance Offices.

Peter put a lot of care and thought into his Parliamentary speeches, as Hansard records will show, and when he could he infused a delightful sense of humour into either criticism of or comment on whatever was before the House at the time. One of the contributions to debates for which he will be remembered occurred during the discussion on the Daylight Saving Bill. He said during his visit to Wellington in 1949 that he did not like the idea of daylight saving being considered a discovery of the 19th century. The Maoris had daylight saving long before when, according to Maori mythology, the sun moved so quickly over the arc of heaven that they did not have the time to cultivate their plots and do the many other things they wished. The famous Maui and his brothers prepared a noose and they went to the hole in the east where the sun came from, and snared it.

The sun could not struggle because his arms were tied, and Maui ordered the sun to cross the sky more slowly. But Maui could not keep pace with the sun and so he broke his legs with a club, and the result was that the god was lamed and moved slowly according to orders.

In 1914 Peter resigned the Northern Maori seat to Tau Henare, then failed by 100 votes to capture a Pakeha seat—in emulation of Timi Kara—and with the outbreak of World War I left New Zealand as a medical officer. His wife—he was married in 1905—also accompanied the contingent as a nursing sister. It is one of the few instances on record of both husband and wife going overseas to serve in the same war.

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Photo: Otago Daily Times.
The Dunedin Public Library Association some years ago asked Sir Peter Buck for a statement of his beliefs as an anthropologist. Sir Peter's reply (above) is kept in the city's collection of letters of New Zealand notables.

He was transferred to the infantry and raised from captain to the rank of major and was appointed second-in-command of the Pioneer Battalion. ‘Although I got that elevation in rank with an increase 5s. a day I lost 10s. 6d. a day medical corps pay!’ he said remarking on his promotion. Peter served with the First Maori Contingent on Gallipoli (1915), was second-in-command of the Battalion (1916-19), and in actual command in the later stages of the war. Also

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in 1918 he re-joined the N.Z. Medical Staff. He had two amazing escapes from death, once on Gallipoli when he had only just reached shelter as a shrapnel shell burst uncomfortably close overhead; again near Flers, on Bezantin Ridge. The major and a machine-gun subaltern were returning to camp when a ‘Whizz-bang’ grazed the latter's shoulder and burst in the ground in front of the major's feet.

Much of the history of the Maoris in World War I was taken from Peter's diaries which he kept with meticulous detail and accuracy. He repeated on many occasions when he was last in New Zealand that the Maori had proved in two great wars that he was a man who could hold his own with any other race. No one will dispute that assertion.

Anthropological Work in the Army

Peter returned from World War I with a D.S.O., the British General Service Medal, 1914–18 Star and the Victory Medal. Four times he was mentioned in dispatches. His wife was awarded the M.B.E. for her nursing services. He resumed work with the

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Photo: Taranaki Daily News.
Sir Peter Buck and Mr Papakakura, during their student days in Dunedin, shown chasing a (stuffed) moa. The photograph was arranged by the then director of the Dunedin museum at a time when it was still believed that moas of this giant type (dinornis) were still extant when the Maoris landed in New Zealand. It is now known that the Maoris only found smaller species here to grapple with.

Department of Health as Director of Maori Hygiene. His organizing ability, much sharpened by his war service, was at once apparent within and beyond the department, and he did his utmost to persuade Maori villages to adopt reforms all aimed at improving the people's health. His reports were models of clarity without much paring of detail, and his division in the department made important and rapid progress under competent, wise, sympathetic yet forceful administration. In a way it was prosaic work, but it enabled him to pick up the threads of studies interrupted by the war.

On the way home to New Zealand in the battalion's transport he followed up his earlier anthropological work by measuring the heads of 424 full-blooded Maori troops. The Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, accepted and welcomed this data and found it of great value when, in 1921, it conducted a systematic survey throughout Polynesia of the head measurements of all its peoples. Thus was forged the first link with the famous institution of which in later years he was to become director.

Peter was conscious of the great and important need for the recording of Maori culture. He was a fairly early contributor to the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute and to The Journal of the Polynesian Society, which published his Evolution of Maori Clothing (1926) as a memoir. This study was an elaboration of a paper read before the Congress of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science held in Wellington in 1923. The foundations for the study were laid in 1908 when he wrote his first ethnological paper, ‘The Maori Art of Weaving’ (Dominion Museum Bulletin, No. 3).

The production of his Maori clothing study was made possible by the Board of Maori Ethnological Research (now the Maori Purposes Fund Board), which still assists financially the Polynesian Society to publish its memoirs and other Maori material. Peter (in the technological field), the late Sir Apirana Ngata (famous for his collection of classic chants, dirges and laments), and the late Sir Maui Pomare (mythology was his province) were mainly responsible for the formation of the old Board.

I began with the process of weaving, said Peter later to a large gathering in Ngati Poneke Hall, that I learned from Tira Hori, one of the Whanganui women who was a skilful weaver. Her husband,

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Hori Pukehika, used to say, ‘He mea whangai’ (she has been fed), which means that when she was young and wanted to learn she got her instruction and then made a rough sampler … One of the elders would then take Tira to one of the sacred places or tuahu. The sampler was placed on that tuahu. The old man lit a fire and he took some puha (sour thistle) and ran the leaves over the fire, and then as he recited a ritual chant he fed the puha to Tira. She swallowed it and that sealed the knowledge that she would have to weave, be skilful with her hand, be quick to pick up new patterns, and become an accomplished weaver—and Tira Hori did …’

In the process of trying to find out more about the native crafts Peter began to wonder about the crafts of peoples in outer Polynesia. How much was brought by the various ancestors of the Maori from Polynesia to New Zealand? In his monograph, The Evolution of Maori Clothing, he says, ‘From the available data it would seem that both diffusion and evolution have played their part, but the honours are with the latter.’

In later years he was able to prove that the Maori weaving technique, the forms of carving, pa construction and protective works, were all developed in New Zealand and by the Maori people themselves, and do not exist elsewhere in Polynesia. This was a most momentous deduction, and it was reached only after an opportunity to see more of the Pacific world had been presented to him.

Polynesian Research Tour

In 1927 he met the director of Bishop Museum and other members of the museum staff who were in Auckland on their way to the Second Pacific Science Congress in Australia. Peter, with five other New Zealanders, was sent by the Government to represent the Dominion at the congress. In that year Bishop Museum embarked on a five-year research programme in Polynesia and he was invited to participate in this work. Before he left New Zealand, however, he saw into print his next Board of Maori Ethnological Research publication. The Material Culture of the Cook Islands (1927), the Board's first memoir.

Fate decided his length of stay overseas. At the end of the period Bishop Museum sent him as a visiting lecturer to Yale University's school of anthropology. The appointment was renewed for various terms which gave him the opportunity of examining the Polynesian material in several European museums—in particular that in the British Museum which comprises the finest collection. New Zealand and Hawaiian, in the world.

The next 20 years were to be the busiest and most productive in his life, and his energy and output are reflected in these handsome legacies he has bequeathed to posterity: Samoan Material Culture (1930); Ethnology of Tongareva (1932); Ethnology of Manihiki and Rakahanga (1932); Mangaian Society (1934); Ethnology of Mangareva (1938).

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Sir Peter Buck on his visit to New Zealand in 1949, addressing school children at his home village Urenui.

In his famous Vikings of the Sunrise (1938) the world was introduced to some of the romance associated with the settlement of Polynesia by a stone age people who rank among the world's great navigators, as well as to some autobiographical details of Te Rangihiroa himself. This work was followed by Anthropology and Religion (1939); Arts and Crafts of the Cook Islands (1944); Introduction to Polynesian Anthropology (1945); then, finally, his classic, The

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Coming of the Maori (1948).

This book in itself is a romance, and grew from a lecture with the same title given at Cawthron Institute in 1925, which summarized some phases of Maori history and culture. The lecture was later reprinted by the Board of Maori Ethnological Research, and years later the Maori Purposes Fund Board proposed another reprint as it was being used as reading matter in the subjects of Maori and anthropology for the B.A. degree of the University of New Zealand. Peter was asked if he had any alterations or additions to make to the original lecture and, he says, ‘In an optimistic mood I offered to write a book in place of the original lecture.’

The offer was accepted, but World War II and various other responsibilities delayed the fulfilment of his promise. “The seedling planted in 1925 has grown somewhat in twenty-odd years, but it retains its old title …” he said.

At the time of his death Peter was engaged on what he would have regarded as a labour of great love … a tribute to repay in some degree the debt he felt he owed to Bishop Museum and its founder, Charles R. Bishop, who was married to Bernice Pouahi, the last of the Kamehameha dynasty of Hawaii. Bishop was Hawaii's first banker. He amassed a fortune and the Museum was established as a memorial to his wife who predeceased him. It is known that Peter had prepared most of his material on Hawaiian arts and crafts before he visited New Zealand, and that for a few months prior to his death he was assembling more, but it is not clear whether his work had reached the stage where it was ready for the printers. It seems apparent that this monograph will be published posthumously. Doubtless it will stand as a memorial to the institution to which he brought added lustre, and through which he gained world distinction and honour.

All his scholastic honours, awards, medals and diplomas have been bequeathed to his old college, Te Aute—surely no finer gesture could have been made by any old boy, and nothing finer could he have done to inspire others to follow the lead he and other distinguished old boys have established. Indeed, if in this way he remembered his old college, which subsequently opened so many other portals to him, might not others make their contributions?

Ka pu te ruha
Ha hao te rangatahi.

‘The old net is laid aside, and the new net goes afishing,’ was a proverb Peter quoted frequently when he was last in his homeland. He used it, too, for the finish of his memorial ‘Vikings of the Sunrise’.

This is the Maori chant he liked best of all:

Piki mai, kake mai
Homai te waiora ki au
E tutehua ana te moe a te kuia
I te po, po, i rarua ai a Wairaka
Ka ao, ka ao, ka awatea!

‘Come hither, draw nigh.

Bring unto me the living waters of life.

Ah! Troubled has been the rest of the aged in the night,

But now it is down! It is down! It is light!’

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Progress in the North

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Progress in the North

The article by Prof. I. L. G. Sutherland facing this page was specially written by him for Te Ao Hou. It was prepared shortly after Professor Sutherland had visited Tokerau on one of his searching tours to study the welfare of the Maori people. Professor of psychology at Canterbury college, Professor Sutherland, who died last February, had made a profound study of the relations between Pakeha and Maori. When he died, he had a large work on this subject in preparation, so that the article printed here is one of his last complete contributions to the history of Maori progress.

The Maori tribes in the north took the first and most intensive shock of contact with the white man and his civilization and early in the nineteenth century Maori culture was rapidly and extensively lost among them. Inter-tribal wars and war with the white man took place and later there were extensive alienations of land and the northern Maori people remained for many years in a depressed and more or less static condition, with the kauri gum industry supplying a rather uncertain means of livelihood. To take one item, the loss of culture may be illustrated by the disappearance of the characteristic design and decoration of the Maori meeting house and the adoption throughout the north of a europeanized style of hall. Or it may be illustrated by Sir Apirana Ngata's remark, when preparations were being made for the 1934 Waitangi gathering and when the northerners had to be coached in the entertainment they were to offer, that the rhythm of the haka had died out in the ears of the northern tribesmen. Recent years have seen an interesting revival of some features of Maori culture in the north, as will be mentioned.

Maori land development and farming had commenced in the north before the schemes authorized by the 1929–30 legislation were initiated. The introduction of the latter was made difficult by the scattered nature of land interests due to alienations, but early reports state that the commencement of the schemes was characterized to a notable extent by co-operation and selfhelp. The northerners, it was said, worked for one meal a day and provided that themselves. The present state of Maori farming in the north, the number of settlers involved and the butter-fat yields represent a really big forward move in economic and social progress, even if complicated to some extent in recent years by social security benefits and the temptation to take well paid jobs on public works. The feature that most immediately impressed the writer was the much needed improvement in housing which has taken place. Maori housing in the north was particularly bad and while there are still some very poor homes, they are now the exceptions. (The twenty families living in Army huts at Moerewa* certainly deserve something being done for them.) The new houses in the north are modest and more attention might have been given to their planning and appearance.

*Land has recently been obtained for this purpose and housing is being provided.

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Along with economic progress has gone a movement for marae improvement and the building of carved and decorated meeting houses, the latter stimulated no doubt by the fine centennial house at Waitangi. The ‘poplar house’ at Mangamuka and the partially completed dining halls at Otiria and Panguru (with their plans for carved houses) are significant signs of a returning vitality among the Maori people in the north. Incidentally, the loss of the art of carving had been so complete that most northerners had lost all knowledge of their own style of carving or were unaware that they had ever had characteristic patterns and it is the Arawa style of carving that has been used in the new buildings. It is to be hoped that the traditional northern patterns will in time be revived.

Though the land development schemes of the past twenty years represent the greatest single movement of Maori economic progress and though one would not like to contemplate what the condition of the Maori people might now be had they not been initiated by Sir Apirana Ngata, it has long been recognised that they do not at one stroke provide for the rapidly increasing Maori population. This is particularly true of the North Auckland district. Many young people have in recent years made their way to Auckland and elsewhere, a movement which the conditions during World War II greatly accelerated. But the problem of numbers (something like 25,000) in relation to economic resources and vocational opportunities remains in the north, with particularly acute spots like the Te Hapua community where more than half the population is under fifteen years and where the outlook for local employment is practically nil. It was interesting to hear of the attempts at developing local industries at Te Kao and to hear many suggestions for local industries in the north generally. But nothing practicable has been suggested nor seems likely to eventuate and the only solution to the problem of numbers and lack of resources would seem to be boldly planned group migration. Already as a result of the existence of welfare officers the movement south is less haphazard than it was.

It was pleasing to see in the north some instances of economic self-help by Maori groups. The small sawmill at Otiria is an example and Teaka Rapana's settlement at Te Tii is a more extensive and a more interesting one. Space does not permit a full account of the Rapana movement, the latest of a long series of Maori prophetic movements, but a visit to the community of some 300 people at Te Tii gave an impression of industry and order based on strong religious leadership. Rapana is a prophet of a new sort, with a good deal of practical common-sense, and during the past three years much has been done by his people by hard work on an unpromising site. It was impressive to hear the local schoolmaster dispose of rumours about the settlement and say: ‘This is a healthy movement. The people are sober, honest and hard-working.’ While social security benefits, which are partly pooled, are a large source of the community's revenue, working parties go out daily on contract to nearby farms and bring in cash which again is partially pooled, with a sharing out at the end of each year in accordance with labour put in. Housing is still primitive, but gardens are neat and well-filled and the marae is really well laid out with lawn, flower beds, shrubs, and trees and a set of community buildings which are the result of local effort. Customs and etiquette of the marae are well carried out. How long the movement may be sustained is a matter for speculation, but it has survived the early official prophecies that it was economically unsound and that nothing could be done with the site. One got the impression that its main difficulty may be the lack of recreational outlets available to the young people. Meanwhile it provides a wellordered way of life for several hundred people.

Facilities for secondary education have considerably increased in the north in recent years and the establishment of Northland College at Kaikohe in 1947 represents a big step forward in educational facilities. This school, with its varied courses, is an institution admirably equipped to meet the educational needs of both pakeha and Maori young people in its area.

In any inter-racial situation rumour and myth develop very easily and they have developed in regard to the Maoris in the north and elsewhere in recent years, especially in regard to abuses and misuse of social security benefits. Even a brief enquiry shows to what extent rumour grows beyond the actual facts. The latter, so far as they exist, should, however, be closely studied and frankly reported by those dealing with Maori affairs. Contacts and observations made during a visit to a Maori district today show the Department of Maori Affairs active in a many-sided and increasingly enlightened way.

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Judea adopts an american Idea

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Judea adopto an american Idea
Above: Judea Community Baths (near Tauranga)

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The Maori Affairs Department architect has studied the plans used for the Judea Communal Baths and drawn an almost identical but perhaps more streamlined plan for the guidance of other groups who might be interested. External finish in this plan is plaster on netting, and the floor throughout is concrete.

Judea has, or almost has, its own community baths. Community baths are not known in New Zealand; people are wealthier than in most places abroad and can afford their own baths. But there are still many old houses which cannot be renewed in a hurry still dating from the time when baths and privies were less general. The problem is, how can one live a modern life in such houses. A lady from Judea who visited Salt Lake City has provided an answer. Writing home, she told about the community baths that are found in America.

They are building public lavatories, showers, sometimes baths, and pools for the children to play in. Everybody in the community contributes to their upkeep and so, instead of having to go to the expense of each person installing his own plumbing and drainage in houses that are perhaps very old and cannot be rebuilt very soon, people enjoy the same advantages cheaply.

The photo will show what the Judea baths look like and the plan, drawn by the Maori Affairs Department's architect, is almost the same as the one used in Judea.

Although of course with the building of modern dwellings such baths may later become unnecessary, at present they should be looked upon as a praiseworthy initiative that will solve a difficult problem. It is to be hoped that Judea will soon instal a boiler and get the baths working so that we may learn how the plan works out in practice.

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Left: Kelly Keepa and Garry Gear feeding the grinder with 3ft. pinus logs. Grinders crushing the logs into pulp are driven by 1200 H.P. motors. Right: Two cadets. Training at the Mill consist of several years in all departments, during which period evening classes are also available. These boys are in the laboratory for a six months period.


Some Twenty-five years ago, people began to become aware of the great possibilities of using New Zealand grown forests for paper production. By then, many people were aware of the amazing rapidity of growth of certain timbers in New Zealand soils, especially pinus. It would be cheaper to grow the type of young pine tree used for paper production in New Zealand than in almost any other country, because of the short period of growth of the trees. The Government had some experiments carried out in the United States in 1928. A few years after that an Australian Company, named ‘Timberlands Woodpulp Ltd.’, arranged for some more detailed investigations. It was proved experimentally that the New Zealand woods used in the experiments (pinus insignia, rimu and tawa) were suitable for the manufacture of Kraft wrappings, board, newsprint, writings and high-grade white papers. On the basis of these experiments the Whakatane Paper Mills Ltd. was founded in 1934 with a capital of over £2.5 million.

So far, these paper mills have made a significant contribution to the problem of finding work for Maoris in their home districts. As the first of several mills that are planned in the Bay of Plenty area, it has pointed the way, not only to the employment of local people, but also to training them in a highly skilled trade.

The Whakatane Board Mill

The mill started operations in July, 1939, a few weeks before the beginning of the war. By this time seedlings planted out in the company's 46,000-acre plantations in 1928 were ready for manufacturing processes. During the war the plant produced an average of over 11,000 tons of cardboard per annum, which was in excess of New Zealand's pre-war consumption. At present production stands somewhere around 15,000 tons per annum.

The rather specialized machinery used is Swedish. The exact processes through which the pulp passes on its way to the cardboard stage are rather complicated to describe, but roughly the treatment is as follows. Cardboard consists of three main pulp constituents, namely the pulp ground from the freshly cut trees, imported chemical pulp and waste paper. A common furnish for a good strong cardboard used extensively today is approximately 30% waste paper, 50% ground wood, and 20% imported chemical pulp. In addition the production of card-

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Bill Walker, foreman of the beater room, has Pakehas as well as Maoris working for him. The chemicals and other constituents are mixed together. The mixture determines the quality of the board.

board requires an enormous water supply. The Whakatane mills take 3,000,000 gallons daily from the Whakatane River.

The pine trees are cut into 3 feet bolts, debarked and then fed into the grinders. These machines consist essentially of a large revolving carborundum stone against which the logs are forced under pressure in the presence of a stream of water. As the stone grinds the pulp from the log the stream of water carries it away. Exceptionally big motors, 1200 h.p. each, are required to drive each grinder. The groundwood pulp, which now has the appearance of porridge, is subsequently passed through screens and refiners prior to being pumped to the beater department.

Here the mixture is made which decides the quality and properties of the board. Apart from the main constituents described above, various chemicals are introduced: rosin and alum for sizing and to prevent the penetration of moisture, starch for hardening and stiffening, clay for loading, wax emulsions for water proofing, and dye for colouring. After further refinement the mixture passes to the board machine. The fibres in the wood are now entirely disentangled. In the board machine the fibres are piled together, pressed and dried to form the final sheet.

Maoris Take Part in Production

The mill employs 425 workers of whom 110 are Maoris. An executive officer at the mill, in conversation with Te Ao Hou correspondent, expressed the opinion that he considered his Maori workers to be of the same quality as the Pakeha workers. He made another statement which may interest those considering the setting up of industries in the smaller Maori centres. He said that the Maori worker at the Whakatane mills, who generally has his ancestral home in the district, does not tend to move around quite as much as the Pakeha worker.

Various of the Maori workers have skilled and responsible jobs, some have become foremen. One Maori boy has been apprenticed to the mill's painting shop. The really important jobs in this industry, however, are filled by people who are paper and board experts. The mill is training cadets to be such experts. Of these cadets, two at present are Maoris and the mill is interested in getting more, as long as their school record is a good one.

Cadets are placed in the sales department, to be trained in the selling work on which the mill ultimately depends, the programming of production, and the purchasing of raw materials. After a year they go to the laboratory where they are taught the routine

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controls made at various stages of production, the checks of the raw materials coming in, and so forth. Cadets then are sent to the various departments of the factory to learn how the factory is run. The total course lasts five years. At present there is also a voluntary effort on the part of some of the technical officers who take classes at night and teach those cadets who are interested in the scientific and theoretical background of paper-making. The boys are taken to a sufficiently high standard to sit the examination of the London Paper Guild and gain a diploma valid over the whole of the British world.

It is clear that in the not so distant future New Zealand may well produce the great bulk of her requirements not only in cardboard but also in other classes of paper. The total requirements for all kinds of paper and board in New Zealand are 100,000 tons annually; a good part of this could be produced by the projects now contemplated in the

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Packets of chemical pulp being picked up by a mobile crane. On the ground George Stewart and Tuka Tahiwi.

Bay of Plenty area. It is important for the Maori people to have their own skilled men and experts in this new industry right from the beginning and take an active part in the development of these products from their ancestral soil.


The traditional foods of the Maori people built splendid men and fine looking, strong women and all of these foods were gathered from New Zealand's soil or waters. With the coming of the pakeha and his food, however, the Maori people are forgetting some of their own foods and adopting more and more of the pakeha foods.

But Maori food is good, very good. Kumaras are, in almost all respects, as valuable to the body as the white potato. Of course, if kumaras, or potatoes, are peeled thickly much of the nourishment is lost. The best way of all to cook kumaras is in a Maori oven, in their skins, after careful washing. Every Maori knows that this is the way to get the true flavour of kumaras.

Secondly, puha or rauriki, is a green vegetable which can be compared favourably with cabbage, silver beet or spinach. In addition the Maori method of cooking puha, in which all the liquid is drunk, is superior to the common pakeha practice of straining off and throwing away the vegetable water. The more puha is eaten the better.

The Maori people have always been great fish eaters. May they ever remain as fond of it for fish is a fine food—one of those which build strong muscles. Octopus, sea eggs, rock oysters, crayfish, kuku paua, pipis, toheroas, pupurore—only milk beats these as a body building food; they are much better than red meat for building strong bones and teeth.

Again, New Zealand coastal waters are rich in such fish as hapuku, rawaru, tarakihi, snapper, kahawai, mango, patiki, kuparu, kanae, tope and countless others. Fish since mankind began has been one of his staple foods if he was fortunate enough to live near the sea or a river, and if he did not he was prepared to barter much of his possessions for the precious fish, or dried fish. Long before we knew anything about the components of foods we knew that fish was good for building muscles and for preventing the disease known as goitre.

Fresh water eels should never be despised for they, like the oil from the livers of fish, contain a substance which makes our bones strong and straight and helps to keep our teeth free from decay.

Pakeha food such as meat, bread and tea has come and come to stay, but do not neglect your own excellent foods, your puha, your fish and your kumaras.

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Ko nga kai ake a te Maori he kai whakatiputipu tangata, hei te tane te pakari o te tangata a hei te wahine te ataahua. Ko aua kai no Niu Tireni nei ano no te oneone no nga awa no te moana ranei. No te taenga mai o te Pakeha me ana kai kua wareware haere te Maori ki ana ake kai a kua kaingakau ki a te Pakeha.

He tino kai nga kai a te Maori, ko te Kumara e rite ana ki te riwai tona pai hei kai. Otira mehemea e matotoru ana te piira i te kumara i te riwai ranei ka moumou te nuinga o te whaipainga o te kai. Ko te tino tunu o te kumara me hangi kiri me ata horoi i te tuatahi. E mohio ana te Maori ko ia nei te tunu reka o te kumara.

Ko tetahi tino kai he puha. E rite ana tona pai hei kai ki te kapiti, ki te silver beet ki te spinach ranei. A ko ta te Maori tunu i te puha kei ko noa atu i ta te Pakeha tunu i te kapiti, notemea ka kainga te puha a ka inumia te wai kohua, tena ki te Pakeha ka ringihia atu te wai kohua.

He kai kaingakau na te Maori te ika. A he mea pai tenei notemea he kai whakapakari te ika i te tangata. Ko te wheke, te kina, te tio, te koura, te kuku, te paua, te pipi, te toheroa a ko te pupurore etahi o nga kai a te Maori, a mo te whakapakari i te tinana tangata ko te miraka anake kei runga atu i enei. Kei runga atu enei kai a te Maori i te miiti mo te whakapakari i nga iwi a i nga niho o te tangata.

Ka nui tenei tu ika kei Niu Tirani nei, te hapuku, te rawaru, te tarakihi, te kanae, te kahawai, te tamure te mango, te patiki, te kupara, te tope, te aha noa te aha noa. Ko te ika, mai rano tetahi o nga tino kai a te tangata, mehemea kei te taha moana ki te taha ranei o te awa tona kainga a mehemea kaore ka hemoa nuitia e ia te ika. Kua mohio noatia atu he tino kai te ika.

He kai pai ano te tuna wai maori, notemea he kai whakapakari i nga iwi a i nga niho o te tangata. kua noho nga kai a te Pakeha hei kai pumau engari kaua te Maori e wareware ki ana kai papai.

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Native Races Need Not Die

There is an old prophecy credited to a Maori seer who foretold coming events before white people arrived in New Zealand. ‘Behind the tattooed face,’ it runs, ‘a stranger stands who will inherit this land; he is white.’

If the pessimists who consigned the Maori to early extinction could come back to life, they would receive a great shock. The Maori population, which sank to an estimated 37,520 in 1871, has steadily risen until now it is reaching 90,000. The birth rate is four times as great as that of the white New Zealanders, and though the death rate is twice as high, the Maori rate of increase is still greater than that of the whites. There is little doubt that with steadily increasing knowledge in health matters, balanced diet and improved housing, the death rate will be decreased materially and the rate of increase correspondingly augmented. The psychology of the present generation is entirely changed from that of their ancestors in the latter half of the eighteenth century. The fear of extinction has passed with the tattooed men of old and their white contemporaries. The final word ma in the ancient Maori prophecy quoted is capable of being translated as ‘clean’ as well as ‘white’. The prophecy in the light of recent history may be rephrased as follows, ‘Behind the tattooed face, another stands who will live on in this land; his face is untattooed.’ Tattooing has been long abandoned, and the face of the Maori of to-day is as clean as that of his white neighbour. The problem to-day is not to smooth down the dying pillow of the Maori but to provide the steadily increasing population with adequate opportunities for living in order to justify the ideals that civilization has claimed for itself.

The claim that civilization has had a lethal effect upon native races is unfortunately true in a number of instances. The extinction of the Tasmanians was accelerated by treating them as animals and shooting them like game. The Australian aboriginal has disappeared in many parts of Australia, and the remnants subsist best in areas that have no economic interest to the invading whites. However, the assumption of the law of extinction of native races has been disproved by the history of the Maori branch of the Polynesian people and other branches as well. The Samoans have been increasing steadily, and the problem that faces government administration is to encourage and help such natives to bring more of their lands into cultivation to provide for the future. It is evident from past history that native races have suffered severely for the century following western contact. Epidemics and venereal diseases were introduced and it took a number of generations before governments were educated enough to introduce preventive and protective measures and before native people could develop a certain amount of immunity, to lessen the death toll. The native cultures were disorganized and western peoples were too engrossed in commercial exploitation to bother about assisting the natives in making adjustments to the changed conditions. It is apparent that native peoples have gone steadily down hill after European contact until they reached the bottom. Some have disappeared, some still survive as remnants, but others after plumbing the depths are steadily on the up-grade. Those who have emerged from extinction owe the fact to their innate pertinacity and courage combined with good leadership by their chiefs. Government officials have had to abandon the policy of watching a native people die out and are forced by the change in public opinion to realize the state's responsibility in inaugurating active and sympathetic mea-

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sures for the betterment of its native minorities. Once recovery commences, it should continue.

All native peoples have had their problems of adjustment to climate, geographical conditions, raw materials, foods and their human neighbours. If we take the Polynesian people as an example, it is evident that, when their ancestors left the mainland of Asia and penetrated into the islands of Indonesia, they had to adjust their culture to suit the new environment and so develop an oceanic culture. They developed the building and handling of outrigger and double canoes. From landsmen, they became fishermen and seamen. They developed such skill and courage in their maritime pursuits that when the push of invading hordes came from the western mainland they were able to sail east into the open sea in search of new homes with confidence in themselves.

During their passage eastward through Micronesia, the Polynesians encountered changes in the physical character of the islands, with accompanying changes in raw material. The islands encountered in the Carolines were volcanic as far as Kusaie and hence provided basaltic stone for their tools. The volcanic soil also enabled them to grow the cultivable food plants that they carried with them, root crops and fruit-bearing trees. Beyond Kusaie, the islands changed to low-lying atolls without the soil necessary for their food plants. The only food plant of their introduced stock that would grow was the coconut. For vegetable food they had to rely on the coconut and the pandanus, which had perhaps preceded them through ocean currents. The lack of basaltic stone made them fall back upon marine shells such as the Tridacna for their necessary tools. The shell adze is a sorry substitute for the stone adze, and yet with it trees were felled and split into planks to make the large vessels with which the eastward voyages were continued. Thus a stone culture was changed of necessity to a shell culture. The eastward groping was carried out by successive generations until, at long last, voyaging ships reached what are now known as the Society Islands, set in the centre of the many islands know as Polynesia.

The Society Islands were volcanic, with fertile soil and rich supplies of basalt. Again adjustments had to be made and the shell culture changed back to stone. The food plants, however, had failed to cross the atoll barrier, and so had the three domesticated animals, the pig, the dog, and the fowl. Voyages to the west re-discovered the plants and animals in Fiji, whither they had come through the uninterrupted volcanic chain of Melanesia. Polynesian ships brought them back, and so they were restored to the culture that was developing apace in central Polynesia. From this centre, subsequent voyagers radiated out in various directions until all the islands of Polynesia were discovered and settled. But though a common culture pattern, the cultivable food plants and the domesticated animals were carried forth, different physical features in various islands necessitated further local adjustments. Some of the islands within Polynesia were atolls and, in such islands, the stone culture again lapsed into a shell culture, with the loss of food plants and domesticated animals. The richer and more varied food supply of the volcanic islands supplied material for richer social customs and religious ritual.

The Maori branch of the Polynesians made their way south-west to New Zealand, where the cold climate necessitated adjustments not required in the tropical isles whence they came. It is to be assumed that the Maori settlers took all the cultivable food plants and domesticated animals present in their island home. Owing to the climate, the coconut, breadfruit, plantain and banana would not grow. The root crops such as the sweet potato, taro and yam survived, but were limited to the warmer parts of the country. Of the three domesticated animals, only the dog reached New Zealand. The paper mulberry from which bark cloth was made in Polynesia did not do well, and in any case the cloth proved unsuitable for protection from cold and wet. A form of weaving was used to make more suitable garments from the fibre of the local flax (Phormium tenax). The form of Polynesian house with more open walls for ventilation was abandoned for structures with thick, padded walls, and the floor was sunk below the ground surface for warmth. The indigenous trees with large trunks enabled canoes to be made with wide hulls that needed no outrigger to balance them. Hence the outrigger canoe disappeared in New Zealand. Jade was discovered and furnished material for more efficient adzes and chisels and also for clubs and precious ornaments. Owing to the frequent wars that developed between tribes, hilltops and cliff-girt promontories were selected for defensive village sites and further strengthened with trenches and palisades. The food had to be carried up the steep hillsides, and as a result the Polynesian balance pole was abandoned

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for plaited bands whereby the burden could be carried on the back. And so many changes were made in Maori culture to suit local conditions.

The approximation of one human race or tribe to another in culture or arts by contact has been termed ‘acculturation’. In acculturation, it is usually the weaker people who have to do most of the approximating. Between native tribes, the stronger will usually accept and adopt matters connected with fishing, fowling and local foods from a weaker tribe in prior occupation of the land, but the weaker tribe has to accept the systems of social organization and religion. Though acculturation has occurred among native peoples, the term is now usually applied to the changes and adjustments that are taking place between native people and the representatives of western culture, whether they be from Europe or America.

It was to material things that the attention of the Maoris was first drawn by contact with early European voyagers. The voyagers brought goods as part of their stock in trade to barter for food and other needs. Steel hatchets, hoop iron and nails were quickly recognized as being vastly superior to stone tools and, as soon as the supply was adequate, the Maori left the Stone Age for the age of metals. But in spite of the change in material much of the native technique was retained. Hoop iron and plane blades took the place of the stone adze head, but they were attached to handles of Polynesian form and lashed in position with native cordage. Nails were better than shell or bone for fish-hooks, so they were beaten out and shaped to the native form and for many years they were preferred to the trade hooks. Traders followed the voyagers and tempted the Maoris with various articles such as textiles, guns, tobacco and alcohol. Missionaries also entered the field and carried a supply of goods for exchange or to pay for services rendered. When white settlement took place, increasing supplies of goods made further inroads into Maori material culture. The gun and the steel tomahawk supplanted the native weapons of wood, stone, whalebone and jade. Loom-woven prints, woollens and blankets gradually displaced garments that were finger-woven from flax fibre. The clothing was altered not only in material but also in form, and hats and shoes made a further approach toward western culture. The houses thatched with local plants were replaced by buildings of sawn timber and corrugated iron, but the assembly houses retained their native form. Windows were added for light and ventilation and the sunken earth floor gave way to the raised board floor on account of rheumatism. The craft of the wood carver disappeared, but has been revived by the establishment of a school of carving.

Changes took place in regard to food. The yam disappeared, the taro lingers in some localities and the sweet potato is grown in smaller quantities than of yore. Their place has been taken by the introduced Irish potato, easier to cultivate and more prolific in a temperate climate. Flour and sugar became necessities. Tea displaced water as a beverage at meals, and the gourd water container disappeared before the complex of kettle, teapot, cup, saucer, milk jug, sugar basin and spoons. The further complex of dining rooms with their equipment of tables, chairs, table cloth, plates, dishes, knives, forks and spoons replaced the simple setting in which the people sat cross-legged on the ground and ate with their fingers from plaited flax platers. The iron cooking range with its iron pots and pans displaced the simple earth oven with its red-hot stones and cover of plaited mats and earth. It all seems simple and obvious, but the changes took time and the adjustments of native culture toward the western pattern are good examples of the process of acculturation going on.

Another series of changes took place in religion. The Maoris brought with them the pattern of Polynesian religion, with major gods ruling over various departments of life and minor gods created locally by deifying certain ancestors. In central Polynesia, public worship was carried on at open temples with a paved court and a stone platform at one end. The stone platform (ahu) was the strictly religious part of the structure, near which the priests officiated, and the paved or gravelled court (marae) was where the select congregation gathered. The general term ‘marae’, however, was applied to the temple and it was used also for social purposes such as feasts and festivals. In New Zealand, the stone platform was represented by a stone pillar or post or even some natural outcrop of rock, all located outside the village. To this detached symbol of the altar the priest, alone or accompanied by an assistant, went to consult his god. The open court of the Polynesian temple was represented by the open space before the village assembly house, and it was here that all social functions took place. It retained the name of marae; and thus the religious and social functions of the Polynesian marae

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were divorced in New Zealand.

The voyagers and traders had no interest in religion. Missionaries, however, from various Christian churches came to evangelize the heathen. They made a direct attack against the Maori form of theology. The golden rule of brotherly love was preached, and war and cannibalism were condemned. The new religion was accepted by the chiefs, and their tribes followed. It was some time, however, before the various tribes would give up the satisfaction of using their newly acquired firearms against their hereditary enemies. Old scores had to be settled as a point of tribal honour. Finally, the new teaching prevailed and inter-tribal wars ended. With the cessation of wars, the supply of slain enemies ended and cannibalism ceased. By this time, the introduction of pigs, cattle and sheep provided a substitute that had previously been lacking. The ending of wars also led to the hill forts being vacated and villages being established on the flat lands near the food cultivations. With the change in site, the simple form of sanitation possible on the hilltops could no longer be carried out and water supplies were often contaminated by the introduced typhoid bacillus, which exacted a heavy toll. The Maori priests became normal citizens and the simplified form of altar, though it retained a superstitious taboo, ceased to function. The marae, however, because it had been divorced from religious sanctions, still functions as the social assembly place of the people. The missionaries compiled an alphabet, and the Bible was translated into Maori. Mission schools were early established, and the Maoris were taught to read and write in their own language and in English. Later a system of education was undertaken by the state. Unorthodox Maori sects have risen and fallen, but now the Maori people, with few exceptions, follow some form or other of Christianity. They have built churches, many have been ordained as clergymen, and the Maori diocese of Aotearoa rejoices in a Maori bishop.

In social organization, Maori culture changed more slowly. The people are grouped in tribes, with all members claiming descent from a common ancestor after whom the tribe is named. The tribe is composed of sub-tribes which, as population increased, budded off to occupy more land for cultivating. Chiefs succeeded to rank by seniority in the male line, and they ruled with the advice of heads of families freely expressed in public gatherings. Certain customs such as the birth dedication to a god and marriage by family arrangement without religious ritual were changed to the Christian forms of baptism and marriage by religious ceremony. Polygamy was also changed by the church to the system of one wife at a time. The death customs, however, have retained much of the old. The body lies in state while relatives and visitors pay their respects with wailing and speeches. The deceased is farewelled with old-time imagery as returning to the ancestral spirit land to join the multitude of his people. References are made to mythology, and classical dirges are sung to round off the speeches. The ceremonies throb with an emotion that is entirely Maori, and then the body is buried in a consecrated cemetery by an ordained clergyman of the Christian church to which the family renders adherence. The Government, the laws and the church have all taken something from the power and influence of the chief and yet the chiefs have remained the leaders of their people. The tribes have retained their identity, and they still regard their chiefs as the real heads of their blood groups. Though settlement upon scattered farms is breaking up the village life, the tribal assembly place with its marae court remains the rallying centre to which the tribe returns on call to weep for its dead and to discuss matters that concern the welfare of the living.

From recent experiences, it is obvious that the theory that all native races are doomed to extinction after contact with western culture is not true. The theory has been used as an excuse for neglect in the past. It is true that a period of depression has followed first contact and that the psychology of the people of that period has been profoundly affected. But, with wise administration and education, recovery follows and succeeding generations grow up in a changed atmosphere of hope for the future. The native culture may lose much, but it may still retain some of its best elements and gain much. It may through its mythology, legends, traditions, history, language and poetry add a rich storehouse of emotional value to the writer, artist and poet of both races. It may even add some traits of a humane nature that would not be amiss in the present state of maladjusted western culture. When the state recognizes its responsibilities to its native people, it is by wise co-operation with native leaders that the people may be guided to reap the greatest benefits from the process of acculturation.


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He Korero mo te
Mata me te Paura

Tetahi. Muri rawa iho ka tae mai a Kapene Kuki ki tenei motu. Ka tu tona kaipuke ki Turanganui-o-Kiwa. Katahi ka hoe tona poti ki uta, he haere nana ki te hoko kai ma ratou ko ana heramana. Katahi ka whakatika mai nga tangata o taua whenua he patu i a ratou ko ana heramana ki a ratou taiaha, meremere, tokotoko, huata. Katahi ia ka mea ki ona tangata:— ‘Me hoki tatou ki te kaipuke, kei mate tatou.’ Ka mea a Kapene Kuki, he kainga kai kore taua kainga, he tangata tonu pea te kai a nga tangata o tena whenua. (Nana noa tenei i whakaatu mai ki nga tangata i etahi kainga i muri iho.) Na reira i huaina ai e ia te ingoa, o tera whenua ko ‘Kokorutanga Kai-kore’. Katahi ka rere tona kaipuke, tu rawa atu i Uawa, ka kite ia i a te Whakatatareoterangi. Katahi ia ka mea atu:— ‘Tatare! Tatare! Homai he kai.’ Katahi ka tukua te tahua kai ki a ia. No reira te ki a Kapene Kuki:— ‘Tatare! Tatare te rangatira.’ Katahi ka hoatu e Kapene Kuki ki a te Whakatatareoterangi ko te kakahu hanara, ko te pu whakatangi mai tawhiti, ko te kaho paura, me te mata kahupapa. Ka mea atu a Kapene Kuki kia taraitia te pupuhi i te pu. Katahi ka purua, ka whakapiria ki te paparinga, katahi ka puhia. No te pakunga he ohomauri anake; taia ana te pu ra ki runga ki te kohatu, whati tonu atu, whiua atu hoki ki te wai. Katahi ka wahia te kaho paura. Na, ka kitea nga paura o roto kiia ana he pua korau. Katahi ka taraia te waerenga, ka oti; ka maroke ka tahuna ki te ahi, katahi ka ruia. Katahi ka hari, ka whakatauki te tangata i reira:— ‘Katahi ano ka ora nga wahine me nga tamariki, ka ngaro hoki te kopura-kai ki te whenua.’ Ka mea etahi:— ‘Ana! E tama, he aha koa i kiia ai. He rawe ake nei.’ Katahi ka ua te ua; ka mea te tangata:— ‘Katahi ano te puiaki mo te pua i ruia nei.’

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Ko te mata ka hangaia hei toki hangaia, whakakoi rawa te mata, whakanoho rawa ki runga ki te kakau pai. Katahi ka haere te rongo o te toki a Whakatatareoterangi ki nga iwi katoa. Katahi ka huihui ki te matakitaki. Ka whakamatauria taua toki ki tana kai, ki te rakau. No te whiunga atu kite rakau, anana! Ka humene mai te wahi i whakakoia! Katahi ka mea te iwi nui tonu:—‘E! he kore kaore i tahuna ki te ahi! Me i tahuna ki te ahi katahi ka pakeke.’ Ka mea te nuinga:—‘He tika! Mahia mai he wahie. Hei te wahie mata, kia roa ai te kaanga, kia pakeke ai te toki nei.’ Katahi ka tahuna he ahi, ka ka, ka toroa ki runga ki te ahi; anana! kihai i roa ka tere! Katahi ka karanga te tangata:— ‘Kapea ki tahaki! Me ata whiriwhiri marie he tikanga mo te toki nei.’ He tokomaha nga tangata i whakatika ki te kape ki te kape ki tahaki; he nui hoki a ratou rakau ki te kape. No te kapenga rnai, motu ke, motu ke. Katahi ano ka pae ki te tahataha ki te mahue, ki te whakarere. Ka tutuki hoki ki tona tutukitanga a te kuare.

Experiments with
Lead and Powder

A long time after, Captain Cook visited the island again. He brought up his ship at Turanganui-o-Kiwa, and went in his boat on shore to purchase provisions for himself and his sailors. The natives of the place, with taiahas, meremeres, tokotokos, and huatas (wooden and stone weapons), advanced to attack him and his sailors. He then said to his people: ‘Let us return to the ship, lest we be killed.’ He said he supposed there was nothing to be got in that place to eat, and that the people lived on human flesh. (This he himself subsequently told the people at another place.) Therefore he called that place ‘Poverty Bay’. Then he sailed to Uawa, and there he saw the chief, Whakatatareoterangi. He called out to him: ‘Tatare! Tatare! give me some provisions,’ and a supply of provision was given to him accordingly. Then said Captain Cook: ‘Tatare! Tatare is a chief!’ (words which afterwards became a proverbialism). Captain Cook then gave to Whakatatareoterangi a bright red scarf, a musket, a keg of powder, and a flat lump of lead, and told him to make trial of his skill by firing off his musket. The gun was then loaded and the chief held it close to his cheek and fired it off, but he was so alarmed at the report that he dashed it down upon the stones and it was broken, then he threw it into the water. Afterwards they broke open the keg of powder and came to the conclusion that it was turnip seed. So they cleared away the bushes and prepared a plot of ground and planted the supposed turnip seed. Then the people rejoiced and said: ‘Our women and children will be satisfied (fed), for the seed of food is in the ground.’ Others said: ‘Yes, true. No wonder if we rejoice. It is so very jolly.’ And when it afterwards rained, they said, ‘This will bring up our seed.’

Out of the lead they formed an adze, which they sharpened carefully and put a nicely-made handle to it. And the fame of this adze possessed by the Whakatatareoterangi, spread far and wide among the tribes. At length they assembled in numbers to examine it, and witness the trial of its capabilities. On the first blow being struck upon the wood, lo and behold! it bent and doubled up! Then all the people, as with one voice, exclaimed, ‘O! it has not been subjected to the influence of fire! If it were heated in the fire it would become hard.’ Then said they, ‘Right! Bring some wood for a fire. Let it be green wood, that the fire may burn long and the adze be well hardened.’ So they lighted a fire, and cast the adze upon it; but, wonder of wonders! it melted! Then arose a shout: ‘Drag it from the fire! We must consider some plan to perfect this adze.’ Quite a number rushed to the fire and attempted to pick it out with sticks, but it separated into many parts, scattered about, and was abandoned. And so ignorance came to its natural result.

of Maori Self government

In 1900 the idea was first broached in Parliament that it would be desirable for the Maori people to have some form of local self-government, similar to that of borough or county councils. Sir James Carroll, then Native Minister, and the young Maori Party which also encouraged the measure, felt that such local self-government would be of especially great help in raising Maori morale and in conserving in some way the rights of the Maori people to rule themselves in their own organisation.

Thus the Maori Councils were established by the Maori Councils Act, 1900. This legislation authorised the Maori people ‘to frame for themselves such rules and Regulations on matters of local concernment, or relating to their social economy as may appear best adapted to their own special ones’. Power was given to the Council to make by-laws for the following purposes:


Providing for the healthy and personal convenience of the inhabitants of any Maori village.


Enforcing the cleansing of houses and other buildings in dirty and unwholesome state.


The suppression of common nuisances.


The prevention of drunkenness and sly grog selling.

The Act also regulated the proceedings of tohungas. Provision was also made for the proper registration of dogs, the branding of cattle, suppression of gambling, matters affecting oyster-beds, water-supply, schools, sanitation and general social matters.

In 1911, representatives of Maori Councils throughout New Zealand were called to a conference at Wellington. At this conference it was decided to continue the Councils, as it appeared that they had many beneficial effects on the Maoris, especially in the improvement of housing and sanitation conditions and the restriction of various abuses. The influence of self-government on morale might have contributed to the spirit of hope evident in the Maori people at the time through rise in population, school attendance and industry generally.

However, the grave problem facing the

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conference was that of finance. The only income of the Maori Councils was derived from fines and dog taxes. This being hopelessly insufficient, the conference proposed the institution of various additional taxes. It seems, however, that in practice it was impossible to levy any of them satisfactorily.

It is, indeed, remarkable that the Maori Councils were able to keep alive as long as they did with practically no money. In 1930, some new life was infused into them when they were empowered by a Health Act to carry out sanitary works and to enforce by-laws relating to health and sanitation. Control over the Councils was taken over by the Health Department and a Director of Maori Hygiene appointed. Sir Peter Buck was the first Director.

Even so the difficulties of finance and the inability to enforce the by-laws prevented the Maori Councils from being healthy institutions. A new large Maori Councils conference was held at Ngaruawahia in 1929. Here a letter to the Native Minister was unanimously approved, expressing the opinion ‘that the Act did not supply that authority which was necessary to enable the several Councils to carry out the full intention of Parliament’. The conference recommended consolidating the Maori Councils Act and by-laws and supplying finance by means of subsidy. As a result of these recommendations the by-laws were in fact revived, but nothing further happened until 1940. According to the Health Department the position of the Maori Councils in 1945 (the date of their abolition) was as follows:

Number of Councils 26
Inactive operation 6
Village Committees appointed (representing 12 Councils only) 149
Inactive operation (including Tribal Committees acting as Village Committees) 84

War Years

During the war years the importance of the Maori Councils suddenly became obvious to all. Perhaps the reason was the much closer contact between Government and population. As Maoris were not registered in any way the only possible contact could be through Maori local bodies.

The Army had to make use of the Tribal organisations for its recruiting. At the same time the Health Department became concerned at the inactivity of many of the Councils, not only due to lack of financial support and inability to enforce by-laws, but also in some cases to the personnel of the Councils which was sometimes unsuitable. The various Health schemes inaugurated by the Department required the efficiency of the Councils. Accordingly, the Director General wrote to the Native Department, as it was then called, proposing that a small grant should be made to Maori Councils providing they were doing satisfactory work. Simultaneously, the Maori Affairs Department received requests from many quarters to revive the Maori Councils,

The effect was that the Maori Affairs Department prepared a Bill submitted to the Minister on the 27th January, 1941. The threat to New Zealand in the Pacific postponed the consideration of this Bill till late in 1942, when it was considered by the Law Draughting Office and interested Departments. The Bill was to come into operation as the Maori Councils Act, 1943, and was discussed fully at the conference of Maori delegates convened by the War Effort Organization. However, Maori opinion did not agree with some parts of the Bill which was accordingly not passed. In particular, this early Bill still desired to confer statutory powers on the Maori Councils, while in fact Maori administration in 1943 was already beginning to be conducted through Tribal Executives.

While the Government was attempting to revive the Maori Councils in this way an entirely new movement, the Maori War Effort Organisation, had grown up in the Maori world. The origin of this movement was to be found in the voluntary recruiting done by local Maori groups in the early days of the war. These groups were responsible for very efficient recruiting in certain parts of the country.

Towards the end of 1941 it became, however, apparent that some Maori districts were lagging behind in the supply of manpower for the battalion while the drain on other districts had almost reached the point of exhaustion. At one stage, the War Cabinet felt inclined to introduce conscription for Maoris, but these plans were dropped when the Hon. P. K. Paikea proposed the founding of his War Effort Organisation. In July, 1942, when the Maori War Effort Organisation was begun, the recruitment totalled approximately 6,000 men in the Armed Forces, and 7,500 in the Home Guard. In addition, approximately 8,000 Maoris had been drafted into the essential industries.

By the 9th of March, 1943, according to the Organisation Statistics, an additional

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1,300 men had been enlisted for the Services and 2,700 for the Home Guard. 3,600 Maoris had entered the essential industries. If these figures are correctly recorded there could not be many more Maoris capable of being recruited and registered for the various Services. After this time, recruiting therefore began to lose importance and the Maori War Effort Organisation began to serve much wider purposes than that of recruiting. The Organisation resembled the Maori Councils in certain ways except that it had no statutory authority of any kind, and therefore had no by-laws, and could not, enforce any rules in its own right. As, however, the administration of by-laws under the Maori Councils Act had always been a rather doubtful affair, it can be said that the Maori Councils were largely superseded in the early war years by the new Organisation.

The Tribal Committees and Executives working under the Maori War Effort Organisation were not provided with finance, but they were highly successful in the collection of money which was, to a large extent, used for social amenities and Christmas Cheer for Maori servicemen, and for investment in war bonds.

The ‘liaison officers’ of the Maori War Effort Organisation, however, were salaried out of War Expenses Account. This was the first time in New Zealand that an organ of Maori self-government was financed by public money.

While recruiting lost its importance, the emphasis now began to be laid on food production and utilization of Maori manpower. Perhaps the greatest contribution of the Maori War Effort Organisation was the help in supplying New Zealand with labour at moments of crisis. In addition, a good deal of welfare work was taken up by the Organisation, and the Tribal Committees assumed the powers of the Maori Councils and Village Committees in a number of districts with considerable success and efficiency.

In this nation-wide Organisation it was possible to read the signs of the unification of the Maori people and at least partial fading out of the distinction of tribalism. It is, however, questionable whether it was entirely the Maori War Effort Organisation which united them. After all both the Ngati Porous and the Waikato Tribes remained at a certain distance from the Organisation. Yet is can not be denied that the Maori war effort has been the means of fanning the flame of patriotism in many districts and has made possible a more even distribution of the load of the War Effort among the Maori people.

There was strong feeling in the Maori world that the Maori War Effort Organisation should not disappear altogether as soon as the war ended. The Maori Councils Bill, 1943, did not provide for such continuation. A compromise had, therefore, to be found combining the purposes of this Bill, which were undoubtedly desirable, with the existing Tribal Organisations. Two schools of thought developed. Some of the leaders contended that a Minister of Maori Social and Economic Reconstruction should be created to stand independently of the Ministry for Maori Affairs, and which was ‘to provide machinery for the local self-government of the Maori race and to make better provision for their social, physical and economic wellbeing’. The idea was that such a department would act as a liaison organisation linking up the various social services with the Maori Tribal committee and executive.

Others, however, objected that in that case there would be two departments administering Maori affairs, which might have resulted in a rather inefficient administration.

The problem was finally solved by incorporating the Tribal Committees and Executives as they in fact existed in the Maori Councils Act.


Thus the Maori Social and Economic Advancement act was passed in 1945. Outwardly this Bill is much like the earlier one; it confers a limited measure of self-government upon organised Maori communities. However, there is a great difference between the Maori councils and the committees which are now given statutory powers.

First of all the tribal executive is no longer primarily a local body, like the councils, it is no more than an administrative unit, instituted for the sake of convenience. Many of the tribal committees, in towns and cities, are also mainly administrative, as Pakeha and Maori have intermingled to such an extent that many Maoris no longer live in the Maori villages. This means that the broader aspects of social and economic advancement are likely to interest a tribal committee, or executive, more than they did a Maori Council, which was primarily concerned with local body problems.

The most important advance in the new Act is, of course, that subsidies are now granted and travelling expenses of members

(Continued on page 46)

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Gathering Pipis, Te Araroa.

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Te Araroa, Main Street.

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These sketches of a true old-time Maori township were made by William Jones, a young English painter who came to settle in New Zealand recently. Perhaps the most spectacular sight in Te Araroa is the giant Pohutukawa tree (right) called Te Waha o Rerekohu, which stands on what is now the school site. This historical tree, over 65 feet high with a branch spread of about 120 feet all round, is claimed to be the largest pohutukawa in New Zealand. Planted long ago when the site was still an important marae named Kawakawa, the tree was named after the pataka built next to it.

The tree is still strongly tapu today. When the school committee decided recently that one of the lower branches should be cut off to improve the balance of the tree no one could be found willing to do this job and the branch remains.

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Peti Karaka, Putanga, Tikitiki.

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Te Waha o Rerekohu.

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Opoliki Clothing Factory, started recently by Farmers’ Trading Co., of Auckland, with labour supplied by the Maori Affairs Department. Of 5,000 garments made the first year only three had to be returned. Workers were trained in Auckland by the firm before the Opotiki branch opened. Above, left to right, Mrs Moe Mohaere, Misses G. Tai, E. Hudson, Mary Matchett, Tangi, Oakes. Right, the foreman cutter formerly a labourer, Henry Mihaere.

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Omaramutu Dining Hall under construction with due observance of tapu. Kei runga: Ko te whare kai i Omaramutu kei te hanga tonu i runga ano i nga whakaaro Maori mo Te Tapu.

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Takarua Tamarau, Tuhoe Chief and his wife, in front of his meeting house at Otenuku Pa. Kei te maui: Ko Takarua Tamarauraua ko rana wahine. He rangatira no Tuhoe, kei te roro o tona whare nui i te pa o Otenuku.

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Left: Mr Te Kani Te Ua ceremonially greeting the Minister of Maori Affairs. Centre: Mrs Whina Cooper, president of the Maori Women's Welfare League. Right: The Hon. E. B. Corbettt, Minister of Maori Affairs, entering the conference hall accompanied by Mrs S. Te Tai, of Auckland.


The Auckland conference of the Maori Women's Welfare League, 1–3 April, has shown more clearly than ever what functions the League is to fulfil. The achievements of the Conference in the enormous field it covered have been remarkable. It appeared that the women of the League are concentrating on two aims, namely, first to do a wide variety of Maori social work and second, to stimulate the Maori arts and crafts, especially haka and weaving.

Most of the conference was given to planning the huge social work programme the women have set themselves. Five fields were selected for special attention by sub-committees and for addresses by outside speakers, namely housing, child welfare, health, education and employment. In each of these fields penetrating discussion led to the passing of thoroughly practical and worthwhile remits, giving members a programme of social work that will keep them more than busy. Many of the remits, too, were resolutions calling upon the various departments of State to help. It is wholesome that the voice of Maori womanhood can now be heard to so much effect.

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Samples of Maori crafts exhibition shown during the conference. Both Pakeha and traditional Maori types of handicraft are encouraged by the League.

(Continued on Page 55; part of this article also appears in the Maori language.)

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Maori Land Development Scheme, Kaitimako, near Tauranga. This 746 acre block is to be subdivided into 7 dairy farms for Maori settlers within the next two years.

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Property of Turirangi Te Kani, Te Puna, near Tauranga. Mr Te Kani, a returned man, had his house built by the Maori Affairs Department and started on the land by growing crops. He was the first Maori to be assisted by a Maori Land Board in the establishment of small poultry farm. Now Mr Te Kani concentrates mainly on dairying.

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Going home to mum. For some of these children the ‘bus’ trip home will last three hours.


There is one difference between the school at Matakana Island—the island that stretches along the coast opposite Tauranga Harbour—and the schools of various other outback communities. It may be a trivial difference but it is a significant one. It is well known that the Education Department made a great contribution to progress in isolated communities by putting bathing facilities for the children in the schools. In some places all the children are bathed. In Matakana Island however, where there are absolutely no aids to man except horses, rain-tanks and one small aeroplane, only a small minority of the children need the use of the school showers.

Nothing could tell more of Matakana Island's 400 inhabitants, nearly all Maori, than the children. Apart from the few that live around the school they arrive in the morning in three so-called ‘school buses’. Two of them are drawn by four horses, and another, the big champion bus, is drawn by six. One of the little buses stands on the beach underneath a tree. The big one stands on a paddock at the back of the school. There the buses wait until the afternoon when, first the horses arrive and the drivers, and then the children climb on for the ride home.

The small buses take an hour to get home; the big one takes three hours. First it gallops along Matakana's only road, a mile of clay road from the school to the jetty, then it slowly descends to the beach, turns to the right and plods its way along the

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Matakana Jetty.

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Matakana School.

white sodden roads made by God. The beaches are only visible when the tide is out; at flood times the waves beat against the carriages and wear out the harness in a few months. The big bus, the champion, has only six miles to go, but she takes three hours over them and more in rough weather.

This bus is like a second home. During the winter it is probably lit with an oil lamp and the children sing the songs they have learnt in school while the waves ram against the bus and ebb and flow across the floor.

This is the school which seems to have reached a per-child record for the Post Office savings contributions. The total collected is around £1,200; some of the parents give their children five pound notes tor their contributions.

Most of the older people had a very rudimentary education; the school was a new element in their lives. Successive headmasters brought the new ideas of mainland civilisation not only to the children but also to the parents. The present head, Mr Nicholls, recognised that the main problem for Matakana is that of intensifying production on the large areas cultivated or grassed. The Matakana Young Farmers' Club, which has done so much, with the leadership of the agriculture instructor, Mr Allo, was started through his initiative.

In the crude hard struggle with the elements in which the Matakana Islanders

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Field about to be planted in maize.

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The big bus is about to depart.

exhaust themselves in the bogginess of the winter and the dry brooding heat of the summer, school is the higher sphere whose presence is admiringly and gratefully accepted.

‘The new lady teacher they sent us last year is so beautiful; you would hardly believe it,’ so I was told, and she was certainly lovely. The very best things of this earth are sent to Matakana Island; that is how the Islanders see it.

The parents see that the children live up to this. One can imagine what incredible efforts must be made, in the circumstances I pointed at, to send the children to school immaculately dressed, as if they were going to an important ceremony.

The Matakana Islanders are always busy. Arriving on the island on a summer's day, I was struck by the stillness of the sea, the dry, hazy atmosphere. The road running from the idle jetty was sandy, dusty and was meant for slow walkers. The overseer's cart stood against a fence, and also looked as if it had plenty of time. All that is deceptive, and one soon notices it. Nobody is sitting down, everybody is, quite steadily, going about some business, mostly the business of farming. Matakana Island used to specialise in cropping ventures, in particular maize, kumaras and early potatoes; during the war when maize production was part of the Maori agricultural war effort, the Islanders grew as much as 1,000 acres of it. At present a changeover is occurring towards dairying, mainly under guidance of the Department of Agriculture. Production on the island is about 200,000 lbs. butter fat. Many Islanders are employed by the Forest Products Ltd., which has a large plantation on Matakana.

One is struck by the big areas and the big herds that everybody seems to be handling, and the future problem will be not the development of idle land but the intensification of production on the present holdings. There still is some idle land, mostly due to difficulties of title.

The Matakana Islanders are one of the few Maori communities which have orga-

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Collecting the mail at the wharf.

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nised co-operative enterprises. They own a store and are running a lucrative ferry company.

Here, then, is a Maori community that has made a striking success in adjustment to the Pakeha world. The reason lies in their isolation, say the moralists, in their long distance from the distractions of the mainland. It may be so, but looking over the history of the island I was more struck by how little, than, how much had happened. The Matakana Islanders were not attacked by the Ngapuhi's, when Tauranga was invaded; together with so many other Maori communities they learned from the missionaries how to grow crops, particularly wheat. The Maori wars, the land purchases, the corruption of the eighties and nineties passed them by: at the turn of the century they were still growing wheat. They did not know about regular crop rotation, so went on cultivating ever new areas until they too were exhausted and the Islanders changed over to other crops, oats and barley. This lasted until the twenties.

When the Maori Affairs Department Started land development operations, there was comparitively little land entirely undeveloped. A few farmers had their lands gazetted, but the majority went on in the old way. Maize and kumara, too, were already grown extensively at that time.

The development of Matakana Island was undoubtedly speed up through the war and the very large-scale crop growing war effort financed by the Waiariki Maori Land Board. Generally, however, this community has enjoyed little government assistance. It is a community that has grown in direct line out of the pre-Pakeha Maori people: Western civilisation filtered through slowly while the people had time, at their own place, to grasp enough of Western ideas to become successful farmers and citizens, and to grasp, essentially, far more of the Pakeha world than other groups who were forced into contact with the Pakeha at a faster and more disturbing rate.

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Waiting for the children. One of the smaller school buses on the beach.

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Tuwhiwhia, the meeting house nearst the Matakana jetty, contains, except for a few rather old carvings, some of the most unusual and beautiful rafter patterns in existence.

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One of the highest producing cows on Maori Development Schemes, this lady, whose name is No. 23, produced 570lb. butterfat over the 1950–51 season. She is part of the herd of Mr Edward Crewther, Waimana (near Tauranga), Rehab, settler who was first placed on the land three years ago. Now he produces 17,000lb. butterfat yearly.

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Mrs Kuka of Te Puna (Tanranga) holding one of her smaller cabbages. Unfortunately four or five of the outer leaves are not shown. They were peeled off by the photographer, to leave some room for Mrs Kuka. Mrs Kuha is assisted in her market gardening efforts by the Waiariki Maori Land Board.

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Fabrics designed by Maori girls of the East Coast. When she was a teacher at Gisborne Girls' High School, Miss A. M. Davies encouraged the girls to draw designs for fabrics. She gave no instructions as to what she wanted and the girls followed their own ideas. Miss Davies printed the design on cloth by an elaborate hand process. It is interesting to note that the patterns bear a marked resembance to [ unclear: ]

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The First Maori Girl to be a film star in a full-length story feature is Kay Ngarimu, of Ruatoria, who is playing Rawi in the Pacific Films production Broken Barrier, to be released shortly. Broken Barrier, directed and produced by Roger Mirams and John O'Shea, is the story of a love affair between a Maori girl and a Pakeha. It plays on the East Coast and is mainly shot at Mahia peninsula. Other actors are Terence Bayler, professional actor now in England, co-starring with Kay Ngarimu, and Maera Hapu, George Ormond. Lily Te Nahu, all of Mahia, and others.

When asked by Te Ao Hou what was the purpose of Broken Barrier, Mr O'Shea said:

Our first purpose was entertainment. It is just a love affair; of course I can't tell you yet what the ending will be.’ Broken Barrier also, incidentally, tries to show the reactions to a marriage between a Maori and a Pakeha in a country which prides itself on its lack of prejudice. ‘We take as our text the United Nations declaration of rights: there should be no discrimination,’ said Mr O'Shea. ‘Because we were Pakehas, we were conscious of Pakeha discrimination. Maybe the film errs in now showing Maori discrimination against the Pakeha.’

Pacific Films have so far only made shorts. Asked whether they now expected to make a fortune, Mr O'Shea said: ‘Film companies in a small country like this can at most hope to go on existing. It is a job for people who are keen to make pictures, not money.’ He expressed gratitude for the help the Maori people of the East Coast had given him.

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Kay Ngarimu in ‘Broken Barrier.’

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I waimarie Te Ao Hou ki te whiwhi ki nga ahua e mau ake nei o nga wahi, ki ta nga korero o Rarotonga, i rere mai ai nga waka o te Heke nui o tatou Tupuna.

Kaore i te ata mohio etahi ki te tata o te whanaungatanga o nga Rarotonga me era atu iwi o nga Moutere ki te Maori. E ki ana hoki a Ta Apirana Ngata no Mangaia mai te kaupapa nui o nga iwi o Ngatiporou a e mau mai na ano nga ingoa kainga no reira kei te ngutuawa o Waiapu.

Ko etahi o nga tipuna Maori o taua Heke Nui kei te taunaha ano nga Rarotonga o Aitutaki me era atu moutere no ratou ano aua tupuna ko Uenuku raua ko Ruatapu nga tupuna e taunaha nuitia ana.

Tera tonu ra e tika i peka aua waka o


Te Ao Hou has been fortunate in obtaining from the National Publicity Studios the photos printed on these pages. They depict the places where the canoes of the principal fleet left Rarotonga, according to the Cook Island traditions.

It is not always realised how close the Rarotongans and other Cook Islanders are to the Maori people. The late Sir Apirana Ngata considered that an important element in the East Coast tribes came from the island of Mangaia in the Cook Group. A large number of the place names of Mangaia are found round the mouth of the Waiapu River.

Some ancestors of the Maoris, alive at the time of the great heke, are well known to the people of Rarotonga, Aitutaki and other islands of the Cook, and also the Society groups and are revered as their own ancestors. The most famous of these are Uenuku and Ruatapu.

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Aitutaki—the place from which the Arawa canoe is said to have left for New Zealand. There is some evidence that the Aitutaki people are especially closely related to the Maoris. For instance, the greeting ‘Tena koutou’ is used in Aitutaki as in New Zealand, but in no other portion of the Cook Islands. Their language in other respects, for instance the dropping of h-s, is reminiscent of the language of the Aotea canoe people.

te Heke nui ki Rarotonga a no reira ano etahi o aua waka a i rere mai i nga waahi e mau ake nei nga ahua.

Kei te wharangi 207 o te Pukapuka a S. Perry Smith ko Hawaiki ko nga korero a tetahi kaumatua a Tamarua mo nga Hekenga mai, e ki ana a ia ‘Inamata ka rere atu i konei a Te Arawa, a Kura-aupo, a Matatua, a Tokomaru, a Tainui me Takitumu. Kotahi ano te rerenga atu o enei waka.

He korero motuhake to Takitimu. Ko ianei te waka tuatahi mai ki Rarotonga o te heke i a Tangiia a ko te tuatahi ano te rere ki Aotearoa. Ko te korero, i hoki mai ano taua waka ki Rarotonga, a e mau nei te ingoa Takitimu i tetahi o nga hapu o Rarotonga. Kihai a Tamarua i whai kupu mo Horouta ka mutu ano tana korero ko Oturoa te rangatira o runga i a Tainui.

Ki ta Tamarua kiki tonu a Rarotonga i te tangata i te taenga atu o aua waka no reira ka reia mai ko enei moutere. Ko tetahi putake mo te rerenga mai ki Aotearoa ko Toka-motu i tanumia, ki ta Rarotonga korero, e Ngahue ki konei i tona hekenga mai i Hawaiki.


It may therefore well be true that, as the Cook Islanders say, the great heke visited Rarotonga before coming to New Zealand, or even that some of the famous canoes were actually built on Rarotonga, before they left the bays shown in these photographs.

Mr. S. Percy Smith (Hawaiki, edn. 1904, p. 207 ff), describes a conversation he had with an old Rarotongan chief called Tamarua, during which he was told that several migrations were known in that district. ‘Once,’ said Tamarua, ‘there sailed from here a fleet of several canoes, the names of which were (in Rarotongan Maori) Te Arawa, Kura-aupo, Mata-atua, Toko-maru, Tainui and Taki-tumu. They all went away together as one fleet.’

Takitimu had a special place in this tradition. It was said to be the first canoe to arrive in Rarotonga with Tangiia's migration, and also the first to leave for New Zealand. Unlike the other canoes, it is said to have returned to Rarotonga after visiting New Zealand. Thus the Takitumu tribe of Rarotonga was founded.

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Ngatanua Harbour Entrance, Rarotonga, through which the fleet of seven canoes is said to have sailed for New Zealand. Another tradition says that the fleet left from Aorangi on the other side of the island.

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Tomatoes grown by H. Kuka, Puna, with assistance of the Waiariki Maori Land Board.


The Board of Maori Affairs has decided to give its full support to Maori small farming. Hitherto the Board of Maori Affairs has practically restricted itself to financing dairy and sheep farming; help to croppers was arranged by the Maori Land Boards, in those districts where the Board Presidents were prepared to take the heavy risks. The Board of Maori Affairs, at its November meeting, resolved to extend its activities so as to control all Maori land development activities.

The Board of Maori Affairs was of course, primarily moved to its resolution by the Government's decision that the Maori Trustee and the Maori Land Boards were to divest themselves of the control and operation of Maori lands under section 523 of the Maori Land Act, 1931, and section 25 of the Maori Trustee Act, 1930. The Government saw no reason why there should be two types of land development bodies (the Maori Trustee and the Maori Land Boards), doing a job with which the main body responsible for the financing of Maori farming (the Board of Maori Affairs) was fully qualified to deal.

The Board of Maori Affairs will eventually take over all the land development activities of the Maori Trustee and the Maori Land Boards. It will operate two plans for assisting the Maoris in horticulture.

Development of New Areas

Plan A: A considerable area of highly fertile Maori land suitable for market gardening, is lying idle and not paying rates. Should these areas pass into the hands of the Maori Trustee under section 34 of the Maori Purposes Act, 1950, and be offered for lease, for a sufficient period to repay the rates, the Maori owners will probably end up by being the employees of the lessees. It is

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important that everything is done to prevent this. The Board of Maori Affairs is prepared to finance the development of areas suitable for market gardening, to build homes on these areas, and to put them into the hands of a suitable occupier approved by the owners and the Board of Maori Affairs.

Conditions of loans will be:

The land should be gazetted under Part I of the Maori Land Amendment Act, 1936.

The owners should give security of tenure to the occupier. (This means: the owners should get at least a long-term lease.)

The Department of Maori Affairs should supervise the cropping operations and the marketing.

Bills of sale should be taken over chattels, crops and produce.

Settlers established as croppers in this way are paid a living allowance of £6 per week until money comes in from sale of produce. Interest on advances will be at the rate of 4¾% and interest of 2½% will be allowed on loan accounts in credit. Commission will be charged at the rate of 5% on the gross proceeds of sales of crops handled by the department.

Finance will be obtainable at short notice within the limits of a reasonable overdraft fixed beforehand.

Assistance to Croppers

Plan B: The Board of Maori Affairs has been authorized by Cabinet to make advances to Maori croppers on the security of liens of the crops in the same way as the Maori Land Boards used to do. These advances will be made where the cropper only needs a limited sum for a limited period. Up to 50% of the estimated market value of crops will be advanced. Interest will be at 5% and marketing commission will also be payable.

Land Should Be Safeguarded

These policy changes will not affect the public a great deal. The same facilities are available as before, and the same officers will be dealing with the loan applications. It is only the source of the money that is different. In the long run it will probably appear that diversified farming will go ahead faster with the full weight of the Board of Maori Affairs behind it. Much will depend, of course, on the success that individual croppers achieve in the next few years. Experience of the past teaches the virtues of extreme caution where cropping is concerned, and only suitable men and suitable land can be considered.

In the meantime all those who have suitable holdings and feel genuinely anxious to grow crops on them should contact the department so that the scope of horticultural activities can be seen and facts are available on the amount of supervision that may be necessary. It is now in the hands of the Maori people themselves to see that small land holdings suitable for horticulture, are not lost to them and their descendants.

Picture icon

Kumaras. Note that not only the rows are regular but also the diagonals, to allow of cultivation in all directions.

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Ko nga Korero mo nga
Ahuatanga mo nga tono Whare

Ko enei korero hei awhina i te hunga e hiahia ana ki etahi awhinatanga moni hei hanga whare.

Ko nga whooma: Me tuhi nga tono ki runga i nga whooma i whakaritea. Kei nga tari o te Tari Maori a kei nga apiha mo te Ora aua whooma. Me tupato rawa atu te tuhi i nga whakautu o nga patai o aua whooma, a ki te kore e marama etahi wahanga me patai ki tetahi o nga apiha o te Tari, a ki te Hekeretari ranei o te Komiti-a- Iwi. He maha nga tono kua tae mai e kitea iho ana te kuare o nga kaitono ki nga ingoa o nga poraka o nga wahi hei tuunga mo o ratou whare. Ko te kupu atu tenei me tuhi ki tetahi pukapuka ke, a ka tapiri mai ai ki te whooma, nga ahuatanga mo te tekihana hei tuunga whare, te rahi o taua wahi, te wahi kei reira, a te rahi o nga paanga o te kaitono. Me tuku nga whooma, ana oti, te tuhi nga whakautu ki nga patai, ki te kai-rehita o te Kooti Whenua Maori e tata ana ki te kai-tono.

Nga mea hei uiuinga: E ata uiuia ana nga tono katoa e te Poari Whenua Maori o te Rohe, a ko ia Kai-tono e uiuia ana e te Apiha o te Ora raua ko te Kaitirotiro o nga mahi hanga whare. Anei e whai ake nei nga take mo nga patai:


Pewhea te ahua o te noho a te kaitono.


Kia whakamaramatia te ahua o te tuku o te moni awhina.


Kia ata kowhiritia te momo whare.


Kia ata tirohia te wahi hei tuunga mo te whare.


Kia uiuia etahi atu ahuatanga kei waho atu o nga take kua takoto nga patai ki roto i te whooma i whakaritea.


Kia ata whakamaramatia nga ahuatanga mo nga tono ki te Kooti Whenua Maori hei whakatikatika i te taitara o te tuunga whare.

Ka takoto te tono whare a te tangata e tika ana me tae ki te aroaro o te Poari Mo Nga Mea Maori. Ka ata whiriwhiria taua tono ahakoa pewhea nga putake oranga o taua kaitono.

Nga whakariterite ana tae nga tono ki
te tari


Ka oti nga kai-tono te uiui ka ata tirohia e te Tari nga ahuatanga ki nga mahi taitara ki nga tuunga whare.

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Ka tuhia e te Kaitirotiro o nga mahi whare te nui o te rakau o te haeana o nga aha noa o nga aha noa mo nga whare a te aronga o nga utu mo aua whare.


Ka marama nga ahuatanga mo nga tuunga mo nga whare, a ka whakaae te Poari Maori kei te tika aua tono, ka tuhia ana Korero tautoko i aua tono a ka tukua ki Poneke hei ata whiriwhiritanga ma te Poari mo Nga Mea Maori.


Ka tae te whakaae a te Poari ki te kairehita ka tuhia he reta ki te kai-tono hei

Picture icon

Homes built by the Maori Affairs Department for Maoris at Opotiki.

whiriwhiri mana i nga ahuatanga mo nga moni awhina.


Ka tae mai te whakaae a te kai tono ki nga ahuatanga mo te moni awhina, ka tuhia nga kirimina mo te mokete, me nga ahuatanga mo nga moni utu i taua mokete, a ka tukua kia hainatia e te kaitono. I muri iho o tenei ka hui te komiti ki te whiriwhiri ko to wai whare ko to wai whare e hanga i te tuatahi to muri atu, to muri atu.


Ka whakatata haere te wa i whakaritea ai hei timatanga i te hanga o te whare, ka tirotirohia ano te ahua mo te utu o taua whare a mehemea kua piki taua utu ka whakaaturia ki te kaitono kia tono ano ai a ia mo tetahi atu awhina moni hei tapiri mo tera kua oti ra te whakaae.


Ka takoto nga papa nga aha mo te whare, whai tangata ana hei mahi, ka timata te hanga o taua whare.


For the benefit of those who do not know how to go about applying for housing assistance the following information is offered.

Application Forms: Applications should be made on the Special form provided. These can be obtained at any offices of the Department or from the Welfare Officer. Applicants should complete the form as fully as possible and if any doubt exists it would be wise to consult either a Departmental Officer or if one is not available, the Secretary of the Tribal Committee. It has been found that many applicants are unable to supply the name of their proposed site accurately, and in this respect it is suggested that they attach a letter to the form describing as accurately as possible the location of the land, the extent of their ownership, and through whom they derive their interest. Forms, when completed, should be forwarded to the Registrar of the nearest Maori Land Court.

Investigation: All applications are investigated by the District Maori Land Board and each applicant will be interviewed by a Welfare Officer and the Building Supervisor. The purpose of these interviews is to:


Inspect present living conditions.


Explain the terms and conditions of lending.


Choose a plan.


Inspect the proposed site.


Obtain information which may have been omitted on the application form.


Assist with lodging of Court applications in respect of clearing title to the site.

The applicant has the right to have his application placed before the Board of Maori Affairs. His financial circumstances alone will not be regarded as a bar to his obtaining a housing loan on suitable terms.

Administrative Action:


Once the applicant has been interviewed, details of employment, income and title to the site have to be checked by the Administration staff.


The Building Supervisor prepares schedules of material quantities, plans and specifications and estimates the cost of the work.


When the land question is cleared up and the District Maori Land Board’ is satisfied that the application is otherwise in order it prepares its recommendation and submits the case to Wellington for consideration by the Board of Maori Affairs.


After notification of approval is received by the Registrar the applicant is written to and asked to signify his acceptance of the loan conditions.


Once this is done the mortgage and assignment documents are prepared and sent to the applicant for signature and the priority committee sets the priority of the case for construction.


When the time for commencement draws near a check estimate of costs is made and if prices have increased the applicant is notified accordingly, and an additional loan is sought.


Materials are ordered and as soon as labour is available the house is started, bearing in mind, of course, the priority given by the Committee.


It has been found that applicants often want alterations made to their selected design once the house is started. In this respect it has been decided that no radical alteration will be permitted once materials have been ordered, as it creates a considerable amount of extra work for an already overtaxed Field Staff.

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Ko nga whenua noho noaiho o te Maori

Ka nui te amuamu i te whakarereketanga a te Wahanga III o Te Ture Mo Nga Mea Maori, 1950, i te ture e pa ana ki nga whenua noho noaiho o te Maori. Kei Te Ao Hou etahi whakamarama o te aronga o taua ture hou.

Ka maha nga tau e whai mana ana te Kooti Whenua Maori (i raro o Tekiona 540 o Te Ture Whenua Maori, 1931) ki te whakatu i te Kai-tieki Maori hei Kai-whakahaere mo nga tangata whai paanga whenua Maori mo nga mahi riihi hoko ranei mehemea ra e marama ana enei ahuatanga e whai ake nei ki te Kooti:—


Kaore aua whenua i te noho riihi i te whakamahia ranei kei te ngaro ranei i nga taru kikino.


Kaore ranei e kitea nga tangata no ratou aua whenua.


Ko nga tangata ranei no ratou aua whenua kei raro i nga ahuatanga e tika ana kia whakahaerea taua ture.

Me ata marama hoki te Kooti ko te tuku ke i te mana noko o aua whenua te mea tika.

Na Wahanga III o Te Ture Mo Nga Mea Maori, 1950, i whakawhanui ake ano nga mana o te Kooti e taea ai te whakatau tetahi ota mo nga take e whai ake nei:—


Kei te noho noa iho aua whenua.


Kaore i te ngakia nga taru kikino o aua whenua.


Kua utaina nga reiti kaore ano i ea hei taumahatanga ki runga i aua whenua.


Kaore te hunga whai paanga i te aro ki te mahi tika i aua whenua hei oranga mo ratou a kia matareka.ai ki te tangata.


Kaore e kitea te hunga whai paanga ki aua whenua.

Ko nga tino rereketanga o te ture tawhito me te ture hou ko nga ahuatanga i waihangatia hei tieki i te hunga whai paanga. Kaore he whakaritenga a Tekiona 540 o Te Ture o 1931 me matua tono ki te hunga whai paanga mehemea e pirangi ana ratou ki te riihi i aua whenua a kaore hoki i whakaritea kia utua a runga o nga moni reti. I raro hoki o taua tekiona e whakaaetia ana te hoko o aua whenua.

I raro o te Ture o 1950, ana tu te Kaitieki Maori hei kaiwhakahaere mo te hunga whai paanga ka tonoa taua hunga kia tangohia te riihi o aua whenua a ko te tangata o


Maori Land

Changes made in the law relating to unproductive Maori land in Part III of the Maori Purposes Act, 1950, have aroused a good deal of discussion. Te Ao Hou has obtained an authoritative explanation of the more important features of the new legislation.

For many years the Court has had power (under Section 540 of the Maori Land Act, 1931) to appoint the Maori Trustee agent for the owners of Maori land for the purposes of leasing or selling the land in cases where the Court was satisfied:


That the land was unleased and unoccupied and was not kept clear of noxious weeds, or


That any beneficial owner could not be found, or


That any owner was in a position which rendered it necessary or advisable that his land should be dealt with under the section referred to.

The Court had also to be satisfied that it was in the interest of the owner or the public interest that the land should be alienated.

Part III of the Maori Purposes Act, 1950, has widened the power of the Court by enabling it to make an order on any of the following grounds:


That the land is unoccupied.


That the land is not kept properly cleared of noxious weeds.


That charging orders for unpaid rates have been made in respect of the land.


That the owners have neglected to farm and manage the land diligently and that the land is not being used to its best advantage in the interests of the owners and in the public interest.


That any beneficial owner cannot be found.

The important differences between the old law and the new are the provisions made for the protection of the owners. Section 540 of the 1931 Act did not provide for owners to have the first opportunity of leasing the land, nor did it make any provision to ensure that the best possible rent was obtained. Under that section, too, the land could be sold.

Under the 1950 legislation, when the Maori Trustee is appointed agent for the owners he will normally give the owners an

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tua hunga e whakaaro ka taea e ia te mahi aua whenua ka tono ia mo taua riihi.

Mehemea ra kaore he tangata o te hunga whai paanga e manako ki aua whenua me tuku e te Kai-tieki Maori taua riihi mo te moni tika ki te tangata tika a me matua tono te wariu a Te Kawanatanga mo aua whenua. Ko raro o te moni riihi ko te moni e rite ana ki te rima paihaneti o te wariu kore whakapainga e mau ra i te wariutanga a te Kawanatanga a ma te Kaitango riihi e utu te wariu o nga whakapainga i te wa i tangohia ai taua riihi. Ana pau taua riihi e tika ana me utu ki te Kai-tango riihi te toru koata o te wariu o nga whakapainga ina ra i runga ano i te whakaaetanga i roto o taua riihi mehemea e pera ana. He mea pai tenei kia ata mau ai te kai-tango riihi i nga taiapa, me nga whare me era atu whakapainga.

Mehemea kaore he tono mo te riihi o aua whenua kei te Kai-tieki Maori te tikanga o te tuku i aua whenua.

Ko nga whenua kei te mahia ahu whenuatia ka rithitia mo nga tau e 21, i muri o enei tau ka tangohia te mana noho e te Kaitieki Maori ka hoatu ki nga ariki no ratou he whenua, tera ranei ka riihitia atu ano ki te kaitango riihi mo nga tau e 21 i tua atu engari i te wa e haere te 21 tau tuarua ka ahei te kaitieki Maori ki te whakamutu i te riihi i muri o te ono marama o te whakaaturanga a-reta ki te kaitango riihi o tana hiahia ki te whakamutu.

Ko nga whenua, e taka ki raro i tenei ture kaore e taea te hoko, mehemea tera e


Picture icon

Some of the Tukorehe Hapu on Tapapa marae. Purpose of the meeting: development of 3000 acres of ancestral land which the County might desire to have placed under the Maori Trustee if no rates are paid. The new legislation on unused lands has, in cases such as this, led the people to make a special effort to reach agreement on how their land should be developed and who should develop it. Nobody could underestimate the difficulties of reaching agreement where so many different interests are involved, but the Tukorehe people have done it.

opportunity to apply for a lease of the land. Any owner who feels he is capable of farming the land properly may apply for a lease.

If there are no owners capable of farming the land successfully the Maori Trustee must then advertise the land for lease by public tender, having first obtained a special Government valuation. The minimum rent for the purpose of tenders is fixed at 5% of the unimproved value as shown in the special valuation and the lessee must pay the full value of any improvements on the land at the time of the lease. At the end of the term of the lease the lessee will, in most cases, be entitled to three-quarters of the value of the improvements still on the land. This will encourage lessees to keep the fences, buildings and other improvements in good order and condition.

If no tenders for lease are received the Maori Trustee may then lease the land on such terms and conditions as he thinks fit.

Leases of farm land will be for a term of 21 years, the Maori Trustee may regain possession and the land be taken over by the owners. The Maori Trustee may also allow the lessee to carry on for a further 21 years, but during this period the Maori Trustee

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taea te mahi kia whaihua i runga i te mahi ahu whenua.

Mehemea i whakaritea e te riihi me utu kapenehaihana mo nga whakapainga me pupuri e te Kai-Tieki Maori te hawhe o nga moni reti, haunga ia nga moni komihana me etahi atu taumahatanga, ka whakaputu haere hei utu i nga kapenehaihana a te paunga o taua riihi.

Ko te whakarapopototanga, ko te ture o 1950 he whakahounga noa i nga ture o nga tau kua taha engari ko nga mea nui ko te aruaru haere i nga mahi takahi i te hunga whai paanga me te mana motuhake hoki o aua whenua.

Ko te mea nui o te ture hou nei e awangawanga nuitia ana e te Maori ka riro o ratou whenua i te tangata ke. He tika ra tera engari ki te kore e peneitia ka takoto noa aua whenua i te wa kei te hamama nga waha o nga iwi o te ao i te mate kai. Ko te whakaaro o te Kawanatanga me mahi nga mahi ahuwhenua ki nga wahi e tika ana.


may terminate the lease at any time on giving six months' notice.

Land brought under this Act cannot be sold, if capable of profitable use as a farm.

Where the lease provides for compensation, for improvements the Maori Trustee must retain half of the rent, after deducting proper charges and commission, into a sinking fund to provide moneys to pay the compensation at the end of the lease.

To sum up, the legislation of 1950 is merely an extension of previous legislation, but with far greater safeguards for the protection of the interests of the owners and their freehold title to the land.

From the point of view of many owners the unpleasant feature of the legislation is the fact that the land may pass out of their control. Undoubtedly this danger exists, but the alternative would be that the land should be idle while there is a pressing need for food all over the world. The Government takes the view that food should be grown wherever possible.


50 Years of Maori Self Government

(continued from page 23)

paid for. The amount of subsidies paid out has risen steeply the last few years; this year £65,000 was allowed for this purpose in the Estimates. If the availability of this subsidy money leads to the collecting of another £65,000 from Maori sources for marae and other amenities, a considerable rate of development is possible which was not possible before.

The problem of seeing that the tribal executive by-laws are observed is a difficult one which is only beginning to be tackled. The greater confidence of the Maori of today should be an advantage in solving this problem, but nothing effective can be done until legally correct by-laws are drawn up. Free assistance in this task is available from the Maori Affairs Department.

Another danger to the tribal organisation might lie in the continuing individualisation of the Maori, and the breakdown in the communal way of living. However, it seems at present that a large percentage of the Maoris who have entirely taken up the pakeha way of life are still anxious to take part in the life of the tribal committees. There is no reason to think that this will change in the near future. It may be more correct to say that the old communal spirit, still existent in the Maori Councils period which was mainly based on living together in the same village, is gradually disappearing, but that a new, and equally important, communal spirit has sprung up in the Tribal Committees. What brings the Maoris together now is a unity of destiny. They are the same race, have the same ancestry, and they have the same problems in a Pakeha world. When they live interspersed among the Pakehas in a town or city, they still have a need to form a close community. When they live in a Maori village, the old community spirit still survives to a good extent. The Tribal Committee life, like everything else, is at present in a state of rapid transition.

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AIMS AND OBJECTS of the Department of Maori Affairs

Here is a conversation between an imaginary taxpayer —Pakeha or Maori—and a Department Official. The Taxpayer enquires how the Department is spending its Vote and what it is seeking to achieve. Excessive importance should not be attached to the official's replies; they are not equivalent to an official statement of policy. They are merely an attempt to describe the work of the Department in a few brief generalisations.

Ko nga whainga Whakaaro me
nga Mahi a te Tari Maori

INA ETAHI KORERO purakau na tetahi tangata Maori Pakeha ranei raua ko tetahi o nga apiha o te Tari Maori. E patai ana taua tangata i pau ki te aha nga moni e whakaputaina ana ki te Tari Maori, a he aha nga whakaaro e whaia ana e taua Tari kia tutuki. Kaua e pera rawa atu te uhupoho mo nga whakautu a te Apiha o te Tari Maori; ehara tana i te whakapuaki i nga whakaaro o te Kawanatanga. Ko te putake nui o enei korero he whakapuaki i nga mahi a te Tari Maori.

Ko Te Patai: He aha te putuke o nga mahi a te Tari Maori?

Ko Te Whakautu: Ko te putuke nui o nga mahi a te Tari Maori he awhina i runga i nga awhina e taea e te Tari Kawanatanga i te iwi Maori kia piki ki nga taumata e taurite atu ai ki te Ao Pakeha.

He aha te take i kore ai e taea e te Iwi Maori aua awhina mana ano?

He tika ano tena ma te Maori ano ra te nuinga. Ka mutu ano ta te Kawanatanga he hoatu i nga awhina. I tenei wa i te Ao Pakeha he mahi uaua rawa atu te piki o te iwi tokoiti penei me te Maori ki nga taumata teitei i te nui o te utu o nga kura, o te hanga whare o te aha o te aha a ma wai e punga enei moni mano mano noa atu. Ka mutu ano te ropu e taea te whakapau te nui o te moni mo nga tikanga penei ko te Kawanatanga.


Question: What is the aim of the Department's activities?

Answer: It aims to help, in as far as this is possible to a Government Department, in the improvement of the Maori people's position until all the people have reached economic and social equality with the pakeha.

Why cannot the Maori people do this themselves?

The Maori people will, of course, have to improve their position by their own efforts. A government cannot do more than provide the tools. However, social and economic equality in modern society can only be reached by a minority group if a large amount of money is invested with that purpose. The only institution which can make such an investment is the government.

What are the investments made by the Government to bring about this state of equality?

The Department endeavours to achieve its aims through its land settlement, housing and trust activities, its work on the clarification and consolidation of land titles and the granting of subsidies for Maori communal institutions.

Is true equality between Pakeha and Maori possible?

Equality does not mean that the Maori will conform to pakeha life in every respect, but that the Maori people as a whole should be able to compete with the pakeha

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Pewhea ai te whakapau a te Kawanatanga i nga moni e ki nei koe hei whakapiki i te Iwi Maori ki nga taumata o te Ao Pakeha?

Ina ra nga mahi a te Tari Maori hei awhina i te iwi Maori. Ko te awhina i nga mahi ahuwhenua, i nga mahi whare, i te tieki i nga moni a nga Maori, ko te whakatopu i nga paanga whenua a ko te tuku moni tapiri hei hanga whare huihuinga mo nga Maori ki nga taone.

Tera ano e rite te Maori ki te Pakeha?

E kore ra. Ina ke te ahua me rite te noho te mahi a te Maori ki ta te Pakeha a me ahua tauriterite ano o raua whakaaro mo nga ahuatanga o te Ao Pakeha. Kua tokomaha nga Maori kua eke ki nga taumata o te Ao Pakeha a meake nei ko etahi atu. Ka taea e te tokomaha noa atu te piki aua taumata waiho ma te wa e waitohu.

Ko te hiahia ranei o te Tari Maori me whakapakeha te Maori?

Kaore ko ta te Tari Maori he manaaki i nga taonga Maori i nga tukutuku i nga whakairo a i nga mahi haka. Ina nga whare whakairo o te motu na te moni Kawanatanga. Kei te Tari Maori te mana whakahaere nana i awhina te waihangatanga te whakaoraoratanga ranei.

He aha nga koha ki Niu Tireni o nga moni e whakapaua nei e te Tari Maori?

Ehara ra i te mea na te whakaaro noaiho o te Tari Maori i whakapaua peneitia ai nga moni a te Kawanatanga he whakaaro whanui. Kei te piki te tokomaha o te iwi Maori inaianei tokoono nga Maori ki te kotahi rau pakeha meake nei tera e piki ki te tokoiwa Maori ki te rau Pakeha. Mehemea ka tukua tenei iwi tokoiti kia noho ware noa ai i roto whare kanukanu i roto i te paru, tena te wa ka tipu hei iwi wheru a ma te moni nui noa atu i tenei e whakapaua nei e te Kawanatanga e whakatikatika ta ratou noho.

Ehara ia tenei i te poipoi i te Maori?

Ko nga awhina e whaiti and ki nga take Maori. Kei te Maori ana take hei awhinatanga ma te Kawanatanga, penei me te mahi o ona whenua, te whakapai i nga marae, te whakapai i nga whare kanukanu na te kore moni ra i pera rawa ai te he. Kei te Kawanatanga nga awhina mo enei take.


economically, that they should have the same educational and social standards, and a not too diverse ethical outlook. From what a large number of Maoris have already achieved, it would appear that the Maori people as a whole can be adapted to this extent. It would be a great mistake to think that such adaptation is impossible just because it has not been fully achieved in the twenty years or so in which the present policy was seriously followed.

Does the Department aim to make the Maori into a Pakeha?

The Department believes that although economically the Maori should identify himself with the Pakeha, many of the Maori social and cultural institutions should remain. The Department aims at the retention of much of the traditional Maori communal effort, the arts and crafts and various Maori forms of entertainment. The maintenance and re-establishment of Maori meeting houses and other institutions is subsidised with public money administered by the Department.

What advantage does New Zealand as a whole derive from the money spent by the Department of Maori Affairs?

Departmental expenditure is not prompted purely by humane sentiment but also by the country's undoubted need to have a uniform living standard. The Maori people number 6% of the population at present and after another generation may well number 9%. If such a minority is to live alongside the rest of the community under inferior conditions, the resultant social evils will be far more expensive to the nation than the present Vote for Maori Affairs.

Has not this policy led in practice to a financial patronage of the Maori people?

Assistance is limited to difficulties with which in general the Pakeha does not have to contend. The Maori people present the Government with certain social problems, such as the problem of land settlement, of maintaining the Maori institutions, and of the especially bad housing conditions for which the impossibility of getting finance in the past is mainly to blame. In those cases, there is provision for financial assistance by loan or grant.

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Ara noa atu nga mana i whakawhiwhia e Te Ture Whakatikatika i Te Ture Toko i te ora me Te Pai, 1951, ki nga Komiti-a-iwi. Notemea i mua ake nei ko nga mana turaki o aua Komiti i nga mahi haurangi he itiiti noa ake, inaianei kua whakawhiwhia aua Komiti ki nga mana whiu mo nga hara huhua noa atu ahakoa kore paero. Kei te marama noa atu ra tera notemea ma te aha e taea ai e te Kwanatanga te turaki haere te maukino a te Maori i te waipiro. Kaore he whakaatu kei te pera rawa atu te pikinga o nga hara kikino i waenganui o nga tau, 1947 ki 1950 engari ko nga hara he waipiro te putake kei te piki i waenganui o te iwi Maori i te wa kei te heke i waenganui o te Pakeha.

Otira chara i te mea ko nga hara nei te tino maharahara o te Kawanatanga, ko te mea nui ke ka waiho te maukino o te waipiro hei mea puongaonga i waenganui i te Pakeha raua ko te Maori. Tetahi he hanga aroha nga tamaraki a nga tangata ko te waipiro to ratou na kororia.

Ehara i te mea no te katoa noaiho o te Maori tenei mate no reira e kore e tika kia whakahokia mai nga kati mo te waipiro i whakakorea atu ra i 1947. Kaore i whaiti ki te Pakeha anake te taraweti mo te maukino a etahi Maori i te waipiro ka auatu tenei nga kaihautu o te Maori i roto o nga tau e kauhau ana me kai rangatira tenei kai.

Ko te whakaaro o te Kawanatanga me tuku ma nga Komiti-a-Iwi me ona wawahanga e turaki haere te maukino o te waipiro, he mahi uaua rawa ano tenei ma aua Komiti. E tika ana me hoatu ano etahi awhina rawaho ki aua Komiti. Tena pea ma nga ture hou nei e whakatikatika nga makenu o nga mahi maukino a te Maori i te waipiro.

ko nga mana i whakawhiwhia ki nga komiti maori

Na Tekiona 3 o Te Ture Whakatikatika i Te Ture Toko i Te Ora me te Pai, 1951 i whakatau ko te tangata Maori aha ranei i a ia i tetahi kanikani, i tetahi huihuinga Maori ranei i runga i tetahi marae ka mau waipiro, ka inu waipiro ranei ka hoatu wai-


Considerable New Powers were given to Maori local authorities by the Maori Social and Economic Advancement Amendment Act, 1951. Whereas before the powers of the Tribal Committees and Executive in proceeding against drunkenness were severely limited, the Government has now entrusted these Maori local bodies with full authority to take action against numerous forms of misbehaviour without any need for by-laws. The reason is clear: the Government felt itself forced, in the face of strong public pressure, to take steps to reduce drinking among the Maoris. Statistics did not indicate that there has been any great increase in the more serious crimes between 1947 and 1950, but convictions for crimes involving drink were rising, during a period where they were rapidly declining among the Pakeha.

Crime, however, was not the main problem that worried the Government. It was rather the nuisance and the possible danger of ill-feeling between the races that caused concern, and more important still, the effect of the heavy drinking of parents on their young children.

Obviously only a small fraction of the Maori population was involved; there was no point in offending the vast majority who behaved themselves, by bringing back liquor restrictions against the Maori race, such as existed until 1947. Moreover, dissatisfaction with the state of affairs was by no means restricted to Pakehas; leaders from within the Maori world were struggling with commendable vigour against evils which they saw endangered progress.

The Government therefore decided to give the job of fighting the abuse of drink among the Maoris to the Maori local bodies: the Tribal Committees, the Tribal Executives and the Wardens. Of course, it is a difficult, almost too difficult job to give the Tribal Organisations. The problem of drink is interwoven with so many other problems, not only housing, but also the supporting of vital and live community centres with sport, social, musical and also educational facilities. No doubt the Tribal Organisations need outside help in many ways. Yet much good can undoubtedly be done if the Maori authorities made the fullest use of powers they now have of eliminating drinking on maraes, and of having prohibition orders made against habitual drunkards.

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piro ranei ki te tangata i runga o tetahi marae e ahei ana kia whiua ki te whaina mo te moni e £20.

I whakataua ano e taua Tekiona e hara ana te tangata mehemea he waipiro kei a ia i tetahi wahi e tata ana ki tetahi marae a ki te inu ranei ki te hoatu ranei i te waipiro ki te tangata i tetahi wahi e tata ana ki tetahi marae a i nga rohe ranei o te marae.

E ahei ana tetahi pirihimana tetahi Watene Maori ranei mehemea e awangawanga ana ia kei te takahia tenei wahanga o te ture ki te tomo ki tetahi marae ki tetahi wahi ranei e tata ana ki te marae ki te rapu, ki te tango ranei ki te mau ranei i nga waipiro ahakoa kaore ona warati haunga ia nga tangata no ratou te whare ehara ta ratou na inu waipiro i te hara.

E ahei ana tetahi Komiti-a-Iwi ki te whakaae engari me tuhi maria taua whakaae, kia mauri te waipiro ki tetahi marae mo nga huihuinga haunga ia mo nga kanikani kei te ture te tikanga o enei a ana tukua tenei whakaae a mehemea ranei na te takuta i whakarite te waipiro hei rongoa mo nga mahi karakia ranei ehara te inu te mau ranei o te waipiro ki te marae i te takahi i te ture.

Ko aua whakaae mo te waipiro me ata whakamarama marika hei aha taua hui huinga ki whea a ma te Komiti-a-Iwi e whakarite ano nga here mo taua whakaae.

Mo nga ritenga o tenei tekiona ko te marae e ahei ana ko nga whare karakia ko nga whare hui, ko nga hooro, ko nga whare kai, ko nga kauta me era atu whare; haunga nga whare noho noaiho nei, e whakamahia ana hei whare huihuinga Maori me nga marae hoki o aua whare.

Ko ta tekiona 4 o te Ture he whakarereke i te ture kia taea ai te poropeihana ano nga wahine a me te whakawhiwhi mana ki:—


Nga Pirihimana.


Nga Mema o Nga Komiti o nga kura i whakaturia i raro o Wahanga IV o Te Ture Mo Nga Kura, 1914 mo te rohe kura kei reira te kainga o aua Maori.


Nga whanaunga o te Maori.


Nga Watene Maori.


Nga Apihi Toko i Te Ora me Te Pi.


Te Tiamana, te hekeretari ranei o te Komiti-a-Hapu ranei o te rohe kei reira taua Maori e noho ana.


Te tangata, kei runga i taua Komiti-a-Hapu ranei e whakaaetia ana e te Minita mo nga take o tenei tekiona a i panuitia i roto o te Kahiti mo te tono kia whakataua tetahi ota poropeihana ki tetahi Maori.

Kua mana tenei ture inaianei.


Powers of Maori Authorities

Section 3 of the Maori Social and Economic Advancement Amendment Act, 1951, provides that anyone, whether Maori or not, who while any dance, meeting, hui, tangi or other Maori gathering is being held on any marae, allows intoxicating liquor to be brought on to the marae or drunk there, or who supplies any liquor to anyone on the marae, shall be liable to a fine of £20.

This section also provides that during any dance or other gathering it is an offence for any person to have in his possession or control intoxicating liquor on or near the marae, or to drink any liquor or supply it to anyone to drink in the bounds of the marae.

A constable or Maori Warden, can if he suspects any breach of this law, enter the marae without warrant or any place nearby and search for liquor and seize and remove such liquor, but this does not apply to liquor being drunk in a dwelling house by the persons living therein, and drinking in such cases is not an offence.

The Tribal Committee of the district may give a written permit for the bringing of liquor on the marae for any gathering but except a dance, which is subject to the ordinary law, and when such a permit has been given or if the liquor is genuinely needed for medicinal purposes on a doctor's prescription, or to be used for religious purposes, the supply, drinking or possession of liquor is not an offence.

Any such permit shall prescribe the nature and the place of the gathering and may contain such conditions as the Tribal Committee thinks fit in respect of the supply and the consumption of the liquor.

For the purposes of this section, marae means any church, meeting house, hall, dining hall, kitchen or other building (other than a private dwelling house) used as a meeting house for Maoris, and includes any land attached or appurtenant to and commonly used in connection with the building.

Section 4 of the Act alters the general law so as to enable prohibition orders to be made against women as well as men, and gives power to:


Any constable.


Any member of a School Committee established under Part IV of the Education Act, 1914, for the school district in which the Maori is ordinarily resident.


Any relative of the Maori.


Any Maori warden.


Any Welfare Officer.

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The Chairman or the Secretary of a Tribal Executive or a Tribal Committee exercising jurisdiction in the tribal district in which the Maori is ordinarily resident.


Any person, being a member of any such Tribal Executive or Tribal Committee as aforesaid, approved for the purposes of this section by the Minister by notice in the Gazette, to apply for the making or prohibition orders against Maoris.

The above statutory provisions are in force now.

Maori Marriages
No longer Legal without Licences


Mai atu i te tahi o nga ra o Aperira, 1952 ka taka nga marena Maori ki raro i te ture penei ano i nga marena Pakeha nei. Ko te aronga tenei o Tekiona 8 o Te Ture Mo Nga Mea Maori i whakataua ra i te tuunga o te Paremata i tera tau, a ka whakakorea nga whakarereketaga o Te Ture mo nga marena Maori.

I raro i te ture tawhito, kaore noaiho he tikanga o te raihana ka mutu ano ta te tokorua e hiahia ana kia marenatia raua he haere ki te aroaro o tetahi Minita kua whakamana ki te marena tangata.

Otira mai atu i te tahi o nga ra o te Aperira kua mahui ake nei me haere marika tetahi o te hunga e marenatia ana ki te Tari o Te Kai-Rehita Marena—i nga taone pakupaku ki te Tari o Te Kooti whakawa—ki te whakaatu e marena ana ia a ki te tango raihana mai ma konei anake hoki ka mana te marena a te Minita. Ko te utu o taua raihana inaianei £1 2s. 6d. engari tera e piki tenei utu i roto o enei ra tata.

Ina nga korero hei whakamaramatanga ki taua Kai-Rehita.

Ko te katoa o nga ingoa o te hunga e marenatia ana, to raua pakeke, a raua mahi, mehemea kua marenatia i mua ake nei, o raua kainga a ko te ingoa o te wahi e marenatia ai raua.

E tika ana i noho te kaitono mo te raihana marena i te rohe raihana mo te toru ra i mua o te tukunga i taua raihana. Mehemea kei raro iho i te 21 tau te pakeke o te hunga e marenatia ana a ehara i te pouaru


Marriages of Maoris will in all respects come under the general law as from the 1st of April, 1952. This is the purport of Section 8 of the Maori Purposes Act, passed during the last Session of Parliament, removing the special provisions of the law as regards the marriage of Maoris.

Under the old law, the position has been and now is that Maoris intending marriage do not require a marriage license but can be married by simply presenting themselves before a Minister authorised to perform marriages.

As from 1st April last, however, one of the parties intending to be married must go to the Office of the Registrar of Marriages (in small towns this is usually the Magistrate's Court office) to give notice of the intended marriage and obtain a marriage license without which a Minister cannot perfrom the ceremony. Fees payable to the Registrar are at present £1 2s. 6d., but some increases in these fees are shortly to be made.

The following information must be given to the Registrar:

Full names of the parties to be married, their ages, occupations, whether previously married, dwelling place and name of the place where the marriage is to be performed.

One of the parties must have lived for at least three days in the registration district before the license can be issued. If either of the parties is under 21 and is not a window or widower, the written consent of the parents or guardian must be obtained on a special form and produced.

The party applying must make a solemn declaration that the information supplied is correct and that the he or she believes that no

– 52 –

me matua whakaae a tuhituhi o raua matua, o raua kai-tieki ranei, katahi ano ka tuku raihana marena ai.

Me ata oati te kaitono raihana ko ana korero he pono a kaore he take hei arai i to raua marena, ki te pohehe nga korero a taua kaitono ka whiua ia e te ture.

E kore e taea te tuku tetahi raihana mehemea te hunga e marenatia ana kei raro iho i te 16 tau te pakehe. Ana tukua taua raihana me marena taua tokorua i roto o te toru marama ki te wahi i whakaingoatia ra ki taua raihana. He hara te marena kore raihana i tetahi tokorua.

Kei nga Tari o Nga Kai-Rehita Marena nga ata whakamarama.

Tera atu ano tetahi whakarereketanga o te Ture mo nga moe Maori. Inaianei kei te whakaae te ture mo etahi mea e pa ana ki te hunga moe penei ara ki te mate te tane e ahei ana te pouaru ki te tono mo tetahi whangai i nga taonga a taua tane ana me ake nei ka mutu ano nga moe Maori e aro atu te ture ko nga mea i moe penei i mua atu o te I o nga ra o Aperira, 1952 a ko nga mea e moe penei a muri ake nei kaore he awhina a te Ture.

Otira ahakoa penei te aronga o te Ture e ahei ana te tangata ki te tuku i etahi o ana taonga i roto i tana Wira ki te tangata ke.


lawful reason exists why the marriage should not take place. The supply of false information is an offence punishable by law.

No license can be issued where either of the parties is under 16 years of age. The license when issued must be acted upon, that is the marriage must take place, within three months of issue, at the place named in the license. The performance of a marriage ceremony without a license is an offence.

Full information can always be obtained from the office of any Registrar of Marriages.

A further change has also been made in the law, as regards Maori customary marriages. At present such marriages are recognised by the law for certain purposes, as for example, the widow of such a customary marriage has the right to make a claim for support from the estate of her deceased husband. In future such marriages will only be recognised if they were entered into before 1st April, 1952, so that so far as the law is concerned, no notice will be taken for any purpose of any marriage entered into after 31st March, 1952, other than a legal marriage under the Marriage Act.

These changes in the law do not affect the normal right of any person to make a will leaving a share in his estate to any other person.

Picture icon

Gathering crayfish.

– 53 –


Every word to be filled in in this crossword puzzle should be in Maori. If this puzzle is a success, Te Ao Hou will print one in every issue. A prize of one pound will be paid for a correct solution, and if there are more than one correct solution, the prizes will be awarded by ballot to one of the correct entries. Only entries sent in not later than August 2 will be considered. The winner and the correct solution will be announced in the next issue.


1 Beach
8 War God
9 Pacific
13 Fort
14 Hull
15 Supreme Being
16 Yes
17 Loaded
19 Me
21 Embrace
22 Last Night
26 Whose (Plural)
27 Mother
28 Sail
29 Mallet
30 Fire
31 Rain
32 Consumed
34 A Tree
35 End slab of house
37 Seaweed
38 Mutton Bird
39 Your (Plural)
40 That
41 Rain
42 Two (Two Words)
44 Road
45 Your (Plural)
46 Shrink from
47 Lightning
49 Upwards
50 Time
51 Your (Plural)
52 Reason
54 Damp
57 Our (Two Words)
58 Not
59 God
61 Sunday
63 Ask
65 World
67 Herring
68 Backbone
69 Sky parent
73 Sky
74 Paid for


1 World
2 Sinker
3 Giddy
4 Difficult
5 Gathering
6 Burn
7 Chick
8 Be accomplished
9 Kupe's Canoe
10 Supreme being
11 Different
12 Mouth
13 Gun
18 River
20 Inland
22 Ray
23 That
24 Yes
25 Sharpen
27 Thrown
29 Arawa ancestor
30 Thatch
31 Snake
33 Enquire for
35 Those
36 Only
43 Front
48 I don't know
49 Vine
50 Four
52 Beat
53 You (Plural)
54 Fish hook
55 Herring
56 Hot spring
58 Kitchen
60 Captain of ‘Aotea’
61 Man who stole a whale
62 Rain
64 The
65 Cave
66 Your (Plural)
70 Isn't that so?
71 Him
72 From

– 54 –

Books that will interest you

Two more books by Reweti T. Kohere were published last year, both by A. H. & A. W. Reed, Wellington. One is a small collection of proverbs entitled He Konae Aronui (7/6). This is a handy companion for anyone who may need to use some Maori proverbs for one reason or another; it does not pretend to be a complete and scholarly collection, but anyone interested in Maori questions, also Pakehas, will find it a delightful little volume to possess. Also published last year was The Autobiography of a Maori (12/6), a charming book of recollections. As the author says, the book describes not only the joys, but also the sorrows of his long life. As a picture of social life among the Maori during the last half century it is quite remarkable. Throughout the book shrewd comments are found on every aspect of Maori life, written down in an easy and lucid style.

Picture icon

Reweti T. Kohere — Drawing by William Jones.

in the ARMY

You'll find the Army a place of opportunity, with a choice of over seventy different careers. Most civilian trades and professions are represented, in addition to a number of technical Army occupations. Pay rates and conditions of service are first class, and vacancies exist for men and women 18 years of age and over.

Call at your local Army Office for further details, or write to the Public Relations Officer, Army Headquarters, Wellington, for illustrated booklet … free and without obligation.

For Better Pay … For Better Prospects
… A Better Life All Round

– 55 –


(continued from page 27)

The second Conference of the Maori Women's Welfare League was held at the Maori Community Centre at Halsey Street, Auckland. The number of delegates and observers attending lay around 300. The president was Mrs Whina Cooper of Panguru, Northland.

At the Hon. E. B. Corbett's arrival, all the women participated in a long and high-spirited haka in the best Maori tradition unhindered by the conditions of a well-filled conference room. A splendid performance was given by Mr Te Kani Te Ua who in greeting the Minister said he was sorry to have to welcome him to so outlandish and barbaric a place as Auckland.

The Minister said in his address that he could already see the great role the League was to play in the life of the Maori people. The women's work, he said, would be an inspiration to the men's tribal committees, and would put out a challenge to them, and strengthen their organisation. The Minister was anxious that the League should not drop the word ‘women’ from its organisation. A merger with the tribal committees, he said, was not desirable. The women's problems were peculiar to themselves. They were the problems of family life which was the centre of the social and spiritual strength of the people.

‘After this conference,’ said the Minister, ‘you will have been recharged with the zeal of the missionary. Many of you have to go back to the daily grind at your own fireside. There you have the greatest opportunity to help. Remember that you are the mothers of a great race, which over the centuries has survived many tribulations: the migration from Hawaiki to New Zealand and then the impact, the terrible impact of an alien way of life. What wonderful progress has been made! Proceed with the cultivation of songs from your childhood days which take you back to the ages of the past and remind you of your heritage. It is good that your organisation should cultivate the songs and handiwork of your people.’

In the afternoon of April 1 the main work of the conference started. This consisted of the study of five major Maori social problems: housing, child welfare, employment, health and education.

housing problems

The fiercest and most comprehensive discussions of the conference were centred on housing. As Mrs Cooper said in her presidential address, all social problems begin with housing. Drunkenness too very frequently results when a husband comes home

Picture icon

Members of the Executive of the Maori Women's Welfare League. From left to right: Mrs H. Jacobs, Mrs R. Royal, Mrs M. Swainson, Mrs M. Tamihana, Mrs J. Moss.

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and finds an absence of essential home comforts. Mrs M. Tamihana, district representative for Tairawhiti, was chairwoman of the committee. The subject was introduced by Mr J. H. W. Barber, director of Maori housing, who outlined the administration of Maori housing (Information on this subject will be given by Te Ao Hou from time to time; see p. 42 of this issue). Delegates criticised the Department on the high repayments asked of housing applicants on the holdings in the building programme and in the dealing with loan applications; they also asked for a higher allocation of State Housing. After lengthy discussion, the Under Secretary of Maori Affairs, Mr T. T. Ropiha, announced that the Board of Maori Affairs had recently formulated a policy to enable the department to increase the term for repayment from 25 to 35 years where the applicant's income demanded this. Instructions were to go out shortly, and delegates were asked to give the department twelve months' grace to see the effect of the new policy. Conference finally passed several remits aimed at assisting the Maori people. and the department in obtaining housing. They were:

  • A resolution to help the department in recruiting labour for building.

  • A resolution to encourage Maoris to apply for State houses.

  • A resolution to give full publicity to State house tenants and applicants as to their responsibilities as householders.

foster homes and child welfare

Keen interest was shown in Mr G. S. Smith, District Child Welfare Officer, Auckland, who addressed the Conference on child welfare problems. He stressed that children became state wards more often through the misdemeanours of the unsuitability of the parents than through their own wickedness. Whenever anything unfavourable was known about the children, the foster-parents were given the story, but a large percentage of the State wards have never been convicted of offences. Mrs P. P. Tahiwi chaired the committee.

After discussion, conference decided to pass a remit urging league branches to make a survey for suitable foster homes for Maori and part-Maori children. A variety of other remits touching on the welfare of children were passed, such as:

  • Support to the National Council of Women in its recommendation for stricter censorship of radio serials, films, comics and magazines.

  • Resolution to stimulate teaching of Christianity to children at home, in Sunday schools, bible classes and churches.

  • Recommendation for more severe punishment of those guilty of assault on children.

training Maori tradesmen

Introduced by Mr M. R. Jones, the discussion on employment centred on the problem of getting Maori boys apprenticed to trades. Mr Jones described the department's efforts to build hostels in the cities in which the boys could be housed while undergoing apprenticeships. He made it clear that the limiting factor on the number of Maori tradesmen who could be trained was suitable city accommodation. He also stressed the necessity of the boys getting their school certificates, or at least two years post-primary education, if they wished to be apprenticed to trades. Chairwoman of the committee was Mrs H. Phillips.

The Conference passed a remit commending the government for its hostel policy and ‘respectfully suggested that it be fuller implemented.’ It also discussed:

  • The necessity for relatives taking greater care of youths coming into the cities.

  • Need for more efficiency by officials handling information about Maori school leavers for whom employment is to be found.

health education

The need for more health information was the chief theme of the conference's deliberation on this topic. The Health Department's representative, Miss Armstrong, candidly stated the problems that had to be faced by the Maori women. Plans were then worked out for collaboration between the league and the Department of Health. Mrs R. Sage chaired the committee.

Conference asked for:

  • More talks from Health Nurses, with supporting films and exhibits.

  • More radio talks on health in the Maori language.

Other remits recommended delegates to campaign in their own communities for causes such as these:

  • ‘Maori Mother's Aid’ in every district council.

  • Better sanitation in maraes, pas and homes.

  • Better attendance at clinics and x-ray units where T.B. is suspected.

  • More use of ante-natal and post-natal care facilities.

– 57 –

schools, scholarships and maori tradition

Next to housing, education was the great theme of the conference. Most of the discussions on health, child welfare and employment were really centred around the problem of the growing Maori child, with whose physical, social and spiritual lot delegates were above all concerned. Several talks on education were given by outside speakers: Mr C. M. Bennett (Asst. Controller Maori Social and Economic Advancement), Mr Sawer (Ad. Ed.) and Mr W. Parsonage, Senior Inspector of Maori schools. Chairwoman of the committee was Mrs M. Logan.

Mr Parsonage said it is the job of the Maori schools to transmit two cultures. The child has to be taught English and the basic skills required in this society and also a good deal of Maori culture. Mr Parsonage commended the cleanliness in Maori schools which could compare with any others. Emphasis was laid in Maori schools on practical work such as homecrafts for girls and handiwork for boys. This was done because it was necessary to ensure that every child, Maori or Pakeha, should have this knowledge, and also, because it was a way of overcoming the language difficulty.

Last year 2710 Maori children entered post primary schools said Mr Parsonage. This represented 64% of the children qualified to enter as against a pakeha figure of 91%. This figure was too low, but a greater problem perhaps than getting Maori children to enter post-primary schools was that of keeping them there at least until they had their school certificates.

Mr Parsonage announced that under the new policy there are now 330 scholarships held by Maoris all for four year post-primary courses, subject to satisfactory progress. The difficulty was that many of the scholars leave school without getting their four years education, letting the Education Department down. It was the parent's job to see that the children stay at school. As for university scholarships, there were six each year for Maoris only. The number of applicants for these scholarships was distressingly small. Sometimes not even six who are eligible apply.

After the address a vote of thanks was passed to the Education Department with much applause.

Conference felt that one of the main reasons for the poor secondary education figures was economic hardship. Remits asked for the grant of more scholarships:

  • By the Education Department: 120 instead of 90 annually.

  • By Maori Trust Boards, whose present generosity however was commended.

  • By funds to be raised by Tribal Committees.

It was decided to recommend to the Minister of Maori Affairs to subsidise money raised by Maori communities for scholarships £ for £. Mr Ropiha, commenting on this proposal in his closing address, suggested that such money should be paid into a national fund subscribed to by all parts of the country and scholars should be assisted according to merit without regard to the source of the donations. He did not think that the government would subsidise such

I hereby remit ten shillings (10/-) four shillings (4/-)* as a subscription to ten four* issues of Te Ao Hou (New World) Magazine for the Maori people, beginning with the nextlast * issue published.



Name and Address of Donor (if subscription is paid for another person):



This slip, together with money, should either be handed to an office of the Maori Affairs Department, who will issue an Official Receipt, or sent to Te Ao Hou, Department of Maori Affairs, Post Office Box 2390, Wellington, C.I. Subscriptions are also sold at 200 post offices in Maori districts.

*Please cross out what is not desired.

– 58 –

scholarships if the money were to go to individual tribal committees.

Remits also asked for official information on scholarships and bursaries. This will be supplied by Te Ao Hou in its next issue (August 1). Parents were to be urged to make their children follow a full postprimary course wherever practicable.

One of the most important activities of the League will be to press for more education on Maori language and culture. At this Conference delegates demanded some practical measures to ensure the preservation of Maori arts and crafts and the Maori language. Every attempt was made to have the conference itself conducted in Maori in spite of the many outside speakers who were Pakehas. When during the Education debate which had mainly been in English one lady rose and announced that she would ask her own question in Maori, deafening applause followed. The great enthusiasm with which the hakas were performed, the enormous trouble taken to organise a crafts exhibition from many branches at the conference, they were all symptomatic of the earnestness with which the League desires to preserve Maori culture.

It was decided to ask the Education department for improvements in the facilities for spreading this knowledge. Recommendations were:

  • Maori language to be a compulsory subject for teachers' ‘C’ Certificate.

  • Teachers of Maori to be appointed to all training colleges.

  • Maori Arts and Crafts to be incorporated in the Training College Arts and Crafts courses for the ‘C’ Certificate.

  • A woman specialist in Maori Arts and Crafts to be attached to Adult Education in the Auckland and Victoria University Districts; local experts to assist the appointed tutor.

Parents were also to be earnestly requested to assist by encouraging children to speak Maori at home.

achievements of conference

This meeting has given the League a basis for its work. The main fields of activity have been mapped out and it now remains to further the numerous causes which delegates decided to sponsor.

Delegates and organisers are to be congratulated for the systematic and practical way in which this basic work was done. The League emerges from this conference as a strong organisation which will make itself felt in all those fields where the well-being of the Maori family is at stake and in the preservation of Maoridom as a progressive force in the country.

Officers elected at this conference were: President: Mrs Whina Cooper.

Dominion Vice-Presidents: Mrs P. Paki and Mrs P. Tahiwi.

Dominion Secretary: Mr M. R. Love.

Assistant Dominion Secretary: Miss Mira Petricevich.

Dominion Treasurer: Miss F. Mitchell.

Representative of the Department of Maori Affairs: Mrs R. Wright.

All other officers have remained unchanged except that Mrs F. Moss is now representative of the South Island.

Tenei ahau ka tuku atu i te wha hereni Tekau hereni * ko te utu mo nga putanga e wha tekau * o te pukapuka e karangatia nei ko To Ao Hou (New World), He Pukapuka e pa ana ki te Iwi Maori, o te putanga whakamutunga To muri i tenei *

Me tuku mai ki a ……………………


Te Ingoa me te kainga o te Kai-tuku moni mai (mehemea taua moni na tetahi tangata ke):


Ko tenei panui hui atu ki te moni me hoatu ki tetahi o nga Apiha o te Tari Maori, a mana e homai Te rihiti a Te Tari ki a koe mo taua moni, a, me tuku mai ranei ki Te Ao Hou, Tari Maori, Box 2390, WELLINGTON, C.I. Kei tana 200 pouta peta hoki kei nga rohe Maori e hokona ana a Te Ao Hou.

*Me tapahi atu nga waahi kaore e tika ana.

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Ka mutu pea i te hui a Te Ropu Wahine Maori Tako i te Ora i tu ki Akarana i te 1 ki te 3 nga ra o Aperira 1952. Katahi ano ka kitea iho ka tipu tenei taonga hei taputapu. E rua nga mea kua honea e tana ropu hei mahi mana ko te whai i nga mahi whanui mo te painga o te iwi a ko te pupuri i te wairua o nga taonga a te Maori i te whakairo, i te haka i te waiata.

I pau te nuinga o taua hui ki te whakairo i te kaupapa mo nga mahi whanui a taua ropu. E rima nga tino take korero hei whiriwhiri-tanga ma nga Komiti ririki a hei whaikorerotanga ma etahi tangata rawaho, ko nga take whare, ko nga mahi e tipu ai nga tamariki, ko nga take mo te ora tinana, ko nga korero mo te rapu i te matauranga o te Pakeha, a ko nga mahi oranga ma te tangata. I ata whiriwhiritia aua take a ko nga kaupapa mahi i takoto ara noa atu, mahi ake nei, mahi ake nei te ropu wahine kia it pai ai aua take. I takoto nga inoi a taua ropu ki nga Tari Kawanatanga kia awhinatia a ratou kaupapa mahi, Ko te kotahitanga tenei o te reo o nga wahine Maori ki te whakaohooho i nga mahi.

I tu tenei te tuarua o nga hui a te Ropu Wahine Maori toko i te Ora ki te whare o te kotahitanga o nga iwi o Akarana i Halsey St. I neke atu pea i te 300 te hunga i tae ki taua hui. Ko Whina Cooper te Perehitene o taua ropu.

I te taenga atu o Te Honore E. B. Corbett ka tu mai te kapa haka o nga wahine ta te Maori tana manaaki. Na Te Kani Te Ua te whakatau ki te Minita.

I te tunga mai o te Minita ki te whakautu ki nga manaaki ki a ia ka mea ia katahi ano ka kitea ka whai hua te Ropu. Ka riro ma nga wahine e wero nga Komiti-a-Iwi o nga tane a e hoatu he hauora hei whakahihiko i nga mahi a aua komiti. Ko te whakatupato atu a te Minita kia mau te Ropu ki te ingoa Te Ropu o Nga Wahine kaua e whakarerea nga kupu ‘o Nga Wahine’. Me noho wehe tonu to ratou na ropu kauaka e whakahanumi ki nga Komiti-a-iwi kei te noho motuhake tonu nga mahi ma te wahine he tieki i te kainga me te whanau, te kaupapa, te poutokomanawa o te iwi.

‘Ka mutu pea tenei hui’ e ki atu ana te Minita. ‘Ka penei koutou me te mihingare, ka takihokihoki koutou ki o koutou kainga tena ki tena ahi kai, tena ki tana ahi kai. Ko koutou nga whaea o te iwi Maori. Ka nui te kaha o te iwi Maori ki te whawhai ki nga whakawainga o te ao hou. Kia mau ki nga taonga a o koutou tipuna.’


Katahi ano ka whaka kaupapa mo nga mahi a Te Ropu Wahine Maori. Kua ata tatautia nga hikoinga mahi a ma a nga wahine me te wa a muri atu. Me nui nga mihi ki nga mangai o nga peka o te Ropu mo to ratou manawanui ki te ata whakakaupapa i nga mahi. Kua whai kaha kua whai wairua taua Ropu hei mahi i nga mahi hei hiki i te iwi a hei pupuri i te Maoritanga.

Ko nga apiha mo te Ropu i kowhiria i te hui ko:—

Te Perehitene: Mrs Whina Cooper; Ko Nga Whaihi Perehitene: Mrs P. Paki raua ko, Mrs P. Tahiwi; Te Hekeretari Mo te Motu: Mr M. R. Love; Te Heketari Awhina: Miss Mira Petricevich; Te Kaitieki Moni: Miss F. Mitchell; Te Mangai o Te Tari Maori: Mrs R. Wright. Ko Mrs F. Moss te mangai hou mo te Waipounamu.

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SPORT among the Maori people

Ka kawea tatou e te rehia (‘We are allured by the arts of pleasure.’) Such a term was not uncommon in Maori speech when the Pakeha first came to New Zealand, and began to study and record the Maori, his attainments and his industry, in the arts of war and peace.

Raukatauri and Raukatamea, mythical personages belonging to the traditional dawn of Maori legend were, according to Elsdon Best, widely considered to be the founders of all amusements and arts of pleasure, but some tribes had other personages to whom they attributed the origin of amusements.

Thus among the Tuhoe tribe Takatakaputea and Marere-o-tonga are said to be the authors of nga mahi a te rehia, the arts of pleasure. Ngati Porou allude to all amusements as Nga Mahi a Ruhanui (the arts of Ruhanui).

The period in which the arts of pleasure were mostly indulged in was just after the crops were gathered and stored and Ropata Wahawaha when he addressed assembled members of Ngati Porou at the opening of a new house at Waiapu in 1872, remarked: ‘In former times when Whanui rose, the crops were gathered and stored after which the arts of Ruhanui were practiced.’*

In pre-Pakeha days, the Maori people indulged in amusements and pastimes, many of which are very much akin to those indulged in the Pakeha world:


MauiCats Cradle
RuruJackstones (Knucklebones)
Tumi (Tarere)Swinging (on trees)
HakaPosture dancing accompanied by chants
PoiAs above
Whakahoro TaratahiKite flying
PotakaSpinning tops
PotetekeAcrobatics—standing on head somersaults
TaupiupiuFootrace in couples
Mu TerereA game resembling draughts
MoariGiant strides
Whawhai mekemekeBoxing
Takaro OmaomaRunning
Takaro TupekeJumping
Para WhawhaiSchool of Arms
Kau WhakataetaeSwimming
MoariWaterside swing
Waka HoehoeCanoe racing
Pou totiStilt walking

*The heliacal rising of Whanui, the star Vega, was the sign generally accepted as denoting the time for the lifting of the main crop of kumara. The first person of a village community to observe this star in the early morn, at once roused the Pa with the old and well-known cry— ‘Ko Whanui … E Ko Whanui’, and so the community set to gathering the crops after which came ‘nga mahi a Ruanui’. These details are taken from Elsdon Best, Games and Pastimes of the Maori.

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The advent of Europeans and of their customs had a startling and permanent effect on Maori life, one effect of this contact being the abandonment of many old Maori ways of life, which included indulgence in sports and pastimes.

From 1840 to the turn of the present century, Maori interest in sport was confined to participation among themselves in some of the old games and in some of those sports of the Pakeha that appealed to them, football, football, running, tug-o-war, and chopping.

Since 1900 there has been an increased interest of Maoris in all kinds of sports and during the last five years it can clearly be seen that not only are Maoris participating in sport in close competition with Pakehas to a greater extent, but the inter-tribal, inter-canoe and inter-district competitions are increasing to such a proportion that they have become a dominant feature of Maori life to-day.

Te Ao Hou has attempted to draw up a list of the sports competitions at present being held among the Maori people. This list is not complete, as it takes a great deal of work to make a full investigation. Any group omitted would do Te Ao Hou a service if it submitted the particulars for publication in a later issue.

In reciting these competitions, one must appreciate that for every one participant at least three other Maoris are actively interested either in getting that participant to what game is concerned or in accompanying him (or her).


Tauranga Basketball Association Championship: Seven Maori teams.

Opopoti Rose Bowl Competition: Ten teams from Tauranga to Te Puke.

Holland Memorial Cup in memory of Sir Maui Pomare: Played for annually between Te Atiawa and Ngarauru tribes. (Te Atiawa and Raukura teams also play in the local competition.)

Corporal G. W. Pokau Challenge Cup: South Taranaki Maori teams.

Shirley Dawn Prescott Memorial Cup: Competed for between teams in the Whitianga and Whangamata district under the auspices of the Kawakawa Basketball Association.

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Picture icon

Phil Howell of Matata, now a dairy farmer with 90 cows, breaking in 200 acres of new land, used to be Captain of the New Zealand Maori Rugby Team and represented New Zealand football in Australia. He was also Maori New Zealand Singles Champion in tennis.

Barney Warbrick Memorial Trophy: Played for between tribal teams of Waikato, Auckland and Hauraki.

Waiehu Memorial Challenge Cup: Competed for by tribal teams of Te Kuiti, Lower Waikato and Tauranga.

Wirapeti Himona Cup: Between Tribal teams of Ngati Raukawa and Ngati Hamua tribes, Horowhenua and Wairarapa.

Pitama Cup and Hutika Crofts Trophy: Between teams from Otago, North Otago, South Canterbury and Canterbury.

In Rotorua Maori teams play in the local competitions, but there are no purely Maori competitions.

It is noteworthy to record that the first New Zealand Women's Basketball team to tour Australia was captained by a Maori, Margaret Matangi of New Plymouth.


At Wairoa there are many Maoris playing in the Wairoa Indoor Basketball Association teams, and in sixteen teams in competition about forty players are Maoris or approximately one-third of the teams could be Maori if they played together.

At Dannevirke a Maori team plays in the competition with Maoris in other teams, and in Wellington many Maoris are in Indoor Basketball teams.


Hockey is played in many districts between Maori Club, Tribal and district teams. In Rotorua and on the East Coast, many Maori teams, both men and women, are taking part in local weekly competitions and annual tournaments.

In Rotorua men's teams are fielded by Reporoa, Matata and Ngapuna, and women's teams by Matata, Taiporutu, Ngapuna, Reporoa and Whaka.

In Wellington, Toa, a Maori Women's Club, has played in the local hockey competitions for over twenty-five years.

In the Bay of Plenty the Tawhiorangi Shield and Ruatoki Cup is competed for by teams of the Whanau-a-Apanui, Whakatohea, Tuhoe and Tuwharetoa.

A dominion-wide Maori Hockey Organisation is now established, the last tournament being held in Hastings where many teams competed. The trophies contested for at this tournament were the Lady Arihia Ngata Memorial Gold Cup for Maori Women's Hockey, the Taranaki Te Ua Memorial Shield for men's teams and the Stringer Shield for women's hockey.

In May, 1952, a large Maori hockey tournament is being held at Masterton.


Competitive swimming has been indulged in by Maoris. Richard (Dick) Pelham, a well known Maori All Black from Arawa who is now living in Wellington, was one of the first Maoris to win a New Zealand National Title, being 440 yards New Zealand Freestyle Champion in 1925. W. Whareaitu, another Arawa, was 150 yards Backstroke National Title holder in 1934. He was the first Maori to attend the Empire Games, having travelled to Great Britain in 1934 as member of the New Zealand Swimming Team.

Arawa have two Maori swimming clubs, Ohinemutu and Whakarewarewa.

Miss Moana Manly (Arawa) is New Zealand backstroke 100 yards and 220 yards ladies Junior Champion and was runner-up for the Senior Championship.

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In 1929 George Harrison, of Taranaki, won the New Zealand Beltman's Championship. In 1937 when an Australian surf team was competing, R. Pelham became New Zealand Open Surf Champion. In the subsequent year it was he who was sent to Australia as the second Maori to attend the Empire Games, as Vice-Captain of the New Zealand Surf Team.


Maori participation in Golf was first brought in the limelight when Kurupo Tareha a Ngatikahungunu, of Napier, won the New Zealand Amateur Golf Championship in 1903.

Since then Maori Golf has progressed to such an extent that Maoris are to be found in nearly all golf clubs in New Zealand, and the New Zealand Maori Golf Association's Annual Maori Tournament has become an institution.

The present holders of the New Zealand Maori Championship are Mrs Zane Grey of Otaki and Mrs Lilian Adsett of Wairoa.

Among the trophies competed for at the annual tournament are the Perry Cup (Men's Champion), B. B. Wood Cup (Ladies' Champion), Tutepuaki Shield (Mixed Foursome) and the Eria Memorial Cup for Veterans.

On the 5th August, 1936, at Gisborne, the first Maori Golf Club was formed, and although this club, the Turanganui Golf Club, is now affiliated to the New Zealand Golf Association, a great number of the 90 members are Maoris who are holders of most of the club trophies.

The 1952 Tournament will be played at the Arikikapakapa links at Rotorua.


Table Tennis is indulged in by Maoris to a great extent to-day, and Maori Table Tennis Clubs exist in many districts. In Rotorua, clubs are found at Horohoro and Ohinemutu; in Taranaki there is the Raukura Club at Waitara and the Waioturi Club at Patea, and in the Hutt Valley, Te Ropu Club has won a number of the Grade Championships each season.

Wanganui Maori Ladies team holds the McKenning Cup after competition with Wanganui (South Taranaki Maori teams). Ngati Poneke Maori Table Tennis Club is prominent in Wellington competitions.


The New Zealand Maori Lawn Tennis Championship Tournament has, like the New Zealand Maori Golf Championship, become an institution.

The formation of Maori tennis as an organised game can be traced back many years.

In 1911 the Marumaru Cup as a teams' tennis trophy was competed for the first time and tournaments were held annually between teams from Taranaki, Hawke's Bay and Wanganui.

Easter of the year 1926 saw the New Zealand Maori Lawn Tennis Association formed at Rotorua on a constitution drawn up by Sir A. T. Ngata.

With a recess of some years, the Maori Association has conducted annual tournaments in various districts, the principal trophies being the Marumaru Cup, the Morehu Turoa Cup with many other trophies donated by supporters.

Maori Tennis Clubs flourish in many districts with many district tournaments being held in addition to the usual local championships.

In North Auckland, Maori Tennis Clubs participate in the Kaikohe and North Auckland Tennis Championships and the Nga-

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puhi Memorial Cup, the Peneha Maori Cup, and the Tiamana Cup tournaments create interest each year.

In Wanganui, where it is said that organised Maori tennis commenced, the Ruihi Tairapenga Cup is played for.

Te Puke and Tauranga run an annual tournament between twelve teams.

In the Wairoa District, ten Maori Tennis Clubs have been active for many years and comprise the bulk of the players in the interclub championships as only four other clubs, Pakeha, comprise the remainder.

Rotorua, Whakatane, East Coast and Opotiki conduct an inter tribal tournament for the Herewini Memorial Shield.

The Arawa Tennis Association was first founded about 1925–26 with clubs at Whaka, Ohinemutu, Owhata and Matata.

There are now 21 clubs affiliated with the Ransfield Memorial Cup, Hinemoa Rose Bowl, Rotary Cup and Horohoro Challenge Cup.

Championships are at present held by Mr W. Keys, Taumaranui (men's), and Miss D. Morrison of Rotorua (women's).

Junior Maori Tennis was inaugurated by the Maori Lawn Tennis Association last year. A Sir Apirana Memorial Fund was created, into which all sub-Associations, it is hoped, wil pay £25 to obtain a total £500. As a start four entries were arranged for the Junior Trials in Wellington last year. The New Zealand Lawn Tennis Association was generous enough to sponsor two of these.


Of all the Pakeha sports indulged in by Maoris, Rugby Football is one that has created more interest among Maoris than any other.

One of the first teams to travel overseas from New Zealand was a Maori Rugby team in 1888–89. This team created a wonderful impression in Great Britain as did another Maori team which toured France and Great Britain in 1926–27.

Many Maori teams have visited Australia, and have always been popular. The tour in 1950 was a record one in many ways for all touring teams from New Zealand, Maori and Pakeha.

Maoris have been key members of most All Black touring teams except to South Africa.

Tribal games up to district annual matches are played with teams and supporters travelling in some instances on a round trip up to 1,000 miles to attend games.

Some of the Rugby trophies competed for by Maori teams are enumerated hereunder, the principal ones being the Te Mori Rose Bowl played for since 1923, the Prince of Wales Cup since 1927, and associated with it since 1946, the Jack Ruru Memorial Cup.

Horowhenua: Anzac Lewis Memorial Cup and Thomas Nolan Cup.

Taranaki: The Benton Shield, Parihaka Shield and Rima Whakarua Memorial Shield.

Bay of Plenty: Hurinui Apanui Shield, Ratana Cup, Ngahoe Challenge Shield and Omeka Cup.

North Auckland: Hone Heke Cup and Ratana Challenge Cup.

Wanganui: Tuera Shield (since 1896 between Taranaki and Wanganui), Makirikiri Shield, Saville Shield and Bamber Cup.

South Island: Arepa Cup, between Provincial Maori Teams (1938).


Rugby League is played by a great number of Maoris with Auckland City supporting a number of Maori teams and Maori players in the local League competitions. Waikato with Turangawaewae League Club, Taranaki with a Te Atiawa Club, and a Waitotara Club, Rotorua with Huimai, and Wellington, Te Aroha.

A New Zealand Maori Representative League team is chosen each time a visiting side tours New Zealand.


In 1950 a very successful athletics tournament was held at Ngaruawahia, including running and field events. Useful help was obtained from Ardmore Training College. Another smaller tournament took place in 1951. This is an important new departure in Maori sport. It is hoped it will be possible to establish this tournament permanently, and increase the interest of Maori Youth in athletics.


The Arapawa Maori Rowing Club, Picton, has been active for many years and still continues to put crews into the annual regattas in Picton, Wellington and Nelson.



He mea minamina na te tamariki te motorore e akoina ki nga tamariki nohinohi rawa, he wa ano ka kitea e noho ana i rara motorore i te wa e tu noa ana, a i te huarahi ranei. Ko etahi o aua tamariki e kitea e nga kaiarahi, a ko etahi ano kaore e kitea ka tamia mate rawa. Me tupato nga matua nga tuakana me te katoa nooaiho i nga tamariki.

He mea ano ka aitua nga tamariki ki runga motorore na te he o nga whakamaunga o nga tatau, ka puare ka taka aua tamariki ki waho. Ko nga tamariki e noho ana i muri o nga motorore etahi hei te hurihanga i nga koki ka piua aua tamariki ka takataka.

I etahi wa ka oma haere nga tamariki i te taha o te motorore i te wa e haere ana, he aha ranei ka hinga ka tamia e nga wiira mate tonu atu.

Kauaka nga matua e tu i nga taha o nga huarahi korero noa ai, ka kite mai nga tamariki ka konohi mai ki reira hinga ai. He tokomaha nga tamariki nohinohi i aitua i te omanga mai i te whare ki tawahi o te haurahi, he konohi ki nga matua ka tamia e te motowaka.

Kaore he take i tangi ai i te wa kua aitua nga tamariki. He mea kino rawa te aitua o te tamaiti i runga i te wairangi i te whakaaro kore ranei. Kaore he karo. Tiakina a koutou tamariki hei tangata mo apopo.

(Inserted by the Transport Department)

means starvation for someone

Te toto o te tangata he kai
Te oranga o te
tangata he whenua

A recent survey revealed that in the Rotorua-Taupo district alone there are 500,000 acres of idle arable land, and in Northland 2,000,000 acres. Part of this area is European land, part of it is Maori Land.

Each year the Maori Affairs Department spends a great deal of money providing finance, training and homes for a limited number of suitable men put forward by the owners of undeveloped Maori land, if the owners are prepared to grant to proposed occupier a satisfactory title.

The development of new land means that more production will be available for export to peoples who are short of food or facing starvation. Below is a picture of a CORSO official handing out milk to starving Indians. New Zealand provided the milk powder from which this milk was made.

You too can help to fight starvation in other parts of the world.

Apply to the Maori Affairs Department to have your land developed. If the Department's annual quota is filled, arrange for a private lease. Make your land productive.

Maori dairy farm near Tauranga

Milk From Maori Dairy Farms is helping to save people like these